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Luiz Carlos H. Ricardo

Materials Technology Department, IPEN, University of Sao Paulo

Arnaldo Homobono P. Andrade

Materials Technology Department, IPEN, University of Sao Paulo

Tim H. Topper

Civil Engineering Department, Waterloo University

Copyright 2006 SAE International

ABSTRACT

The objective of this paper is to provide a review of

retardation models for constant and variable amplitude

spectrum loading in 2D constrained small scale yielding.

The models considered use a numerical 2D finite

element method to determine crack opening and closing

stress intensity factors. The correlation of the predictions

of the models with experimental data is examined.

Procedures used to edit variable amplitude spectrum

loading are also presented and the effects of this editing

on fatigue life predictions for structural components are

discussed.

INTRODUCTION

The most common technique for predicting the

fatigue life of automotive and aircraft structures is

Miners law [1]. Despite the known deviations,

inaccuracies and proven conservatism of Miners

cumulative damage law, it is at present being used in the

design of many advanced structures. Fracture

mechanics techniques for fatigue life predictions remain

as a back up in design procedures. Perhaps the most

important and difficult problem in using fracture

mechanics concepts in design is the use of crack growth

data in predicting fatigue life. This experimentally

obtained data is used to derive a relationship between

stress intensity range (K) and crack growth per cycle

(da/dN).

For components containing a flaw under constant

stress amplitude fatigue the crack growth can be

obtained by simply integrating the relation between

da/dN and K. However, for complex spectrum loadings,

a simple addition of the crack growth occurring in each

portion of the loading sequence produces results that

very often are more in error than the results obtained

using Miners law. In fact, a simple addition of the growth

during each portion of a load sequence is the fracture

mechanics equivalent of Miners law.

In 1960 Schijve [2] observed that experimentally

derived crack growth equations were independent of the

loading sequence and depended only on the stress

intensity range and number of cycles for a given portion

of loading sequence. The central problem in the

successful utilization of fracture mechanics techniques

as applied to spectrum fatigue is to obtain a clear

understanding of the influence of loading sequences on

fatigue crack growth. Of particular interest in the study of

crack growth under variable-amplitude loading is the

decrease in growth rate called crack growth retardation

that usually follows a high overload.

Stoufffler & Willians [3] and other researchers

characterized the retardation phenomenon through

manipulation of the constants and stress intensity factors

in the equation of Paris-Erdogan [4]. Most of the

reported theoretical descriptions of retardation are based

on data fitting techniques, which tend to hide the

behavior of the phenomenon. If the retarding effect of a

peak overload on the crack growth is neglected, the

prediction of the material lifetime is usually very

conservative [5].

This paper will review some of these crack

closure models. The small scale yield model employs

the Dugdale [6] theory of crack tip plasticity, modified to

leave a wedge of plastically stretched material on the

fatigue crack surfaces. Fatigue crack growth was

simulated by Skorupa and Skorupa [7] using the strip

model over a distance corresponding to the fatigue crack

growth increment as shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1 - Schematic Small Scale Yield Model [7]

In order to satisfy the compatibility between the

elastic plate and the plastically deformed strip material,

tractions must be applied on the fictitious crack surfaces

Tractions are also needed over some distance in the

crack wake ( a x a <

open

), where the plastic

elongations of the strip L(x) exceed the fictitious crack

opening displacements V(x). in the plastic zone

(

fict

a x a < ), as in the original Dugdale model. The

simple Paris crack propagation equation [4] with the

crack propagation driving parameters, C, K and m are

used.

Murthy et al. [8] discuss crack growth models for

variable amplitude loading and the mechanisms

contributing to overload retardation. Newman [9]

presented a review of crack propagation theory and

gave the list of popular yield-zone models [10-15] and

empirical crack-closure models [16-21] shown in Table

1.

Table 1 Fatigue Crack Growth Models [19]

Yield Zone Concept

Crack Closure

Concept

Wheeler [10]

Bell and Wolfman [ 16]

Willenborg, Engle, Wood [11]

Schijve [17]

Chang and Hudson [12] de Koning [18]

Gallagher [13] Bauldin et al. [19]

Chang et al. [14] Aliaga et al. [20]

Johnson [15] Newman ( Finite

Element Method ) [21]

The Wheeler [10] and Willenborg et al. [11]

models were the first models proposed to explain crack-

growth retardation after overloads. These models

assume that retardation exists as long as the current

crack-tip plastic zone is enclosed within the overload

plastic zone. The physical basis for these models,

however, is weak because they do not account for crack-

growth acceleration due to underloads either alone or

immediately following an overload. Chang and Hudson

[12] clearly demonstrated that both retardation and

acceleration are must be included to have a reliable

model.

Later models by Gallagher [13], Chang [14] and

Johnson [15] included functions to account for both

retardation and acceleration.

A new generation of models that were based on

the crack-closure concept were introduced by Bell and

Wolfman [16], Schijve [17], de Koning [18], Baudin et al.

[19] and Aliaga et al. [20]. Newman [21] presented the

first finite element model based on the crack closure

concept. The simplest model is the one proposed by

Schijve [2], who assumed that the crack-opening stress

remains constant during each flight in a flight-by-flight

sequence. The other models developed empirical

equations to account for retardation and acceleration,

similar to the yield-zone models.

RETARDATION PHENOMENON

Corbly & Packman describe [22] some aspects of

the retardation phenomenon. Despite the recent large

increase in research into retardation effects in crack

propagation there are many aspects of load interaction

phenomena that lack adequate explanations. Aspects of

the retardation phenomena that are generally agreed

upon are presented below.

1. Retardation increases with an increase in the values

of the peak load

peak

for given values of lower stress

levels [23,24].

2. The number of cycles at the lower stress level

required to return to the non-retarded crack growth rate

is a function of K

peak

, K

lower

, R

peak

,, R

lower

and number

of peak cycles [25].

3. If the ratio of the peak stress to lower stress intensity

factors is greater than l.5 complete arrest at the lower

stress intensity range is observed. Tests were not

continued long enough to see if the crack ever

propagated again [25].

10. Negative peak loads can cause an up to 50 per cent

increase in fatigue crack propagation with R = - 1 [28].

11.Low-high sequences do not affect in crack

propagation at the higher load level [30].

12. Low-high sequences cause an initial acceleration of

crack propagation at the higher stress level which rapidly

stabilizes [31].

The major links between fatigue and fracture

mechanics were pointed out by Christensen [32] and

Elber [33]. The crack closure concept put crack

propagation theories on a firm foundation and allowed

the development of practical life prediction methods for

constant and variable amplitude loading, such as that

experienced by modern commercial aircraft.

Numerical analysis using finite elements has

played a major role in the stress analysis of crack

problems. Swedlow [34] was one of the first to use the

finite element method to study the elastic-plastic stress

field around a crack. The discovery of crack closure

mechanisms, such as plasticity, roughness, oxide,

corrosion, and fretting product debris, and the use of the

effective stress intensity factor range, has provided an

engineering tool to predict small and large crack growth

rate behavior under service loading conditions.

Ricardo et al. [35] presented an example of

small scale yielding under constant amplitude loading. A

compact tension specimen was modeled using a

commercial finite element code, ANSYS, version 6.0

[36]. Half of the specimen was modeled and symmetry

conditions applied. Figure 4 shows the compact tension

specimen from ASTM 647-E95a [37], and

Figure 2 shows the model used in this work.

4. For a given ratio of peak stress intensity to secondary

stress, intensity the number of cycles required to return

to non-retarded growth rates decreases with an

increased time at zero load before cycling at the lower

level [25].

5. The percentage delay due to a given a percent

overload increase with an increase in the baseline

stress intensity factor [26].

6. Significant second order effects have been noticed in

decreasing staircase sequences. In a decreasing three

step sequence, the delay increases with an increase in

the value of initial stress in the sequence [26].

7. For a three step decreasing sequence, the delay

increases with an increased intermediate step stress

(the initial step remains constant) [27].

8. Delay is decreased if compression is applied

immediately after a tensile overload [28].

9 Underloads do not substantially influence crack growth

rates at secondary stress levels if R > 0 for the lower

stress [29].

Figure 2 - FEM Model of the CT

Their analysis showed that it was possible to simulate

crack propagation and obtain values such as opening

and closure stress intensity factors by the finite element

method. The correlation of their analysis with

experimental results was good until a value of

a/W = 0.40 was reached, after which point the

experimental plastic zone increased more rapidly than

the calculated plastic zone, and the trends diverged.

Skorupa [38] found that for simple load histories

containing combinations of overload and underload

cycles, an underload applied immediately after an

overload reduced the post-overload retardation more

significantly than an underload that immediately

preceded the overload.

Suresh [39] provided an extensive review of small

cracks. A small crack has little length behind its tip, so

that the interference between the crack faces that

constitutes closure is lessened. One effect of this

reduced closure is that crack growth rates are increased,

in the low-growth-rate, threshold region. However, a

review of the extensive literature on this topic is beyond

the scope of the present review.

Fatigue crack closure and growth behavior under

random loading have been investigated by Youb and

Song [40] using a side-grooved CCT specimen of 2024-

T351 aluminum alloy. They discuss the effects of load

spectrum and history length on crack closure and crack

growth behavior in detail. Random loading tests were

performed using narrow and wide band random load

histories of various history lengths ranging from 500

cycles to 2000 cycles. The conclusions they came to are

summarized as follows:

1. The crack opening load is nearly constant during a

random loading block histories of lengths ranging from

500 cycles to 2000 cycles, and is predominantly a

function of the largest load cycle in the random load

history, irrespective of random load spectrum and history

length.

2. The crack opening load under random loading is

different from that under constant amplitude loading.

This implies that the crack closure behavior under

random loading cannot be estimated from constant

amplitude tests

3. Fatigue crack growth under random loading can be

successfully described by the crack closure concept.

Consistent effects of random load spectrum and history

length on crack closure and growth behavior were not

observed within the range of load levels examined in this

study.

4. The maximum crack opening loads observed in single

overload and periodic single overload tests agree well

with the crack opening loads under random loading. This

means that the crack closure behavior under random

loading can be estimated from single overloading or

periodic single overloading tests.

Many models [41-45] for predicting fatigue crack

growth under random loading have been developed.

Kikukawa et al. [46-49] made extensive measurements

of crack opening loads under various random load

histories.

They reported that the crack opening point is

controlled by the maximum range-pair load cycle (which

we call hereafter the largest load cycle) in a random

load history. Furthermore, this crack opening level is

identical with that for constant amplitude loading

corresponding to the largest load cycle. Based on this

crack opening behavior, they proposed a simple

predictive procedure for crack growth under random

loading.

Zheng [50] provided a criterion for omitting small

loads. In the past, an underload (or subload) was

defined as a nominal stress amplitude lower than or

equal to the endurance limit, and the effect of

underloads on fatigue life was investigated

experimentally by using smooth specimens. Test results

showed that underload cycles applied to smooth

specimens increased the fatigue life or the endurance

limit of low-carbon steel [51] and cast iron [52], which

was called coaxing. However, past research on the

underload effect was not associated with the omission of

small load cycles in making life predictions [53-54].

The omission of small load cycles is necessary

and important in the compilation of a load spectrum [55],

in the prediction of the fatigue life and in the assessment

of the fatigue reliability of structures [56-57], and is cost

effective in fatigue tests of components and structures

under long-term variable-amplitude or random loading

histories.

SUMMARY

The paper provides a review of the retardation

models that have been used for constant and variable

amplitude loading. Small scale yield models used to

determine crack closure levels are discussed and an

example is given of the use of the finite element method

to estimate crack closure levels. Editing to shorten

variable amplitude load histories is also discussed a

general procedure to generate, edition and utilization of

the variable amplitude loadings in the automotive and

aircraft structures.

REFERENCES

1. Miner, M. A. Cumulative Damage in Fatigue,

Journal of Applied Mechanics, ASME, Vol.12, ,

USA, 1945 p. A159-A164.

2. Schijve, J. Fatigue Crack Propagation in Light Alloy

Sheet Material and Structures , NLR, Report

MP195, Amsterdam, 1960.

3. Stouffer, D. C. & Williams, J. F A Method for Fatigue

Crack Growth with a Variable Stress Intensity

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536,1979.

4. Paris,P.C. & Erdogan, F. Journal of Basic

Engineering, n.0 85, p.528, 1963

5. Ditlevsen, O. & Sobczyk, K. Random Fatigue Crack

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and Predictions on Fatigue Crack Growth in

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1016-1028, 2005

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Art Review on Fatigue Crack Growth Analysis under

Variable Amplitude Loading IEI Journal, pp. 118-

129, 2004.

9. Newman , J.C. Jr., The Merging of Fatigue and

Fracture Mechanics Concepts: A Historical

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11. Willenborg, J.D.; Engle, R.M. & Wood, H.A A Crack

Growth Retardation Model using na Effective Stress

Concept; AFFDL, TM-71-FBR, Air Force Flight

Dynamics Laboratory, Wright Patterson Air force

Base, OH, 1971

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for predicting fatigue crack growth under random loading.

ASTM STP 748, 1981.

13. Gallagher, J.P. & Hughes, T. F. Influence of

the Yield Strength on Overload Fatigue Crack

Growth Behavior of 4340 Steel; AFFDL TR-

74-27, Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory,

Wright Patterson Air force Base, OH, 1974

14. Chang, J.B, Szamossi, M. & Liu, K. W.;

Random Spectrum Fatigue Crack Growth Life

Predictions With or Without Considering Loads

Interactions; ASTM STP- 748, pp. 3-40, 1981.

15. Johnson, W. S. Multi-Parameter Yield Zone

Model For Predicting Spectrum Crack Growth,

ASTM STP 748, pp.85-102, 1981

16. Bell PD, Wolfman A. Mathematical modelling of

crack growth interaction effects. ASTM STP

595, 1976:15771.

17. Schijve J. Prediction methods for fatigue crack

growth in aircraft material. ASTM STP 700,

1980:334.

18. de Koning AU. A simple crack closure model

for prediction of fatigue crack growth rates

under variableamplitude loading. ASTM STP

743, 1981:6385.

19. Baudin G, Robert M. Crack growth life-time

prediction under aeronautical type loading.

Proceedings of the 5

th

European Conference

on Fracture. Lisbon, Spain, 1984:77992.

20. Aliaga D, Davy A, Schaff, H. A simple crack

closure model for predicting fatigue crack

growth under flight simulation loading.

Durability and damage tolerance in aircraft

design. Warley, UK: EMAS Ltd., 1985:60530

21. Newman, J.C. A Finite Element Analysis

Fatigue Crack Closure, NASA TM X 72005,

NASA, Hampton, VA, 1975

22. Corbly, D.M. & Packman, P.F. On The

Influence of Single and Multiple Peak

Overloads on Fatigue Crack Propagation in

7075-T6511 Aluminum Eng. Fracture Mech.,

Vol. 5, pp 479-497, 1973

23. Schijve, J. ; Brock, D. & de Rigle, P., Report

M2094, Amsterdam, 1962

24. Hardrarth, H.F. & McEvily, A . T. Proc. Crack

Propagation Simposium, Vol. 1 Cranfield,

1961

25. Jonds, D. & Wei, R.P. An Exploratory Study of

Dealy in Fatigue Crack Growth, Eng. Fracture

Mech. 7,1971.

26. von Ewu, E. ; Hertzberg, R. & Roberts, R. Delay

Defects in Fatigue Crack Propagation, Nat.

Symposium F.M.; 7; 1971

27. Hudosn, C.M. & Raju, K.W., TN-D-5702, NASA

28. Crooker, T.W, Effect of T.C. Cycling on Fatigue

Grade Growth in High Strength Alloys, NRL Report

7220, 1971

29. Hubbard, R.P. Trans. ASME, Journal Basic of

Engineering, 91, 625, 1969

30. Hudson, C.M. & Hardrath, H.F., TN-D-960 NASA,

1961

31. Mcmillan, J.C. & Pelloux, R.M. ,ASTM STP 415, p.

505, 1966

32. Christensen, R. H. Fatigue Crack Growth Affected

by Metal Fragments Wedged Between Opening

Closing Crack Surface, Appl. Mater. Res.,

n 2,Ocotber, pp. 207-210, USA, 1963.

33. Elber W., Equivalent Constant Amplitude Concept

for Fatigue Crack Growth under Spectrum Loading,

ASTM STP 595, pp. 236-250,1976.

34. Swedlow, J. L. Effectc and Plastic Flow in Cracked

Plates, PhD Thesis, California Institute of

Technology, Pasadena, USA, 1965

35. Ricardo, L.C. H, Andrade, A.H.P.; Goldefroid, L.B. &

Topper, T.H.; (2004) Finite Element Method to

Simulate Crack Closure Stress Intensity Factor SAE

Paper Number 2004- 01- 2229, II International SAE

Fatigue Conference, June 22-23, Sao Paulo, Brazil

36. Ansys Inc, Ansys Version 6.0, USA, 2002

37. ASTM, Standard Test Method for Measurement of

Fatigue Crack Growth Rates, E647 95a, 1995

38. Skorupa M., Load Interaction Effects During

Fatigue Crack Growth Under Variable Amplitude

Loading A Literature Review ; Fat. Fract. of Eng.

Mat. & Structures, Vol. 21, pp.987-1006, 1998

39. Suresh, S. Fatigue of Materials, 2nd edition,

Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1998.

40. Youb, Y. & Song, J. H. Fatigue Crack Closure

and Growth Behaviour Under Random

Loading, Eng. Fracture Mech., vol, 49, n.0 1,

pp. 105-120, 1994

41. Barsom, J.M., Fatigue Crack Growth Under

Variable Amplitude Loading in Various Bridges

Steels; ASTM STP- 595, pp. 217-235, 1981.

42. Hudson C. M, A Root Mean Square Approach

for Predicting Fatigue Crack Growth under

Random Loading. ASTM STP 748, pp. 41-52,

1981.

43. Johnson, W. S. Multi-parameter Yield Zone

Model for Predicting Spectrum Crack Growth,

ASTM STP 748, pp 85-102,1981.

44. Rudd, J.L. & Engle Jr., R.M. Crack Growth

Behavior of Center Cracked Panels Under

Spectrum Loading; ASTM STP 748, pp. 115-

132, 1981

45. Chang, J.B, Szamossi, M. & Liu, K. W.;

Random Spectrum Fatigue Crack Growth Life

Predictions With or Without Considering Loads

46. Interactions; ASTM STP- 748, pp. 3-40, 1981.

47. Kikukawa M,. Jono M, Kondo Y. & Mikami S.,

Fatigue Crack Closure and Estimation Method

of Crack Propagation Rate under Stationary

Varying Loading Conditions Including Random

Loading (1st report, Effects of mean load and

study on wave counting method); Trans. Jpn

Sot. Mech. Engrs 48, pp. 1496-1504, 1982

48. Jono M.,. Song J & Kikukawa M., Fatigue

Crack Growth and Crack Closure of Structural

Materials under Random Loading. Proc. ICM

6, pp. 1735-1742, 1984.

49. Jono M.,. Song J & Kikukawa M., Prediction of

Fatigue Crack Growth and Closure under Non-

Stationary Random Loading. Proc. ICOSSAR

4, pp. 465-474,1985.

50. Jono M.,. Song J & Kikukawa M., Fatigue

Crack Growth and Crack Closure under

Variable Loadings (Effect of load variations on

characteristic form of crack growth rate curve in

region-II). J. Sot. Mater. Sri. Jpn 34, pp.1193-

1199,1985 (in Japanese)

51. Zheng, X. On Some Basic Problems of fatigue

Research in Engineering; Int. Journal of

Fatigue; 23, pp.751-766, 2001

52. Frost, N.E., Marsh, K.J. & Pook, L. In: Metal

Fatigue, Oxford: Clarendon Press, pp.20-22, 1974

53. Cai, Q.K. Theory of Fatigue and Fracture of

Metals, Shenyang: Press of Northeast Institute of

Technology, 1989 [ in Chinese ]

54. Heuler, P. & Seeger, T. A Criterion For Omission of

Variable Amplitude Loading Histories; Int. Journal

of Fatigue, pp. 225-230, 8, 4, 1986

55. ECCS Recommendations for Fatigue Design of

Steel Structures, Institute of Metal Construction

(IOCM) of Swiss Federal Institute of Tecnology,

Lausanne, Switzerland, ECCS, 1985

56. Shi, Y.J., Yan, Y.M., Li, Z.R. Shi, Z.J. Hou, W.W.

Assessment of Remaining Life of Steel Beams of

Chang- Tai-Guam Bridge on The Line from Beijing to

Guangzhou, Technical Report, Beijing, Institute of

Railway Engineering, Chinese Academy of Railway

Science, 1990

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Machinery Industry Press, 1982, [ in Chinese]

58. Barsom J. M., Fatigue Crack Growth under Variable

Amplitude Loading in Various Bridge Steels, ASTM

STP 595, pp. 217-235, 1976

Definitions

peak

Peak Stress Level

peak

K

Peak Stress Intensity Factor Range

lower

K

Lower Stress Intensity Factor Range

peak

R

Peak Load Ratio

lower

R

Lower Load Ratio

dN

da

Crack Propagation Rate

C

Fatigue Crack Growth Coefficient

K

Stress Intensity Factor Range

m

Fatigue Crack Growth Exponent

min

K

Minimum Stress Intensity Factor

max

K

Maximum Stress Intensity Factor

c

K

Critical Stress Intensity Factor

eff

K

Effective Stress Intensity Factor Range

op

K

Opening Stress Intensity Factor

Sop Opening Stress

th

K

Threshold Stress Intensity Factor

K Stress Intensity Factor

B Specimen Thickness

W Width of Specimen

Contacts

Dr. Luiz Carlos H. Ricardo

Email: lricardo@ipen.br

Prof. Dr. Analdo H.P.Andrade

Email: aandrade@ipen.br

Email: topper@uwaterloo.ca

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