Modern Computer Systems

Basic Personal Computer System

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Mainframe Computer System

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System Performance Improvements
Multiple CPUs Faster clock speed, buses and circuits Wider instruction and data paths Faster disk access More and faster memory

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Multiprocessing
Reasons
Increase the processing power of a system Parallel processing

Types of multiprocessor systems
Tightly coupled systems Loosely coupled systems

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Tightly Coupled Systems
Refer to two or more computers linked together and dependent on each other. Two computers tied together for multiprocessing. Also called multiprocessor systems

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Tightly Coupled Systems (cont.)
Identical access to programs, data, shared memory, I/O, etc. Easily extend multi-tasking, and redundant program execution Two ways to configure
Master-slave multiprocessing Symmetrical multiprocessing (SMP)
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Tightly Coupled Systems

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Master-Slave Multiprocessing
Master CPU
Manages the system Controls all resources and scheduling Assigns tasks to slave CPUs

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Master-Slave Multiprocessing (cont.)
Advantages
Simplicity Protection of system and data

Disadvantages
Master CPU becomes a bottleneck Reliability issues – if master CPU fails entire system fails
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Symmetrical Multiprocessing
Each CPU has equal access to resources Each CPU determines what to run using a standard algorithm

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Symmetrical Multiprocessing (cont.)
Disadvantages
Resource conflicts – memory, i/o, etc. Complex implementation

Advantages
High reliability Fault tolerant support is straightforward Balanced workload
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Loosely Coupled Systems
Clusters or multi-computer systems Each system has its own CPU, memory, and I/O facilities Stand-alone computers connected via a network.

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Loosely Coupled Systems (cont.)
Advantages
Fault-tolerant, scalable, well balanced, distance is not an issue

Two ways to configure
Shared-nothing model Shared-disk model

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Cluster Models

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Shared-Nothing Model
High speed link between nodes No sharing of resources Partitioning of work through division of data Advantage
Reduced communication between nodes

Disadvantage
Can result in inefficient division of work
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Shared-Disk Model
High speed link between nodes Disk drives are shared between nodes Advantage
Better load balancing

Disadvantage
Complex software required for transactional processing (lock, commit phases)
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Computer Interconnection
Communication channel – pathway for data movement between computers Point-to-point connectivity Multipoint connectivity

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Point-to-Point Connectivity
Communication channel that passes data directly between two computers Serial connection Telephone modem Terminal controller – handles multiple point-to-point connections for a host computer
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Example: Point-to-Point

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Multipoint Connectivity
Multidrop channel or shared communication channel

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Multipoint Connectivity

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Local Area Network (LAN)
Used to interconnect computers and other resources over a small area (eg. within an office, or building)

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LAN Topology
Arrangement of workstations in a shared medium environment Logical arrangement (data flow) Physical arrangement (cabling scheme)

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LAN Topology: Tree

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LAN Topology: Ring

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LAN Topology: Star

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Client-server architecture
Computer servers provide services
File storage, databases, printing services, login services, web services

Client computers
Execute programs in its own memory Access files either locally or can request files from a server
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Client-Server Network

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Ethernet
Standard local area network (LAN) access method.

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Switched Ethernet

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Ethernet (cont.)

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Ethernet (cont.)

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Hubs
A network device to which all clients and servers are wired. Shares the total bandwidth among all users

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Switch
A network device that cross connects stations or LAN segments.

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Hubs/Switches

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Hubs/Switches (cont.)

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Hubs/Switches (cont.)

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Other Devices
Bridges Routers

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WAN
Sites are physically distributed over a large geographical area. ☺ ☺

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