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[Type text] Nutrition Exam [Type text]

1. What are the 3 nutrients and there functions

1) Essential Nutrients: are those that a person must obtain through food because the
body cannot make them in sufficient quantities to meet its needs. The six classes of
nutrients are carbohydrates, fat, protein, water, minerals and vitamins.
2) Macronutrients: provide energy and consist of Carbohydrates, fat and proteins
3) Micronutrients: regulate body processes and consist of vitamins and minerals.
2. What is the purpose of the my pyramid
The purpose of my pyramid is to provide specific recommendations for making food
choices that will improve the quality of the average American diet. It provides
practical health, activity, and nutritional guidance’s for the client.
3. What does my pyramid recommend?
Increase your intake of vitamins, minerals, dietary fibers, and other essential
nutrients, especially of those that are often low in typical diets.
Lower your intake of saturated fats, trans fats, and cholesterol
Increase your intake of fruits, veggies, and whole grains to decrease risk of some
chronic diseases.
Balance your calorie intake with energy needs to prevent weight gain and /or
promote a healthy weight.
Eat in moderation, include activity, adjust proportions to suit individual needs, and try
variety of foods in your diet.
4. Name the 5 major food groups
Grains, Veggies, Fruits, Milk and Meats/Beans
5. What is a kilocalorie?
The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1kg of water 1 degree C.
1g carbohydrate yields 4C
1g fat yields 9C
1g protein yields 4C
1g alcohol yields 7C
Water has 0 calories
6. What is an empty calorie? Name some examples
Foods that supply calories with few to no nutrients, some examples include candy,
soft drinks, alcohol, and sugar.
7. Know about carbohydrates.
All plant foods, except plant oils contain carbohydrates. Milk is the only non-plant
source of carbohydrates. Rich sources of calcium include: bread, cereal, legumes,
died beans, fruit, and veggies. Sugar and sweets also provide non-complex
8. How are access carbohydrates stored?
Access carbohydrates are stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen, if there is an
extreme amount left over it will be stored as fat.
9. Name the monosaccharide’s
Single sugar molecules: Glucose, Fructose, and Galactose.
Glucose: also known as blood sugar or dextrose or grape sugar is most commonly
occurring sugar in the body.
Fructose: levulose or fruit sugar is found in honey, fruits, and sap.
Galactose: is found in milk sugar.
10.Name the disaccharides
Two sugar molecules: Sucrose, Lactose, Maltose
Sucrose: commonly known as table sugar is composed of fructose and galactose.
Source of sucrose are beets, sugar cane, maple sugar, and some fruits.
Lactose: is found in milk
11.Know the different signs and symptoms of hypo/hyperglycemia

12.Name the polysaccharides (complex carbohydrates)

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Are made up of a long chain of many sugar molecules arranges in such a way that
they do not taste sweet. Starch, dextrin, glycogen, and fiber are complex

13. Know the different types of Fats (oils). Which are good oils and which are
bad oils?
Saturated Fat remains solid in room temperature. Sources include butter, margarine,
animal fat, cheese. There are a couple exceptions to the rule. Coconut oil and palm
kernel oil are high in saturated fat and therefore should be avoided.
Unsaturated Fat (oils) is liquid at room temperature. Sources include corn, soybean,
canola, cottonseed, olive, safflower, sunflower, walnut, and sesame. Some foods are
rich in oils such as nuts, olives, some fish, and avocados.
14.Know the different functions of protein
The functions of protein include: building and repairing tissue, formation of muscle,
connective tissue, glands, organs, skin, and blood clotting factors. Every cell in the
body contains some protein. Help maintain body fluid balance, contributes to the
body’s acid-base balance. Hormones are made from proteins, and all enzymes are
proteins, therefore it is important for the immune system.
15.What is the difference between complete and incomplete protein
Complete protein or “high quality protein” contains all the essential amino acids the
body needs for growth and maintenance. All animal proteins are complete proteins
except gelatin. Soy is the only plant that is a complete protein.
Incomplete proteins lack sufficient amounts of one or more essential amino acids.
Plant proteins are generally considered incomplete.
16. Name some sources of proteins
Whole grains, rice, corn, beans, legumes, oatmeal, peas, and peanut butter. For vegetarians,
vegans and/or those who do not eat meat, fish, eggs, or dairy products.

17. What are some sources of calcium? Sources of calcium other than dairy.

Calcium is important to keep body fluid balance, helps with clotting, and regulating
heart and other muscle activities and nerve responses. It is also important for bone
strength. Non-dairy sources of calcium include: kale, broccoli, canned salmon with
bones, and calcium fortified orange juice and cereal.
18.Know about sodium and the different sources of sodium
It is the major ion in extracellular fluids. Body only requires 1 teaspoon of sodium per
day. Sources of sodium: meats, milk, some veggies (celery, tomatoes) canned soups,
processed foods, pizza, processed meats.
19.What can we feed clients to help with wound healing?
Encourage the client to consume proteins as these promote wound healing.
20. What are the fat soluble vitamins?
Fat soluble vitamins are A-D-E-K some sources include: A: liver, milk, butter, cheese,
cream, egg yolk, margarine, green veggies, pumpkin, watermelon, apricots,
cantaloupe. D: sunlight, liver, fatty fish, egg yolk, fortified milk, margarine. E: veggie
oil, margarine, salad dressing, nuts, seeds, wheat germ, dark green veggies, whole
grains, fortified cereal. K: green leafy veggies, liver, eggs, veggie of cabbage family.
21.What is the highest deficiency of vitamins in the US, what can we eat to get
this missing vitamin?
Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional deficiency in the US. Groups at risk
are infants under 2 years of age, adolescents, menstruating women, older adults,
minorities, and people with low incomes.
Measure to prevent iron deficiency include: using whole grains, choosing iron fortified
cereal, cooking in iron pots, consuming orange juice, tomatoes at every meal, eating
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meats, and avoiding coffee and tea right before or after any meal (both interfere with
22.If a client has PCM (Protein Calorie Malnutrition) what care would you have
with them?
Client must be encouraged to eat there meal, they must consume protein because
without it they will not be able to heal and their hospitalization time will be longer.

23.Know about marasmus and kwashiorkor

Marasmus: is extreme malnutrition and emaciation that occurs chiefly in young
children as a result of inadequate calories and proteins. This is seen in starvation or
in children with failure to thrive. Child has progressive wasting of the subQ tissue and
muscles. Slow and gradual addition of foods and maintenance of fluids and
electrolyte balance are keys to survival and growth.
Kwashiorkor is also a form of severe malnutrition found in children, cause by severe
protein deficiency. Have access to some calories but do not have access to protein,
so they will not loss weight as rapidly as marasmus. Eventually the malnourished
child will experience mental and physical retardation, dermatoses, necrosis, and
fibroses. May also experience liver necrosis, ascites, and degeneration of the liver.
With treatment mental retardation is permanent but physical growth can resume.
24.Nursing considerations when feeding a client
Make sure meal is presented in an appealing manner, that bed is elevated and that
they receive assistance as needed.
25.What are some helpful hints or methods you would give a clients who is
trying to lose weight
Reduce caloric intake and follow a low carb, low sodium diet.
26.Know about the different types of diets (etc: mechanical soft, bland…)
Mechanical soft diet is any food that can be pureed or ground or chipped. Bland diet
does not have chili or pepper or anything that can irritate the stomach and cause
27.What is the difference between a clear liquid diet and a full liquid diet?
Clear diet only consists of clear liquids, Water, clear broth, gelatin, popsicles, tea,
Full liquid diet consists of anything that is liquid at room temperature, including
pudding, custards, veggie and fruit juices.
28.What is a cardio diet?
Low sodium, low fat diets are used for cardio clients
29.What are some different sources of fiber?
Wheat and corn bran, whole wheat breads and cereal, brown rice, bananas,
cauliflower, nuts, lentils, green beans, green peas, citrus fruits, pectin, oat bran,
barley, navy beans kidney beans, apples, broccoli, carrots.
30.What type of diet will a diabetic client have?
Diabetic clients should have a carbohydrate controlled diet.
31.What recommendations can you give the client regarding filling nutritional

32.Know about vitamins and proteins