354 views

Uploaded by Nikola Stojanović/Никола Стојановић

Design and Realization of Variable Reactance Reflection Phase Shifter
V. RinÄiÄ‡, N. StojanoviÄ‡
Abstract â€“ Design and practical realization of circuit that is common used in telecommunication for phase shifting are describe in this text. Principle operation, design and simulation of variable reactance reflection phase shifter are explained. At the end, after practical realization, measurement and comparing of derived and assumed results are accomplished.
(varactors). The schematic of the va

Design and Realization of Variable Reactance Reflection Phase Shifter
V. RinÄiÄ‡, N. StojanoviÄ‡
Abstract â€“ Design and practical realization of circuit that is common used in telecommunication for phase shifting are describe in this text. Principle operation, design and simulation of variable reactance reflection phase shifter are explained. At the end, after practical realization, measurement and comparing of derived and assumed results are accomplished.
(varactors). The schematic of the va

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- high frequency VCO design and schematics
- HP-AN1290-1_Cookbook for EMC Precompliance Measurements
- PLLs in High Performance Systems_final
- RF Basic - Components and devices.ppt
- International Journal of Mobile Network Communications & Telematics ( IJMNCT)
- 2daymod2-121224165627-phpapp01
- AN742 Fundamentals - Impedance Matching and Smith Chart
- A New Logic Gate for High Speed Optical Signal Processing Using Mach- Zehnder Interferometer (MZI)
- Electrical Details
- Experimental Violation of Newton's Third Law
- Basic Dc Dc Conveter
- VLF 50-0-1Hz Comparision
- Basic Electronics
- electrical automation
- A High Step-Down Interleaved Buck Converter with Active-Clamp Circuits for Wind Turbines
- Special Purpose Diodes
- Analysis of Lightning-Caused Ferroresonance in Capacitor Voltage Transformer (CVT) Using Harmonic Method - 24 Pages
- Microwave
- power plant
- Taller Fisica.txt

You are on page 1of 4

V. Rinčić, N. Stojanović

Abstract – Design and practical realization of circuit that is (varactors). The schematic of the variable reactance

common used in telecommunication for phase shifting are reflection phase shifter is shown in Fig. 1.

describe in this text. Principle operation, design and simulation of

variable reactance reflection phase shifter are explained. At the

end, after practical realization, measurement and comparing of

derived and assumed results are accomplished.

I. INTRODUCTION

A phase shifter [1] is a two-port network with the

provision that the phase difference between the output and

the input signals may be controlled by a control signal –

DC bias. Phase shifters can be analog or digital. Phase Fig. 1. Variable reactance reflection phase shifter

shifters are digital when the differential phase shift can be

changed by only few discrete values, such as 180° , 90° , As hybrid coupler, the quadrature single-box

45° , 22.5° and 11.25° . In analog phase shifters, the branchline coupler is used here (Fig. 2. note: all 4 arms are

differential phase shift can be varied in a continuous λ/4 in length). Signal from port 1 is equally distributed to

manner by a corresponding continuous variation of control port 2 and port 3, while port 4 is isolated. The phase

signal. Digital phase shifters find extensive applications in difference between signals at port 2 and 3 is 90 degrees

phase-array antenna systems. Phase control of the signals (see Fig. 2) [3].

fed to the various elements of the array allows the direction

of the radiated beam to be scanned electronically.

There are two methods for designing digital phase

shifters at microwave frequencies. One is to use the

properties of ferromagnetic materials for obtaining

switchable phase shift. The other important design for

digital phase shifters uses semiconductor devices. Phase

shifters using semiconductor devices can be either of the

reflection type or the transmission type. In reflection type

phase shifters, the basic design unit is a one-port network,

Fig. 2. Quadrature single-box branchline coupler

and it is the phase shift of the reflected signal that is

changed by the control signal. This basic one-port phase

Ports 2 and 3 are loaded with varactors. Signal from

shifters can be converted into useful two-port components

port 1 (in), which is equally distributed to port 2 and port 3,

either by using a circulator or a hybrid. Because of the ease

is reflected from these reactances, and travels to port 4

integration, the hybrid type phase shifters are more

(out), with phase shift.

common.

There are two states in operating of phase shifter. In

first state, when the DC bias is low, there is one value of

II. VARIABLE REACTANCE REFLECTION PHASE phase shift, and when DC bias changes its value, the

SHIFTER capacitance of varactor is changed and there is different

phase shift. Difference between these two shifts represents

The most common used type of reflection phase overall phase shift.

shifters are variable reactance reflection phase shifters [2]. Equation (1) shows phase shift when the DC bias has

Circuit uses a 90-degree hybrid and variable reactance value V1, where CV 1 is capacitance of varactor at DC bias

V. Rinčić, N. Stojanović are with the Department of V1. Equation (2) shows phase shift when the DC bias has

Telecommunications, Faculty of Electronic Engineering, value V2, and equation (3) shows overall phase shift.

University of Niš, Aleksandra Medvedeva 14, 18000 Niš, Serbia,

E-mail: pantla@verat.net, stoj_nik@yahoo.com.

ϕV 1 = 2 ⋅ arctan(ωCV 1 Z 0) (1)

ϕV 1 = 2 ⋅ arctan(ωCV 1 Z 0) (2) -3.0

-3.5

ϕ o = ϕV 1 − ϕV 2 (3)

-4.0

dB(S(3,1))

-4.5

III. CIRCUIT DESIGN AND SIMULATION -5.0

-5.5

A. Coupler design and optimization in ADS software

package -6.0

0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6

Circuit design starts with hybrid design [3]. Here, the freq, GHz

0

ADS software package (product of Agilent Technologies),

i.e. his accessory LineCalc is used. Dimensions of -10

dB(S(4,1))

microstrip coupler are calculated, based on: substrate

thickness h = 1.5mm, substrate relative dielectric const ε = -20

-30

frequency f = 1GHz, characteristic impedance Z 0 = 50Ω

and effective electric length 90˚. Calculated values for line -40

length and line width are as follows: in case where 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6

W=4.88455mm, L = 40.2818mm. Fig. 4. Parameters S31 and S41 at f = 1GHz.

Designed hybrid coupler is then simulated in ADS

software. Fig. 3 and Fig. 4 show results of this simulation. Figures show that there are no minimums of

Following parameters are shown: S11 (reflection parameters S11 and S41 at frequency f = 1GHz, and

coefficient), S21 and S31 (transmission coefficients), and maximums of S21 and S31 parameters. This means that aim

S41 (insulation coefficient) changing with frequency. of coupler usage is not achieved. Entirely diagram is

shifted to left, toward lower frequencies. Thereby

parameters optimization is needed. Also, line optimization

0

is done here. The goal of optimization is that parameters

-10 S11 and S41 achieve min values at desired frequency f = 1

dB(S(1,1))

-20 GHz and that parameters S21 and S31 have maximum

-30

(should not be lower than -3dB). After optimization and

after updating values characteristics of coupler have shape

-40

shown in Fig. 5 and Fig. 6. Figures show that optimal

-50 coupler characteristics at desired frequency are achieved.

0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6

freq, GHz 0

-2

-10

-3

dB(S(1,1))

-20

-4

dB(S(2,1))

-5 -30

-6 -40

-7

-50

-8 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95 1.00 1.05 1.10 1.15 1.20

0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6

freq, GHz

-3.0

freq, GHz

-3.5

dB(S(2,1))

-4.5

-5.0

-5.5

0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95 1.00 1.05 1.10 1.15 1.20

freq, GHz

Fig. 5. Parameters S11 and S21 at f = 1GHz after optimization On the basis of good simulation results, layout design

0 has started. First of all, it is necessary to create input/output

-10 ports in ADS, and so called gaps for varactors. Gaps are

created on the basis of dimensions supplied from datasheet.

dB(S(3,1))

-20

Additionally, in Fig. 8 two extra microstrip lines after

-30 varactors can be noticed. These lines have to be large

-40

enough for drilling holes. Varactors are soldered through

these holes to metallization on the other side (ground).

-50

0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95 1.00 1.05 1.10 1.15 1.20

Layout of phase shifter is shown in Fig. 8.

freq, GHz

-2.9

-3.0

-3.1

dB(S(4,1))

-3.2

-3.3

-3.4

-3.5

-3.6

0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95 1.00 1.05 1.10 1.15 1.20

freq, GHz

needed to simulate device work, in order to see what phase

shifts are made by changing of polarization voltage of

varactors. Varactors can be changed with capacitors which

Fig. 8. Phase shifter layout

have values of capacitance that correspond to voltage

values. It can be seen from varactor datasheet. For

Layout is made on metallized substrate where

example, there is phase of S21 parameter for capacitance of

varactors and connectors are situated on. Varactors

5 pF of varactor (polarization voltage 10V) shown in Fig. BB105A and female F connectors are used for this project.

7. It should be pointed out that port 4 of hybrid coupler is Final shape of this device is given in Fig.9.

now denoted as port 2 – output port.

200

m1

freq=1.000GHz

100

phase(S(2,1))=-149.513

phase(S(2,1))

-100 m1

-200

0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6

freq, GHz

Fig. 9. Final shape of phase shifter.

IV. DEVICE MAKING AND PERFORMANCE

MEASURING B. Measuring device performance and results

analyzer manufactured by Hewlett-Packard company.

Dependence of phase shift from supply voltage is

measured. It is needed to measure phase component of

parameter S21 for different varactor polarization voltage

values. Fig.10 shows the way that phase shift is changing, TABLE 1

by changing DC voltage. SIMULATED VALUES COMPARED AGAINST MEASURED VALUES

VOLTAGE [PF] SHIFT [˚] [˚]

[V] (ADS) (MEASURED)

2 12 169.5 171

4 9 179 180

6 7.3 -169 -171

8 6 -159 -159

10 5 -149 -144

12 4 -190 -128

14 3.4 -114 -115

16 3.1 -106 -105

18 2.8 -97.5 -97

20 2.3 -93.5 -90

22 2.2 -84.5 -85

24 2.1 -83 -80

26 2 -78.5 -77

Fig. 10. Measured dependence between phase shift and DC

supply voltage.

REFERENCES

V. CONCLUSION [1] I. Bahl, P. Bhartia, Microwave solid state circuit design 2nd

edition, Wiley-Interscience, Wiley&Sons Inc., 2003.

In Table 1 are shown both simulated and measured

values for phase shifts for various DC voltage values (for [2] “Phase Shifter Design Tutorial” http://www.rfic.co.uk

various capacitance values of varactor). On the basis of

these results it can be concluded that realization of this [3] David M. Pozar, Microwave engineering, John Wiley&Sons,

device was successful and that noticed differences in Inc, 1998.

results are acceptable.

- high frequency VCO design and schematicsUploaded byMarwa Mamoun Almagboul
- HP-AN1290-1_Cookbook for EMC Precompliance MeasurementsUploaded bysirjole7584
- PLLs in High Performance Systems_finalUploaded byapi-3843517
- RF Basic - Components and devices.pptUploaded byAdan Bashe
- International Journal of Mobile Network Communications & Telematics ( IJMNCT)Uploaded byLawrence Avery
- 2daymod2-121224165627-phpapp01Uploaded bybhavya_gadde
- AN742 Fundamentals - Impedance Matching and Smith ChartUploaded bywhynot05
- A New Logic Gate for High Speed Optical Signal Processing Using Mach- Zehnder Interferometer (MZI)Uploaded byIJASRET
- Electrical DetailsUploaded byHarsh Dhillon
- Experimental Violation of Newton's Third LawUploaded bychadj1060
- Basic Dc Dc ConveterUploaded byChizom Uch
- VLF 50-0-1Hz ComparisionUploaded bynrasool
- Basic ElectronicsUploaded byivydmarasigan
- electrical automationUploaded bySayak Bose
- A High Step-Down Interleaved Buck Converter with Active-Clamp Circuits for Wind TurbinesUploaded bySuma Cn
- Special Purpose DiodesUploaded byAnoop Singh
- Analysis of Lightning-Caused Ferroresonance in Capacitor Voltage Transformer (CVT) Using Harmonic Method - 24 PagesUploaded byboopelectra
- MicrowaveUploaded byEdwin Okoampa Boadu
- power plantUploaded bynithish_reddies
- Taller Fisica.txtUploaded byAnonymous 43Pa0k6
- C1606EUploaded bylitoduter
- I020-1-D-1-001-04_Infobrief Nr 20-EN.pdfUploaded bynikhil
- 1-s2.0-S0030401814002582Uploaded byEngr Nauman
- Allen Aiims Test Answers 3-03-2019Uploaded bySubhan Nasir
- 04Electrostatic-SenAct_44Uploaded bySDFD
- Class_XII_Science_Holidays_Homework.pdfUploaded byRekha Singh
- Automatic Street Light Controller Circuit Using Relays and LDRUploaded byRavindra Parab
- HghUploaded byAbhimanyu Yadav
- e waste 3Uploaded byThalapathy Vijay
- DiodesUploaded bysoumikbh

- Aero Dyanmic Wind MillUploaded byMadhu
- Transformer.xlsxUploaded byMohammed Sayeeduddin
- Simulation and Analysis of SVPWM Based 2-Level and 3-Level InvertersUploaded bynguabatkham
- Bus Tie Limiter Type Circuit-breakers Spec EnUploaded bykingdiamond
- More on the Skin EffectUploaded byfltofoli
- Solutions - LTC6078 PH Probe AmplifierUploaded byyhorezz
- fact_evoUploaded byItsJazz
- Ranking Electricity Meters for Risk to Health, Privacy, and Cyber SecurityUploaded byRonald M. Powell, Ph.D.
- Icolor Cove Mx Powercore 342196 Ffs EngUploaded byTimothy Su
- How to Make a Simple DC to DC Cell Phone Charger CircuitUploaded byShibu Kumar S
- TR_Netzfilter-Die_Letzte_Huerde_im_Schaltnetzteil_EN.pdfUploaded bybacuoc.nguyen356
- 0247_pdf_tocUploaded byBradley Franklin
- PRINCOM LECTURE 4.pdfUploaded bywilliam cubitt
- STP6NK90ZUploaded byRaja Pathamuthu.G
- Adafruit Arduino Lesson 12 Lcd Displays Part 2Uploaded byneobamboom
- waveguidUploaded byRakesh Kumar
- AC DRIVES.pptUploaded byaswardi
- 08 Article 680 Pools and Similar Installations PART 1Uploaded byAndrew Rincon
- Electrolux_WASHING_Machines_Service_Guid 1.pdfUploaded byGaraliu Bogdan
- 1-04-013-02Uploaded byGopalMahanta
- Applications of ODEsUploaded byChin-Chin Abejar
- Classic Harley Tech - Rebuilding a Motorcycle Magneto - Reassembly, Remagnetizing & More _ Classic Harley Motorcycle & InfoClassic Harley Motorcycle & Info.pdfUploaded byAsiri Samanatha Elegoda
- Galaxy g3 Installation ManualUploaded bySandra Canha
- ecgUploaded byMirosha Navaratna
- IJETTCS-2013-10-21-053Uploaded byAnonymous vQrJlEN
- en.CD00000125Uploaded bymuhsyafa muhsyafa
- Physics Worksheet Lesson 19 Electric Circuits.pdfUploaded byMuhammad Tauseef
- 3LD22031TL53 Datasheet EnUploaded byFilipe Silva
- Adm 1041Uploaded byIsidro Mendoza
- j. 11KV LabourUploaded bymajid_20