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# Thermal stress and strain Prof Schierle 1

## Thermal stress and strain Prof Schierle 2

Thermal stress and strain Prof Schierle 3
Thermal Stress & Strain
Thermal stress and strain are caused by
temperature change.
Materials expand at temperature increase
and contract at temperature decrease.
Restricting thermal strain cause thermal stress.
Thermal stress / strain are shown at left
1. Wall (bending stress)
2. Moment frame (bending stress)
3. Braced frame (axial stress)
4. Fixed-end arch (bending stress)
5. Pin supported arch (bending stress)
6. Three-hinge arch (no stress)
The three-hinge arch is free to deform
without stress (important advantage!)
Thermal stress and strain Prof Schierle 4
Three-hinge arch
Many 19
th
century rail stations have
three-hinge arches to avoid thermal
stress and stress due to settlement.
The hinges also facilitate transport.
Thermal stress and strain Prof Schierle 5
Three-hinge arch
Grimshaws Waterloo Station, London,
has three-hinge arches to avoid thermal stress
and settlement stress.
The asymmetrical form due to planning constrains
required to brace arches against buckling by
trusses located:
Outside to prevent upward buckling
Inside to prevent downward buckling.
Hinges
Thermal stress and strain Prof Schierle 6
Thermal strain
1 Bar of initial length L
2 Thermal strain L due to heat,
computed as:
L = tL
where
= Coefficient of thermal expansion (in/in/
o
F)
t = temperature increase (+) / decrease (-)
L = initial length
Thermal stress and strain Prof Schierle 7
9.6 66 80 44 Glass
1.2 2.2 8 15 3.5 - 4.5 1.7 2.5 Wood
1 3 7 21 7 4 Masonry
0.3 0.4 2 2.8 122 - 144 68 - 80 Plastics
3 4 20 28 11 6 Concrete
29 200 11.7 6.5 Steel
Coefficient of Thermal Expansion
and Elastic Modulus E
10
E-Modulus US
(10
6
psi)
69
E-Modulus SI
(10
6
Pa)
24
SI
(10
-6
m/m/
o
C)
US
(10
-6
in/in/
o
F)
Material
13 Aluminum
Thermal stress and strain Prof Schierle 8
Thermal Stress
3. Bar of initial length L
4. Elongation L due to heat
5. Hot bar reduced to initial length by load P
6. Thermal stress in restrained bar
L = t L
L/L = t
= L/L
= t
E = f /
f = E
f = t E
where
f = thermal stress
= thermal coefficient
t = temperature change
E = elastic modulus
Thermal stress and strain Prof Schierle 9
Curtain wall
Assume:
Aluminum curtain wall Fa = 10 ksi
t = 100
o
F (summer vs. winter temperature)
2 story mullion, L = 30 x 12 L = 360
= 13 x 10
-6
in/in/
o
F
E = 10 x 10
6
psi
Expansion joint
L = t L
L = 13 x 10
-6
x 100
o
x 360 L = 0.47
Use expansion joint 0.5 > 0.47, ok
Assume:
Designer forgets expansion joint
Thermal stress:
f = t E
f = 13x10
-6
x100x10x10
6
= 13,000 psi
f = 13,000 psi / 1000 f = 13 ksi
13 > 10, NOTok
Note:
10
6
and 10
-6
cancel out and can be ignored
Thermal stress and strain Prof Schierle 10
Masonry expansion joint
Silicon joint
L
1
2
3
4
1 Building axon
2 Expansion joint in wall
3 Expansion joint at wall intersection
4 Expansion joint detail
Space masonry expansion joint @ L = 100
Assume:
Masonry Fa = 300 psi
Temperature change t = 70
o
F
Joint spacing L=100 x 12 L = 1200
Thermal coefficient = 4x10
-6
/
o
F
E-modulus E = 1.5x10
6
psi
Thermal expansion
L = t L
L = 4x10
-6
/
o
Fx70
o
x1200 L = 0.34
Use 3/8 expansion joint 0.375 > 0.34
Check thermal stress without expansion joint
f = t E
f = 4x10
-6
x70
o
x1.5x10
6
f = 420psi
420 > 300, NOT ok
Thermal stress and strain Prof Schierle 11
Bridge expansion joints
Bridges require expansion joints (roller or rocker)
Assume
Concrete bridge
Span L = 310 x 12 L =3,720
Temperature change t = 90
o
F
Thermal coefficient = 6x10
-6
/
o
F
E-modulus E = 3x10
6
psi
Thermal strain
L = t L
L = 6x10
-6
x90
o
x3720 L = 2
Provide 2 joint 2.5 > 2
Thermal stress without joint
f = t E
f = 6x10
-6
x90
o
x3x10
6
psi f = 1,620 psi
Too much stress without load
Thermal stress and strain Prof Schierle 12
Girder strain
IIT Building Chicago
Architect: Mies Van der Rohe
Roof girders are exposed to temperature
change (cold winter / hot summer)
Assume
Steel girders
Span L= 120 x 12 L =1,440
Temperature change t = 107
o
Thermal coefficient =6.5x10
-6
/
o
F
E-modulus E = 29x10
6
psi
Girder strain
L = 6.5x10-6x107ox1440 L = 1
Note:
girder elongation induces bending stress and
deflection in columns
Thermal stress and strain Prof Schierle 13