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# x=u+4v y=3u 2v

o x,y ( )
o u,v ( )
=
ox/ou
oy/ou
ox/ov
oy/ov
=
1
3
4
2
=1( 2) 4(3)= 14
o x,y ( )
o u,v ( )
=
ox/ou
oy/ou
ox/ov
oy/ov
=
2u
2u
2v
2v
=4uv ( 4uv)=8uv
o x,y ( )
o u,v ( )
=
ox
ou
oy
ou
ox
ov
oy
ov
=
v
(u+v)
2

v
(u v)
2

u
(u+v)
2
u
(u v)
2
=
uv
(u+v)
2
(u v)
2

uv
(u+v)
2
(u v)
2
=0
o x,y ( )
o , ( )
=
ox/o
oy/o
ox/o
oy/o
=
sin
cos
cos
sin
= sin
2
cos
2
=
o x,y,z ( )
o u,v,w ( )
=
ox/ou
oy/ou
oz/ou
ox/ov
oy/ov
oz/ov
ox/ow
oy/ow
oz/ow
=
v
0
w
u
w
0
0
v
u
=v
w
0
v
u
u
0
w
v
u
+0
0
w
w
0
=v(uw 0) u(0 vw)=2uvw
o x,y,z ( )
o u,v,w ( )
=
e
u v
e
u+v
e
u+v+w
e
u v
e
u+v
e
u+v+w
0
0
e
u+v+w
=e
u+v+w
e
u v
e
u+v
e
u v
e
u+v
=e
u+v+w
e
u v
e
u+v
+e
u v
e
u+v
( )
=e
u+v+w
2e
2u
( )
=2e
3u+v+w
S R
S
1
uv S
1
v=0 0u3 x=2u+3v=2u y=u v=u u
x=2y 0x6 S
2
u=3 0v2 x=6+3v y=3 v
v=3 y x=6+3(3 y)=15 3y 6x12 S
3
v=2 0u3 x=2u+6
y=u 2 u=y+2x=2y+10 6x12 S
4
u=0 0v2 x=3v
y= vx= 3y 0x6 S R xy
1. , .
The Jacobian is .
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7. The transformation maps the boundary of to the boundary of the image , so we first look at side
in the plane. is described by ( ), so and . Eliminating ,
we have , . is the line segment , , so and . Then
, . is the line segment , , so and
, giving , . Finally, is the segment , , so and
, . The image of set is the region shown in the plane, a parallelogram
1
Stewart Calculus ET 5e 0534393217;15. Multiple Integrals; 15.9 Change of Variables in Multiple Integrals
S
1
v=0 0u1 x=v=0 y=u(1+v
2
)=u 0u1
x=0 0y1 S
2
u=1 0v1 x=v y=u(1+v
2
)=1+x
2
y=1+x
2
0x1 S
3
v=1 0u1
x=1 y=2u x=1 0y2 S
4
u=0 0v1
0x=v1 y=u(1+v
2
)=0 y=0 0x1 S
R y=1+x
2
x x=0 x=1
S
1
u=v 0u1 y=v=u x=u
2
=y
2
0u1
x=y
2
0y1 S
2
v=1 0u1 y=v=1 x=u
2
0x1 y=1 0x1 S
3
u=0 0v1 x=u
2
=0
y=v0y1 x=0 0y1 S R
x=y
2
y y=1
u=
x
a
v=
y
b
u
2
+v
2
1
x
2
a
2
+
y
2
b
2
1 u
2
+v
2
1
bounded by these four segments.
8. is the line segment , , so and . Since , the image is
the line segment , . is the segment , , so and . Thus
the image is the portion of the parabola for . is the segment , , so
and . The image is the segment , . is described by , , so
and . The image is the line segment , . Thus, the image of is
the region bounded by the parabola , the axis, and the lines , .
9. is the line segment , , so and . Since , the image is the
portion of the parabola , . is the segment , , thus and , so
. The image is the line segment , . is the segment , , so
and . The image is the segment , . Thus, the image of is the region in
the first quadrant bounded by the parabola , the axis, and the line .
10. Substituting , into gives , so the image of is the
elliptical region
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Stewart Calculus ET 5e 0534393217;15. Multiple Integrals; 15.9 Change of Variables in Multiple Integrals
x
2
a
2
+
y
2
b
2
1
o(x,y)
o(u,v)
=
2
1
1
2
=3 x 3y=(2u+v) 3(u+2v)= u 5v S uv
R
0,0 ( ) 2,1 ( ) y=
1
2
x u+2v=
1
2
(2u+v)v=0
2,1 ( ) 1,2 ( ) x+y=3 (2u+v)+(u+2v)=3u+v=1 0,0 ( )
1,2 ( ) y=2x u+2v=2(2u+v)u=0 S 0v1 u
0u1 uv

R
(x 3y)dA
=
0
1

0
1 u
( u 5v) 3 dvdu
= 3
0
1
uv+
5
2
v
2
v=1 u
v=0
du= 3
0
1
u u
2
+
5
2
(1 u)
2
du
= 3
1
2
u
2

1
3
u
3

5
6
(1 u)
3
1
0
= 3
1
2

1
3
+
5
6
= 3
o(x,y)
o(u,v)
=
1/4
3/4
1/4
1/4
=
1
4
4x+8y=4
1
4
(u+v)+8
1
4
(v 3u)=3v 5u R
x y= 4 x y=4 3x+y=0 3x+y=8 u=x y v=3x+y R
u= 4 u=4 v=0 v=8

R
(4x+8y)dA
=
4
4

0
8
(3v 5u)
1
4
dvdu=
1
4

4
4
3
2
v
2
5uv
v=8
v=0
du
=
1
4

4
4
(96 40u)du=
1
4
96u 20u
2
4
4
=192
o x,y ( )
o u,v ( )
=
2
0
0
3
=6 x
2
=4u
2
9x
2
+4y
2
36
u
2
+v
2
1
.
11. and . To find the region in the plane
that corresponds to we first find the corresponding boundary under the given transformation. The
line through and is which is the image of ; the line through
and is which is the image of ; the line through
and is which is the image of . Thus is the triangle ,
in the plane and
12. , . is a parallelogram
bounded by the lines , , , . Since and , is the image of
the rectangle enclosed by the lines , , , and . Thus
13. , and the planar ellipse is the image of the disk
. Thus
3
Stewart Calculus ET 5e 0534393217;15. Multiple Integrals; 15.9 Change of Variables in Multiple Integrals

R
x
2
dA
=

u
2
+v
2
1
(4u
2
)(6)dudv=
0
2

0
1
(24r
2
cos
2
)r dr d
= 24
0
2
cos
2
d
0
1
r
3
dr=24
1
2
x+
1
4
sin 2x
2
0
1
4
r
4
1
0
= 24( )
1
4
=6
o x,y ( )
o u,v ( )
=
2
2
2/3
2/3
=
4
3
x
2
xy+y
2
=2u
2
+2v
2
x
2
xy+y
2
2
u
2
+v
2
1

R
(x
2
xy+y
2
)dA=
u
2
+v
2
1
(2u
2
+2v
2
)
4
3
dudv =
0
2

0
1
8
3
r
3
dr d =
4
3
o x,y ( )
o u,v ( )
=
1/v
0
u/v
2
1
=
1
v
xy=u y=x v
2
=u y=3x
v
2
=3u xy=1 xy=3 u=1 u=3

R
xydA
=
1
3

u
3u
u
1
v
dvdu=
1
3
u ln 3u ln u ( ) du
=

1
3
uln 3 du=4ln 3=2ln 3
y=
v
u
x=
u
2
v
o x,y ( )
o u,v ( )
=
2u/v
v/u
2
u
2
/v
2
1/u
=
1
v
R
1,1 ( ) 2,1 ( ) 2,2 ( ) 1,2 ( )

R
y
2
dA=
1
2

1
2
v
2
u
2
1
v
dudv=
1
2
v
2
dv=
3
4
14. , and the planar ellipse
is the image of the disk . Thus
15. , , is the image of the parabola , is the
image of the parabola , and the hyperbolas , are the images of the lines and
respectively. Thus
16. Here , so and is the image of the square with
vertices , , , and . So
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Stewart Calculus ET 5e 0534393217;15. Multiple Integrals; 15.9 Change of Variables in Multiple Integrals
o x,y,z ( )
o u,v,w ( )
=
a
0
0
0
b
0
0
0
c
=abc u=
x
a
v=
y
b
w=
z
c
u
2
+v
2
+w
2
1

E
dV=
u
2
+v
2
+w
2
1
abcdudvdw=(abc)( )=
4
3
abc
x
2
6378
2
+
y
2
6378
2
+
z
2
6356
2
=1
E

E
dV=
4
3
(6378)(6378)(6356)~1.083 10
12 3
o(x,y,z)
o(u,v,w)
=
a
0
0
0
b
0
0
0
c
=abc
u
2
+v
2
+w
2
1 x
2
y=(a
2
u
2
)(bv)

E
x
2
ydV
=

u
2
+v
2
+w
2
1
(a
2
bu
2
v)(abc)dudvdw
=

0
2

0
1
(a
3
b
2
c)(
2
sin
2
cos
2
)(sin sin )
2
sin d d d
= a
3
b
2
c
0
2

0
1
(
5
sin
4
cos
2
sin )d d d
= a
3
b
2
c
0
2
cos
2
sin d
0

sin
4
d
0
1

5
d
= 0 since
0
2
cos
2
sin d =0
u=x 2y v=3x y x=
1
5
(2v u) y=
1
5
(v 3u)
o(x,y)
o(u,v)
=
1/5
3/5
2/5
1/5
=
1
5
R u=0 u=4
v=1 v=8
17. (a) and since , , the solid enclosed by the
ellipsoid is the image of the ball . So
volume of the ball
(b) If we approximate the surface of Earth by the ellipsoid , then we can
estimate the volume of Earth by finding the volume of the solid enclosed by the ellipsoid. From
part (a), this is km .
18. and the solid enclosed by the ellipsoid is the image of the ball
. Now , so
19. Letting and , we have and . Then
and is the image of the rectangle enclosed by the lines , ,
, and . Thus
5
Stewart Calculus ET 5e 0534393217;15. Multiple Integrals; 15.9 Change of Variables in Multiple Integrals

R
x 2y
3x y
dA=
0
4

1
8
u
v
1
5
dv du=
1
5

0
4
udu
1
8
1
v
dv=
1
5
1
2
u
2
4
0
ln v
8
1
=
8
5
ln 8
u=x+y v=x y x=
1
2
(u+v) y=
1
2
(u v)
o(x,y)
o(u,v)
=
1/2
1/2
1/2
1/2
=
1
2
R u=0 u=3
v=0 v=2

R
(x+y)e
x
2
y
2
dA
=
0
3

0
2
ue
uv

1
2
dvdu=
1
2

0
3
e
uv
v=2
v=0
du=
1
2

0
3
(e
2u
1)du
=
1
2
1
2
e
2u
u
3
0
=
1
2
1
2
e
6
3
1
2
=
1
4
(e
6
7)
u=y x v=y+x y=
1
2
(u+v) x=
1
2
(v u)
o x,y ( )
o u,v ( )
=
1/2
1/2
1/2
1/2
=
1
2
R 1,1 ( ) 2,2 ( ) 2,2 ( ) 1,1 ( )

R
cos
y x
y+x
dA
=
1
2

v
v
cos
u
v

1
2
dudv=
1
2

1
2
vsin
u
v
u=v
u= v
dv
=
1
2

1
2
2vsin (1)dv=
3
2
sin 1
u=3x v=2y 9x
2
+4y
2
=u
2
+v
2
x=
1
3
u y=
1
2
v
o x,y ( )
o u,v ( )
=
1
6
R
D u
2
+v
2
1 u_0 v_0

R
sin (9x
2
+4y
2
)dA
=

D
1
6
sin (u
2
+v
2
)dudv=
0
/2

0
1
1
6
sin (r
2
)r dr d
=

12

1
2
cos r
2
1
0
=

24
(1 cos 1)
u=x+y v= x+y u+v=2yy=
1
2
(u+v) u v=2xx=
1
2
(u v)
o x,y ( )
o u,v ( )
=
1/2
1/2
1/2
1/2
=
1
2
u = x+y x + y 1 1u1
v = x+y x + y 1 1v1 R
.
20. Letting and , we have and . Then
and is the image of the rectangle enclosed by the lines , ,
, and . Thus
21. Letting , , we have , . Then
and is the image of the trapezoidal region with vertices , , , and . Thus
22. Letting , , we have , , and . Then and is
the image of the quarter disk given by , , . Thus
23. Let and . Then and .
. Now , and
. is the image of
6
Stewart Calculus ET 5e 0534393217;15. Multiple Integrals; 15.9 Change of Variables in Multiple Integrals
1,1 ( ) 1, 1 ( ) 1, 1 ( ) 1,1 ( )

R
e
x+y
dA=
1
2

1
1

1
1
e
u
dudv=
1
2
e
u
1
1
v
1
1
=e e
1
u=x+y v=y x=u v y=v
o x,y ( )
o u,v ( )
=1 R T
0,0 ( ) 1,0 ( ) 1,1 ( )

R
f (x+y)dA=
0
1

0
u
(1) f (u)dvdu=
0
1
f (u) v
v=u
v=0
du=
0
1
uf (u)du
the square region with vertices , , , and . So
.
24. Let and , then , , and is the image under of the triangular
region with vertices , and . Thus
as desired.
7
Stewart Calculus ET 5e 0534393217;15. Multiple Integrals; 15.9 Change of Variables in Multiple Integrals