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UNIT 2 Linking words (conjunctions)

Grammar Review Unit 2


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and/as well as to add ideas

Swift worked as a politician and a churchman


The! captured "ulli#er and tied him to the ground
$s well as working as a politician% Swift was a churchman

ing
Swift was a politician as well as a churchman
&ecause to gi#e a reason
It took me a long time to finish the &ook &ecause it is so long
&ut/although/howe#er to contrast ideas

'e is !oung &ut strong !" #$


Swift wrote man! &ooks% &ut none were as successful as
"ulli#er(s Tra#els
$lthough/though/)#en though he spent his first !ears in
)ngland% Swift went to school in Ireland !
" # $%& # '() *+ ,-. /
*espite/In spite of + #,ing or noun or the fact that s #--
$lthough $&utrika was ill% he pla!ed the match
*espite &eing ill %$&utrika pla!ed the match
In spite of his illness%a&utrika pla!ed the match
In spite of the fact that $&utrika was ill% he pla!ed the
match
%& ' ( )%* +
.-------%howe#er----------
2------- 'owe#er%
----------
/ ,'owe#er+ adj+ S+ 0----%
------
I(#e heard of 1onathan Swift 'owe#er% I didn(t know he
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wrote "ulli#er(s Tra#els ,-!(
. * "%/ ,
0( ,-!( . ,
He is rich, however he is unhappy
0( 120 #-
However rich he is ,he is unhappy.

if/unless to introduce conditions 345
If !ou want to know more a&out Swift% look him
up on the internet /6 ( 72489 +
: 0( 2; 345 120<
=/ 4( +> ? ) 0( =/ 345
120< @A( 9 2; 345 =*9(
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If !ou stud! hard %!ou will get high marks
If + Present simple will / may / can +inf
If I earn some mone!% I'll buy a car.
If we have enough time% we'll visit $hmed
%. %. 4/ 4/ BC" BC" : : ,.2( ,.2( 120< 120< D** D** D D
@A @A : :
If !ou are hot% I'll open the window.
E%F9 E%F9 unless unless D!/ D!/ If not If not
nless !ou study hard !ou can(t pass the e2am (If)
3 If !ou don't study hard% !ou can(t pass the e2am
'e won(t go to sleep unless !ou tell him a
stor!
4hile/when/as soon as/&efore to link acti#ities in time
&0
4hile reading the newspaper% I fell asleep
in!
4hile I was reading the newspaper% I fell asleep
$s soon as I saw it% I wanted to &u! it 24 !G
9 + ( 9 ) 120< H%:
: I+* < J%: K 0 2 J%:
L(M E%F9 ( E ( J%: .
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$s soon as I had written the lesson %I went to the clu&


4hen I got home% I did m! homework
5efore I went to &ed% I phoned m! friend D D = = *9 *9
1N 1N J%: J%: O O I; I; %/ %/ when / as soon as when / as soon as
1N 1N J%: J%: D? D? I; I; %/ %/ before before
"#ercises
$% a &omplete the sentences with these words.
while if but because althou!h
. he spent his earl! !ears in
)ngland% he returned to
Ireland to go to school and uni#ersit!
2 he was work ing as a secretar!% Swift started
to write
/ In m! opinion% the &ook succeedsit has these
different meanings
6 1onathan Swift
wrote other &ooks%
-non were as
successful as
"ulli#er(s Tra#els
7 !ou(re interested in knowing more a&out the
author% I
ha#e a list of we& pages !ou can look at
'ewrite these sentences in your e#ercise boo(s
usin! one of the lin(in! words I although
&ecause &ut if while
a I(#e heard o f 1onathan Swift I did n(t know that he wrote
" ulli# er(s Tra #els
----------------------------------
& 8ou like science fiction no#els 8ou will like
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"ulli#er(S Tra#els
---------------------------------
c I know that "ulli#er meets some #er! small
people I(#e ne#er read the &ook
------------------------------- d It
took me a long time to read "ulli#er(s Tra#els It is a
#er! long &ook
------------------------------
e I fell asleep I was watching a long
film-------------
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Choose the correct Iinking words in these sentences.
a I need to learn )nglish% but/because I want to work for an
international company.
b Although/If my brother works very hard, he doesn't earn much money.
c I've been trying to contact my sister, although/but she isn't answering her phone.
d If/)hile you need to remember a date, write it in your diary.
e The phone rang while/because I was having a shower.
*atch to ma(e sentences usin! lin(in! words.
'e thought he would miss the
train% &ut
9
. the phone rang si2
times
$lthough he ran as fast as he
could%
9
2 !ou should #isit )g!pt
4hile the! were ha#ing
&reakfast%
9
/ he wants to &e an
archaeologist
If !ou want to &e an
archaeologist%
6 it was late% so he
caught it
'e wants to go to Egypt for his holiday
9
7 none of m! friends
wants to go
&ecause with me
I(d like to see the new film% &ut
9
: he was onl! third in
the race
&omplete these sentences with a lin(in! word.
a I fell off my bicycle... I was going round a corner.
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b Ali and his family have visited many countries,......................................they've never been to
Europe.
c ...........................you don't like hot weather, don't come to Egypt in July.
d ...........................I've seen that film twice already, I'd love to see it again.
e I'm working hard..................................I want to get a high mark in the test.
( .2( 12 &hoose the correct answer from a, b, c
or d
. ;! &rother is .<= cm and m! sister is .7= cm ;! &rother is
>>>>> m! sister
a taller & as tall as c taller
than d taller as
2 I am .77 cm and so is m! friend ;! friend is >>>>> me
a as tall as & taller than c tall like
d as tall than
/ >>>>> I can lend !ou some mone! It?s no pro&lem at all
a $lthough & If c @f course
d $s soon as
6 >>>>> like reading a lot% I am not good at writing
a $lthough & If c ;ore
d 5ecause
7 4e can go to pla! tennis >>>>> weather is good
a in spite of & although c of course
d if
: I wanted to go to school >>>>> I was too sick to go
a while & &ut c if
d as soon as
< >>>>> Lemuel "ulli#er was tra#elling at sea% there was a
storm
a $lthough & If c
5ecause d 4hile
A >>>>> I finished reading the &ook% I wanted to start
reading it again from the &eginning
a $s soon as & 5ecause c
If d 4hile
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+. 'ewrite usin! the word in brac(ets to !ive the same
meanin!.
. I like reading no#els for the reason that the! take me into a
different world
(&ecause)>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
2 1onathan Swift started to write $t the same time he was
working as a secretar!
(while) >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
/ I?#e ne#er read the &ook I heard that "ulli#er meets some
#er! small people
(&ut)>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
6 I like piBBa CiBBa normall! has tomatoes in it% which I don?t
like
(although)>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
7 To find out more information a&out 1onathan Swift% !ou can
look on the internet
(if)>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
,. &orrect the underlined mista(es.
It was Saturda!% and I was the onl! person at home (.)
$lthough I was hungr!% I decided to cook some food for
m!self (2) 5ecause I was making the food% I heard someone
knocking on the front door I knew that (/) &ut I went to
answer the door% the food would &urn (6) $s soon as the
person continued knocking on the door (7) If m! food was
finished% I ran to the door and opened it (:) 4hile I was
surprised to see that it was m! mother% who had forgotten her
ke!sD
-. *atch the phrases and rewrite each sentence below.

. %
. 1ust tell me a &ut she didn?t answer
2 The letter arri#ed & although I don?t like
tra#elling
/ I like watching tra#el
programmes
c if !ou want some help
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6 She tried to call her friend d &ecause I want to work in an
international compan!
7 I need to stud! )nglish e while I was at work
f as soon as I recei#ed it

P( . )9 = )4. +%! %2.
)%2 ?
49( E- "
&hoose the correct answer:
., She pla!s the piano (as E as well E well E and) the
#iolin
2, Not onl! (he has &een E has he &een E he was E he
had &een) late three times 5ut also she has
done no work
/, 5esides (was E is E are E &eing) cold the place was
damp
6, 'e can?t write to his friend (&ecause E &ecause of
E as E since) not knowing his address
7, I had to take a ta2i (as E &ecause of E owing to E
due to) It was raining hea#il!
:, 'e was put in prison (&ecause E as E since E so) of
not pa!ing the fine ^--.
<, ;an! cit! dwellers mo#e to the countr! (for the
reason that E &ecause of E owing to E due to)
there is a great amount of pollution
A, *espite (to ha#e E ha#ing E he has E has he)
limited #oca&ular!% he speaks )nglish fluentl!
F, ('owe#er E In spite E $lthough E *espite) the cost of
li#ing here is high% there are man! ad#antages
.=, Grank was #er! careful% (despite E &ecause E so E
howe#er)% he lost his mone!
.., 'e felt sick (so , &ecause E in order to E unless)
he ate too much
.2, 'e sa!s he likes sport ($s E 'owe#er E So E In
order to)% he onl! watches it on T0
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./, 'e won?t do an! work for !ou (so E although E unless
E in order to) !ou pa! him
.6, I continued running (&ecause E in order to E unless,
although) I felt #er! tired
.7, She?s Huite health! (as E unless E e#en though E
&ecause) she ne#er takes an! e2ercise
/ind the mista(es in each of the followin! sentences then write
them correctlyI
., The! were arrested as &reaking the law
2, 'e had to apologiBe owing to he made a shameful mistake
/, $s well as she studied hard% she pla!ed tennis regularl!
6, If he reads the Huestions carefull!% he answers them
7, There were no accidents though the dangerous roads
:, I like most school su&jects &ecause I don(t like ph!sics
<, $s soon as seeing the accident% I called the police
A, 'owe#er the &o2 was hea#!% he could carr! it
F, In addition to he wrote the letter% he saw the film
.=, 5ecause the! pla!ed #er! well% the! lost the match
!"# $%&'(
&hoose the correct answer:
.,'e worked hard,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,he was o#er A=
(&ecause,so,and,though)
2,'e didn(t go to school,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,he was ill
(due to,owing to,as,so)
/,I couldn(t get to sleep,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,the noise
(despite,although,owing to,&ecause)
6,4e went out,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,the rain
(despite,although,&ecause,due to)
7,She% ,,,,,,,,,her cousins% is fond of swimming
(&esides,and,not onl!,as well as)
:,;! car &roke down%,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,I will take a ta2i
(&ut,therefore,&ecause,as long as)
<,It started to rain%,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,we stopped pla!ing
(as,&ecause,so,howe#er)
A,5ra#el!,,,,,,,,he fought% he lost the game
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(howe#er,although,as,&ecause)
F,'e could &eat me,,,,,,,,his old age
(so as to,although,&ecause,despite)
.=,Neither the students nor the teacher,,,,,,,,,,in the class
(is,are,were,has)
..,I% as well as% Jahma,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,T0
(watch,watches,is watching,are watching)
.2,Sam! doesn(t go to school and ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,I
(so do I E so I do E neither do I Eneither I do )
./,5oth #irus K and cancer,,,,,,,,,,,,fatal effects on patients
(ha#e,has,is Eare)
.6,'e took a ta2i,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,he could reach the office
earl!
(so as to,in order to,so that,to)
.7,8ou won(t go out,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,!ou finish !ou homework
first
(if,unless,as long as,without)
.:,4e all trust him,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,he is honest
(although,&ecause of,so that Esince)
.<,'e did his &est,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,achie#e his goal
(&ecause,in order that,howe#er,so as to)
.A,I didn(t get up earl!,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,I went to work late
(although,that(s wh!,owing to,howe#er)
.F,She was tired% ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,she went to work
(although,due to,therefore,howe#er)
2=,The! wouldn(t ha#e attended the part!,,,,,,,,,,,!ou had
in#ited them
(&ecause,if,unless,so that)
2.,Not onl!,,,,,,,,,,,call the waiter &ad names% &ut he hit him
as well
(did he Edoes he,has he,had he)
22, ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,m! assistant % he failed
(In spite of,5ecause,@wing to,Unless)
,0'e0write the followin! sentences:
.,'e is cle#er and his friends are cle#er too (as well as)
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2, I went to the li&rar! to read &ooks(so that)
/,'e admired her despite her po#ert!(although)
6, I missed the match &ecause I was &us!(therefore)
7,The shoes are old% &ut the! are comforta&le ($lthough)
:,I don(t do karate I see karate on T0 (though)
<,'e failed owing to his carelessness (Since)
A,'e ran fast so as to catch the metro (&ecause)
F,'e &ought a new car and &uilt a house (Not onl!)
.=,The! worked for ten hours The! felt ill (so)
..,5oth the captain and the sailors are responsi&le for the
ship (as well as)
.2,The man isn(t here The 4oman isn(t here (Neither)
./,She didn(t see She didn(t hear (neither)
.6,*espite his illness% he went out ($lthough/'owe#er/ill)
.7,If !ou don(t help me% I will fail (Unless)
.:,I like all sports% &ut not tennis ($lthough)
-0/ind and correct the mista(es:
101onathan Swift was &orn in *u&lin% the larger cit! in
Ireland
2,Ireland &elonged from 5ritain at that time
/,Swift died on .<67 % at the age of <A
6,'is most famous &ook was "ulli#er(s tra#els which were
pu&lished in .<2:
7,'e also wrote other famous &ook% including $ ;odest
Croposal
:,I like "ulli#er(s tra#els although "ulli#er has e2citing
ad#entures
<,It is also #er! funn! to reading a&out the small people of
Lilliput
!"# )*+, -+./0&
/ind the mista(e in each of the followin! sentences then write it
correctly
.., The! were arrested as &reaking the law
.2, 'e had to apologiBe owing to he made a shameful mistake
./, $s well as she studied hard% she pla!ed tennis regularl!
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.6, If he reads the Huestions carefull!% he answers them
.7, There were no accidents though the dangerous roads
.:, I like most school su&jects &ecause I don(t like ph!sics
.<, $s soon as seeing the accident% I called the police
.A, 'owe#er the &o2 was hea#!% he could carr! it
.F, In addition to he wrote the letter% he saw the film
2=, 5ecause the! pla!ed #er! well% the! lost the match
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