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ALUMNO : ___________________________________________________________________________

Asignatura: IME - Ingeniera Trmica.
Cuatrimestre: 1 Examen: Final Convocatoria: Extraordinaria
Grupo: 3 ITI 3 ME Curso:2.012/2.013 Fecha: 28 de junio de 2.013

CUESTIONES (0.5 puntos cada una):

C1.-Qu representa la temperatura del punto de roco de los gases producto de una reaccin de
combustin? Cmo se determina?
C2.- Se quema propano (C3H8) con 150 por ciento del aire terico. La relacin msica aire-
combustible para este proceso de combustin es:
(a) 5.3 (b) 10.5 (c) 15.7 (d) 23.5 (e) 39.3

C3.- Un ciclo de Otto con aire como fluido de trabajo tiene una relacin de compresin de 10.4. En
condiciones de aire estndar, la eficiencia trmica de este ciclo es:
(a) 10% (b) 39% (c) 61% (d) 79% (e) 82%

C4.- Un ciclo Brayton ideal tiene una produccin neta de trabajo de 150 KJ/kg, y una relacin del
trabajo de retroceso de 0.4. Si tanto la turbina como el compresor tuvieran una eficiencia isoentrpica
del 85%, la produccin neta del trabajo del ciclo sera:
(a) 74 kJ/kg (b) 95 kJ/kg (c) 109 kJ/kg (d) 128 kJ/kg (e) 177 kJ/kg


PROBLEMAS


P1.- (2 puntos) Se usa un intercambiador de calor de un paso por la carcasa y catorce pasos por los
tubos para calentar agua en los tubos con vapor de agua geotrmico en condensacin a 120 C
(h
fg
= 2203 kJ/kg) en el lado de la carcasa. Los tubos son de pared delgada y tienen un
dimetro de 2.4 cm y una longitud de 3.2 m por paso. El agua (c
P
= 4.180 kJ/kg.C) entra en
los tubos a 18 C, a razn de 6.2 kg/s. Si la diferencia de temperatura entre los dos fluidos a la
salida es de 46 C, determine:
a) La razn de la transferencia de calor.
b) La razn de la condensacin del vapor de agua.
c) Coeficiente de transferencia de calor total.
d) Cmo podra justificarse que con el tiempo, la temperatura de salida del agua estuviese
por debajo de la deseada?.
DI I N

2
11-126 A shell-and-tube heat exchanger is used to heat water with geothermal steam condensing. The rate of heat
transfer, the rate of condensation of steam, and the overall heat transfer coefficient are to be determined.
Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 The heat exchanger is well-insulated so that heat loss to the
surroundings is negligible and thus heat transfer from the hot fluid is equal to the heat transfer to the cold fluid. 3
Changes in the kinetic and potential energies of fluid streams are negligible. 4 Fluid properties are constant.
Properties The heat of vaporization of geothermal water at 120C is given to be h
fg
= 2203 kJ/kg and specific heat of
water is given to be c
p
= 4180 J/kg.C.
Analysis (a) The outlet temperature of the water is
C 74 = C 46 C 120 46
out h, out c,
= = T T
Then the rate of heat transfer becomes
kW 1451 =
C) 18 C C)(74 kJ/kg. kg/s)(4.18 2 . 6 (
)] ( [
water in out
=
= T T c m Q
p


(b) The rate of condensation of steam is determined from
kg/s 0.659 = =
=
m m
h m Q
fg

) kJ/kg 2203 ( kW 1451


) (
steam
geothermal

(c) The heat transfer area is
2
m 3.378 = m) m)(3.2 024 . 0 ( 14t t = = L D n A
i i

The logarithmic mean temperature difference for counter-flow arrangement and the correction factor F are

C 102 = C 18 C 120
C 46 = C 74 C 120
c,in out h, 2
out c, h,in 1
= = A
= = A
T T T
T T T

C 3 . 70
) 102 / 46 ln(
102 46
) / ln(
2 1
2 1
,
=

=
A A
A A
= A
T T
T T
T
CF lm

1
0
18 74
120 120
55 . 0
18 120
18 74
1 2
2 1
1 1
1 2
=

=
=

=
F
t t
T T
R
t T
t t
P

Then the overall heat transfer coefficient is determined to be
C . W/m 6110
2
=

=
A
= A =
C) 3 . 70 )( 1 )( m 378 . 3 (
W 000 , 451 , 1
2
CF lm,
CF lm,
T F A
Q
U T F A U Q
i
i i i


Steam
120C
18C

Water
6.2 kg/s
14 tubes
120C

3

P2.- (2 puntos) Octano lquido (C
8
H
18
) entra a una cmara de combustin de flujo estacionario a
25 C y 1 atm a razn de 0,30 kg/min. Se quema con un 60% de exceso de aire que tambin
entra a 25 C y 1 atm. Los productos se dejan enfriar a 25 C. Suponiendo una combustin
completa y que todo el H
2
O de los productos est en forma lquida, determine:
a) La tasa de transferencia de calor de la cmara de combustin.
b) La tasa de generacin de entropa.
c) La tasa de destruccin de exerga suponiendo T
o
= 298 K y que los productos salen de la
cmara de combustin a una presin de 1 atm.

15-90 Liquid octane is burned steadily with 50 percent excess air. The heat transfer rate from the combustion chamber,
the entropy generation rate, and the reversible work and exergy destruction rate are to be determined.
Assumptions 1 Combustion is complete. 2 Steady operating conditions exist. 3 Air and the combustion gases are ideal
gases. 4 Changes in kinetic and potential energies are negligible.
Analysis (a) The fuel is burned completely with the excess air, and thus the products will contain only CO
2
, H
2
O, N
2
,
and some free O
2
. Considering 1 kmol C
8
H
18
, the combustion equation can be written as
( ) ( ) ( )( )
2 th 2 th 2 2 2 2 th 18 8
N 3.76 1.5 O 0.5 O 9H 8CO 3.76N O 1.5 H C a a a + + + + +
where a
th
is the stoichiometric coefficient and is determined from the O
2
balance,
1.5 8 4.5 0.5 12.5
th th th
a a a = + + =
Thus,
( ) ( )
2 2 2 2 2 2 18 8
70.5N 6.25O O 9H 8CO 3.76N O 18.75 H C + + + + +
Under steady-flow conditions the energy balance E E E
in out system
= A applied on the combustion chamber with W = 0
reduces to
( ) ( )

R f R P f P
R
f R
P
f P
h N h N h h h N h h h N Q
, , out
= + + =
since all of the reactants are at 25C. Assuming the air and the combustion products to be ideal gases, we have h = h(T).
From the tables,


Substance

f
h
kJ/kmol
C
8
H
18
()
-249,950
O
2
0
N
2
0
H
2
O (l) -285,830
CO
2
-393,520

Substituting,
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( )
18 8 out
H C of kJ/kmol 680 , 470 , 5 0 0 950 , 249 1 0 0 830 , 285 9 520 , 393 8 = + + + = Q or
18 8 out
H C of kJ/kmol 680 , 470 , 5 = Q
The C
8
H
18
is burned at a rate of 0.25 kg/min or
Products
25C
C
8
H
18
()
25C
Air
50% excess air
25C
Combustion
chamber
T
0
= 298 K

Q

4
Thus,
( )( ) ( )( ) | |
( )( ) kJ/min 11,997 = = =
=
+
= =

kJ/kmol 5,470,680 kmol/min 10 2.193


kmol/min 10 .193 2
kg/kmol 1 18 12 8
kg/min 0.25
3
out out
3
Q N Q
M
m
N


The heat transfer for this process is also equivalent to the enthalpy of combustion of liquid C
8
H
18
, which could easily be
de determined from Table A-27 to be h
C
= 5,470,740 kJ/kmol C
8
H
18
.
(b) The entropy generation during this process is determined from

surr
out
gen
surr
out
gen
T
Q
s N s N S
T
Q
S S S
R R P P R P
+ = + =


The C
8
H
18
is at 25C and 1 atm, and thus its absolute entropy is
18 8
H C
s = 360.79 kJ/kmol.K (Table A-26). The entropy
values listed in the ideal gas tables are for 1 atm pressure. Both the air and the product gases are at a total pressure of 1
atm, but the entropies are to be calculated at the partial pressure of the components which is equal to P
i
= y
i
P
total
,
where y
i
is the mole fraction of component i. Also,
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
m i u i i i i i i
P R P T s N P T s N S y ln , ,
0
= =


The entropy calculations can be presented in tabular form as

N
i
y
i

( ) atm 1 T, s
i


( )
m i u
P y ln R
i i
s N
C
8
H
18
1 1.00 360.79 --- 360.79
O
2
18.75 0.21 205.14 -12.98 4089.75
N
2
70.50 0.79 191.61 -1.96 13646.69
S
R
= 18,097.23 kJ/K
CO
2
8 0.0944 213.80 -19.62 1867.3
H
2
O ()
9 --- 69.92 --- 629.3
O
2
6.25 0.0737 205.04 -21.68 1417.6
N
2
70.50 0.8319 191.61 -1.53 13,616.3
S
P
= 17,531 kJ/K

Thus,
and
( )( ) K kJ/min 39.03 = = =
= + = + =

K kJ/kmol 17,798 kmol/min 10 2.193


K kJ/kmol 798 , 17
K 298
kJ 5,470,523
097 , 18 531 , 17
3
gen gen
surr
surr
gen
S N S
T
Q
S S S
R P


(c) The exergy destruction rate associated with this process is determined from
( )( ) kW 193.9 = = = = kJ/min 11,632 K kJ/min 39.03 K 298
gen 0 destroyed
S T X



5


P3.- (2 puntos) Considere un ciclo de turbina de gas (Brayton) con dos etapas de compresin y dos
etapas de expansin. La relacin de presiones a travs de cada etapa del compresor y de la
turbina es 3.5. El aire entra a cada etapa del compresor a 300 K y a cada etapa de la turbina a
1200 K. Determine la relacin de trabajo de retroceso y la eficiencia trmica del ciclo
suponiendo:

a) Que no se usa regenerador.
b) Que se usa un regenerador con efectividad del 80%.

NOTA: Usar calores especficos variables.

c) 9-129 An ideal gas-turbine cycle with two stages of compression and two stages of expansion is
considered. The back work ratio and the thermal efficiency of the cycle are to be determined for the cases
of with and without a regenerator.
d) Assumptions 1 The air standard assumptions are applicable. 2
Air is an ideal gas with variable specific heats. 3 Kinetic and
potential energy changes are negligible.
e) Properties The properties of air are given in Table A-17.
f) Analysis (a) The work inputs to each stage of compressor are
identical, so are the work outputs of each stage of the turbine
since this is an ideal cycle. Then,
g)
( )( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) kJ/kg 62.86 6 36 . 946 79 . 1277 2 2
kJ/kg 2.14 22 19 . 300 26 . 411 2 2
kJ/kg 946.36 33 . 79 238
3
1
238
kJ/kg 77.79 12
K 200 1
kJ/kg 411.26 158 . 4 386 . 1 3
386 . 1
kJ/kg 300.19
K 300
6 5 out T,
1 2 in C,
8 6
5
6
7 5
5
4 2
1
2
1
1
5 6
5
1 2
1
= = =
= = =
= = = |
.
|

\
|
= =
=
= =
=
= = = = =
=
=
=
h h w
h h w
h h P
P
P
P
P
h h
T
h h P
P
P
P
P
h
T
r r
r
r r
r

h) Thus,
i) 33.5% = = =
kJ/kg 662.86
kJ/kg 222.14
out T,
in C,
bw
w
w
r
j)
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
36.8% = = =
= = =
= + = + =
kJ/kg 1197.96
kJ/kg 440.72
kJ/kg 440.72 222.14 86 . 662
kJ/kg 1197.96 36 . 946 79 . 1277 26 . 411 79 . 1277
in
net
th
in C, out T, net
6 7 4 5 in
q
w
w w w
h h h h q
q

k) (b) When a regenerator is used, r
bw
remains the same. The thermal efficiency in this case becomes
s
T
3
4
1
5
q
in

1200 K
300 K
8 6
7
10
9
2

6
l)
( ) ( )( )
55.3% = = =
= = =
= = =
kJ/kg 796.63
kJ/kg 440.72
kJ/kg 796.63 33 . 401 96 . 1197
kJ/kg 3 3 . 401 26 . 411 36 . 946 75 . 0
in
net
th
regen old in, in
4 8 regen
q
w
q q q
h h q
q
c


P4.- (2 puntos) La relacin de compresin de un ciclo Otto de aire estndar es 9.5. Antes del
proceso de compresin isoentrpica, el aire est a 100 kPa, 35 C y 600 cm
3
. La temperatura al
final del proceso de expansin isoentrpica es de 800 K. Usando los valores de calores
especficos a temperatura ambiente, determine:
a) Temperatura y presin mximas del ciclo.
b) Cantidad de calor transferido al fluido de trabajo en kJ.
c) Eficiencia trmica.
d) Presin media efectiva.

9-39 An ideal Otto cycle with air as the working fluid has a compression ratio of 9.5. The highest pressure and
temperature in the cycle, the amount of heat transferred, the thermal efficiency, and the mean effective pressure are to be
determined.
Assumptions 1 The air-standard assumptions are applicable. 2 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible. 3 Air
is an ideal gas with constant specific heats.
Properties The properties of air at room temperature are c
p
= 1.005 kJ/kg K, c
v
= 0.718 kJ/kg K, R = 0.287 kJ/kg K,
and k = 1.4 (Table A-2).
Analysis (a) Process 1-2: isentropic compression.
( )( )
( ) ( ) kPa 2338 kPa 100
K 308
K 757.9
9.5
K 757.9 9.5 K 308
1
1
2
2
1
2
1
1 1
2
2 2
0.4
1
2
1
1 2
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
= = =
= =
|
|
.
|

\
|
=

P
T
T
P
T
P
T
P
T T
k
v
v v v
v
v

Process 3-4: isentropic expansion.
( )( ) K 1969 = =
|
|
.
|

\
|
=

0.4
1
3
4
4 3
9.5 K 800
k
T T
v
v

Process 2-3: v = constant heat addition.
( ) kPa 6072 =
|
|
.
|

\
|
= = = kPa 2338
K 757.9
K 1969
2
2
3
3
2
2 2
3
3 3
P
T
T
P
T
P
T
P v v

(b)
( )( )
( )( )
kg 10 788 . 6
K 308 K /kg m kPa 0.287
m 0.0006 kPa 100
4
3
3
1
1 1
=

= =
RT
P
m
V

( ) ( ) ( )( )( ) kJ 0.590 = = = =

K 757.9 1969 K kJ/kg 0.718 kg 10 6.788
4
2 3 2 3 in
T T mc u u m Q
v

(c) Process 4-1: v = constant heat rejection.
( ) ( )( )( ) kJ 0.2 40 K 308 800 K kJ/kg 0.718 kg 10 6.788 ) (
4
1 4 1 4 out
= = = =

T T mc u u m Q
v

kJ 0.350 240 . 0 590 . 0
out in net
= = = Q Q W
59.4% = = =
kJ 0.590
kJ 0.350
in
out net,
th
Q
W
q
v
v
P
4
1
3
2
Q
in

Q
out


7
(d)
( )( )
kPa 652 =
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
= =
kJ
m kPa
1/9.5 1 m 0.0006
kJ 0.350
) / 1 1 (
MEP
3
3
1
out net,
2 1
out net,
max
2 min
r
W W
r
V V V
V
V V