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INSTYTUT ARCHEOLOGII

UNIWERSYTET MARII CURIE-SKODOWSKIEJ


W LUBLINIE
THE TURBULENT EPOCH
II
MONUMENTA STUDIA GOTHICA
t. V
pod redakcj
Clausa von Carnap-Bornheim Jrgena Ilkjra Andrzeja Kokowskiego
Instytut Archeologii Uniwersytetu Marii Curie-Skodowskiej w Lublinie
THE TURBULENT EPOCH
New materials from the Late Roman Period
and
the Migration Period
Herausgeber Edition
Barbara Niezabitowska-Winiewska
Marcin Juciski, Piotr uczkiewicz, Sylwester Sadowski
Lublin 2008
Herausgaber:
Barbara Niezabitowska-Winiewska
Marcin Juciski, Piotr uczkiewicz, Sylwester Sadowski
Instytut Archeologii UMCS & Autoren
Adres wydawcy
BIBLIOTEKA INSTYTUTU ARCHEOLOGII
UNIWERSYTET MARII CURIE SKODOWSKIEJ
PLAC MARII CURIE SKODOWSKIEJ 4
PL 20-031 LUBLIN
tel.: 0048-81-5375286
e-mail: berig1@gazeta.pl
ISBN 978-83-227-2970-0

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5
Contents

.................. 7
Jan Bemmann
Anmerkungen zu einigen Kleinfunden der jngeren Rmischen Kaiserzeit
und Vlkerwanderungszeit aus Miteldeutschland ......................................................................... 21
Vujadin Ivanievi, Ivan Bugarski
Western Banat during the Great Migration Period .......................................................................... 39
Jrg Kleemann
Lebten Barbaren in rmischen Villen? Ein Fallbeispiel aus Sdwestungarn ........................... 63
Jerzy Kolendo
Der Vierfu aus dem Frstengrab von Wrocaw-Zakrzw
Beutegut oder diplomatisches Geschenk? ........................................................................................ 79
Bartosz Kontny
The latest weapons in the Bogaczewo culture ................................................................................... 87
Bartosz Kontny, Magdalena Natuniewicz-Sekua
The late grave from the Wielbark culture cemetery at Weklice, Elblg com., site 7 .................. 105
Piotr N. Kotowicz, Robert Fedyk
Late-Roman Spatha from Lake Soliskie in Polaczyk ................................................................. 113
Magorzata Kurzyska
Knochenanhnger aus Brandgrab 44 von Wgrowo, Fdst. 11, Kr. Graudenz ............................ 119
Ulla Lund Hansen
Landlords and Commanders. Discussion of the symbolism, social and economic
background of north European rich male graves in relation to the war booty oferings .......... 127
Henryk Machajewski
Sdzone des Ostseebeckens und der Elbekulturkreis in der spten rmischen Kaiserzeit
und in der frhen Stufe der Vlkerwanderungszeit ...................................................................... 131
Ireneusz Marchelak
Bizorda, site 12. The end of a myth. A setlement of the Early Migration Period .................... 161
6
Wojciech Nowakowski...............................................................................................................................
Die frhesten Steigbgel aus Preuen. Funde vom Grberfeld Widiten II im Samland ........ 189
. .............................................................................................................................
.............................. 213
Mirosaw Pietrzak, Franciszek Ronowski, Lidia Cymek
Doppelkrpergrber in der Wielbark-Kultur am Beispiel des Grberfeldes
in Pruszcz Gdaski, Fdst. 5 ............................................................................................................... 241
Marzena J. Przybya
Die nordeuropische Hakenkreuzfbeln aus der sptrmischen Kaiserzeit .............................. 255
Agnieszka Reszczyska
New materials from the Migration Period at the setlement Trmice-st nad Labem
in northwestern Bohemia ................................................................................................................... 285
Mirosaw Rudnicki
Bemerkungen zur Entwicklung von Armbrustsprossenfbeln aus dem Territorium
der Olsztyn-Gruppe. Erste Feststellungen ....................................................................................... 291
Sylwester Sadowski
The youngest phase of Wielbark Culture cemetery in Swaryczw, site 1
(Komarw-Osada commune, Zamo district, Lublin province ) ............................................... 303
Erdmute Schultze, Bogdan Strocen
Ovalfacetierte Keramik eine Untersuchung zur Chronologie der ernjachov-Kultur ......... 315
Abbreviations ...................................................................................................................................... 329
Contents
THE TURBULENT EPOCH
Sylwester Sadowski
The youngest phase of Wielbark Culture cemetery in Swaryczw, site 1
(Komarw-Osada commune, Zamo district, Lublin province)
The site is located in the south-east of Lublin Region, on the south-west edge of the Hru-
bieszw Valley, close to its border with Zamo Vale and to the northern outskirts of Grzda Sokalska
(fg. 1; Kondracki 2002, p. 296-297). It occupies a dune situated in the Sieniocha river valley a lef-
bank tributary of the Huczwa river, the main water route of the Hrubieszw Valley (fg. 2).
This place was frst identifed during a feld-walking survey in the late 1980s and it was
dated to the Early Iron Age. Gradually, the sites range has been extended thanks to information on
artefacts recovered by metal detecting. At present, the sites area is estimated at 0,5-1 hectare, with
part of the surface overgrown with forest and some of it destroyed by sand extraction pits.
The site earned its place in the literature, thanks to two important fnds from the Roman
Period in the Lublin Region, namely, a hoard of dinars dated to the turn of the 2
nd
and 3
rd
centuries
AD (Haisig 1950; Dbrowska 1962) and a richly furnished burial of a warrior from the Przeworsk
Culture from the 1
st
half of 3
rd
century AD (Kokowski et alii 1997; 2004).
The site has been systematically excavated since 2005. Most trenches are located in the west-
ern part of the area, where a biritual cemetery of the Wielbark Culture was discovered. So far, up till
Fig. 1. Swaryczw, site 1. Location of the site in the Lublin Region.
304
summer 2007, archaeologists have excavated the area of 600 m and they have explored 62 features,
mostly connected with the functioning of the Roman Period cemetery. These are both inhumation
and cremation burials, as well as remains of hearths and posts, interpreted as parts of wooden struc-
tures (fg. 3). Chronologically, the cemetery functioned in the period between phase B
2
/C
1
(the oldest
fnds of the Wielbark Culture in the Lublin region) and the beginning of the Migration Period (Sa-
dowski 2007, p. 152, 156, 168-169).
Two cremation burials (I-II) and some individual artefacts in the culture layer on the site
(III-IV fg. 3) are connected with the youngest phase of its functioning, namely with the Wielbark
Culture in the Late Roman and the Early Migration Period.
Description of artefacts
I. Feature 20/Grave 11 (fg. 4; 5: A-B)
Cremation burial was discovered at the depth of 100 cm. The horizontal outline of the burial
pit was close to circular (75 cm in diameter), while the vertical outline was hollowed (35-40 cm deep).
The pit was flled with grave goods mixed with a big amount of ashes from funeral pyre and with
burnt bones. The majority of artefacts (including heavily burnt and fragmented potery, beads and
metal objects) as well as burnt bones and pyre debris, were laid in the pit in an organic container
(in a sack?). A clay vase, preserved intact, was placed aside and additionally covered with a large
fragment of a clay bowl. All potery in grave inventory was made by hand, burnt to some degree,
grey, grey-brown or brown-orange in colour. Many fragments were heavily damaged and only two
vessels were preserved intact.
Inventory:
1. Vase preserved intact, measurements: height 15 cm; rim diameter 21 cm; height from belly to
the rim 7,7 cm; base diameter 10 cm; slightly excurvate rim; it has three miniature handles, vertically
pierced and placed at the belly; it is decorated with strips in the form of bows, with their limbs pointing
Fig. 2. Swaryczw, site 1. Location of the site in the Sienioca river valley.
Sylwester Sadowski
305
down; the decoration is placed on and slightly above the belly (fg. 6: 1).
2. Vase with two ribbon-like handles measurements: height 17,4 cm; rim diameter 16,5 cm; height
from belly to the rim 7,5 cm; base diameter 11 cm; slightly excurvate rim; handles placed sym-
metrically above the belly and atached to the rims edge; it is decorated with strips in the form of
bows-zigzags placed above the belly (fg. 6: 2).
3. Bowl measurements: height 8,5 cm; rim diameter 21 cm; height from belly to the rim 4,5 cm; base
diameter 7 cm; slightly excurvate rim; unornamented (fg. 6: 3).
4. Bowl measurements: height 11,2 cm; rim diameter 20 cm; height from belly to the rim 5,5 cm;
base diameter 7,5 cm; slightly excurvate rim; unornamented (fg. 6: 4).
5. Miniature vessel measurements: height 7 cm; rim diameter 7,2 cm; height from belly to the rim
3,5 cm; base diameter 2,5 cm; unornamented (fg. 5: 1).
6. Miniature vessel preserved intact, measurements: height 4,3 cm; rim diameter 5,8 cm; height
from belly to the rim 3,3 cm; base diameter 2,7 cm; with a hollowed base; decorated with bosses
Fig. 3. Swaryczw, site 1. Site plan with features. 1. Certain and probable features of the Wielbark Culture cemetery. A: cremation
burials; B: inhumation burials; C: post holes (?); D: hearths (?); E: pyre debris layer (?); F: probable post structure. 2. Other fea-
tures. G: Lusatian Culture; H: unidentifed and not dated features; I: traces of trees; K: area destroyed by sand extraction pits.
The youngest phase of Wielbark Culture cemetery in Swaryczw, site 1
306
on the belly (fg. 6: 5; 7: 2).
7. Biconical clay spindle whorl measurements: height 1,3 cm; diameter 3,3 cm (fg. 5: 5).
8. Four heavily burnt glass beads, preserved in fragments.
9. Cuboctahedron stone bead made of chalcedony measurements: length 1,1 cm; width 0,8 cm
(fg. 7: 5).
10. A base of imported vessel made of bronze diameter 6,7 cm; decorated on the outside with three
concentric circles; the inside is smooth; damaged as a result of burning and melting; the edges are
uneven, jagged. The artefact has been most probably damaged intentionally and it is not possible
to assess its type more precisely (fg. 5: 2; 7: 1).
11. Bronze plaque with a representation of human face (female?) measurements: length 3,55 cm;
width 3,35 cm; height 1,5 cm; slightly convex; face is represented in high relief, almost oval in shape,
with eyes, nose and lips clearly marked; former delicate facial features and hairdo details have
been lost in the fre. At the edges of the plaque, in line with the eyes, there are two asymmetrical
holes (it is difcult to say whether they were intentionally made or appeared as a result of bronze
melting); the underside edges of the plaque are clear and smooth, only in its upper part there is a trace
of a missing fragment perhaps a hook or a pin (fg. 5: 3; 7: 4).
Fig. 4. Swaryczw, site 1. Feature 20/Grave 11 during exploration.
Sylwester Sadowski
307
Fig. 5. Swaryczw, site 1. Feature 20/Grave 11. Plan (A) and cross-section (B) of the grave; a: light yellow sand; b: light
gray sand; c: ashes from funeral pyre, carcoal and burnt bones. 1: miniature clay vessel; 2: base of bronze vessel; 3: bronze
plaque; 4: iron knife; 5: clay spindle whorl (1: drawn by M. Matyaszewski; 2-3: drawn by M. Gadysz-Juciska; 4-5: drawn by
J. Panek).
The youngest phase of Wielbark Culture cemetery in Swaryczw, site 1
308
Fig. 6. Swaryczw, site 1. Feature 20/Grave 11. 1-5: clay vessels (1-4: drawn by M. Matyaszewski; 5: drawn by J. Panek).
Sylwester Sadowski
309
Fig. 7. Swaryczw, site 1. Feature 20/Grave 11. 1: base of bronze vessel; 2: miniature clay vessel; 3: iron knife; 4: bronze plaque;
5: stone bead; 6-7: unidentifed bronze objects.
The youngest phase of Wielbark Culture cemetery in Swaryczw, site 1
310
12. Iron (surgeons ?) knife measurements: length 6,9
cm; max. width 1,4 cm; the blade is uneven and jag
ged; the back of the knife is smooth and fat; the tip is
truncated (broken ?); imported object (?) (fg. 5: 4; 7: 3).
13. Fragments of two bronze objects, probably a frame of
a buckle and pieces of foil from an unidentifed object
heavily melted (fg. 7: 6-7).
II. Feature 12/Grave 18 (fg. 8)
Cremation burial, discovered at the depth of 40 cm (un-
der the humus). The horizontal outline of the burial pit
was close to circular (40 cm in diameter), while the verti-
cal outline was funnel-like (40 cm deep). The flling of
the grave was clean, without ashes and charcoals, with
a large amount of heavily fragmented and burnt bones
which were most probably put into the pit in an organic
container.
Inventory:
1. Iron buckle oval, with a slightly thickened frame
and elongated pin; carrying the fre patina; measure-
ments: length 1,7 cm; width 2,9 cm (fg. 9).
III. Bronze buckle with a thickened frame and elongated
pin measurements: length 3,2 cm; width 3,7 cm; cir-
cular cross-section of the frame; no traces of fre (fg. 10).
IV. Beak-shaped strap end made of copper or bronze
(?); heavily damaged, preserved in two fragments, the
upper part with a rivet from a ferrule length 1,4 cm;
width 1,3 cm; the lower part was curved to the right
length 2,8 cm; width 1,3 cm; the lower tip of a strap end
is missing; the artefact is fat in cross-section; both parts are decorated with zigzag ornament of
wolfs teeth but the ornament is poorly visible (the object is prior to conservation) (fg. 11). In the
vicinity of this artefact burnt bones were discovered, but no outline of burial pit was found. How-
ever, it is possible that the artefact comes from a destroyed cremation burial.
Analysis of archaeological materials.
The bowl-like vessels discovered in the grave no. 11 are characteristic for the younger
phase of the Roman Period. However, in most cases, it is hard to point to close analogies or to as-
certain forms characteristic for the areas occupied by the Wielbark Culture. Two vases discovered
in the grave combine characteristic features of vessels from groups VIB, VIC, and VII according to
Wogiewicz (1993, pl. 19-20, 23). It is similar in the case of both bowls, whose form and proportions
are close to the vessels in group VIB, VIC and XaA (Wogiewicz 1993, pl. 19-20, 27). The miniature
vessel has analogies in groups XVII and XVIIIA (Wogiewicz 1993, pl. 34-35). A second miniature jar,
preserved intact and decorate with bosses on the belly, which should be ascribed to group XVIII.B-C
Fig. 8. Swaryczw, site 1. Feature 12/Grave 18. Plan
(A-B) and cross-section (C) of the grave; a: light
yellow sand; b: light gray sand; c: burnt bones.
Sylwester Sadowski
311
is particularly noteworthy, since analogical fnds come from the Wiel-
bark Culture and neighbouring with Sieniocha valley Masomcz Group
(Kokowski 1993, fg. 26: 5)
1
. Moreover, in all of the poteries we can discern
some stylistic infuences from the areas of the Chernyakhov Culture (e.g.:
Magomedov 2001, fg. 30; 32) and Masomcz Group (e.g: Kokowski 1993,
fg. 26: 1).
The stone bead, discovered in the grave, represents group LVII
type 499 afer M. Tempelmann-Mczyska (1985, p. 88-89, pl. 8; 19: 499).
There were also exceptional imported Roman objects made of metal
found in the grave no. 11. Unfortunately, we cannot determine precisely
the form of the bronze vessel from which the preserved base comes from. It
might have been a bucket of the Hemmoor type (E 55-66) or a bowl (E 86-
-108); (Eggers 1951, pl. 7; 9-10). Equally unique is plaque with a representa-
tion of womans face. Although the artefact has been badly deformed, again
the closest and nearest analogical fnd comes from Masomcz Group setle-
ment at Grdek on the Bug, site 6 (Gadysz 2001). According to the author, it
is an atach of a bronze vessel, and probably the same function was played
by the plaque from Swaryczw. As it was found in the same burial with
bronze base, it is possible that they had constituted two parts of the same vessel. The plaque could
have been used to decorate the place where a handle was atached. This hypothesis seems quite
probable, if we accept the suggestion that a base comes from Hemmoor type bucket. According to
H.J. Eggers, in type 64 there was a soldered representation of womans face (Eggers 1951, pl. 7: 64).
M. Gadysz also mentions other documented cases of cooccurrence of similar plaques with bronze
vessels (Gadysz 2001, p. 22-23).
The question of dating of the grave is
not clear. The clay vases and bowl, which are
similar in shape to those discovered in the grave,
appear in the Wielbark Culture in phases B
2
/C
1

and D (Wogiewicz 1993, p. 26, fg. 3). Also the
chronology of stone beads of type 499 fts the
period between phases B
2
/C
1
and the Migration
Period (Tempelmann-Mczyska 1985, p. 88-89,
95 tabl. 8; pl. 19: 499). The metal artefacts dis-
covered in the grave are practically deprived
of chronologically valid markers, both due to
severe damage and the possibility of longer
utilization. It seems that due to a close neigh-
bourhood the search for the source of dating at
the territory of the Masomcz Group is most
appropriate. The miniature vessels from group
XVIIIB-C are chronological markers of horizon
F, which is dated to phase C
3
(Kokowski 1995,
1
On the margin, one should mention that the Sieniocha valley in its eastern part, next to the outlet of the river to
the Huczwa in the area of Czermno, lies within the boundaries of south-western limits of the Masomcz Group. On the other
hand, the sites situated in the vicinity of the cemetery in Swaryczw, probably should be associated already with the setle-
ment of the classic Wielbark Culture.
Fig. 9. Swaryczw, site 1.
Feature 20/Grave 11. Iron
buckle.
Fig. 10. Swaryczw, site 1. Bronze bucle.
The youngest phase of Wielbark Culture cemetery in Swaryczw, site 1
312
p. 24-25, 30-31, fg. 23). A stylistically similar vessel, ornamented
on the belly with impressions of a coil of a fbula were discovered,
among others, in a cremation grave 33 in Grdek on the Bug
(Kokowski 1993, p. 29-30, fg. 25-26). There was also a clay, hand-
-made vase, which was deprived of handles, and was similar to ves-
sel 1 from the grave in Swaryczw (Kokowski 1993, fg. 26: 1). Given
that the cuboctahedron stone beads made of semi-precious stone
are also markers of horizon F in the Masomcz Group (Kokowski
1995, p. 24-25, 30-31, fg. 23), then analogically, and quite certainly,
grave 11 from Swaryczw should be dated to the Late Roman Pe-
riod phase C
3
.
So far, it has turned out to be richest in grave goods among
those excavated on cemetery. Metal objects clearly testify that apart
from everyday objects also luxurious goods reached Gothic setlements in the Sieniocha Valley. The
above fnds, are not the only imported objects discovered in Swaryczw. The cemetery yielded also
a bronze anchor-style fbula (Ankerfbel) from an earlier period, which proves the existence of
contacts between Gothic cultures in the south-east Lublin region with the Danube provinces.
A somewhat younger assemblage discovered on the site is grave no. 18. Though poorly fur-
nished, on the basis of iron buckle close to H11 type afer R. Madyda-Legutko, it can be dated not
earlier than the turn of the Late Roman Period and Early Migration Period phase C
3
/D
1
(Madyda-
-Legutko 1986, p. 63-64, 89, pl. 20: 11).
The youngest stages of cemetery usage can be determined thanks to loose artefacts found
outside burial features. Bronze buckles with thickened frame type H25 afer R. Madyda-Legutko are
generally linked with the Early Migration Period (phase D
1
) in Mid-European Barbaricum (Madyda-
-Legutko 1986, p. 67, 89, pl. 20: 25). Exact dating of a beak-shaped strap end is more problematic,
since ornaments of this type are generally dated since phase C
3
to the late stage of phase D (Pro-
chowicz 2005, p. 76; Kokowski 2007, p. 29). As far as the artefact from Swaryczw is concerned, we
should probably assume, that it is not earlier than the Migration Period. R. Prochowicz in an article
presents a fnd of analogical strap end from Przeradw and points to a false interpretation of an
artefact from grave no. 502A in Cecele, made and decorated in similar fashion (Prochowicz 2005,
p. 73-74, fg. 1). Strap end from Swaryczw, is decorated in the same style with zigzag ornament of
wolfs teeth.
Biritual cemetery of the Wielbark Culture, discovered in Swaryczw on site 1, seems to be
important sepulchral sites excavated in the south-east of Lublin region. All stages of this cultures
presence in the Lublin region are represented on the site, from B
2
/C
1
phase to the beginning of the
Migration Period. The artefacts analysed in the article point to the youngest stage of its functioning
2
.
They also testify to the range of inter-regional contacts of the Goths on the Sieniocha, kept most prob-
ably via the neighbouring Masomcz Group.
2
Apart from site 1 in Swaryczw, during the surface survey (AZP Polish Archaeological Record) ceramics from
the Late Roman Period and the Migration Period was recorded at more than ten consecutive features (fg. 12). A verifcation
surface investigation within four areas of AZP (90-90, 90-91, 90-92, 89-92) was carried out by the author in 2008 as part of the
project A study of the setlement structure in the Sieniocha river valley in prehistory and the Middle Ages, which was sub-
sidized by the Ministry of Cultural Heritage.
Fig. 11. Swaryczw, site 1. Beakshaped
strap end.
Sylwester Sadowski
20-031 Lublin
Poland
sylwestersadowski@o2.pl
Sylwester Sadowski
Instytut Archeologii
Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Skodowskiej
Pl. M. Curie-Skodowskiej 4
313
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.
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