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Part 2: Simulation of drying board

S. Ormarsson, O. Dahlblom, H. Petersson

Abstract A theory for analysing the shape stability of sawn timber was

implemented in a nite element program. To illustrate the types of results that

can be obtained, the behaviour of a board during drying was simulated. The

simulation yields information about unfavourable deformations and stresses

during the drying process. To investigate factors that inuence drying

deformations, a parameter study was performed in which the inuence of

different constitutive models and different material parameters was studied.

In addition, the inuence of the spiral grain angle was examined.

Introduction

The characteristics of wood, including its material orientation, make the behaviour

of timber subjected to mechanical loading and to moisture variation highly

complex. It is difcult without the use of numerical simulations to predict the

deformations. Finite element simulations can be performed to investigate how

internal structure and material properties affect the shape stability in sawn timber.

To perform accurate simulation, it is essential to have a sufciently detailed de-

scription of the wood properties and their variation with position in the tree stem,

and also how the bres are oriented in the stem. The theory described in (Or-

marsson et al. 1998) is implemented here in the nite element program ABAQUS

(Hibbitt et al. 1995) and is applied in the simulation of a board during drying.

The board studied is 3 m long and 100 50 mm in cross section. The geom-

etry and pith location are shown in Fig. 1. The pith is assumed to be parallel to

Wood Science and Technology 33 (1999) 407423 Springer-Verlag 1999

Received 22 April 1997

S. Ormarsson, O. Dahlblom

Division of Structural Mechanics,

Lund Institute of Technology, Lund University,

Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund, Sweden

H. Petersson (&)

Department of Structural Mechanics,

Chalmers University of Technology,

SE-412 96 Goteborg, Sweden

The research presented in this paper is a part of the national

research programme in Sweden for wood physics and drying. It has

been supported nancially by the Research Foundation of Swedish

Sawmills and the Swedish Council for Forestry and Agricultural

Research.

407

the longitudinal direction of the board and the board to not be subjected to any

external support constraints. Displacements are only prescribed to avoid rigid

body motions. The element mesh of the board and its boundary conditions are

shown on the right side of Fig. 1. The arrows denote the nodal displacements,

which have been set to zero in the calculation. The board dries from a 27%

moisture content to a mean moisture content of 10.75%. The following is a brief

account of the assumptions made. For further details see Ormarsson (1995).

Material data

The material parameters used and assumed to be representative for spruce (Picea

abies), are listed in Table 1. The parameters are dened in Ormarsson et al.

(1998). Due to the limited experimental evidence available, some of the param-

eters were estimated on the basis of data from other species. It has been exper-

imentally observed that the longitudinal elastic modulus E

10

and the longitudinal

moisture elongation coefcient a

1

vary signicantly from pith to bark, see

Wormuth (1993) and Dahlblom et al. (1996). The variation in a cross section is

illustrated in Fig. 2. Based on these results, E

10

and a

1

are assumed to vary

linearly from pith to bark. Due to the lack of experimental data, the remaining

elastic strain parameters are assumed to be independent of distance from the pith.

These parameters are mainly based on experimental data from Siimes (1967),

Santaoja et al. (1991) and Hisada (1986). The parameters a

r

and a

t

are set to

Fig. 1. Geometry, element mesh and prescribed displacements of the board studied

Table 1. Material parameters used in the simulation (distance from the pith r in m)

Elastic strain E

l0

9700 + 100000r MPa E

r0

400 MPa E

t0

220 MPa

parameters E

lw

21000 MPa E

rw

2200 MPa E

tw

1300 MPa

G

lr0

400 MPa G

lt0

250 MPa G

rt0

25 MPa

G

lrw

1163 MPa G

ltw

122 MPa G

rtw

72 MPa

m

lr

0.35 m

lt

0.6 m

rt

0.55

Moisture-induced

strain parameters

a

1

0:0071 0:038r a

r

0:19 a

t

0:35

Mechano-sorption m

l0

0.1 10

)3

MPa

)1

m

r0

0.15 MPa

)1

m

r0

0.2 MPa

)1

strain parameters m

lr0

0.008 MPa

)1

m

lt0

0.008 MPa

)1

m

rt0

0.8 MPa

)1

l

lr

0:0 l

lt

0:0 l

rt

1:0

408

constant values due to the lack of experimental data on radial distribution. The

mechano-sorption parameters m

l0

, m

r0

etc. are assumed to be constant in the

timber log and to be independent of the moisture content. The values are based

on results presented by Santaoja et al. (1991) and Martensson (1992).

In the simulation, the material temperature T is assumed to be the same as the

reference temperature T

0

20 C, meaning that the temperature has no inuence

Fig. 2. Experimentally obtained variations in the longitudinal elastic modulus E

l

and the

longitudinal moisture shrinkage/swelling coefcient a

1

over the cross section of a board

409

on the material parameters. This results in a constant bre saturation point

of w

f

0.3. For a more detailed description of the material parameters see

Ormarsson et al. (1998).

On the basis of experimental evidence, see e.g. Mishiro and Booker (1988),

Harris (1989) and Thornqvist (1990), the radial distribution of the spiral grain

angle is assumed to be a linear function of the distance from the pith. The spiral

grain angle is said to be positive if the bre deviation from the pith direction

represents a positive rotation around the radial axis. This means that positive

deviation is to the left of the upper extremity of the longitudinal axis of the

growing tree, as viewed by an observer from the ground. According to a com-

monly used denition, see e.g. Harris (1989), this is called left-hand spiral grain.

The expression used for spiral grain is h 4 40r, where r is the distance from

the pith.

The conical angle is assumed to be constant for the board studied. The sign of

the conical angle follows the sign of the bre rotation around the tangential

coordinate axis. The direction of the longitudinal axis is dened as being positive

from the bottom to the top of the tree, which means that the conical angle will

normally be negative since the diameter normally decreases with the distance

from the bottom. The expression used for the conical angle is u 0:5

.

Moisture transport

In the present simulation, the board is assumed to be insulated on the ends and

moisture transport to be two-dimensional in the cross-section plane of the

boards. The study focuses on the modelling of deformation and stress develop-

ment. Moisture transport is assumed to be governed by the linear diffusion

relation

D

w

o

2

w

oy

2

o

2

w

oz

2

ow

ot

0 1

where D

w

is diffusivity and w is moisture content. In the simulation the param-

eters D

w

, w

0

and w

1

are chosen as D

w

7 10

)10

m

2

/s, w

0

0.27 and w

1

0.089.

Parameter w

0

represents the initial uniform moisture content in the board and w

1

the moisture content at the surface in contact with the environment. These values

were selected in order to achieve approximate agreement with the experimental

values for initial moisture content, for moisture content in the surface layer, and

for moisture content in the centre after 6 days of drying, as obtained by (Rosen-

kilde et al. 1996). The description of moisture distribution reects qualitatively

the conditions in a drying board. It should be noted, however, that in a detailed

simulation the nonlinearity and direction dependence of the moisture transport

in wood needs to be considered, see Claesson and Arfvidsson (1992), Perre et al.

(1993), Ranta-Maunus (1994).

In the nite element analysis performed, the moisture content history repre-

sented the input data for the deformation simulations. The moisture content is

prescribed in all the element nodes in accordance with Eq. (1). In Fig. 3 the

development of the average moisture content during the drying process in the

boards that were studied is shown.

The average moisture content is 27% at the beginning of the drying process,

decreasing to 10.75% at the end of drying. Since the surfaces of the boards dry

very quickly and the moisture content values for the integration points of the

elements are computed by linear interpolation based on the element node values,

410

the assumed average moisture content decreases very rapidly during the rst few

minutes of the drying process.

Computational results

The simulation yields information regarding how stress and deformation in the

board develop during the drying process. Deformation, stress and moisture content

of the board are shown in Fig. 4. Both undeformed and deformed element mesh are

shownfor the boardthere at four different times during the drying process. It should

be noted that the deformations displayed in this gure are shown at a scale factor

of 5. A contour plot in colour on the deformed element mesh, showing stresses in

the tangential direction, is presented. On the right hand side of the gure, a two-

dimensional contour plot of the moisture content of the board is shown in colour.

Red denotes high moisture content and blue low moisture content.

The most signicant deformations are the twist and cup deformations. Since

shrinkage is greater in the tangential than in the radial direction, considerable cup

deformation develops. This shrinkage difference, together with the spiral grain

angle, results in considerable twist deformation developing as well. Other pa-

rameters, such as the annual ring orientation, inuence the drying deformations

cf. Perstorper et al. (1995). This has been investigated in Ormarsson et al. (1998).

Figure 5 shows the development of twist, cup and bow deformations during the

drying process as a function of drying time. The results indicate each of the

deformation types to increase during drying, the rate of increase being greatest in

the early stages of the process. Since the average moisture content decreases very

quickly during the rst few minutes of drying, see Fig. 3, drying deformations

likewise develop very rapidly. Crook deformation is not shown in the gure since

it is very small, due to the vertical symmetry section of the board. Equations (2)

(5) have been used to calculate the different deformation types examined in the

simulation. The nodal displacements used to calculate the deformation are shown

in Fig. 6.

Twist: u

twist

arctana

t1

a

t2

=L

y

arctana

t3

a

t4

=L

y

2

Cup: a

cup

a

c1

a

c3

=2 a

c2

3

Bow: a

bow

a

b1

a

b3

=2 a

b2

4

Crook: a

crook

a

cr1

a

cr3

=2 a

cr2

5

Fig. 3. Development of the

weighted average of the

moisture content during the

drying process in the boards

studied

411

The sign of the cup, bow and crook deformation is positive if the mean value of

the end displacements is greater than the midpoint displacement (see Fig. 6).

The colour plot of the tangential stress component shown in Fig. 4 indicates

large tensile stresses to occur at the surface at the beginning of the drying process,

large compression stresses developing at the end of the drying process. Thus the

risk of crack initiation at the surface is greatest at the beginning of the drying

process. To illustrate in greater detail how stresses develop, stresses in the tan-

gential direction at two different positions are presented as a function of drying

time in Fig. 7. The large tensile stress at the surface at the beginning of the drying

process is due to the large moisture gradient (see Fig. 4). After about a day, the

surface stress has changed to one of compression. The latter increases as the

drying process progresses. Due to the large shrinkage at the surface, the stress r

t2

inside the board develops to a state of compression early in the process. After

about two days, when the board starts to dry in the centre, the stress r

t2

changes

to tensile stress, which increases during the drying process.

Fig. 4. Development of deformation, tangential stresses and moisture content in the board

during drying

412

Influence of the constitutive model

The simulation just described was based on the material model for wood de-

scribed in Ormarsson et al. (1998). In the following, the inuence which the

assumed modications of the material model exert on deformation and stress

Fig. 5. Development of the

twist, cup and bow

deformation during the

drying process

413

development during drying is examined. The total strain rate

_

e is assumed to be

the sum of the elastic strain rate

_

e

e

, the moisture strain rate

_

e

w

and the mechano-

sorptive strain rate

_

e

wr

, i.e.

_

e

_

e

e

_

e

w

_

e

wr

. Four alternative assumptions for

modelling the strain rate components are presented in Table 2.

The rst material model is the reference model employed in the preceding

simulation example. In terms of this model, the elastic strains present are pro-

portional to the stresses. Accordingly, the elastic strain rate is dependent on

changes in the material stiffness. In the second model, the elastic strain rate is

assumed to be proportional to the stress rate. In models 3 and 4 the elastic strain

rate is described just as in models 1 and 2, but the mechano-sorption effect is not

considered. In Figs. 89, the drying deformations and the tangential stress for the

board are plotted for each of these four models as a function of drying time.

The results indicate that simulation, with and without mechano-sorption yield

quite different results in terms of drying deformations. The choice of formulation

for the elastic strain rate has very little inuence on the drying deformations. The

results shown in Fig. 9 indicate that mechano-sorptive strain has a strong in-

uence on tangential stress development. The mechano-sorption effect reduces

the stresses during the drying process, these thus being lower than those devel-

oping in the elastic formulation. The choice of formulation for the elastic strain

rate has little inuence on the results for stress when the mechano-sorption effect

is considered, but is found to have a strong inuence on stress when mechano-

sorptive strain is not taken into consideration.

Influence of material parameters

To investigate the inuence of different material parameters on simulated drying

deformations, calculations using different values for the material parameters were

Fig. 6. The nodal displacements used to calculate the different deformation types

414

performed and were compared with the reference calculation board. In each

calculation, one parameter was reduced to 50% of its reference value, the other

parameters being the same as in the reference case. For each calculation, twist,

cup and bow deformations were studied. The results are presented in three gures

that show the inuence on the twist, cup and bow deformations. Each gure

presents the quantity in question as a function of drying time, both for the

reference calculation and for the results of calculations in which the value of the

one parameter was reduced to 50% of its reference value.

Fig. 7. Development of

tangential stress during the

drying process at two

different positions

Table 2. Four alternative constitutive models of wood during drying

Material assumption Elastic Moisture Mechano-sorptive

strain rate strain rate strain rate

Model 1

_

e

e

C

_

r

_

C r

_

e

w

a _ w

_

e

wr

m rj _ wj

Model 2

_

e

e

C

_

r

_

e

w

a _ w

_

e

wr

m rj _ wj

Model 3

_

e

e

C

_

r

_

C r

_

e

w

a _ w e

wr

0

Model 4

_

e

e

C

_

r

_

e

w

a _ w e

wr

0

415

The inuence of the reduction in the elastic moduli and shear moduli to 50% of

the reference value is shown in Figs. 1011. The results indicate that the various

stiffness parameters differ considerably in their inuence on the drying defor-

mations. The most signicant inuence on the twist deformation is obtained for

Fig. 8. Development of drying

deformations of a board during

the drying process according to

four different constitutive

assumptions

416

the elastic moduli E

r

and E

t

and for the shear moduli G

lr

and G

lt

. The other

stiffness parameters, E

l

and G

rt

, affect the results to only a very slight degree. The

stiffness parameters having the strongest inuence on cup deformation are E

r

, E

t

and G

rt

. One should note that the elastic moduli E

r

and E

t

are very similar in their

inuence on twist and cup deformation, both twist and cup deformations in-

creasing with a decrease in E

t

and decreasing with a decrease in E

r

. The results for

bow deformations show each of the stiffness parameters to have a signicant

inuence on bow deformation. The parameters E

r

, E

t

and G

rt

have the strongest

effect on bow results. The inuence of the parameters E

r

, E

t

on bow deformation

is the reverse of their inuence on twist and cup deformations.

The inuence of a reduction in the moisture shrinkage parameters to 50% of

the reference value is shown in Fig. 12. The results indicate that the moisture

shrinkage parameters a

t

and a

r

strongly inuence twist, cup and bow deforma-

tion. The longitudinal shrinkage parameter a

1

has only a slight inuence on twist

and cup deformations, but a very strong inuence on bow deformation. A large

value of the ratio a

t

=a

r

yields large cup deformation.

The inuence of a reduction in the mechano-sorption parameters to 50% of the

reference value is shown in Fig. 13. The computations show the drying defor-

mations twist, cup, and bow to be strongly inuenced by the mechano-sorption

parameters. The strongest inuence is that obtained for the tangential component

m

t

. The parameter m

r

also has a signicant inuence on drying deformations. The

normal component in the longitudinal direction, m

l

, has very little inuence on

drying deformation.

Influence of spiral grain angle

In this section, the inuence of the spiral grain angle on drying deformations is

considered. As noted in Ormarsson et al. (1998), the spiral grain angle is dened

as the angle between the pith and the bre direction in the 1-t plane. This angle

often shows a radial variation within the timber log, see e.g. Harris (1989). In the

reference board, use was made of the spiral grain function h 4 40r, where r is

the radial distance from the pith in m. To investigate the inuence of the spiral

grain angle, four calculations using different spiral grain functions were per-

formed.

Figure 14 shows the twist, cup, and bow deformations for these calculations as

a function of drying time. The results indicate that differences in the spiral grain

Fig. 9. Development of the

tangential stress component r

t1

during the drying process

according to four different

constitutive assumptions

417

have a very large inuence on twist deformation. Twist deformation increases

with increasing spiral grain angle. In addition, it can be observed that no twist

deformations develop when the spiral grain angle is zero. Thus, the spiral grain

Fig. 10. Inuence of the

elastic moduli on twist, cup

and bow deformation

418

angle is one of the most important parameters in simulations of twist deforma-

tion. It also inuences bow deformation, but has almost no inuence on cup

deformation.

Fig. 11. Inuence of the

shear moduli on twist, cup

and bow deformation

419

Conclusions and discussion

In the present paper, a three-dimensional theory for shape stability of sawn

timber has been employed in the simulation of a drying board. A parameter study

Fig. 12. Inuence of the

moisture shrinkage

parameters on twist, cup and

bow deformation

420

was performed to investigate the inuence of different parameters on drying

deformations. The simulations provide valuable information concerning the

importance of an accurate description of the material properties and an accurate

Fig. 13. Inuence of the

mechano-sorption parameters

on twist, cup and bow

deformation

421

description of the material orientation. The drying deformations depend to a high

degree on the values for moisture shrinkage and of mechano-sorption parame-

ters. It can be concluded, therefore, that having a relevant theoretical description

Fig. 14. Inuence of the spiral

grain angle on twist, cup and

bow deformation

422

of moisture shrinkage and mechano-sorptive effects, as well as accurate values for

the corresponding material parameters, is highly important. Variation in the

material parameters with respect to the distance from the pith also have an

inuence on drying deformations. The spiral grain angle is an important para-

meter that has a considerable inuence on such drying deformations as twist and

bow. Radial variation in the spiral grain angle likewise has an inuence on the

development of deformation.

References

Claesson J, Arfvidsson J (1992) A new method using Kirchhoff potentials to calculate

moisture ow in wood, Contribution to international conference on wood drying, Un-

derstanding the wood drying process: A Synthesis of Theory and Practice, Vienna

Dahlblom O, Ormarsson S, Petersson H (1996) Simulation of wood deformation processes

in drying and other types of environmental loading. Annales des Sciences Forestieres 53(4):

857866

Harris JM (1989) Spiral Grain and Wave Phenomena in Wood Formation, Springer-Verlag,

Berlin Heidelberg

Hibbitt; Karlsson & Sorenson, Inc. (1995) ABAQUS, Version 5.5. Pawtucket, RI.

Hisada T (1986) Creep and set behaviour of wood related to kiln drying. Bull. For. & For.

Prod. Res. Inst. No. 335, pp. 31130

Martensson A (1992) Mechanical behaviour of wood exposed to humidity variations, Re-

port TVBK-1006, Lund Institute of Technology, Department of Structural Engineering,

Lund

Mishiro A, Booker R (1988) Warping of new crop radiata pine 100 50 mm (2 by 4)

boards, Bull Tokyo Univ. For., No. 80, pp. 3768

Ormarsson S (1995) A nite element study of the shape stability of sawn timber subjected

to moisture variations, Report TVSM-3017, Lund Institute of Technology, Division of

Structural Mechanics, Lund

Ormarsson S, Dahlblom O, Petersson H (1998) Numerical study of shape stability of

sawn timber subjected to moisture variations, Part 1: Theory. Wood Sci. Technol. 32: 325

334

Ormarsson S, Dahlblom O, Petersson H (1999) Numerical study of shape stability of sawn

timber subjected to moisture variations. Part 3: Inuence of Annual Ring Variations. Wood

Sci. Technol. 33 (in press)

Perre P, Moser M, Martin M (1993) Advances in transport phenomena during convective

drying with superheated steam and moist air. Int. J. of Heat and Mass Transfer 36(11):

27252746

Perstorper M, Pellicane PJ, Kliger IR, Johansson G (1995) Quality of timber products from

Norway spruce, Part 2: Inuence of spatial position and growth characteristics on warp.

Wood Sci. Technol. 29: 339352

Ranta-Maunus A (1994) Computation of moisture transport and drying stresses by a 2-D

FE-programme. In: 4th IUFRO international wood drying conference: Improving wood

drying technology, Rotorua

Rosenkilde A, Arfvidsson J (1997) Measurement and evaluation of moisture transport

coefcients during drying of wood. Accepted for publication in Holzforschung

Santaoja K, Leino T, Ranta-Maunus A, Hanhijarvi A (1991) Mechano-sorptive structural

analysis of wood by the ABAQUS nite element program. Technical Research Centre of

Finland, Research notes 1276, Espoo

Siimes FE (1967) The effect of specic gravity, moisture content, temperature and heating

time on the tension and compression strength and elasticity properties perpendicular to the

grain of Finnish pine, spruce and birch wood and the signicance of these factors on the

checking of timber at kiln drying, VTT Publication 84, Helsinki

Thornqvist T (1990) Juvenile Wood in Coniferous Trees, Report No. 10, Swedish University

of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest-Industry-Market Studies, Uppsala

Wormuth E-W (1993) Study of the relation between atwise and edgewise modulus of

elasticity of sawn timber for the purpose of improving mechanical stress methods. Diploma

work, University of Hamburg, Department of Wood Technology, Hamburg

423

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