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Reina Karen M. Celestino Cristine Jean L. Castilla
Department of Science and Mathematics Education College of Education Mindanao State University – Iligan Institute of Technology Iligan City
TRICKS AND GAMES TO LEARN THE CONCEPTS ON NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION (S.Y 2008 – 2009)
-------------------------------------------------An Undergraduate Thesis Proposal Presented to the faculty of the Department of Science and Mathematics Education College of Education MSU – Iligan Institute of Technology Iligan City
-------------------------------------------------In partial fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Secondary Education Major in Physics
-------------------------------------------------Reina Karen M. Celestino Cristine Jean L. Castilla March 2009
In Partial Fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of bachelor of Secondary Education major in Physics, this undergraduate thesis entitled “TRICKS AND GAMES TO LEARN THE CONCEPTS ON NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION” prepared and submitted by Reina Karen M. Celestino and Cristine Jean L. Castilla is hereby recommended for approval.
MANUEL A. BARQUILLA, Ph.D. Adviser
Approved in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Secondary Education major in Physics by the panel members with a grade of _____________.
ANTONIETO S. SEMORLAN Panel Member
CHRISTINE JOY G. GRAVINO Panel Member
Accepted in the Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Secondary Education major in Physics.
MONERA SALIC-HAIRULLA Chairman Department of Science and Mathematics Education
PROF. LYDIE D. PEDERANGA Dean College of Education
Castilla, Cristine Jean L. and Reina Karen M. Celestino, Bachelor of Secondary Education major in Physics, College of Education, MSU – Iligan Institute of Technology, Iligan City, March 2009. “TRICKS AND GAMES TO LEARN THE CONCEPTS ON NEWTON’S LAWS MOTION”. Thesis Adviser: Manuel A. Barquilla, Ph.D.
The researchers would like to extend their earnest gratitude and appreciation to: The faculty of the Department of Science and Mathematics Education for their heartwarming support and motivation… Their thesis adviser Manuel A. Barquilla, Pd.D. for correcting the chapters of their thesis and for the suggestions he gave to make this study possible. The members of their panel, Mr. Antonieto S. Semorlan and Ms. Christine Joy G. Gravino for giving constructive criticisms and a cup of helpful advice in improving their work. Mr. Sotero Malayao for sharing his statistical wit as he assisted them on the use of SPSS. Their classmates and friends for the encouragement and concern. Their dearest parents – Mr. and Mrs. Atwel A. Castilla,and Mrs. Carmelita M. Celestino for their unconditional love as manifested through different forms of support especially financial support. And above all, to the Almighty Father for paving our way towards the success of this study by giving them the bounty of wisdom and knowledge and the zeal in this pursuit.
R.K. and Cristine
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page TITLE PAGE APPROVAL SHEET ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ABSTRACT TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES LIST OF APPENDICES CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM AND ITS SCOPE Introduction Statement of the Problem Significance of the Study Operational Definition of Terms REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Subject of the Study Research Design Methods Used Instruments Used Statistical Tools Used RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDICES i ii iii iv vi vii x
LIST OF TABLES
Table Performance of the Respondents in the Pretest Performance of the Respondents in the Posttest Attitude of the Respondents in the Pre-Attitude Test Attitude of the Respondents in the Post-Attitude Test Paired T-test Result for Performance Paired T-test Result for Attitude Relationship Between the Pretest Performance and PreAttitude Response Relationship Between the Posttest Performance and PostAttitude Response Analysis of Variance Among Four Schools in Terms of Pretest Performance Analysis of Variance Among Four Schools in Terms of Posttest Performance Analysis of Variance Among Four Schools in Terms of Pre-Attitude Response Analysis of Variance Among Four Schools in Terms of Post-Attitude Response Page
LIST OF APPENDICES
Appendix A B C D E F G H I J K Letter to the Principal Letter to the Respondents List of Tricks and Games Rubric for Validation Table of Specification Test Questionnaire Answer Key Attitude Test Questionnaire Reliability Result Sample Computation Curriculum Vitae Page
THE PROBLEM AND ITS SCOPE Introduction
Physics encompasses the large and the small, the old and the new. From the atom to galaxies, from electrical circuitry to aerodynamics, physics is very much a part of the world around us. It is one of the most fundamental of the sciences (Young and Freedman, 1996). The study of physics is also an adventure. You will find it challenging, sometimes frustrating, occasionally painful and often richly rewarding and satisfying. It will appeal to your sense of beauty as well as rational intelligence (Young and Freedman, 1996). However, the 2005 findings of the two personal reviews of the European Physics Education Conference in Bonn, Germany showed that physics became a misunderstood area of science in schools. Butcher (2005) stated that students, when asked about physics, would tell that it is difficult, confusing and irrelevant to their lives. She further explained that this is so because of the training involved in physics thinking, the problem-solving abilities and mathematics. According to her, many people do not want to spend hours on mathematical functions, which is not essential to enjoying physics.
The same is also true among Filipino students. Ask them and they will certainly conclude that is one of the toughest subjects in high school. This alarming situation is truly a big challenge among secondary physics teachers in strategically abandoning this idea in the minds of students. Often students entering their first course in physics anticipate having a “hard time”. Much of what they have heard from friends and relatives about physics courses leads them to believe that physics cannot be learned well by average person. This is simply not true. The secret to success in a physics course is to learn the material or concepts day by day. Trying to “cram” physics the night before an exam is what leads to the “hard time” in the course. Physics is a subject, which requires time for the concepts to be absorbed and understood. Physics is not learned by memorizing equations and then trying to find the right numbers to plug into them. Physics is learned by using it day after day to solve problems and by thinking about the concepts and relating them to everyday experience (Mckenzie and Pica).
Statement of the Problem
1. What are the bases for the tricks and games developed in this research? 2. What is the performance of the respondents before the treatment? 3. What is the performance of the respondents after the treatment? 4. What is the attitude of the respondents in the pre-attitude test? 5. What is the attitude of the respondents in the post-attitude test? 6. Is there a significant difference between the performance of the respondents in the pretest and posttest? 7. Is there a significant difference between the attitude of the respondents in the pre-attitude and post-attitude tests? 8. Is there a significant relationship between the pretest performance and pre-attitude response? 9. Is there a significant relationship between the posttest performance and post-attitude response? 10. Is there a significant difference in performance of the respondents among four schools? a.) Pretest Performance b.) Posttest Performance 11. Is there a significant difference in attitude of the respondents among four schools? a.) Pre-attitude Response b.) Post-attitude Response Null Hypothesis
This study has formulated the following null hypotheses and tested at 0.05 level of significance. Ho1. There is no significant difference between the performance of the respondents in the pretest and posttest. Ho2. There is no significant difference between the attitude of the respondents in the pre-attitude and post-attitude tests. Ho3. There is a significant relationship between the pretest performance and pre-attitude response. Ho4. There is a significant relationship between the posttest performance and post-attitude response. Ho5. There is a significant difference in pretest performance of the respondents among four schools. Ho6. There is a significant difference in posttest performance of the respondents among four schools. Ho7. There is a significant difference in pre-attitude response of the respondents among four schools. Ho8. There is a significant difference in pre-attitude response of the respondents among four schools.
Significance of the Study
The prime target of this study is to determine the effectiveness of tricks and games in teaching Newton’s three Laws of Motion in terms of the achievement and attitude of the respondents. This study likewise aims at responding to the needs of secondary physics teachers who are looking for ways how to make the learning experiences of their students enjoyable, fun and efficient without too much financial burden on the part of the teacher.
Scope and Limitation of the Study
This study is limited only among 4th year high school students of four private schools in Iligan City namely MSU-IIT Coop Academy, St. Therese Academy, Sacred Heart High School and Corpus Christi Parochial School of Iligan. The concept taught to the respondents through the use of tricks and games revolved around Newton’s three laws of Motion. This was presented during the later part of the second grading period of school year 2008-2009.
Operational Definition of Terms
Achievement- refers to the difference between the scores of the respondents in the pretest and posttest Attitude- refers to the difference in appreciation of Physics as a subject before and after the treatment Games- indoor and outdoor activities which involve the physical abilities and body coordination of students who are motivated to win, thus enhancing teamwork and application of Newton’s three laws of motion Pretest- refers to the test given before the treatment Posttest- refers to the test given after the treatment Treatment- refers to the developed tricks and games given to the student Tricks- are demonstrations used in discussing the concept ion Newton’s laws of motion
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Newton's Laws of Motion These are three physical laws which provide relationships between the forces acting on a body and the motion of the body, first compiled by Sir Isaac Newton. Newton's laws were first published together in his work Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (1687). The laws form the basis for classical mechanics. Newton used them to explain many results concerning the motion of physical objects (http://www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newton's_laws_of_motion). The first law or the Law of Inertia states that “An object at rest will remain at rest unless acted upon by an external and unbalanced force. An object in motion will remain in motion unless acted upon by an external and unbalanced force”. The net force on an object is the vector sum of all the forces acting on the object. Newton's first law says that if this sum is zero, the state of motion of the object does not change. Essentially, it makes the following two points: An object that is not moving will not move until a net force acts upon it and an object that is in motion will not change its velocity (accelerate) until a net force acts upon it (http://www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newton's_laws_of_motion). The second law or the Law of Acceleration states that “The rate of change of momentum of a body is proportional to the resultant force acting on the body and is in the same direction”. If mass of an object in question is known to be
constant, this differential equation can be rewritten (using the definition of acceleration) as: .
This is the most powerful of Newton's three Laws, because it allows quantitative calculations of dynamics: how do velocities change when forces are applied. Notice the fundamental difference between Newton's 2nd Law and the dynamics of Aristotle: according to Newton, a force causes only a change in velocity (an acceleration); it does not maintain the velocity as Aristotle held (http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr161/lect/history/newton3laws.html). And the third law or the Law of Action-Reaction states that “All forces occur in pairs, and these two forces are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction”. (Marion and Thornton, 1995). Whenever a particle A exerts a force on another particle B, B simultaneously exerts a force on A with the same magnitude in the opposite direction. The strong form of the law further postulates that these two forces act along the same line (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newton's_laws_of_motion). Many people have known Newton's first law since eighth grade (or earlier). And if prompted with the first few words, most people could probably recite the law word for word. And what is so terribly difficult about remembering that F = ma? It seems to be a simple algebraic statement for solving story problems. The big deal however is not the ability to recite the first law or to use the second law to solve problems; but rather the ability to understand their meaning and to
believe their implications. While most people know what Newton's laws say, many people do not know what they mean (or simply do not believe what they mean) (http://www.glenbrook.k12.il.us/gbssci/phys/Class/newtlaws/u2l3b.html.) There are many applications of Newton's first law of motion. Consider some of your experiences in an automobile. Have you ever observed the behavior of coffee in a coffee cup filled to the rim while starting a car from rest or while bringing a car to rest from a state of motion? Coffee tends to "keep on doing what it is doing." When you accelerate a car from rest, the road provides an unbalanced force on the spinning wheels to push the car forward; yet the coffee (which was at rest) wants to stay at rest. While the car accelerates forward, the coffee remains in the same position; subsequently, the car accelerates out from under the coffee and the coffee spills in your lap. On the other hand, when braking from a state of motion the coffee continues forward with the same speed and in the same direction, ultimately hitting the windshield or the dash. Coffee in motion tends to stay in motion
(http://www.glenbrook.k12.il.us/gbssci/phys/Class/newtlaws/u2l1a.html). Learning Learning has been defined by psychologists in various ways. Learning may be defined as a relatively permanent change in behavior potentiality that occurs due to experience and reinforced practice (Bustos and Espiritu, 1996).
Cognitive learning is a type of learning concerned with the development of ideas and concepts. It covers much of what academic learning demands. It includes everything from associations between stimuli and responses to the development of problem-solving skills (Bustos and Espiritu, 1996). Another type of learning is affective learning, which involves experiences within which emotions and affect take precedence. It involves assimilation of values, mental understanding, emotional reactions, the sense of pleasure and satisfaction (Bustos and Espiritu, 1996). Bustos and Espiritu (1996) underscored that a basic factor in motor learning is accuracy of perception that is based on the learner’s prior experiences. Some activities that are primarily learned through this modality are physical education courses and vocational courses. Other activities in school, which call for sensory-motor learning, include techniques as direction, imitation, demonstration and drill. It is recognized that a different technique is needed to educate appreciation from that used to teach skills and knowledge. The most important of these factors is the teacher. Unless the teacher is fully able to appreciate what is being taught, students cannot be expected to develop appreciation well (Bustos and Espiritu, 1996). Concepts Concepts are categories used to group objects, events and characteristics on the basis of common properties. Concepts are elements of
cognition that help to simplify and summarize information (Medin, 2000). Concepts also aid the process of remembering, making it more efficient. When students group objects to form a concept, they can remember the concept, and then retrieve the concept’s characteristics. Students form concepts through direct experiences with events and object in their world. Tricks It was the greatest physicist Albert Einstein who once quoted that “In the matter of physics, the first lessons should contain nothing but what is experimental and interesting to see. A pretty experiment is in itself often more valuable than twenty formulae extracted from our minds”. Einstein is right and his claim holds true in real classroom situation wherein it is critical to motivate students to actively participate in the lectures (Sprott, 1996). Professor Oseroff (2005) in his website on Physics: A Magic Experience found the challenge and merits of the demonstrations bring excitement where students do participate. He, who has been involved for a long time in developing new approaches to present physics to his students, encouraged students to ask questions and to explain what they learned from each demonstration. The families of these students, according to Oseroff, were also involved since the students discussed what they learned at school with their parents at home. He considered demonstrations as interesting avenues to take advantage of the students’ fantasy and innate curiosity and to enlighten them on the joys of scientific inquiry.
In a research paper by Tabal and Birad (2003) results showed that a great number of respondents who were exposed to physics tricks had scores significantly higher than that of the respondents who were exposed on mere lecture. Basing on these results, they concluded that the use of physics tricks had helped the respondents in understanding the concept of magnetism. They stressed out that teachers as well as practice teachers should not rely on pure lecture in discussing a lesson, but also on the use of demonstration method, most especially the use of physics tricks so as to stimulate curiosity on their students. A wise saying runs like this, ”The man who can make hard things easy is a real teacher”. To become one, the teachers must be aware of the fact that the two essential teaching skills are the ability to demonstrate and the ability to explain (Rivera and Sembrano, 1992). The use of demonstrations makes the learning of physics much more enjoyable. This is what Sprott pointed out in his sourcebook for teachers of physics, Physics Demonstrations wherein he highlighted how essential the use of demonstrations in enhancing the teaching of physics. His book as a compilation of many demonstrations has been used at University of Wisconsin-Madison in the teaching of elementary physics over the years. His selected demonstrations are especially dramatic and provocative, presented in unusual ways. This is because he felt that it is necessary to get the attention of the students and to convince them that physics is interesting before any learning can occur. He
mentioned also that there seems to be little help available for the teacher who wants to improve the quality of his or her presentation. To answer this need, he is encouraging the physics teachers to find better ways to present old demonstrations. He stressed out that the apparatus to be used in presentation is important but the effectiveness on the students’ learning relies heavily on the techniques employed by a teacher for bringing the apparatus or instruments into life. Research in physics classrooms indicates that students acquire significantly greater understanding of course material when traditional lectures are combined with interactive lecture demonstrations Interactive demonstrations enable students to become more actively engaged in a lecture and provide unique opportunities for critical thinking and student reflection
(http://serc.carleton.edu/introgeo/demonstrations/why.html) According to Brasell, 1987, demonstrations are especially effective if they have a surprise effect, challenge an assumption or misconception, or illustrate an otherwise abstract concept or process. Some research indicates that students are better able to self-correct their misconceptions after observing a demonstration real-time (http://serc.carleton.edu/introgeo/demonstrations/why.html). In addition, demonstrations employ physical models, which are smaller and simpler in scope than the real system they mimic. This allows instructor and students to focus in on key aspects of the system's behavior. This simplicity also
makes it easier for students to manipulate, measure, and modify the model than it would be in a real-world system
(http://serc.carleton.edu/introgeo/demonstrations/why.html). Games Years ago an educator named Edgar Dale, often cited as the father of modern media in education, developed from his experience in teaching and his observations of learners the "cone of experience" (see Figure 1). The cone's utility in selecting instructional resources and activities is as practical today as when Dale created it (http://web.utk.edu/~mccay/apdm/selusing/selusing_d.html).
Edgar Dale also added that people generally remember 90% of what is said and done while only 10% is retained of what is read. So the best and most desirable learning experience is the direct, purposeful experience. Thus, a
teacher must design an activity in which the learner does a real thing. A good example of a direct, purposeful experience is through games. A game is a structured or semi-structured activity, usually undertaken for enjoyment and sometimes also used as an educational tool. The term "game" is also used to describe simulation of various activities e.g., for the purposes of training, analysis or prediction, etc. Games are generally distinct from work, which is usually carried out for remuneration, and from art, which is more concerned with the expression of ideas. However, the distinction is not clear-cut, and many games may also be considered work and/or art. An example of a game is chess. You use your brain(s) to solve the game and win the game. Key components of games are goals, rules, challenge, and interactivity. Games generally involve mental or physical stimulation, and often both. Many games help develop practical skills, serve as a form of exercise, or otherwise perform an educational, simulational or psychological role. Known to have been played as far back as prehistoric times, games are a universal part of the human culture (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Game). Instructional games are structured activities with set of rules for play in which two or more students interact to reach clearly designated instructional objectives. Competition and chance are generally factors in the interaction and usually there is a winner. Although games are valuable as instructional activities, they do not necessarily attempt to imitate real-life situations. (Brown, et.al, 1977).
According to research findings of the Center for Social Organization of Schools at Johns Hopkins University, that games increase students motivation to learn. And there are strong indications that game activities, the competition encourage the students to help each other with their school work, especially of different races or different sexes. Students like games if they understand the instructors’ purpose in using them. Generally, the most conspicuous contribution of games appears to be in the affective are, since games provide motivational support of learning and contribute in some cases to attitudinal changes. (Brown, et.al, 1977).
This chapter contains the subjects of the study, research design used, instruments used and procedure used in gathering data and statistical tools that were used.
Subjects of the Study
This study was conducted among Fourth Year students of four different schools in Iligan City, MSU-IIT Coop Academy, St. Therese Academy, Sacred Heart High School and Corpus Christi Parochial School of Iligan during the second grading period of school year 2008-2009. A total of 126 respondents comes from these private schools: 16 from MSU-IIT Coop Academy; 20 from Corpus Christi Parochial School of Iligan; 30 from St. Therese Academy;and 60 from Sacred Heart High School.
Research Design Used
This study used the one-group pretest-posttest design which is one of the most frequently used quasi-experimental research designs in which a certain group of research participants or subjects is pretested, given some treatment or independent variable manipulation, then post tested. If the pretest and posttest scores differ significantly, then the difference may be attributed to the independent variable.
The tricks and games used were based on different sources. The researchers utilized the World Wide Web or the Internet, books, journals like the Physics Teachers Journal and suggestions from physics teachers. The chosen tricks and games was then modified and validated through physics teachers. After subjecting the tricks and games to content and face validity that was done to construct a valid test, this was then tested among the respondents in the aforementioned schools. The students were given first the pretest and the preattitude test questionnaires, which were personally distributed by the
researchers. Then, the researchers presented the tricks and the students performed the games. But, this was supplemented by a brief discussion centering on the presentation and games. Shortly after this, equivalent posttest and post-attitude test questionnaires were distributed. Papers were checked and the data gathered among four schools was analyzed through the use of SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) except for Chi-Square Statitics. The reliability of the attitude questionnaire was also determined using Cronbach alpha in SPSS.
Instruments to Be Used
The instruments used in gathering data were the attitude and test questionnaires. The attitude test is composed of 10 items that aims at identifying qualitatively the student’s attitude towards Physics before and after the treatment.
The test questionnaires were used for the pre-test and post test which is made up of 15 item questions regarding the concept of Newton’s Laws of Motion. The researchers based some of the test questions from the Internet and physics books.
Statistical Tools Used
As soon as the data were collected, these were tabulated, analyzed and interpreted. These were the statistical tools used in this research: a.) Paired T-test
Where: dav is the mean difference ( SD is the standard deviation of the differences between all the pairs N is the number of pairs. b.) Chi-Square Test
Where: χ2 = Chi-square f (a) = actual or observed frequency of observations in a cell f (e) = expected frequency or number of observations in a cell in the theoretical distribution
Hake Gain ≡
( posttest )% − ( pretest )% 100% − ( pretest )%
c.) Analysis of Variance Test
Sum of Squares Total
Sum of Squares Between Groups
Sum of Squares Within Groups
Mean Squares Between Groups
Mean Squares Within Groups
F statistic d.) Hake Gain Formula
High Gain: Gain ≥ 0.7
Medium Gain: 0.3 ≤ Gain ≤ 0.7 Low Gain: Gain ≤ 0.30
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
This chapter consists of the presentation and analysis of data, which were gathered from the respondents. These data were analyzed and interpreted to come up with the results of this study. The data are presented in tables according to the problem. Graph 1.The Bases For The Tricks
20% internet books and journals 20% 60% suggestions from teachers in physics
A big percentage of tricks developed in this research were taken from the Internet. This may be partly due to its accessibility and timeliness. But, the researchers did a deliberate selection to assure the effectiveness of the tricks in teaching the concepts on Newton’s laws of motion. They found more appropriate tricks from the Internet than from other sources. Moreover, they used their self-
made rubric for a preliminary survey of the list of tricks they selected from a variety of sources and it boiled down to the final list of tricks used for this research. These were then subjected to a validation through teachers in physics. Graph 2 The Bases for the Games
internet suggestions from teachers in physics researcher's idea
Similarly, the researchers did a preliminary survey for the games and they make sure that the games are appropriate in discussing the concepts without compromising the enjoyment and active participation of students. They still made use of the rubric in assessing the games by themselves before the formal validation process through experts.
Table 1 Performance of the Respondents in the Pretest
Scores 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Total
Frequency 10 18 24 34 15 12 7 2 2 2 126
Percent 7.9 14.3 19.0 27.0 11.9 9.5 5.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 100.0
Table 2 Performance of the Respondents
Mean: 5.00 in the Posttest
Scores 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 13 Total Mean: 6.51 Frequency 3 9 17 14 18 26 13 15 7 1 3 126 Percent 2.4 7.1 13.5 11.1 14.3 20.6 10.3 11.9 5.6 .8 2.4 100.0
Table 3. Attitudes of the Respondents Toward Physics in the Pre-Attitude Test Attitude Statements 1. I find physics interesting and worthwhile. 2. I see a connection between physics and me as a person. 3. I see relevance of physics in my everyday life. 4. I find physics as a difficult subject. 5. I consider physics as a tough but challenging subject. 6. I understand most of the concepts in physics. 7. I believe that mathematical calculations are always involved in physics. 9. I find physics as having less relation to what I experience in Strongly Agree Agree Freq Freq 61 17 20 32 26 50 9 49 56 49 37 50 37 49 Neutral Freq 38 32 32 42 15 60 12 Disagree Freq 6 18 9 15 8 14 12 Highly Mean Disagree Freq 4 3.64 0 4 6 3 6 4 3.62 3.76 3.49 4.08 3.23 4.01 Remarks Agree Agree Agree Agree Agree Neutral Agree
the real world. 10. I believe that I learn Physics more when I am actively involved in classroom activities.
LEGEND: 1 (1.00 – 1.79) Strongly Disagree 2 (1.80 – 2.59) Disagree 3 (2.60 – 3.39) Neutral 4 (3.40 – 4.19) Agree 5 (4.20 – 5.00) Strongly Agree
The table shows the responses of the respondents on ten statements concerning their attitude towards Physics before the treatment. The means for items 1,2,3,5,8,10 which are all positive statements about physics all belong to the interval for Agree. This implies that the respondents have generally positive attitude towards physics. However, for items 9 and 6, most of them are neutral or undecided which means they are not sure to say that physics has less relation to what they experience in the real world and that they understand most of the concepts in physics. Finally, the respondents agree to two negative statements that physics is a difficult subject and that mathematical calculations are always involved in this subject.
Table 4. Attitudes of the Respondents Toward Physics in the Post-Attitude Test Attitude Statements 1. I find physics interesting and worthwhile. 2. I see a connection between physics and me as a person. 3. I see relevance of physics in my everyday life. 4. I find physics as a difficult subject. 5. I consider physics as a tough but challenging subject. 6. I understand most of the concepts in physics. 7. I believe that mathematical calculations are always involved in physics. Strongly Agree Agree Freq Freq 54 29 25 31 1 35 30 37 66 45 4 67 51 54 Neutral Freq 28 27 38 45 15 32 25 Disagree Freq 11 6 7 53 7 11 8 Highly Mean Disagree Freq 4 3.74 2 5 23 2 2 2 3.84 3.71 1.22 4.00 3.76 Remarks Agree Agree Agree Strongly Disagree Agree Agree Agree
9. I find physics as having less relation to what I experience in the real world. 10. I believe that I learn Physics more when I am actively involved in classroom activities.
LEGEND: 1 (1.00 – 1.79) Strongly Disagree 2 (1.80 – 2.59) Disagree 3 (2.60 – 3.39) Neutral 4 (3.40 – 4.19) Agree 5 (4.20 – 5.00) Strongly Agree
The table evidently shows that there is a change in the attitude of the respondents after the treatment. Generally, they agree to statements 2,3,5,8 and10 which are all positive statements about physics, similar to their pre-attitude response but of higher mean values. This suggests that they like physics more than before they witnessed the presentation of tricks and their game performance. However, they disagree to statements 4 and 9 which are negative statements. This only means that they find physics not difficult as they first view it and physics is now seen as having a relation to what they experience in the real world. For item no. 7, their response is consistent to that of their pre-attitude response.
Table 5 Paired T-test Result for Performance Paired Differences 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference Pair 1 Pretest Score – Posttest Score Mean -1.508 Lower -7.519 Upper 125
Computed t - 7.519
Sig. (2tailed) .000
Tabulated t 1.960
Ho1: there is no significant differences between the performance of the respondents in the pretest and posttest .
Based on Table 5, the following statements are made: Decision: Since the absolute value of the t computed using the SPSS is greater than that of the critical value with 125 degrees of freedom, the null hypothesis is rejected. Conclusion: Hence, there is a significant difference between the performance of the respondents in the pretest and posttest. Implication: Generally, the developed tricks and games are effective in the learning of the respondents in the concepts on Newton’s three laws of motion.
Table 6 Paired T-test Result for Attitude Paired Differences 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference Pair 1 Pretest Score – Posttest Score Mean -0.2658 Lower -0.5 Upper 0.06
Computed t -1.843
Sig. (2tailed) .098
Tabulated t 2.262
Ho2: There is no significant difference between the attitude of the respondents in the pre-attitude and post-attitude test.
Based on Table 6, the following statements are made: Decision: The formulated null hypothesis is accepted since the computed t value using the SPSS is less than the tabulated t value, disregarding the negative sign of the former. Conclusion: Thus, there is no significant difference between the attitude of the respondents in the pre-attitude and post-attitude test. Implication: The developed tricks and games does not significantly improve the respondents’ attitude towards Physics.
Table 7 Relationships Between the Pretest Performance and Pre-Attitude Response 95% Confidence Interval Computed ChiTabulated ChiDegree of Square Value Square Value Freedpm 25.31 12.592 6
Pretest Performance vs Pre-Attitude Response
Ho3: There is no significant relationship between the pretest performance and pre-attitude response.
Based on Table 7, the following statements are made: Decision: Ho3 is rejected since χ2com > χ2tab at α = 0.05. Conclusion: Therefore, there exists a significant relationship between the performance and attitude response of the respondents before the treatment. Implication: The respondents’ performance in the pretest is dependent on how they first view physics as a subject.
Table 8 Relationships Between the Posttest Performance and Post-Attitude Response 95% Confidence Interval Computed ChiTabulated ChiSquare Value Square Value 15.08 9.488 Degree of Freedom 4
Posttest Performance vs Post-Attitude Response
Ho 4: There is no significant relationship between the posttest performance and post-attitude response. Based on Table 8, the following statements are made: Decision: Ho4 is rejected for χ2com > χ2tab at α = 0.05. Conclusion: Hence, the claim that there is a significant relationship between the posttest performance and post-attitude response of the respondents is true. Implication: Similarly, the respondents’ posttest performance is generally affected by their attitude towards physics after the treatment.
Table 9 Analysis of Variance Among Four Schools in Terms of Pretest Performance Corpus MSU-IIT Sacred St. Therese Between Christi Coop Heart High Academy Groups Parochial Academy School School of Iligan N 20 16 60 30 Mean 6.30 4.88 4.60 4.40 F 4.735 Df 3,122 Significance .004 F Value At α = 0.05 is 2.6049 Ho5: There is no significant difference in pretest performance among the schools. Based on Table 9, the following statements are made: Decision: Ho5 is rejected for Fcom > Ftab at α = 0.05. The value for Fcom is computed using SPSS. Conclusion: Hence, at least one mean for pretest performance is different from the other schools. Implication:
Table 10 Analysis of Variance Among Four Schools in Terms of Posttest
Performance Corpus Christi Parochial School of Iligan 20 7.50 MSU-IIT Coop Academy Sacred Heart High School St. Therese Academy Between Groups
N Mean F Df Significance
30 5.77 3.433 3,122 .019
F Value At α = 0.05 is 2.6049 Ho6: There is no significant difference in posttest performance among the schools. Based on Table 10, the following statements are made: Decision: Ho6 is rejected for Fcom > Ftab at α = 0.05. The value for Fcom is computed using SPSS. Conclusion: Hence, at least one mean for posttest performance is different from the other schools. Implication:
Table 11 Analysis of Variance Among Four Schools in Terms of Pre-Attitude Response
N Mean F Df Significance
Corpus Christi Parochial School of Iligan 20 33.35
MSU-IIT Coop Academy
Sacred Heart High School
St. Therese Academy
30 33.90 1.817 3,122 .148
F Value At α = 0.05 is 2.6049 Ho7: There is no significant difference in pre-attitude response among the schools. Based on Table 7, the following statements are made: Decision: Ho7 is accepted for Fcom < Ftab at α = 0.05. The value for Fcom is computed using SPSS. Conclusion: There is no significant difference in pre-attitude response among the schools. Implication:
Table 12 Analysis of Variance Among Four Schools in Terms of Post-Attitude Response Corpus MSU-IIT Sacred St. Therese Between Christi Coop Heart High Academy Groups Parochial Academy School School of Iligan N 20 16 60 30 Mean 35.35 38.50 39.12 35.53 F 4.960 Df 3,122 Significance .003
F Value At α = 0.05 is 2.6049 Ho8: There is no significant difference in post-attitude response among the schools. Based on Table 7, the following statements are made: Decision: Ho7 is accepted for Fcom > Ftab at α = 0.05. The value for Fcom is computed using SPSS. Conclusion: Thus, at least one mean for posttest performance is different from the other schools. Implication:
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
This study is aimed at determining the effectiveness of tricks and games in teaching the concept on Newton’s laws of motion. The following findings were noted: 1. There is a significant difference between the pretest and posttest performance of the respondents. 2. There is no significant difference between the pre-attitude and post-attitude response of the respondents. 3. There is a significant relationship between the pre-test performance and pre-attitude response of the respondents.
There is a significant relationship between the post-test performance and post-attitude response of the respondents.
At least one mean for pretest performance is different from the other schools.
At least one mean for posttest performance is different from the other schools.
There is no significant difference in pre-attitude response among the schools.
At least one mean for post-attitude response is different from the other schools.
Based on the results gathered, the researchers have concluded that: 1. The developed tricks and games are effective in teaching the concept on Newton’s laws of motion but failed at significantly improving the attitude of the respondents towards physics as a subject. 2. The performance of the respondents is affected by their attitude response. 3. The respondents’ performances vary in terms of their schools, both in pretest and posttest. 4. The respondents’ attitude responses vary in terms of their schools, only in post-attitude. The following recommendations deserve due considerations: 1.
BOOK SOURCE: Brown, James W., Fred F. Harcleroad and Richard B. Lewis, 1977. Av Instruction: Technology, Media and Methods 5th ed. USA. McGraw-Hill Book Company. p 292,295. Bustos, Alicia S. and Socorro C. Espiritu, 1996, Psychological, Anthropological And Sociological Foundations of Education, Quezon City, Katha Publishing Co., Inc., p. 5. Freedman, Roger and Hugh D. Young, 1996, University Physics Ninth Edition, Reading, Massachusetts, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc., pp. viii, 1. Mckenzie, Charles R. and Andrew J. Pica. 1999, Study Guide with Selected Solutions: Physics 2nd Ed. New York. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., pp. 208210. Rivera, Filomena V. and Guillerma E. Sambrano, 1992, Toward Effective Teaching, Quezon City, Kalayaan Press, Mktg. Ent., Inc., pp. 112-113. JOURNAL: Butcher, Felicity, “Two Personal Reviews of the European Physics Education Conference in Bonn”, Physics Education, Vol. 40, No. 5, pp. 399-400. UNPUBLISHED UNDERGRADUATE THESIS: Birad, Anecito A. and Stephen V. Tabal, “Physics Tricks As A Teaching Strategy for Understanding of the Concepts of Magnetism”. Undergraduate BSE Physics Thesis. College of Education, Mindanao State University-Iligan Institute of Technology, March 2003.
INTERNET SOURCE: Blundell, Barry, 2006, http://sprott.physics.wisc.edu/demobook/review2.htm, Retrieved on September 13, 2007. Fowles, G. R. and G. L. Cassiday, 1999, Analytical Mechanics Sixth Ed, Saunders College Publishing, Microsoft ® Encarta ® Premium Suite 2005. © 1993-2004 Microsoft Corporation.
Marion, Jerry and Stephen Thornton, 1995, Classical Dynamics of Particles and Systems. Harcourt College Publishers, ISBN 0-03-097302-3, Microsoft ® Encarta ® Premium Suite 2005. © 1993-2004 Microsoft Corporation. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newton's_laws_of_motion, Retrieved on October 2, 2007. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Game, Retrieved on July 23, 2007. http://web.utk.edu/~mccay/apdm/selusing/selusing_d.html, Retrieved on July 23, 2007. http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr161/lect/history/newton3laws.html, Retrieved on October 2, 2007. http://www.glenbrook.k12.il.us, Retrieved on October 3, 2007. Oseroff, Saul, 2005, http://van.physics.uiuc.edu/van/ShowDirectory/PhysicsMagic.html, Retrieved on July 10, 2007. Sprott, Julien Clinton, 1996, http://sprott.physics.wisc.edu/demobook/Intro.html, Retrieved on July 13, 2007.
Mindanao State University Iligan Institute of Technology College of Education Department of Science and Mathematics Education October 2008 The Principal Dear Sir/ Madam: Warm Greetings! We are third year BSE Physics students of the College of Education, MSU-Iligan Institute of Technology. We are presently conducting a research study entitled, “Tricks and Games to Learn Concepts on Newton’s Laws of Motion” which is a requirement for our EdSci 199N (Thesis Writing) subject. In connection with this, we would like to ask your good office to grant us permission to conduct a test and a teaching demonstration using the tricks and games to the fourth year students of your school. We are hoping for your favorable action on this request. Thank you. May God bless us all! Respectfully yours, REINA KAREN M. CELESTINO Noted by: CRISTINE JEAN L. CASTILLA
MANUEL A. BARQUILLA, Ph.D. Adviser
Mindanao State University Iligan Institute of Technology College of Education Department of Science and Mathematics Education
Dear Respondent, Good Day! We are conducting a research study entitled, “Tricks and Games to Learn Concepts on Newton’s Laws of Motion” which is a requirement for our EdSci 199N (Thesis Writing) subject. With this, we would like to ask for your cooperation in the activities laid out for you. We also hope that you will fill in the needed information in the survey questionnaires truthfully. Your score in the test to be given will not affect your grades, in any way. This will be a great help to the success of this study which will later on, students of your age in the future will benefit from this. We look forward to your support and for the time you will spare to us. Thank you!
Sincerely yours, Reina Karen M. Celestino Cristine Jean Castilla Researchers
APPENDIX B List of Tricks and Games
A. Newton’s First Law of Motion Title: Getting the Tack in the Cup Trick Materials Needed: 1 thumbtack 1 big scotch tape 1 bottle What To Do: Balance the scotch tape on top of the bottle. Balance the thumbtack on top of the scotch tape. Pull the scotch tape off the bottle and see if the thumbtack falls into the bottle. Title: Chalk Stand Trick Materials Needed: A strip of paper 3 chalks What To Do: Place a strip of paper on the edge of a table. Balance the chalks on the strip. Swiftly pull the paper away from the table. Make sure the three chalks remain upright. B. Newton’s Second Law of Motion Title: Coin Transfer Game Description: There will be five participating groups of 8-10 members each. A paper boat will be given for every group, which will be used in transferring the 5-centavo coin to a distance of one ruler by merely blowing the boat with coin (s). The members per group should line up in whatever arrangements. The first member is tasked to transfer only one coin while the second and third members should transfer two and three coins respectively. This sequence will continue until the last member
could no longer transfer the number of coins intended for him. The group with the highest number of coins will be recognized as the winning team. Title: Newton’s Second Law in a Box Trick Materials Needed: 1 empty margarine tub or small box 3 elastic rubber bands String 30 marbles 1 ruler What To Do: Tie a piece of string tightly around the box. Attach one of the elastic bands to the string. Now attach the other two elastic bands to the first one in a chain. Put the box on a level surface such as the carpet. Straighten out the chain of the elastic bands but do not stretch them yet out. Put 15 marbles into the box. Slowly pull the end of the elastic band chains. Make a note of the distance the rubber bands have stretched at the moment the box begins to move and measure this using a ruler. Put the other 15 marbles into the box and pull the end of the elastic band chain again. Make a note of how far the elastic bands have stretched. C. Newton’s Third Law of Motion Title: Arm Wrestling Game All students will choose their opponent for this game. The competitor’s shoulders must not be less than a fist distance away from their hands at the start. To make a winning pin, a participant must touch his or her opponent to the touch pad. There will be no parallel pin calls; one must be touched to lose. They may touch any part of your opponent’s fingers, wrist or forearm to the pad to constitute a pin. But, everyone should not, at any time, touch his or her opponent’s body to his/her hand. If this will happen, the match will be awarded to his opponent. Title: Upside Down Trick Materials: 1 drinking glass cardboard
What to do: Fill the glass completely with water. Cover the glass with the cardboard. Press and hold the cardboard as the glass is quickly inverted.
Table of Specification Content Areas Recitation Knowledge or No. of Minutes Newton’s 10 1 First Law Newton’s 10 1 Second Law Newton’s 10 1 Third Law TOTAL 30 3 Comprehension Application Test Percentage Item 2 2 2 6 2 2 2 6 5 5 5 15 33.33% 33.33% 33.33% 100%
Test Questionnaire Name: ___________________________Year and Section: _______________ School: ______________________________ Date: ______________________ Directions: Encircle the letter of your choice. If there are words you don’t understand, please ASK us, not your seatmates. 1. Which statement correctly defines Newton’s First Law of Motion? a.) A body at rest will remain at rest when there is external force acting on it. b.) A body at rest will remain at rest when there is no external force acting on it. c.) A body in motion naturally comes to rest and that a force is required to sustain its motion. d.) A body in motion will remain in motion when a force is given to sustain its motion. 2. When Newton’s Second Law of Motion is mentioned, you should immediately think of a.) inertia b.) action-and-reaction pair c.) speed d.) mass and acceleration 3. A person sitting in a car tends to move backwards when the car suddenly starts. This only illustrates Newton’s ________ law. a.) First b.) Second c.) Third d.) Both a and b 4. Which is not implied in Newton’s Second Law of Motion? a.) A body accelerates if a net external force acts on a body. b.) When the net external force is doubled, acceleration also doubles given that mass is constant. c.) The acceleration of a body is proportional to the net force acting on it. d.) The direction of acceleration is opposite to the direction of the net force.
5. How is the law of inertia used when riding a bicycle to your advantage? a.) You must peddle harder when going uphill. b.) You must peddle to start moving c.) You can stop peddling and you will continue moving forward when going downhill d.) Bicycles do not have inertia. 6. While driving down the road, a firefly strikes the windshield of a bus and makes a quite obvious mess in front of the driver. This is a clear case of Newton’s Third Law of Motion, the firefly hits the bus and the bus hits the firefly. Which of the two forces is greater: the forces on the firefly or the force on the bus? a.) Force on the firefly>Force on the bus b.) Neither the force on the firefly nor the force on the bus is greater. This can only be determined when their speeds are given. c.) Force on the firefly<Force on the bus d.) Both forces are equal in quantity. 7. Which vehicle would be the easiest to accelerate? a.) Garbage Truck b.) Volkswagen car c.) School bus d.) Ten-wheeler truck 8. What could possibly happen to a person involved in a car crash, who was not able to wear seatbelt and was sitting in the backseat? The person inside the car would… a.) remain still b.) be thrown forward thus hitting the seat in front of him and receiving injuries in his face c.) fly up and his head will hit the roof of the car, causing extreme injuries in his head d.) be thrown backward hitting the backseat, causing a break in his spine 9. A woman whose weight is 500 N is standing on the ground. The force the ground exerts on her is a.) more than 500 N b.) equal to 500 N c.) less than 500 N d.) any of the above choices, depending on her location on the Earth
10. Which law says that heavier objects require more force than lighter objects to move or accelerate them? a.) First Law of Motion b.) Second Law of Motion c.) Third Law of Motion d.) None of the above e.) 11. If the net force applied in the direction of motion to a certain object on a horizontal frictionless surface is doubled, the acceleration of the object is a.) halved b.) doubled c.) unchanged d.) quadrupled 12. A gunpowder explosion creates hot gases which expand outward allowing the rifle to push forward on the bullet. Consistent with Newton’s third law of motion, the bullet pushes backwards upon the rifle. But the acceleration of the recoiling rifle ……. a.) is greater than the acceleration of the bullet b.) is smaller than the acceleration of the bullet c.) is the same size as the acceleration of the bullet d.) cannot be determined 13. According to Newton’s Third Law, when a hammer strikes and exerts a force on the nail, the nail a.) creates a balanced force b.) disappears into wood c.) moves at a constant speed d.) exerts an equal but opposite force back on the hammer 14. Jasmine and Julian are arguing in the cafeteria. Jasmine says that if she flings the Jelly Ace with a greater speed it will have a greater inertia. Julian argues that inertia does not depend upon speed, but rather upon mass. Who has explained correctly the concept on Newton’s law of Inertia? a.) b.) c.) d.) Both of them Neither of the two Julian Jasmine
15. Forces always occur _____________________. a.) as single quantity b.) by themselves c.) in pairs
d.) in triplets
Answer Key 1. b. 2. d. 3. a. 4. d. 5. c. 6. d. 7. b. 8. b. 9. b. 10. b. 11. b. 12. b. 13. d. 14. c. 15. c.
Attitude Test Name: ______________________________Year and Section: _____________ School: ______________________________ Date: ______________________ Directions: Encircle the number that represents your choice from the list below. 1- Strongly Disagree 2- Disagree 3- Neutral 4- Agree 5- Strongly Agree 1. I find physics interesting and worthwhile. 2. I see a connection between physics and me as a person. 3. I see relevance of physics in my everyday life. 4. I find physics as a difficult subject. 5. I consider physics as a tough but challenging subject. 6. I understand most of the concepts in physics. 7. I believe that mathematical calculations are always involved in physics. 8. I find physics fun and exciting. 9. I find physics as having less relation to what I experience in the real world. 10. I believe that I learn Physics more when I am actively involved in classroom activities. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
Reliability Statistics Cronbach's Cronbach's Alpha Based on N of Items Alpha Standardized Items Pre-Test Score Attitude .666 1-3 4-6 7-9 10-12 Row Total .688 10 Response 42-52 3 (3.19) 4 (7.74) 2 (1.44) 4 (0.62) 13 31-41 22 (23.13) Item-Total Statistics 62 (55.95) 9 (10.44) 1 (4.48) 94 20-30 6 (4.67) 9 (11.31) 3 (2.11) 1 (0.90) 19 Scale Mean Scale Corrected Squared Cronbach's Column Total 31 75 14 6 126 (grand if Item Variance if Item-Total Multiple Alpha if Item total) Deleted Item Deleted Correlation Correlation Deleted AQ1 AQ2 AQ3 AQ4 AQ5 AQ6 AQ7 AQ8 AQ9 AQ10 31.32 31.34 31.20 32.45 30.88 31.73 30.95 31.40 31.95 31.41 20.682 21.139 21.568 23.674 20.874 20.903 21.086 20.675 23.806 21.924 .529 .445 .334 .083 .429 .480 .354 .453 .036 .305 .349 .278 .241 .087 .247 .290 .228 .313 .125 .205 .606 .620 .640 .691 .622 .614 .636 .617 .708 .646
AQ = Attitude Question
Sample Computation Degree of Freedom v = (3-1)(4-1) = 6
χ2com = (3-3.19)2/3.19 + (22-23.13)2/23.13 + (6-4.67)2/4.67 + (4-7.74)2/7.74 + (62-55.95)2/55.95 + (9-11.31)2/11.31 + (2-1.44)2/1.44 + (9-10.44)2/10.44 +(3-2.11)2/2.11 + (4-0.62)2/0.62 + (1-4.48)2/4.48 + (1-0.90)2/0.90 χ2com = 0.0113+0.0552+0.379+1.807+0.654+0.472+0.22+0.1986+0.375+ 18.43+2.70+0.011 χ2com =25.31
Attitude Response 42-52 31-41 20-30 Column Total
1-5 7 (9.90) 32 (30.03) 4 (3.07) 43
Posttest Score 6-10 11-15 19 55 5 79 (18.18) (55.17) (5.64) 3 1 0 4 (0.92) (2.79) (0.29)
Row Total 29 88 9 126 (grand total)
Degree of Freedom v = (3-1)(3-1) = 4
χ2com = (7-9.90)2/9.90+(32-30.03)2/30.03+(4-3.07)2/3.07+(19-18.18)2/18.18+ (55-55.17)2/55.17+(5-5.64)2/5.64+(3-0.92)2/0.92+(1-2.79)2/2.79+(00.29)2/0.29 χ2com =8.41+0.129+0.282+0.037+0.00052+0.073+4.70+1.16+0.29 χ2com =15.08
APPENDIX K CURRICULUM VITAE
Personal Data: Name: Reina Karen M. Celestino Home Address: Block 7 Lot 10 Emerald Homes Subdivision, Lambagohon, Iligan City Place of Birth: Surigao City Date of Birth: July 27, 1988 Civil Status: Single Mother’s Name: Carmelita M. Celestino Father’s Name: Vicente F. Celestino Jr. Educational Attainment: Elementary: Iligan City East Central School Tambo, Iligan City 2000-2001 Iligan City National High School Generalwood Street, Mahayahay,Iligan City 2004-2005 MSU-Iligan Institute of Technology Tibanga, Iligan City BSE Physics
Collegiate: Course/ Major:
Personal Data: Name: Cristine Jean L. Castilla Home Address: Zone 1 - Balagatasa, Maigo, Lanao del Norte Place of Birth: Maigo, Lanao del Norte Date of Birth: June 23, 1988 Civil Status: Single Mother’s Name: Bernadeth L. Castilla Father’s Name: Atwel A. Castilla Educational Attainment: Elementary: Balagatasa Elementary School Balagatasa, Maigo, Lanao del Norte 2000-2001 Holy Cross High School Kolambugan, Lanao del Norte 2004-2005 MSU-Iligan Institute of Technology Tibanga, Iligan City BSE Physics
Collegiate: Course/ Major: