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(Answer of question from course notes)
1- Direct Current ( DC )
2- Anodes
3- Anodes, Cathodes and Electrolyte.
- A su!stance which will conduct a current and !e !ro"en down !y its.
#- De$radation of metal !y a Chemical or Electrochemical means.
%- &rom Cathodes to Anodes.
'- (ydro$en $ases.
)- *teel.
+- Aluminum.
1,- *teel.
11- -ron *ul.hate and -ron Chlorides.
12- /inc, Alloy and 0a$nesium.
13- 2# - 1,,1m.
1- /inc will corrode.
1#- 2al3anic *eries, Electrochemical *eries, Electromoti3e &orce *eries.
1%- 0arine4s en3ironment.
1'- 5ustite, 0a$netite and (ematite.
1)- 0a$nesium.
1+- -ndustrial and a$riculture.
2,- Causes !y (y$rosco.ic *alts.(defined as .inhead si6ed water filled !listers)
21- 7ositi3ely or ne$ati3ely char$e atom.
22- Current either .ositi3e or ne$ati3e ( DC 8 or DC - )
23- 7ositi3e Char$e
2- Cannot, !ecause three factors needed for corrosion to occur, anodes, cathodes and electrolyte.
2#- 7roton, Electron and 9eutron.
2%- :lue layer on the surface of su!strate causes !y com!ination of o;ides com.ress to$ether in
hi$h tem.erature durin$ rollin$ .rocess of steel with;imate thic"ness 2# - 1,,1m.
2'- <em.erature, (y$rosco.ic *alts, Aero!ic Condition, :acteria, acid and al"alis.
2)- :ecause the no!ility !etween steel and mill scale, mill scale more no!le than steel and mill
scale is easily flac" off if tem.erature a..lied and will lac" of adhesion due to different
2+- :ecause of three elements for corrosion was there.
3,- :ecause there is no .rotection at the steel.

(Answer of question from course note)
1- :* 1,.
2- :* 1,.
3- C=*(( >E2?@A<-=9.
- Cross section of :lastin$ 7rofile.
#- <o remo3e contamination for !etter adhesion !etween a .aint and the su!strate.
%- @amination or crac", a..ear to !e a lon$itudinal crac", which one li. curlin$ !ac".
'- A small surface lamination which stand u.ri$ht li"e a needle after !lastin$.
)- *urface 7re.aration, Aey, 7ea" to throu$h hei$ht.
+- As a .ermanent records.
1,- De$ree of cleanliness.
11- De.endant on the time s.ent on the area and 3elocity of the .articles.
12- Cannot, surface com.arator used for assess de$ree of rou$hness only.
13- , - 11#1m.
1- 2, - #,1m.
1#- 0olecular Attraction and 0olecular -nterference.
1%- 0olecular Attraction B ne$ati3ely char$e .article attracted to .ositi3ely areas and 3ise 3ersa
( analo$y ma$net )
0olecular -nterference B :ecause the surface is rou$h and une3en the .aint wets and loc" into
the .rofile (analo$y CelcroD.hysical).
1'- 2#.1m.
1)- :last .rofile, anchor .attern and am.litude.
1+- #, m.h.
2,- 0oisture.
21- 2,E - 3,E 2rit to ',E - ),E *hoot.
22- Create more uniform .rofile which 2rit cut a .rofile and a *hot will control .ea" to throu$h
23- *teel *hot.
2- *urface 7rofile 9eedle 2au$e, Dial 0icrometer and >e.lica <a.e and *urface Com.arator.
2#- :last to lon$ time at a same area.
2%- &actory and confine s.ace.
2'- >efer to the En$ineer for (isD(er discretion.
2)- &ine, 0edium and Course.
2+- &iner than &ine and Coarser than Coarse.
3,- 2arnet si6e 3,%,.
(Answer of question from course note)
1- 7re.aration of steel su!strate !efore a..lication of .aints and related .roduct.
2- *i6e of .articles, hardness, density and sha.e of .article.
3- >emo3e or reduce electric static shoc".
- (y.odermic 9eedle 2au$e.
#- @on$ .roduction run, Can control quality, more safety, efficient use of a!rasi3e.
%- -m.ossi!le.
'- Fes, the a..earance.
)- 9o different.
+- Fes, >ust $rade D ha3e a hea3y .itted.
1,- 22,m.h.
11- 1,,.si .er no66le.
12- 7olishin$ and smooth shiny areas which does not .ro3ide $ood adhesion.
13- *A 1
1- '.(
1#- ?sin$ .( indication stri.
1%- <o retards the formation of corrosion .roduct.
1'- >ust 2rade A and D.
1)- 7ic"lin$ .rocess followed !y .assi3ation .rocess.
1+- , till '.(.
2,- ' till 1.(
21- @itmus to measure of either acid or al"alis.
22- * a lar$e amount of water, dis.osal of slurry and mi; of inhi!itor.
23- >e3ert, screw, !olt and nuts.
2- E;.ansion, Dehydration and (eat .enetration.
2#- A&1, :&1, C&1 and D&1.
2%- 9eedle Gettin$ or 9eedle 2un.
2'- *tandard of toolin$- *< 2 means thorou$h hand and .ower tool cleanin$ and *< 3 means Cery
thorou$h hand and .ower tool cleanin$.
2)- 7hos.horus :ron6e and :eryllium :ron6e.
2+- :urnishin$ did not .ro3ide a $ood adhesion of .aint.
3,- @ea3e a 3ery coarse .rofile and need to re.air !y a!raded with emery clothes.
31- .# <ill '.(.
32- =il or water filterDse.arator.
33- ),E .roduction.
3- Hylene
3#- :lastin$ <ri$$ers which always under o.erator control.
3%- <o reduce or remo3e electric shoc" of static.
3'- :y Air 5ash *e.arator.
3)- Cery ha6ardous to the o.erator.
3+- (i$h .ressure water !lastin$ u. to 3,,,,.si, (i$h .ressure water .lus a!rasi3e inIection, @ow
.ressure water .lus a!rasi3e inIection and 5ater :lastin$.

,- %# till ',JC.
1- After 7ic"lin$ 7rocess com.lete, immerse the steel su!strate into a !ath of
.hos.horicDChromic acid, 2 E solution at ),JC for;imately one to two minute with iron
fillin$ (,.#E) and after that rinse in clean water and chec" for 7h 3alues. Calue should !e at
the ran$e of .# till '.(.
2- 2, ,,,.si
3- @ot of slurry, use lar$e amount of water and use inhi!itor.
- After 7ic"lin$ 7rocess com.lete, immerse the steel su!strate into a !ath of
.hos.horicDChromic acid, 2 E solution at ),JC for;imately one to two minute with iron
fillin$ (,.#E) and after that rinse in clean water and chec" for 7h 3alues. Calue should !e at
the ran$e of .# till '.(.
#- >educe dust and $ood to remo3e to;ic .aint.
%- <o forms rust inhi!iti3e layers, which .assi3ate the surface and increase the adhesion
.ro.erties and also e;tremely resistant to cathodic dis!ondment.
'- <reated !y a!radin$ with emery clothes.
)- 9o.
+- 1 .hotos, 2 for rust $rade A, .hotos for each rust $rade :, C and D.
#,- 2rit :lastin$.
133 & 134

1- 7owder .aint.
2- Aetones D Acetone.
3- (i$h resistance to mould $rowth, non-flamma!le, resistance to chemical attac", non to;ic and
easy maintenance.
- @ow resistance to some sol3ent, low tem.erature tolerance (%#JC ma;imum) and s.ray
a..lication resulted in Kco!we!s K.
#- 5hite *.irits.
%- Chlorine.
'- 9o, C> contain with stron$ sol3ent and Al"yd contain with wea" sol3ent, if C> a..lied o3er
Al"yd its will result a liftin$.
)- Ali.hatic (ydrocar!onD5hite s.irits.
+- &rom words of Alcohol and Acid reaction.
1,- -nert .articles with e;cellent li$ht scatterin$ .ro.erties in order to $i3e co3erin$ .ower,
o.acity and colour.
11- A :inder.
12- Acce.ta!le, wea" sol3ent !inder o3er stron$ sol3ent !inder not creates any .aint fault. -.e.
13- 9ot acce.ta!le, stron$ sol3ent !inder o3er wea" sol3ent !inder will s.oilt the .aint system.
-.e. liftin$.
1- Acce.ta!le, wea" sol3ent !inder o3er stron$ sol3ent !inder not creates any .aint fault. -.e.
1#- 9ot acce.ta!le, stron$ sol3ent !inder o3er wea" sol3ent !inder will s.oilt the .aint system.
-.e. liftin$.
1%- Acce.ta!le, wea" sol3ent !inder o3er stron$ sol3ent !inder not creates any .aint fault. -.e.
1'- 9ot acce.ta!le, stron$ sol3ent !inder o3er wea" sol3ent !inder will s.oilt the .aint system.
-.e. liftin$.
1)- Dye and 3arnish.
1+- Cery !rittle and fast dry.
2,- 0ust !e a ty.e that will com!ine with o;y$en (unsaturated).
21- &orms thic" im.ermea!le layer of hi$h electrical resistance.
22- Causin$ a chemical reaction !etween the .aint constituent and the su!strate.
23- :y sacrifical coatin$.
2- 0ulti Com.onent @iquids .aints.
2#- &or ease a..lication, adhesion to su!strate, a!rasion resistance, chemical resistance, cohesi3e
stren$th and a!ility to resist the .assa$e of water.
2%-, dammar and coumarone.
2'- @inseed oil, castor oil, oli3e oil, tun$ oil, *oya oil and .alm oil.
2)- A mi;ture of oil and resins.
2+- *ilicones, usually car!on or aluminium .i$mented.
3,- Car!on and aluminium.

1- 7oly means many and 0ers means sin$le units, can !e sin$le atom or molecule.
2- Goinin$ to$ether of a strin$ structure of re.eated units.
3- @inear .olymer, !ranched .olymer and cross lin"ed .olymer.
- @ess than #E oil to resin.
#- 0ore than %,E oil to resin.
%- -nert .article with e;cellent scatterin$ .ro.erties in order to $i3e co3erin$ .ower, o.acity and
'- 1D1,
)- *aturated oil will not solidify !y .olymerisation to form a film and unsaturated oil will
com!ine with o;y$en.
+- *emi dryin$ oil and 9on dryin$ oil.
1,- Dye can easily dissol3e !ut .i$ment cannot.
11- Animal, 3e$eta!le, mineral and synthetically .roduce.
12- 5hite colour.
13- >ed @ead, calcium .lum!hate, Coal tar and 6inc chromate.
1- Aaolin, china clay, calcium .lum!hate, ma$nesium silicate and aluminium silicate.
1#- 0icacous iron o;ide, 2lass fla"e, 2ra.hite and Aluminium fla"e.
1%- A film ha3e a $ood $loss .ro.erties !ut .oor co3erin$ .ower and ha3e tendency to !lister or
low cohesi3e stren$th.
1'- Critical 7i$ment Colume Concentration.
1)- &or a shelf life of .aint.
1+- A !lac" colour.
2,- Ease of a..lication, adhesion to su!strate, a!rasion resistance, chemical resistance and
cohesi3e stren$th.
21- Added into .rimer to .rotect the steel su!strate !y !y .assi3ation.
23- All .article are not wetted, the .aint film would !e .orous, low in cohesi3e stren$th and
2- /inc .hos.hate.
2#- 7ro3ide adhesion, cohesion, films stren$th and dura!ility.
2%- 2reen, yellow and oran$es.
2'- < o $i3e .aint fle;i!ility and reduce !rittleness.
2)- /inc and Aluminium.
2+- &or o;idi6in$ oil and resin which are added durin$ .aint manufacturin$.
3,- A Ielly .aint, non dri. and if stir would !e chan$e into normal liquid.

136 & 137
31- 7rocess of millin$ or $rindin$ a .aint in$redient to a suita!le si6e.
32- -ts will retard the formation of s"in on the .aint surface.
33- Al"yd resins and non dryin$ oil.
3- <he resultin$ liquids -.e. salts mi; with water will result salty water.
3#- *alt mi; into water will result salty water, su$ar mi; into water will result sweeten water.
3%- 7aint consist of solid .articles sus.ended in the 3ehicle where is no solu!ility.
3'- *us.ension and Emulsion.
3)- Con3erti!leD9on >e3ersi!le.
3+- Cross lin"ed 7olymer.
,- Chlorinated >u!!er, Cinyl, Acrylic, cellulous material and lacquer.
1- Allowin$ the .olymer in a .aint structure !ac" into solution.
2- 9ot allowin$ the .olymer in a .aint structure !ac" into solution.
3- *ol3ent E3a.oration, =;idation, Chemical Curin$ and Coalescence.
- Chlorinated >u!!er, Cinyl4s, Acrylic and fall into @inear 7olymer cate$ories.
#- <he (e$man 2rind 2au$e which used to measure de$ree of dis.ersion of .aint.
%- Al"yd, 7henolic and neutral oil and resin.
'- Cross lin"in$ 7olymer.
)- >e3ersi!le or non con3erti!le and linear .olymer.
+- 7hysically Ioint to$ether.
#,- <he .eriods of time after mi;in$ which .aint must !e used.
#1- Amides, Amines and -socycnate.
#3- 2i3in$ off heat, the container will warm u..
#- <he len$th of time after mi;in$ which the .aint should stand !efore used.
##- <hermosettin$ means the material will cure with the a..lication of heat. And <hermo.lastic
means materials soften with the a..lication of heat.
#%- Cross @in"in$ 7olymer.
#'- *tand <ime and @ead <ime.
#)- Fes, the time de.ends on 7aint 0anufacturer recommendation.
#+- Cinyl, Chlorinated >u!!er, Al"yd and Cellulose.
%,- <hermosettin$, the .owder will cure with the a..lication of heat.
%1- -t4s a :arrier coat.
%3- Endothermic reaction, ta"in$ in heat, the .aint container will cold and formin$ condensation.
%- *to3in$, usin$ o3en or infra red.
%#- De.ends on <echnical Data *heet recommendation from .aint manufacture.
%%- (ea3y metal salts, =ctoates or na.htanes of co!alt, man$anese and 6irconium.
%'- <o "ee. solid .articulated constituents in de.ression within the .aints.
%)- Al"yd and 9on dryin$ oil.
',- :y o;idi6in$.
136 & 137
'1- <he tem.erature at which water 3a.or in the air will condense.
'2- <he amount of water 3a.or in the air e;.ressed as a .ercenta$e of the amount of water 3a.or
which could !e in the air at that same tem.erature.
'3- Always wet !ul! first and immediately.
'- At a s.eed of meterDsecond.
'#- Distilled water.
'%- As.irated (y$rometer and 7sychrometer.
''- Decrease.
')- 0ust !e accordin$ to :* 2)2.
'+- 2au$e, Di$ital <hermometer, <hermocou.le and <ouch 7yrometer.
),- -m.ossi!le.
136 & 137
1- &luids resistance to flow, where the liquids with a hi$h 3iscosity is one which a hi$h
resistance to flow and it would not run easily, a low 3iscosity is fluids runs 3ery easily.
2- @iquids with a hi$h resistance to flow. And would not run easily.
3- =ne centi .oise.
- C2*-7oise and *--9ewton .er square meter.
#- &ord &low Cu., /han and &ri"mar and D-9.
%- <ime in second at the measure tem.erature (secondD2,JCM,.#)
'- Diameter of no66le o.enin$ at the !ottom of cu..
)- Dynamic Ciscosity and Ainematics Ciscosity.
+- Com.arin$ the sam.le ta"en from the o.erator at the .oint of a..lication and the sam.le from
the .aint manufacture technical data sheet.
1,- &ord &low Cu..
11- <em.erature would effect the dryin$ and curin$ of .aint under test.
12- >otothinner $i3in$ dynamic 3iscosity and Are!s *tomer $i3in$ "inematics 3iscosity.
13- Clean and dry the cu., .ut on the trian$ular stand and ma"e it .arallel usin$ s.irit !u!!le
le3elin$ on the lid of cu., o.en a cu., .lace a fin$er at a no66le under a cu., fill a cu. with a
.aint under test and clean out any accesses if .aint !y ruler, stand!y with sto. watch, at the
time we remo3e our fin$er from no66le immediately at the same time .ress start !utton at sto.
watch and loo" at the first !ra"e of .aint which dro. from no66le under cu. and sto. the sto.
watch. <he readin$ should !e *econdD2,JCM,.#.
1- <he (e$man 2rind 2au$e.
1#- 9=, the hi$her tem.erature is !etter and safer.
1%- (.a$e %))
1'- (.a$e %#)
1)- A!le Cu..
1+- :lue flame flash o3er the cu..
2,- 5ei$ht .er Colume. (5NC)
21- Density of H N Density of water.
22- Density of 5ater.
23- >elati3e Density Cu., *.ecific 2ra3ity Cu., 5ei$ht .er liter Cu., 5ei$ht .er $allon Cu. and
2- Ainematics Ciscosity.
2#- <a!er >otary A!raser.
2%- Conical 0andrels.
2'- <u!ular -m.act <ester.
2)- <est the hardness of .aint after fully cured.
2+- Determine correct mi;in$ ratio and correct .ercenta$e of thinner added into a .aint.
3,- (umidity Ca!inet, *alt *.ray Ca!inet, 5ater *oa" <est, <em.erature Cyclin$ and .rohesion
31- <estin$ a .ain in a situation of tro.ical condition.
32- (i$her than density of water.
33- *ol3ent would reduce or chan$e the 3olume solids .ercenta$e in .aint.
3- 1,,cc ca.acity.
3#- *.ecific 2ra3ity used for water and Density used for sol3ent.
3%- 5ater a!sor.tion.
3'- *u!Iect to constant cycle tem.erature from hot to cold and hot a$ain.
3)- Constant e;.ansion and contraction which can result in a crac".
3+- :allotini <est and :A Dryin$ <ime >ecorder.
,- 5hen there are no any scratches 3isi!le on a .aint surface.
1- :lac" and white fused .late, <hrou$h <y.e and (idin$ 7ower Chart and micrometer
adIusta!le film a..licator.
2- Ca.a!ility of .aint to $i3in$ hidin$ .ower to the underlyin$ surface.
3- <o chec"ed o.acity of .aint.
- <o determine the indi3idual thic"ness of .aint film.
#- <o control thic"ness durin$ a..lication which $i3e a confidence that after .aint dry the
thic"ness still in the ran$e of dry film thic"ness a .er requirement and control a .aint
%- Eccentrics >ims and 5et Com!s.
'- <o determine accurate thic"ness readin$.
)- Com.arin$ with .aint manufacturer technical data sheet.
+- 9o, used for ferrous metal su!strate only.
#,- 9o, used for non ferrous metal su!strate only.
#1- 9o, used for ferrous metal su!strate only.
#2- (idin$ .ower chart in o.acity test.
#3- 2lossmeter.
#- :y a reflectance of li$ht at s.ecified an$le.
##- De$ree of dis.ersion, .article si6e, resin ty.e, sol3ent ty.e and .i$ment 3olume concentration.
#%- ,1m.
#'- 1,-2,1m.
#)- Almost 1,,E.
#+- De$ree of $loss for .rimer and mid coat .aint.
%,- @i$ht would !e deflected and the $loss .ercenta$e readin$ would !e lower.
%1- C-Cut test, Cross (atch Cut and Dolly test.
%2- Dolly <est units in 0.aD.siDl!D9ewton.
%3- Cohesi3e failure within a .aint film.
%- *odium Chlorides.
%#- (ydro$en and Chlorine $as.
%%- After C-Cut the .aint must not e;.osed the su!strate. -.e. &.:.E #mm only after 2) day.
%'- *acrificial Anodes and -m.ress Current.
',- 9o, these systems only control the corrosion formation.

138 & 13!
'1- Fes, !y .rimary defence ( coatin$)
'2- 9o, at the liquids le3el only !y cathodic .rotection, the rest, !y .aint.
'3- *ettin$ at +3olts.
'- *ettin$ at %'.#3olts or +,3olts.
'#- Deter$ent or washin$ liquids.
'%- <o allow immediate .enetration of the water and .ro3idin$ a 3ery low resistance circuit !ac"
to the control !o;.
''- 9o ad3ice.
')- <o wet out the entire surface.
'+- Direct Current.
),- (i$h 3olta$e (oliday Detector.