i. Schedules and Questionnaires
ii. Open ended and closed ended questions
b. What are the different modes of administering a questionnaire? What are the conditions that merit
the use of one over the other? Discuss by using suitable examples.
(Differences, Modes of administering a questionnaire) 4, 6(10 marks)
i) Schedules and Questionnaires
S.No Questionnaire Schedule
1. Questionnaire is generally sent through mail to
informants to be answered as specified in a
covering letter, but otherwise without further
assistance from the sender.
A schedule is generally filled by the research
worker or enumerator, who can interpret the
questions when necessary.
2. Data collection is cheap and economical as the
money is spent in preparation of questionnaire
and in mailing the same to respondents.
Data collection is more expensive as money is
spent on enumerators and in imparting trainings
to them. Money is also spent in preparing
3. Non response is usually high as many people do
not respond and many return the questionnaire
without answering all questions. Bias due to non
response often remains indeterminate.
Non response is very low because this is filled
by enumerators who are able to get answers to
all questions. But even in this their remains the
danger of interviewer bias and cheating.
4. It is not clear that who replies. Identity of respondent is not known.
5. The questionnaire method is likely to be very
slow since many respondents do not return the
Information is collected well in time as they are
filled by enumerators.
ii) Open ended and closed ended questions
In open-ended questions, the openness refers to the option of answering in one’s own words. They are also
referred to as unstructured questions or freeresponse or free-answer questions. Some illustrations of this
type are listed
• What is your age?
• Which is your favourite TV serial?
• I like Nescafe because ________________________
• My career goal is to ________________________
In closed-ended questions, both the question and response formats are structured and defined.There are three
kinds of formats as we observed earlier— dichotomous questions, multiple–choice questions and those that
have a scaled response.
b) Modes of administering a questionnaire
Main modes of questionnaire administration are:
Face-to-face questionnaire administration, where an interviewer presents the items orally.
Paper-and-pencil questionnaire administration, where the items are presented on paper.
Computerized questionnaire administration, where the items are presented on the computer.
Adaptive computerized questionnaire administration, where a selection of items is presented on the
computer, and based on the answers on those items, the computer selects following items optimized for
the testee's estimated ability or trait.
A food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) is a questionnaire to assess the type of diet consumed in people, and
may be used as a research instrument. Examples of usages include assessment of intake of vitamins or
toxins such as acryl amide.
Q5. a. What is the analysis of variance? What are the assumptions of the technique? Give a few
examples where the techniques could be used.
b. The following data represents the number of units produced by four operators during three
Perform a two-way analysis of variance and interpret the result.
(Meaning, Assumptions and examples, Formulas, Calculation, Solution and Interpretation to the
problem) 4, 6(10 marks)
a) Meaning of analysis of variance
Suppose we know that the sales of a product is influenced by the price level. In this case, sales are a
dependent variable and the price is the independent variable. Let there be three levels of price, namely, low,
medium and high. We wish to determine the most effective price level i.e. at which price level the sale is
highest. Here, the test units are the stores which are randomly assigned to the three treatment level. The
average sales for each price level is computed and examined to see whether there is any significant
difference in the sale at various price levels. The statistical technique to test for such a difference is called
analysis of variance (ANOVA).
Assumptions of the technique
This design is used when a researcher is investigating the effect of one independent variable on the
dependent variable. The independent variable is required to be measured in nominal scale i.e. it should have
a number of categories. Each of the categories of the independent variable is considered as the treatment.
The basic assumption of this design is that there are no differences in the test units. All the test units are
treated alike and randomly assigned to the test groups. This means that there are no extraneous variables that
could influence the outcome.
Col 1 Col 2 Col 3 Col 4
Row 1 10 8 12 13
Row 2 10 12 14 15
Row 3 12 10 11 14
Within each box:
Item 1 = N Item 2 = X Item 3 = Mean
Item 4 = X
Item 5 = Variance
Item 6 = Std. Dev. Item 7 = Std. Err.
C1 C2 C3 C4 Tot.
Source SS df MS F P
Rows 8 2 4 NaN 1
Columns 28.92 3 9.64 NaN NaN
r x c 9.33 6 1.56 NaN NaN
Error 0 0 NaN
Total 46.25 11
Critical Values for the Tukey HSD Test
HSD=the absolute [unsigned] difference between any
two means (row means, column means, or cell means)
required for significance at the designated level:
HSD[.05] for the .05 level; HSD[.01] for the .01 level.
The HSD test between row means can be meaningfully
performed only if the row effect is significant; between
column means, only if the column effect is significant;
and between cell means, only if the interaction effect is
Rows  NaN NaN
Columns  NaN NaN
Cells  NaN NaN
Q6. Explain the three basic principles of professional ethics that any research must follow. How do
you follow an ethical practice while collecting information from the respondents?
(Basic principles of professional ethics, Ethical codes related to respondents)6, 4(10 marks)
Basic principles of professional ethics
Professional special educators are guided by the CEC professional ethical principles and practice standards
in ways that respect the diverse characteristics and needs of individuals with exceptionalities and their
families. They are committed to upholding and advancing the following principles:
A. Maintaining challenging expectations for individuals with exceptionalities to develop the highest
possible learning outcomes and quality of life potential in ways that respect their dignity, culture, language,
B. Maintaining a high level of professional competence and integrity and exercising professional judgment
to benefit individuals with exceptionalities and their families.
C. Promoting meaningful and inclusive participation of individuals with exceptionalities in their schools
D. Practicing collegially with others who are providing services to individuals with exceptionalities.
E. Developing relationships with families based on mutual respect and actively involving families and
individuals with exceptionalities in educational decision making.
F. Using evidence, instructional data, research, and professional knowledge to inform practice.
G. Protecting and supporting the physical and psychological safety of individuals with exceptionalities.
H. Neither engaging in nor tolerating any practice that harms individuals with exceptionalities.
Ethical Codes Related to Respondents
The most important and vulnerable person in the research study is the respondent from whom the data is to
be collected. Every association and organization that is directly or indirectly involved with research has
made clear and detailed guidelines for ensuring that unethical treatment of the respondent does not happen.
The American Association for Public Opinion Research has formulated the following code of ethics for
survey researchers, with reference to the respondent:
• We shall strive to avoid the use of practices or methods that may harm, humiliate or seriously mislead
• Unless the respondent waives confidentiality for specific uses, we shall hold as privileged and confidential
all information that might identify a respondent with his or her responses. We shall also not disclose or use
the names of respondents for non-research purposes unless the respondent grants us permission to do so.