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Device
A hardware component which can convert data into computer understandable format or user understandable format is known as a computer Device. In short any sub-component of a machine is known a device.

Peripheral devices
All those devices which are attached to computer externally are known as Peripheral devices.

INPUT DEVICES
All those devices which are used to translate user provided data into machine readable form are called Input Devices. E.g. keyboard, mouse, trackball etc.

KEYBOARD

The most common input device used all over the world is Keyboard. It is a text based input device because by using it we can only input text data. It is just like a type writer and its working is also like a typewriter. It is sometime pronounced as QWERTY keyboard. It is because of the reason that the starting first character of the alphabetic portion consist on these six letters. A keyboard is divided into many parts some of which are as follows: • Alphanumeric keypad • Numeric keypad • Function keys • Screen navigation keys • Modifier keys.

Alphanumeric Keypad:
This name is consisting of two different word “Alphabets” and “Numeric”. As its name shows it consist on alphabets from A-Z and numeric digits. It also contain some special
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characters like !, @ , # , $, %, ^, &, *, (, ) , { , } ,: , ” , < , > , ? Etc. it also contain some very important keys like Enter, Spacebar. These keys are also known as execution keys.

Numeric Keypad:
The numeric keypad, at the right side of keyboard and also at the top of keyboard is responsible for all numeric operation on computer so called numeric keys. It also contain basic numeric operations like +, - , *, /.

Function Keys:
Keys from F1 to F12 at the top of keyboard called function keys because they perform some extra functions like open, save and to run a program directly from keyboard. These are called function keys because each key contain a special function.

Screen Navigation or Cursor Movement Keys:
All those keys use to change screen properties like cursor and display properties are called Screen Navigation or Cursor Movement Keys. It contain • • • Arrow keys Home and End keys Page Up and Page Down keys

Arrow Keys:
There are four arrow keys to change arrow position. These keys are right, left, up and down keys to move cursor from one place to another according to user.

HOME and END:
HOME key move cursor at the beginning of a line and END key at the last character of the line.

PAGE-UP and PAGE-DOWN:
Page-up key move the cursor from 8 to 12 lines up from its current position. Just opposite Page-Down key moves the cursor from 8 to 12 lines down from its current positions.

Modifier Keys:

Shift, Alt, Ctrl these keys are normally use in combination with other keys to enhance their working so normally called Modifier keys. Some other keys are, • • • • Delete Key: Use to delete a character. Insert Key: Use to insert a character between two letters without deleting any one of them. Esc key: The function of this key varies from program to program. Print Screen: Print the current screen position either in soft or hard format.

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MOUSE
The most common pointing input device is Mouse. It is called pointing device because it is used to point a place on display screen and to select one or more action. The concept of mouse was first given by APPLE COMPUTERS with its brand new PC APPLE MACINTOSH. But now it is a basic need of each and every GUI (Graphical user interface) based operating system. Structure: Its body is made up of hard plastic with a ball at its base, and has a cable from the front. This structure is very similar to the real mice therefore this device is known as Mouse. It also contains two buttons relatively called LEFT and RIGHT buttons. Normally we use left button for most of the task. In between both buttons a scroll wheel is placed which is used to scroll up and scroll down the page without disturbing the actual position of the mouse.

TRACKBALL
Trackball is another pointing device work on exactly on the principle of mouse. Its structure is just the opposite structure of a mouse. Its ball is at the top while buttons are at the base. In order to use trackball user use its fingers to rotate the ball Advantage of trackball over mouse is simply that it require less space to use as compare to a mouse and it can use any where on any surface. Majority of the Trackball users have to face wrist pain. This is due to the reason during using mouse our whole hand moves while in trackball only our wrist is working which is its only disadvantage.

SCANNER
Scanner is the third most common input device after keyboard and mouse. It can input only image base data and convert it into digital signals. Normally scanners are available in black and white” and “colored” modes. The most common type of scanner are • • • Hand-Held scanner Flatbed scanner Sheet-Fed scanner

Hand-Held Scanner: These scanners can be used by means of human hands. They are normally common and relatively cheap but their output quality is not so good because they require steady hand
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movement. These scanners are easy to use by passing it over the surface of image in steady position. Flat-Bed Scanner: This is the most common type of scanner also known as horizontal scanners. It produces relatively good result as compare to handheld scanners. It is due to the reason that object is static at its place and machine scan it automatically so both are steady at there places so end result is good. Their working is just like Photostat machine. The difference is it copy image into computer. Sheet-Fed Scanner: It contain a long continues sheet and print it continuously. It is normally used to scan large images like portraits but this is the type of scanner which is normally not used for official purpose. It is different from the above two scanners because it scan both side of images simultaneously. So their speed is also greater then any other scanners.

JOYSTICK
Joystick is also a pointing device. It consists of a vertical handle like a gearshift lever mounted on a base with one or two buttons. These buttons are generally known as triggers. They are primarily used for playing games. Joysticks are popular for flight simulator and driving games. Today joystick is consider as the basic device in order to design computer animations because its working is much smooth as compare to mouse.

MICROPHNONE
Microphone or MIC is another widely used input device but it is categorized in the multimedia family. Microphone is only use to input sound signals. Sound signals are transformed into digital signals by microphone so that computer can understand it. Now days it is widely used for communication purposes over internet and video conferencing.

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OUTPUT DEVICES
All those devices which are used to translate computer generated signals into user understandable form are called Output Devices. Output could be of two types Softcopy output. It is the temporary output taken on monitor screen. which can only be visualized. Hardcopy output. Hardcopy means the output is in a form that can be physically touched. It is the permanent output taken on a paper by means of printer. It can be both visualized and storable physically.

MONITORS
Monitor is the most common and most basic softcopy output device. The basic structure of a PC is not complete without this component. The size of monitor screen is starting from 14 inches to onwards. If monitor screen is horizontal then called LANDSCAPE monitor and in case of vertical it is known as PORTRAIT monitor.

TYPES OF MONITORS
BY STRUCTURE According to structure monitors are divide into two types • • CRT monitors Flat-Panel display. OR LCD (Liquid crystal display) monitors.

CRT Monitors: CRT (cathode ray tube) monitors contain a tube at its center by using which electrons are fired at phosphor dots on the screen. The dots are grouped into pixels, which glow when struck by electrons. In color CRTs; each pixel contains a red, green, and blue dot. So by different combination of these colors many other colors appear. These are still the most common type of monitors used today. Flat-Panel display: Most flat-panel monitors use liquid crystal display (LCD) technology or Electro-luminescent (EL). It is a new semiconductor technology in which monitor contains a special liquid at the top of the screen instead of CRT. Due to which its size reduces. This is the reason flat-panel monitors take up less desk space and are less in weight.

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According to color the basic type of computer monitors are • • • Monochrome monitors Gray-scale monitors. Color monitors.

Monochrome Monitors: Mono means one and chrome stands for color. These are called monochrome monitors because it can show data by using only one color (normally dirty white or bright white). It has black color on its background. This is the most basic type of monitors. Gray-Scale Monitors: As its name shows gray-scale is a special type of monitor which can show almost 16 different shades of gray color but it is not famous as compare to other two. Color Monitors: Today the mostly used type of computer monitors is Color monitors. It has the capability to show 16 to1 million different colors. These are also called RGB monitors because their working based on three basic colors Red, Green, Blue. All the other color can be produced by using different combinations of these colors.

Properties of Monitor Screen
Resolution: Resolution means number of pixel on a screen. It tells about the sharpness of image of a monitor screen. Bandwidth: Bandwidth means the no of signal a monitor can handle at a time. As much as the bandwidth as higher will be the refresh rata and as good will be the output. Refresh Rate: Refresh rate is the number of times each second that the electron guns scan the screen's pixels. Refresh rate is measured in Hertz (Hz), or cycles per second. If refresh rate of a monitor is 72 Hz or higher then it is consider as a good monitor. Dot Pitch: Dot pitch is the distance between the phosphor dots that make up a single pixel. In color monitors, three dots (red, green, and blue) make each pixel. Dots pitch no greater than .31 millimeters consider reliable.
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The clarity and sharpness of each pixel known as Convergence. It means how greater the picture quality is.

PRINTERS
The most famous hardcopy output device is printer. It accepts data in the form of both text and graphics from the CPU and then produces its hardcopy on paper. In early days it was not consider as important device with a computer system but now it is an essential device. With respect to structure, size, and cost printers are divided into two basic types, • • Impact printer Non impact printer

IMPACT PRINTERS:
Impact means effect; it means these printers work by producing striking effects. Its basic structure contains a hammer behind an ink ribbon and in front of ink ribbon we place our paper so whenever hammer strikes the ribbon, it produce its impact on the paper. During the whole process they produce a great noise. There basic types are • • • Daisy-Wheel Dot-matrix Line printers

Daisy wheel: As its name shows this type of printer contain a wheel over which all the alphabets and different symbols are written. A hammer sticks the wheel from back on a particular character and as a result it produces the impact of that particular character. Daisy wheel can only print data in text format. Dot-matrix: Dot matrix printers are the most common type of impact printer. A dot matrix printer's head contains a cluster of pins. The printer can push the pins out to form patterns in rapid sequence. The pins press an inked ribbon against the paper, creating an image on the paper. Some dot matrix printers print 500 cps (characters per second). These printers are still popular due to their low printing cost.

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COMPUTER STUDIES-XI Line printer:

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Printers which can print a whole line on a single strike of hammer are called Line Printers. Their hammer size is relatively larger then the others printers. They are fast but printing quality is not too good. Drum and chain printers are the examples of line printers.

Non-Impact printers:
These printers are also known as hammerless printers. They print by means of laser and ink spread technology. Examples are • • • • Ink jet printers Laser printers LCD & LED printers Thermal printers

Inkjet Printers: These printers print by means of ink cartridge. Its head spray ink on sheet of paper. These printers can print very high quality image and text output. Ink jet printers are available for color and black-and-white printing. Due to their efficient working they are widely used for offices and home use. Laser printers: Laser printers are the most famous type of non-impact printers. They use heat and pressure to bond particles to paper. Laser printers are available for color and black-and-white printing. Laser printers provide resolutions from 300 – 1200 dpi (dots per inch) and higher. Black-and-white laser printers usually produce 4 – 16 ppm (pages per minute). Laser printers produce higher-quality print than ink jet printers, but are more expensive. LCD & LED Printers: LCD (liquid crystal display) and LED (light emitting diode) work on the same mechanism of laser but in these we use different diodes for printing instead of laser beam. Normally they are not use for commercial purposes. Most of the LED and LCD printers are used in research laboratories. Thermal Printers: Thermal means heat energy. It means this printer print by means of heat. These type of printer contain their head at hot state. So on making contact with a surface they produce their impact on it. They are widely used on industrial level.

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Characteristics of a Printer
Basic characteristics of a printer are • • • • • Quality of print Speed Graphics Fonts Color

Quality of print: The quality of print is divided into two types, either “LETTER” or “DRAFT”. Daisy wheel, inkjet and laser printers produce letter quality (relatively good) while most of the printers produce draft quality. Speed: Speed is another very important issue in printing. Printers speed is measured in CPS (characters per second) and PPM (pages per minute). Daisy wheel is the slowest printer print with 30 cps. Still Laser printers are the fastest printers which can print about 4 to 20 or more pages per minute. Line printer can print 3,000 lines in a minute. Generally speed of the printer is directly proportional to its cost. Graphics: Now-a-days graphics printing is another very important issue. Printer like laser, inkjet done this task with high quality while other like dot matrix are not capable of such kind of printing. Fonts: Font means size, shape and design of a letter. New printers are capable of working with different fonts. Old printers like dot-matrix can deal with a limited number of fonts. Color: In modern printing, color printing is very important. In different documents like maps, presentations and banners these color are of great importance. Some printers can print in only two colors black and white. All the other advanced printers can print by using thousands of colors. Resolution: It is measured in DPI (dots per inch). It means how sharp and good is the printing. Printing resolution from 600dpi to onwards consider as a better one.

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PLOTTERS
Plotters are specialized output devices to produce high-quality graphics in a variety of colors. They are mostly used for print-outs that are too large to be printed by printers. Plotters use mechanical, ink jet, or thermal technology to create large-format images for architectural or engineering uses. Now-a-days there are two basic types of plotters, • • Pen plotters Electrostatic plotters

Pen Plotters: Pen plotters structure based on a pen to do all the task regarding printing either images or text. Pen plotters are further divided into two types, • • Drum plotters Flatbed plotters

Drum Plotters: It consists on a pen which writes over a paper which is roll over a drum. This kind of plotters are using for the printing of those banners of a fixed width with large length.

Flatbed Plotters: It is a plotter in which paper is fixed over a surface and pen is move over its surface. It is normally used in engineering purposes because of its high quality image. Electrostatic Plotters: They work like a photocopy machine. They are faster and more expensive. They work by using electric charges (electricity). They consume a large amount of electricity but image quality is not so great as compare to drum or flatbed plotters.

DUAL PURPOSE DEVICES
Dual means two way so

All those devices which can input and output at a time are known as DUAL PURPOSE DEVICES.

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There are many Dual Purpose Devices some of them are as follows:

DISK DRIVE: Disk drive is the peripheral device that reads or writes the data from the disks (Hard disk drive, floppy disk, etc). This device contains a motor to rotate the disk at the constant speed. It also contains one or more heads to read/write data from these disks. The surface of a disk is divided into many sub parts. These are tracks, cylinders and sectors. In order to write data on a disk head reaches any free track (where no data is present already) and write data over it. During this process disk is rotating constantly. This rotation is called as REDIAL Motion. When user wants to access some data from the disk then this head start searching the place of data over the disk. The time required for this is known as “SEEK TIME”.

CD-WRITER: After HDD and floppy disk drive the most common drive use today is CD –Writer. It works with two types of diskettes CD-R(CD Recordable), CDRW(CD Readable and writeable). Its speed is measured in “X” where 1X = 150 Kilobytes/Second Now-a-days all types are floppy devices are replaced by these CD-R and CD-RW.

TO ACHIVE SOMETHING WHICH YOU NEVER HAD, DO SOMETHING WHICH YOU NEVER DID!

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NETWORKING
A network is a collection of computers, printers, routers, switches, and other devices that are able to communicate with each other over some transmission media. ADVANTAGES OF NETWORKS: • • • • Networks can increase efficiency Networks can help standardize policies, procedures, and practices among network users Networks can bring together diverse ideas and issues into a common forum, where they can be addressed in a global fashion rather than in a haphazard, case-by-case fashion Networks help ensure that information is redundant in other words, that it exists in more than one mind (or computer) at a time

ADVANTAGES OF NETWORKING: • • • • • • Simplified Resource Sharing Shared Disk Space Shared Applications Centralized Management Shared devices Fast and simplified working

TYPES OF NETWORKS
The basic types of networks currently in existence: • • • • • Local Area Networks (LAN) Wide Area Networks (WAN) Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) Campus Area Network (CAN) Tiny Area Network (TAN)

Local Area Networks (LAN) A Local Area Network (LAN) is a group of computers and network communication devices within a limited geographic area, such as an office building. Characteristics of a LAN include: • • • • • Limited geographic operation High speed data transfer rates Full time connectivity to local services Generally lower in cost than a WAN Cabling is primary transmission medium

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Wide Area Networks (WAN) A Wide Area Network (WAN) interconnects LANs. It is not restricted to a particular geographic area and may be interconnected around the world. Characteristics of a WAN include: • • • • • Multiple interconnected LANs Generally more expensive technology More sophisticated to implement than LANs Exist in an unlimited geographic area Less error resistance due to transmission travel distances MAN (NEW TERM) By the time a LAN has grown to thousands of users, it's a safe but that the network has expanded beyond its original location. If the expansion is local (that is, within a very small geographical region, such as adjoining buildings), it's not uncommon to split the network into several smaller networks and join them into a Metropolitan Area Network, or MAN, using highspeed leased telephone lines or special hardware (radio, microwave, or laser data transmission units) that allows full LAN-speed data transfer. Can (Campus Area Network) A CAN is similar to a MAN but has full network-speed bandwidth running between all the LANs on the network. Some CANs are all one network distributed over a limited local area a college campus, for example. When this happens, bridges or repeaters are used to join the various pieces of the network so that the user doesn't know whether the server he or she is accessing is across the room or across the campus. TANs (Tiny Area Networks) TANs, a term coined by the Information Week columnist Cheryl Currid, are Tiny Area Networks. These are the two-to-three-computer networks people set up in homes or other "non-business" locations. Often, TANs are set up as a convenience for an executive who wants to replicate his or her office computer environment at home or to provide children with exposure to networked computing resources. Peer-to-Peer Networks In a peer-to-peer network, there are no dedicated servers, and there is no hierarchy among the computers. All the computers are equal and therefore are known as peers. Each computer functions as both a client and a server, and there is no administrator responsible for the entire network. The user at each computer determines what data on that computer is shared on the network.

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Server-Based Networks In an environment with more than 10 users, a peer-to-peer network (with computers acting as both servers and clients) will probably not be a good choice. Therefore, most networks have dedicated servers. A dedicated server is one that functions only as a server and is not used as a client or workstation.

LAN Transmission Methods
LAN transmission methods fall into 3 main categories: • • • Unicast transmission Multicast transmission Broadcast transmission

Unicast Transmission In unicast transmissions, a single data packet is sent from a source to a single destination on the network. In networks Unicast transmission is implementing by PPP (Point to Point Protocol). Multicast Transmission In multicast transmissions, a single data packet is copied and sent to specific destinations on the network. Broadcast Transmission In broadcast transmissions, a single data packet is copied and sent from a source to all destinations on the network.

Transmission Modes
There are three basic types of transmission in networking. • • • Simplex Transmission Half-Duplex Transmission Full-Duplex Transmission

Simplex Transmission: In simplex transmission, only a single side can send data packets and opposite side have to accept it. Opposite side has no authority to send its data packet. Due to which it is also known as Single Sided Transmission. Example is Television transmission.

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Half-Duplex Transmission: In Half Duplex transmission, only one side can send data at a particular time and after completing its message send an acknowledge signal so opposite side start its transmission. It is the most common type of two way transmission. Example is Wireless Transmission. Full-Duplex Transmission: In Full Duplex transmission, both sides can receive and send data at any instance. It is the most advance type of two way transmission. Its example is Telephonic Transmission where any person can send and receive its message at any type.

PHYSICAL TOPOLOGY
Physical topology refers to the real, visual topology, or architecture of the network. It describes how network devices are physically connected with each other and in which format. These topologies have evolved as the transmission media used in LANs improved. The advancements in transmission media also led to an improvement in LAN media access protocols. The most commonly implemented LAN topologies are Bus, Ring, and Star. Each layout has particular advantages and disadvantages. (See class lectures) Bus Architecture In a bus topology a single cable connects with each node in a network, Signals are broadcasted to all stations at the same time. The central cable is known as Backbone cable. Which is also joining with two connectors at both ends. Terminator To stop the signal from bouncing, a component called a terminator is placed at each end of the cable to absorb free signals. Absorbing the signal clears the cable so that other computers can send data. Both ends of each cable segment on the network must be plugged into something. Ring Topology The ring topology connects computers on a single circle of cable. Unlike the bus topology, there are no terminated ends. The signals travel around the loop in one direction and pass through each computer, which can act as a repeater to boost the signal and send it on to the next computer. Star Topology In a star topology, each station is connected to a central hub or concentrator that functions as a multi-port repeater. Each station broadcasts to all of the devices connected to the hub. Physical LAN topologies are usually characterized as either bus or ring. Note that a
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LAN's Physical and Logical topology often differs. The star network offers the advantage of centralized resources and management. However, because each computer is connected to a central point, this topology requires a great deal of cable in a large network installation. Also, if the central point fails, the entire network goes down. If one computer or the cable that connects it to the hub fails on a star network, only the failed computer will not be able to send or receive network data. The rest of the network continues to function normally. Mesh Topology A mesh topology network offers superior redundancy and reliability. In a mesh topology, each computer is connected to every other computer by separate cabling. This configuration provides redundant paths throughout the network so that if one cable fails, another will take over the traffic. While ease of troubleshooting and increased reliability are definite pluses, these networks are expensive to install because they use a lot of cabling. Often, a mesh topology will be used in conjunction with other topologies to form a hybrid topology. Tree Topology A topology in which all computers are connected with respect to a certain priority is known as Tree Topology. A tree topology, also known as a distributed bus or a branching tree topology, is a hybrid physical topology that combines features of star and bus topologies. Several buses may be daisy-chained together, and there may be branching at the connections (which will be hubs). The starting end of the tree is known as the root or head end. The figure “A tree topology” illustrates this layout. This type of topology is used in delivering cable television services. Hybrid Topology A physical topology which is the combination of two or more topology is known as Hybrid Topology.

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THE OSI MODLE
Introduction: During the 1980s, a group called Open Systems Interconnect, or OSI for short, attempted to create a logical arrangement for the various parts that make up a network. The model is called the OSI seven-layer model. The OSI model shows how data is moved in a network. These seven layers are Layer 7 (Application) is the software applications that we use on our screen. Layer 7 is concerned with file access and file transfer. Layer 6 (Presentation) deals with the way different systems represent data. As its name shows it is responsible of the presentation of data in different format especially with the design of data packets. Layer 5 (Session) handles the actual connections between systems. Layer 5 handles the order of data packets and bi-directional (two-way) communications. Layer 4 (Transport) The transport layer is responsible for the delivery of a message from one process to another. Layer 4 is concerned with ensuring that a message packet gets to its destination. If a packet fails to get to its destination, Layer 4 handles the process of notifying the sender and requesting that another packet be sent. Layer 3 (Network) The network layer is responsible for the delivery of individual packets from the source host to the destination host. Layer 3 is also the lowest layer that isn't concerned with the hardware. Layer 3 is where the term protocol really comes into working. Layer 2 (Data-Link), The data link layer is responsible for moving frames from one hop (node) to the next. It's a set of rules about how the data packet is picked up and dropped off. Layer 1 (Physical) The physical layer is responsible for the movement of individual bits from one hop (node) to the next. This layer is concerned only with the physical aspects of the network the cards, wire, ports, and concentrators that move data packets. Layer 1 specifies what the physical aspects are, what they must be capable of doing, and (basically) how they accomplish those things. The various layers of the OSI model accomplish these goals admirably. OSI, however, was never actually implemented as a network protocol; instead, the existing protocols mostly TCP/IP were refined using the powerful OSI reference model.

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TCP/IP
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. TCP/IP is the protocol that carries data traffic over the Internet. Of all the network protocols in the marketplace, TCP/IP is far and away the most popular. The TCP/IP protocol is made of five layers: physical, data link, network, transport, and application. The first four layers provide physical standards, network interface, internetworking, and transport functions that correspond to the first four layers of the OSI model. The three topmost layers in the OSI model, however, are represented in TCP/IP by a single layer called the application layer. TCP/IP uses only four layers, some of which amalgamate several OSI layer functions into one TCP/IP layer.

Server
A server is a powerful computer that shares its resources with other computers on a network. Server hardware is usually built around two primary needs: moving data quickly and ensuring the safety and integrity of data. In basic terms, a server has a powerful processor—sometimes even more than one—and as much memory as you can afford to put into it. Typically, a server is more powerful than normal computers. Although important, processor speed and memory are not the best measure of a server's usefulness, as you are about to discover.

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NETWORK HARDWARE
Several pieces of hardware can be used to link LANs. Of these, the most common devices are bridges, gateways, and routers. Bridges A bridge is a network device that bridges two LANs together. The difference between a bridge and a router is based on the way they link networks. In a telecommunications network, a bridge is a hardware device or software that copies packets from one network to another network. Gateways A gateway is a device that acts as a two-way path between diffrent networks. For example, in an Internet connected network, a server can be a gateway between the internal network and the external Internet these servers are acting as gateways. Another common example of a gateway is any device that passes packets from one network to another network around the Internet. Routers and bridges belong to the global group called gateways Routers Router is a device that handles the traffic flow for data packets that are not addressed inside the local network A router is a device that passes data between multiple networks. It works at the OSI Network layer (Layer 3), which means that it must be able to understand the data packets so that it can move them to their destinations. Routers attempt to send packets from their source to their destination in the fastest way possible, which (as you'll see) is not always the absolute shortest path. .

Small is the number of people who see with their eyes And think with their minds. (ALBERT EINSTEIN)

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CABLING
Cable is the medium through which information usually moves from one network device to another. There are several types of cable, which are commonly used with LANs. 1. Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Cable 2. Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) Cable 3. Coaxial Cable 4. Fiber Optic Cable Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Cable Twisted pair cabling comes in two varieties: shielded and unshielded. Unshielded twisted pair (UTP) is the most popular and is generally the best option for small networks. The quality of UTP may vary from telephone-grade wire to extremely high-speed cable. The cable has four pairs of wires inside the jacket. Each pair is twisted with a different number of twists per inch to help transmission of data. Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) Cable A disadvantage of UTP is that it may be susceptible to radio and electrical frequency interference. Shielded twisted pair (STP) is suitable for environments with electrical interference; however, the extra shielding can make the cables quite bulky. Shielded twisted pair is often used on networks using Token Ring technology. Coaxial Cable Coaxial cabling has a single copper conductor at its center. A plastic layer provides insulation between the center conductor and a braided metal shield. The metal shield helps to block any outside interference from fluorescent lights, motors, and other computers. Although coaxial cabling is difficult to install, it is highly resistant to signal interference. In addition, it can support greater cable lengths between network devices than twisted pair cable. The two types of coaxial cabling are thick coaxial and thin coaxial. Coaxial Cable Connectors (Not important) The most common type of connector used with coaxial cables is the Bayone-Neill-Concelman (BNC) connector. Different types of adapters are available for BNC connectors, including a T-connector, barrel connector, and terminator. Connectors on the cable are the weakest points in any network. To help avoid problems with your network, always use the BNC connectors that crimp, rather than screw, onto the cable. Fiber Optic Cable Fiber optic cabling consists of a center glass core surrounded by several layers of protective materials. It transmits light rather than electronic signals, eliminating the problem of electrical interference. This makes it ideal for certain environments that contain a large amount of electrical interference. It has also made it the standard for connecting networks between buildings, due to its immunity to the
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COMPUTER STUDIES-XI effects of moisture and lighting. Facts about fiber optic cables:
Outer insulating jacket is made of Teflon or PVC.

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Kevlar fiber helps to strengthen the cable and prevent breakage. A plastic coating is used to cushion the fiber center. Center (core) is made of glass or plastic fibers.

IMPORTANT TOPICS
FTP: File transfer protocol is a set of rules by which data transmits from its source location to its destination location. Ethernet is a large, diverse family of frame-based computer networking technologies that operates at many speeds for local area networks (LANs). The name comes from the physical concept of the ether. It defines a number of wiring and signaling standards for the physical layer, through means of network access at the Media Access Control (MAC)/Data Link Layer, and a common addressing format. Ethernet was originally based on the idea of computers communicating over a shared coaxial cable acting as a broadcast transmission medium. The methods used show some similarities to radio systems, although there are major differences, such as the fact that it is much easier to detect collisions in a cable broadcast system than a radio broadcast. The common cable providing the communication channel was likened to the ether and it was from this reference that the name "Ethernet" was derived. HTTP: (Hyper text terminal protocol) Hyper text means data management software that provides links between key-words in the unstructured text based documents. Http is the basic method or rules container to interact with the internet.

ADDRESSING
PHYSICAL ADDRESS A hardware address, also known as a physical address or a MAC address, is a unique numerical value assigned to a network interface card (NIC) during the manufacturing process or by setting jumpers or switches during network installation. One part of this address is assigned to the manufacturer by the IEEE (Institute of Electronics Engineers) and is common to all components from that manufacturer; the second part of the hardware address is a unique value assigned by the hardware manufacturer.

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COMPUTER STUDIES-XI NETWORK ADDRESS

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A network address is an arbitrary value that is assigned identically to each node in a particular network. As long as there is only a single network, this value is automatically unique. If two or more networks are connected, each must have a different network address. If a station (for example, a server) connects to two networks, that station will have two different network addresses. A network address is also known as a network number or an IPX external network number. NODE ADDRESS In addition to a common network address, each station in a network has a unique node address. This value identifies a particular node, or more specifically, the NIC assigned to each node, in a particular network. This address is also known as a node number or station address. When specified as a source or destination, a network server or workstation may be identified by a network and a node address or by a hardware address.

TYPES OF TRANSMISSION
ASYNCHRONOUS TRANSMISSION Asynchronous describes a communications strategy that uses start and stop bits to indicate the beginning and end of a character, rather than using constant timing to transmit a series of characters. In a sense, asynchronous transmissions actually synchronize for each character. Asynchronous communications methods are generally less efficient but more resistant to disruption than synchronous communications. Asynchronous methods are more efficient for situations in which traffic comes in bursts (rather than moving at a regular pace). Common examples of asynchronous communications devices are modems and terminals. SYNCHRONOUS TRANSMISSION A communications strategy that uses timing to control transmission. A transmission consists of an initial synchronization sequence, followed by a predefined number of bits, each transmitted at a constant rate. Except for the initial synchronization bit, synchronous transmissions do not require any additional bits (as asynchronous methods do). Synchronous transmissions can be fast, but they must be slowed down on noisy lines.

If I had eight hours to chop down a tree, I'd spend six hours sharpening my axe (ABRAHAM LINCOLN)

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COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE
COMPUTER ORGANISATION is concerned with the ways how hardware components are used. COMPUTER DESIGN is concerned with the physical design of a computer system. COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE is concerned with the structure and behavior of the computer from user’s perspective.

COMPONENTS OF A DIGITAL COMPUTER
• • • • INPUT UNIT OUTPUT UNIT CENTERAL PROCESSING UNIT MEMORY UNIT

INPUT UNIT: The initiative part of a computer system through which a user can enter data. Interface between user and computer is also termed as input unit. Data first digitized, convert into binary format by the input device before it is directing towards central processing unit. OUTPUT UNIT: The resultant device (produce result) is termed in computer science as output unit. The output unit receives the data from the central processing unit in the form of binary bits. This is then converted into a desired form (graphical, audio, visual etc) so that it can be in understandable format for a user. CENTERAL PROCESSING UNIT: Simply “BRAIN OF COMPUTER”. It consist on two main sections, • • ALU (Arithmetic logic unit). CU (Control unit).

It also consist of several registers (fastest memory unit) and a combination of buses(Path on which data travels) connecting various components. The C.P.U Work closely with memory unit to carryout processing. MEMORY UNIT: A place where computer store all data called as memory unit. Basically divided into two types • • Primary memory (RAM and ROM) Secondary memory (HARD DISK, FLOOPY DISK, USB FLASH).

Its basic functionality is • Program and data passed to the computer system for processing. • Intermediate processing results. • Output ready for transmission to a secondary-storage or output device.

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COMPUTER REGISTERS
A register is a temporary storage area which holds data (or instruction) as long as it is been manipulated. Each register in the CPU has its own role. The register size and the operation takes place in it reflect the special function that the register performs in the computer. Following are some examples General purpose registers: All those registers used in mathematical calculations and storing data are famous as General purpose registers. They are also known as programmable registers, because during programming they can be used in many ways. Some famous GPR are • • • • AX-Accumulator registers. BX-Base register. CX-Counter register. DX-Data register.

Accumulator registers (AC): It is used in normal accumulation operations for example arithmetic and logical operation. They are responsible to store results of all arithmetic and logic operations. Basic accumulator register is of length 8 bytes and maximum 64 bytes. Status registers: Registers with flag property called as Status registers. It contains one flag byte to show status of certain operation. These operations may be logical or arithmetic. The important flags are 1. 2. 3. 4. Carry flag (indicate the status of carry bit). Zero flag (indicate whether the result is zero or not). Sign flag (indicate the status of sign bit). Parity flag (indicate about even or odd parity scheme).

Memory buffer register (MBR): MBR also known as MEMORY DATA REGISTERS. It is used to hold the data temporarily. It can hold a data of size approx. 1 WORD. It contains the data which is currently addressed by MBR. Memory address register: It contain the address of the memory location whose data is been contained by MBR. Instruction registers: It contain the pointer address of the instruction which is currently executed by the machine. Program counter (PC): Manages the order of execution. Basically it is pointers which holds and maintain the stack of all the upcoming instruction and then execute it on their request. It is known as a counter because it is incremented by 1 when it get a new instruction in the queue. Stack pointer: Stack is defined as the set of memory location working on the concept of LAST IN FIRST OUT (LIFO). Stack pointer is responsible of the execution of stack instruction according to their order. It is used by a microprocessor to store temporarily data which is used by a program during its execution.

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BUSES
The path on which signals move or travel is termed as BUS.

There are three basic types of buses 1. Control bus. 2. Address bus. 3. Data bus. Control Bus: It contains control signals which are generated by the control unit to control the flow of data between memory and the other peripheral devices. Its responsibility is to transmit signals to all directions properly. Data Bus: It is used t o transmit data to memory and vice versa. It is also used to transmit data to some other devices normally output devices. Data bus is a bi-directional bus because data is passes from memory to microprocessor and also from microprocessor to memory. Address Bus: It contains the address of memory locations which microprocessor wants to access either for writing or reading purposes. An address bus is uni-directional i.e. electric signals are transmitted in only one direction only from microprocessor to other device by this bus.

VIRUS
A computer virus is a disastrous kind of software which is capable to destroy or washed up user’s data and can steal its personal information for any unauthorized use. Viruses are divided into several categories like WORM, TROJEN HORSES, TIME BOMBS, FILE INFECTOR, MACRO VIRUSES and BOOT SECTOR VIRUS. Trojan horse: It destroy the middle data of a file and capable of to write any unusual routine their. Normally this virus enters in a users system by a game or any other interesting application especially from the internet.

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Time bombs: Time bomb as this name shows this virus waits for a certain event or data running moment, and as it reaches it explodes out with its full intensity. They are also known as logic bombs. File infector: This kind of viruses infect a certain kind of file only e.g. *.exe, *.sys, *.com, *.dll etc. their common source is a floppy or sometime internet as a floppy come into contact with a drive this virus transfers to the hard disk. Macro virus: Macros are small programmers that execute some commands normally present in Ms Office utilities. If a virus infects the computer by macros then simply termed as macro virus. Boot sector virus: Area from where operating system takes up called as boot virus. The most horrible kind of viruses which enters in the booting area and destroys all the booting files or create interruption during booting routine.

ANTI-VIRUSES
Software working against a virus called Anti virus. A anti virus never bring our lost data but it can only create resistance on the way of a virus or try to reduce or completely block its effect. Most common anti viruses are • • • • • Norton anti virus Kasper sky anti virus MacAfee anti virus IBM anti virus Dr.Solomon anti virus

INTERNET
Introduction and Background: Internet and internet have had different meanings, with internet meaning “an interconnected set of distinct networks,” and Internet referring to the world-wide, publicly-available IP internet. Under this distinction, the Internet is a particular internet. Any group of distinct networks connected together is an internet; each of these networks may or may not be part of the Internet.

Description: The Internet is a worldwide, publicly accessible network of interconnected computer networks that transmit data by packet switching using the standard Internet Protocol (IP). It is a "network of networks" that consists of millions of smaller domestic, academic, business, and government networks, which together carry various information and services, such as electronic mail, online chat, file transfer, and the interlinked Web pages and other documents of the World Wide Web. Among all of them e-mail and web search engines are given below. E-mail: The concept of sending electronic text messages between parties in a way analogous to mailing letters or memos predates the creation of the Internet. Internet e-mail may travel and be stored unencrypted on many other machines and networks out of both the sender's and the recipient's control. During this time it is quite possible for the content to be read and even tampered with by third parties, if anyone considers it important enough. Purely internal or intranet mail systems,
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where the information never leaves the corporate or organization's network and servers, is much more secure, although in any organization there will be IT and other personnel whose job may involve monitoring, or at least occasionally accessing, the email of other employees not addressed to them. SEARCH ENGINE A search engine is an information retrieval system designed to help find information stored on a computer system, such as on the World Wide Web, inside a corporate or proprietary network, or in a personal computer. The search engine allows one to ask for content meeting specific criteria (typically those containing a given word or phrase) and retrieves a list of items that match those criteria. This list is often sorted with respect to some measure of relevance of the results. Search engines use regularly updated indexes to operate quickly and efficiently. Search engine usually refers to a Web search engine, which searches for information on the public Web. Other kinds of search engine are enterprise search engines, which search on intranets, personal search engines, and mobile search engines. Different selection and relevance criteria may apply in different environments, or for different uses.

INSTRUCTION CODE Opcode
In computer science, an opcode is the portion of a machine language instruction that specifies the operation to be performed. The term is an abbreviation of Operation Code. Their specification and format will be laid out in the instruction set architecture (ISA) of the computer hardware component in question—normally a CPU, but possibly a more specialized unit. Opcodes can also be found in byte codes interpreted by a byte code interpreter (or virtual machine, in one sense of that term).

Microsoft Windows
The term Windows collectively describes any or all of several generations of Microsoft (MS) operating system (OS) products. Microsoft Windows was the first operating system which makes a blast in the history of OS. It was a 16 bit OS in start but as time passes microsft turned it into 32 bit and then now 64 bits. With the introduction of 32-bit Windows for Workgroups 3.11, Windows could finally stop relying on DOS for file management. Microsoft released Windows 2000 in February 2000. The consumer version following Windows 98 was Windows Me (Windows Millennium Edition). Released in September 2000, Windows Me attempted to implement a number of new technologies for Microsoft: most notably publicized was "Universal Plug and Play. In October 2001, Microsoft released Windows XP, a version built on the Windows NT kernel that also retained the consumer-oriented usability of Windows 95 and its successors. Windows Vista is the first end-user version of Windows that Microsoft has released simultaneously in 32-bit and x64 editions. Newsgroup: An internet base plate form for the discussion on different topics, it consists of multi user and some time multi web sites accessible area.
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CACHE Memory: Cache memory that is external to the microprocessor. In general, L2 cache memory, also called the secondary cache, resides on a separate chip from the microprocessor chip. Although, more and more microprocessors are including L2 caches into their architectures to enhance the system speed because cache is the path between RAM and microprocessor.

UNITS OF MEMORY
8 bits = 1 byte 1,024 bytes = 1 kilobyte (K) 1,024 kilobytes - 1 megabyte (MB) 1,024 megabytes = 1 gigabyte (GB) 1,024 gigabytes = 1 terabyte (TB)

BLOCK DIAGRAM OF CPU

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DATA CYCLE

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SECURITY, COPYRIGHT AND THE LAW
Computer security
Computer security is a field of computer science concerned with the control of risks related to computer use. The traditional approach to this challenge is to create computing platforms, languages, and applications that enforce restrictions such that agents (such as users or programs) can only perform actions that have been allowed according to some specified security policy. Computer security can be seen as a subfield of security engineering, which looks at broader security issues in addition to computer security. A secure system should still permit authorized users to carry out legitimate and useful tasks. It might be possible to secure a computer beyond misuse using extreme measures.

COMPUTER CRIME
Crime accomplished by using computer science or computer technology is called Computer Crime. Basic computer crimes are • • • • Software piracy Theft of hardware Theft of time and services Hacking

Software piracy: Unauthorized use of computer software is termed as software piracy. it is the straight forward violation of copyright acts through which a program or any of its part got copied to another destination and there sell without the permission of the respective person. Theft of Hardware: Computer regarding goods i.e. HDD, RAM, MICROPROCESSOR are very valuable things with respect to there cost. so for people involving in criminal activities took real interest to steal them and then sell them in the open market on good rates.speciall a country like Pakistan where cell phone and laptop’s stealing news is now become a usual thing it causes a certain problem. Theft of Time and Services: Most of the computer users in third world countries spent their time in playing games and chatting on the net. which causes loss of their abilities, time and money.

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COMPUTER STUDIES-XI Hacking:

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Hacking a very familiar word for net users ,means to HIJACK someone’s system its features or its time. Now a days it is really the worst problem for the users .it causes a lot of problems not for a single user but for many multinationals and even for many governments so computer researchers are working on this issue now a days.

CRIME PREVENTION:
Computer Crime can be prevented by many ways some of which are • • • • • • PASSWORDS DIGITAL SIGNATURE FIREWALL ENCRYPTION BACKUP SECURTY SOLUTIONS

Password: A word which is a combination of two words pass and word means a combination of words which allow us to use a certain software and its feature. It is just like the key of a house. Inside which many rooms like different component of a software. Precaution regarding password is • • Greater then or equal to 6 characters. Should not be the name of a thing which is very close to your personality and life.

Digital signatures: A newely used technique normally used for security purpose. Like a signature of each account holder is different to other account holder having a account in a certain bank. Today it is used in credit cards and entrance cards for checking purpose Firewall: Firewalls are systems which help protect computers and computer networks from attack and subsequent intrusion by restricting the network traffic which can pass through them, based on a set of system administrator defined rules. The concept of firewall is to create a security circle around the secure data. Basically firewall theory is form from Microsoft with their famous operating system WINDOWS. Today it is become the prime property of any o/s and count as its efficiency. The damage point from. Where a firewall can be breakup is known as D-POINT stands for DISTORATION POINT. Encryption: Encryption technique is used firstly in Second World War, Its concept is “To present actual message in some other format but it should not loss its meaning”

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or ”Encryption is the encoding of data by converting the standard computer code into a secret code of transmission”

Backup: Backups are a way of securing information; they are another copy of all the important computer files kept in another location. These files are kept on hard disks, CD-Rs, CDRWs, and tapes. Suggested locations for backups are a fireproof, waterproof, and heat proof safe, or in a separate, offsite location than that in which the original files are contained. Backup means to save data some another destination continuously along with the source place so in case of data loss or data theft we can use this data. Backing up is now a important concept because of many security issues. Security Solutions: Security Solutions means software specially design for a particular security issue. For example, Anti virus are design for the protection of computer viruses. Now many companies are taking interest to design their own security solutions.

SOFTWARE PIRACY AND LAW
LAW
Rule to be followed are called law. Now in 5th generation of computer science, computer is a legal subject. There are very few laws governing computer use. Majority of the laws are regarding copyright and piracy issues.

COPYRIGHT
Copyright is a set of exclusive rights regulating the use of a particular expression of an idea or information. At its most general, it is literally "the right to copy" an original creation. In most cases, these rights are of limited duration. The symbol for copyright is ©, and in some jurisdictions may alternatively be written as either (c) or (C). Copyright Act of Pakistan, 1992 is now extended to cover computer software. It is illegal to make copies of registered software, which is known as software piracy. According to law copies can be made up by only using the written permission of the software owner. The exclusive rights of the copyright holder Several exclusive rights typically attach to the holder of a copyright: • • to produce copies or reproductions of the work and to sell those copies (including, typically, electronic copies) to import or export the work

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COMPUTER STUDIES-XI • • •

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to create derivative works (works that adapt the original work) to perform or display the work publicly to sell or assign these rights to others

Copyright protection in Pakistan: Copyright protection in Pakistan is a major economic, political and diplomatic issue. In a country like Pakistan where laws are very difficult to be implemented, copyright infringement has always been a big question. Considering that fact, it is not difficult to imagine why Pakistan has been on the Special 301 Watch List since 1989. Pakistan updated its copyright law with amendments in 1992. However, no significant progress against pervasive copyright piracy was made until 1994, when raids against video piracy began. The International Intellectual Property Alliance recommended last year that Pakistan remain on the Watch List, and USTR agreed, while noting "greater efforts to combat copyright piracy. Penalties: According to Copyright Act Of Pakistan if someone if prohibts the reproduction of a software or hardware without the permission of the programmer or manufacture then that person or company will subject to a fine of RS.2000,000 along with a prison upto 3 years.

Important Topics
Packet switching Packet switching is a transmission method in which packets are sent across a shared medium from source to destination. The transmission may use any available path, or circuit, and the circuit is available as soon as the packet has been sent. The next packet in the transmission may take a different path. With packet switching, multiple packets from the same transmission can be on their way to the destination at the same time. Because of the switching, the packets may not all take the same paths, and they may not arrive in the order in which they were sent. Operating Systems
An operating system is particular software which is responsible for all the operations of a computer system. . It performs basic tasks such as recognizing input from the keyboard, sending output to the display screen, keeping track of files and directories on the disk, and controlling peripheral devices such as disk drives and printers. In short an operating system is responsible for all the input, output and processing tasks for a computer system.

SAIYED SHAHAB AHMAD
BS-CS (UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI) ssa_ahmad@yahoo.co.in

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