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Basic General Science Questions & Answers



Objective general awareness for fothcomming exam
1.Who amongst the following is the author of the book 'Straight from the Heart '?
(A) Kapil Dev
(B) Nelson Mandela
(C) Benazir Bhutto
(D) Tami Hoag
Ans : (D)
2. Which of the following earthquake waves pass through the core of the earth?
(A) P
(B) S
(C) P and S
(D) None of these
Ans : (C)
3. Who has designed the National Flag of India?
(A) Bankim Chandra Chatterjee
(B) Ravidas
(C) Mahatma Gandhi
(D) Pingly Vekaiyya
Ans : (D)
4. Under the reign of which emperor, Sir Thomas Roe visited India?
(A) Shershah Suri
(B) Akbar
(C) Jahangir
(D) Shahjahan
Ans : (C)
5. Who was known as the Punjab Kesari ?
(A) Subash Chandra Bose
(B) Lala Lajpat Rai
(C) Prakash Singh Badal
(D) Bal Gangadhar Tilak
Ans : (B)
6. Indifference Curve moves
(A) From left to right and down-wards
(B) From left to right and upwards
(C) From left to right but parallel to Y-axis
(D) Move upwards parallel to Y-axis
Ans : (A)
7. The 2010 Mens Hockey World Cup will be held in :
(A) India
(B) Japan
(C) Malaysia
(D) Sweden
Ans : (A)
8. Who said "Man is a social Animal" ?
(A) Aristotle
(B) Plato
(C) Loski
(D) Rousseau
Ans : (A)
9. The American President is elected by
(A) People
(B) The Congress
(C) Electrol College
(D) Senate
Ans : (C)
10. Census was introduced first time in India in time of
(A) Lord Carnwallis
(B) Lord William Bentic
(C) Lord Rippon
(D) Lord Clive
Ans : (C)
11. The nucleus of a conjugal unit is the relation of
(A) Husband and Wife
(B) Parents and Children
(C) Shivling
(D) All of the above
Ans : (B)
12. The major Rabi Crop in India is
(A) Barley
(B) Pulses
(C) Wheat
(D) Rapeseed
Ans : (C)
13. Which of the following is an objective method of measuring personality?
(A) Interview
(B) Questionnaire
(C) Observation
(D) All of the above
Ans : (B)
14. To clean ink spots from furniture one should use
(A) Linseed oil
(B) Eucalyptus oil
(C) Oxalic acid
(D) Spirit
Ans : (C)
15. Members of International Court of Justice are elected for a period of
(A) 8 years
(B) 9 years
(C) 5 years
(D) 4 years
Ans : (B)
16. Who is regarded the prime mover of the Bhakti Andolan ?
(A) Shankaracharya
(B) Ramanujacharya
(C) Vallabhacharya
(D) Madhavacharya
Ans : (C)
17. Ghana Bird Sanctuary is situated in
(A) Uttar Pradesh
(B) Uttaranchal
(C) Madhya Pradesh
(D) Rajasthan
Ans : (D)
18. Which language is spoken next to Hindi, in terms of number of people in India?
(A) Bengali
(B) Marathi
(C) Tamil
(D) Telugu
Ans : (A)
19. Who wrote 'Panchatantra' ?
(A) Bhavabhuti
(B) Narayan Sharma
(C) Vishnu Sharma
(D) Sriharsha
Ans : (C)
20. Which of the following is a grammatical treatise?
(A) Ritu Samhat
(B) Panchatantra
(C) Uttarramcharita
(D) Ashtadhyayi
Ans : (D)
21. Which Schedule of the Constitution of India provides for the disqualification of a
Legislator on grounds of defection ?
(A) 12th Schedule
(B) 10th Schedule
(C) 11th Schedule
(D) None of these
Ans : (B)
22. 'Andha Yuga' is written by
(A) Dharmaveer Bharati
(B) Amrit Lal Nagar
(C) Mohan Rakesh
(D) Shayam Manohar Joshi
Ans : (A)
23. 'Elia' was the pen name of
(A) Charles Lamb
(B) J. B. Priestly
(C) A. G. Gardiner
(D) Robert Lynd
Ans : (A)
24. 'A thing of beauty is a joy forever' is written by
(A) Keats
(B) Shelley
(C) Wordsworth
(D) Byron
Ans : (A)
25. Author of 'Gitanjali' is
(A) Aurobindo
(B) Tom Dutt
(C) Rabindra Nath Tagore
(D) Sarojini Naidu
Ans : (C)
26. Which is the largest island of the World?
(A) Greenland
(B) Medagaskar
(C) New Guienne
(D) Great Britain
Ans : (A)
27. The World Heritage Day is observed on
(A) March 18
(B) April 20
(C) March 20
(D) April 18i
Ans : (D)
28. The head of the State Bank of India is Designated as -
(A) Executive Director
(B) Governor
(C) Deputy Governor
(D) Chairman
Ans : (D)
29. Which of the following gases does not form part of the atmosphere?
(A) Nitorgen
(B) Chlorine
(C) Oxygen
(D) Carbon dioxide
Ans : (B)
30. The headquarters of the U.S. Department of Defence is located in
(A) Marlborough House
(B) The Pentagon
(C) White House
(D) None of these
Ans : (B)
31. The Secretariat of the UN is headed by
(A) Security Council
(B) Secretary General
(C) Chairman
(D) President of General Assembly
Ans : (B)
32. India's national calendar is based on
(A) Saka era
(B) Christian era
(C) Buddhist era
(D) Vedic era
Ans : (A)
33. Who amongst the following won the "WTA Player of the year" Award ?
(A) Serena Williams
(B) Jelena Jankovic
(C) Sania Mirza
(D) Justin Henin
Ans : (D)
34. The foreign trade policy announced in the year 2004 was announced for a period of -
(A) Two Years
(B) Five Years
(C) Six Years
(D) Four Years
Ans : (B)
35. When was the capital of India shifted from Calcutta to Delhi?
(A) 1906
(B) 1910
(C) 1911
(D) 1901
Ans : (C)
36. 'Economic Justice' as one of the objectives of the Indian Constitution has been provided
in the
(A) Preamble, Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles
(B) Preamble and Directive Principles
(C) Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles
(D) None of these
Ans : (A)
37. India earns maximum foreign exchange through the export of
(A) Tea
(B) Jute
(C) Coffee
(D) None of these
Ans : (A)
38. Which article of the Indian Constitution recognises Hindi in Devanagari script as the
official language of India?
(A) Article 345
(B) Article 343
(C) Article 348
(D) None of these
Ans : (B)
39. Name the periodical which Gandhiji published during his stay in South Africa
(A) Indian Opinion
(B) Young India
(C) Afrikaner
(D) None of these
Ans : (A)
40. Which country is known as the 'Sugar Bowl' of the world?
(A) India
(B) Cuba
(C) Brazil
(D) U.S.A.
Ans : (B)
41. Which of the following ports has a free trade zone?
(A) Cochin
(B) Mumbai
(C) Mormugao
(D) Kandla
Ans : (D)
42. Which of the following museum is located at New Delhi?
(A) Government Museum
(B) Salar Jung Museum
(C) National Museum of Natural History
(D) Prince of Wales Museum
Ans : (A)
43. The Reserve Bank of India was established in
(A) 1935
(B) 1947
(C) 1952
(D) 1969
Ans : (A)
44. Lala Hardayal was an active member of which of the following parties?
(A) Gadar Party
(B) Anushilan Samiti
(C) Kirti-Kisan Sabha
(D) Hindustan Socialist Association
Ans : (A)
45. Who amongst the following of Indian origin is nominated as the Governor of Louisiana
an American State ?
(A) Lakshmi Mittal
(B) Bobby Jindal
(C) Ratan Tata
(D) V.S.Naipaul
Ans : (B)
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Basic General Knowledge : Facts Of India
Posted byallexamWednesday, July 30, 2008at2:59 AM
Basic General Knowledge : Facts Of India
1.Red cross was founded by-J.H. Durant , Established in 1864 World red Cross day iscelebrated on
May 8,The Birthday its founder J.H. Durant.
2.Sir Robert S.S Baden Powell is the founder of scouting
3.Who gave the call go back to Vedas-Dayanand
4.The construction of Qutab Minar was begun by Quatab-ud-din Aibak but it was complateed by
5.Who built the Sanchi Stupa- Agratala.
6.Who founded slave dynasty in 1206 A.D.- Quatab-ud-din Aibak.
7.The Capital of Tripura is Agratala.
8. The Capital of Mizoram is aizawl.
9. The Capital of Australia is Canberra.
10.Spring tides occurs on- Full moon day as well on new moon day.
11.Tides in the oceans are caused by-Attraction of the moon.
12.Buddhism place of worship is-Pongda.
13.Jews place of worship is-Synagogue.
14.Holish book of Jews-Talmud.
15.Malguddi days written by R.K. Naraynan
16.Das capital-Karl Marx
17.The father of Economics- Adam smith.
18.The Chipko Movement was associated with-preventing felling of trees.
19.Pashmina is a breed of -Sheep.
20.What is the meaning of Buddha An enlightened one.
21.Which is the holy book of Parsis- Jorah
22.Parliament of U.S.A is known as- Congress
23. Parliament of Afghanistan- Shoora
24. Parliament of Russia-Duma.
25. Parliament of Japan Diet.
26.SARS:-It Stands for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome. SARS is caused by viruses from the
corona and paramyxo virus family.
27.New Governors of India:-
-Kailashpati Mishara Gujrat
-Ram Parkash Gupta Madhya Pradesh
-O.P Verma -Punjab
-V.S Kokje - Himachal Pradesh
-Nirmal Chand - Rajasthan
28.LCA(Light Combat Aircraft)is named as Tejas
29. Lakshva is Pilot Less target Aircraft
30.Kalpna Chawla: She was an Indian born American Astronaut. She died with other six astronauts in
the Columbia shuttle crash on feb.1,2003.She embarked on her second Voyage in the United State
space shuttle Columbia on Jan 16,earlier.She was an Indian born American Astronaut.She died with
other six astronauts in the Columbia shuttle Columbia on jan 16,earlier.She
was one of the six astronaut crew that flew the
Columbia Flight STS-87in nov.1997 Chawla who had her schooling in Karnal (Haryana)and college
education in Punjab did her Masters in Aerospase Engineering from the university of Taxes in in 1984
and Doctorate from Colorado University two year later. An avid flier, she held certified flight
instructors license with Airplane and Gladder ratings, commercial Pilot L icense for single and multi-
engine land and seaplanes
31.Jan. 9,the day Mahatma Gandhi return from South Agrica in 1915-was chosen to celebrate the
Pravasi Bharatiya Divas
32.The five day 90th session of the Lndian science congress conclude in Bangalore on
Jan.7,2003.The focal theme of the congress was Vision for the global Space community.
33.Sriska and Ranthambore are the reserve for lion.
34.International Criminal court was launched formally in the mid march in the Hauge . The first
eighteen judges took Oath in the grand ceremony. The court has been set up to handle genocide and
the Worst case of war crime or mass atrocities against civilians when no national court
is able or willing to do so.
35.Right to Education:-article 21A provides the free and compulsory education to all children of
the age of six to fourteen.
36.Freedom of information bill:- The parliament approved the Freedom of information bill.Now it is
statutory right of the citizen to access information from the Government.
37.Right to Education :- article21A provides the free and compulsory education to all children of the
age of six to fourteen
38.Freedom of information bill:- The Parliament approved the freedom of information bill. Now it is
statutory right of the citizen to access information from the Government.
39.Minister of state for defence is prof. Chaman lal gupta
40.Ajit singh is Agriculture Minister.
41. Sapan is not a member of G-8 group.
42. APSARA is the name of the Indias first Nuclear Reactor.
43.The world environment day is celebrated on june 5.
44.Jainism:-Founded by (Rishabha)Varhamana Mahavira. He was a great 24th Triathankras
(Pathfinder).Or prophet of Jainism .Mahavir was a
greast Kshtiya ,born at Kundagram (Vaishali) in bihar. He came to be known as Mahavir of jina. The
conqueror of passing; his following are known as Janis. He passed away at age 72 in 462 B. C at
Pavapuri, a place near modern Rajgir . Mahavira Teaching are known as the Tri Ratna or the three
jewels of Jainisn,which lead to the attainment of salvation . They are (I) Right Knowledge and (II)
Right Action .The Janis used and developed Prakrit,The language of the common people .Their
religious literature was written in Ardhamagadhi.
45.Vasco da Gama landed in Calicut in 1498.
46.Ist Chinese traveler, Fahein came to India during the period of chandra Gupta-II(Vikramaditya)
47.2nd Chinese traveler Hieun Tsang came to India during the region of Harshvardhana
48.Who is the Napoleon of India Samundra Gupta for his military exploits.
49.Harshvardhana written three books-1.Priya Darshika 2.Rattanavali 3.Naga Nanda. The official poet
of harshvardhana was bana bhatt .Bana bhatta
composed harsha chirtra and kadambari
50.first battle of panipat in 1526 and founded
the Mugahal dynasty in India
51.Second battle of Panipat was fought between
Akbar and Ibrahim Lodhi at Panipat in 1556 Akbar
Defeated Himu and became the ruled of Delhi and Agra
52 Third battle of Panipat fought between Ahmed Shah Abdali of Afghanistan and Marathas in
1761.In this third battle of Panipat Marathas were completely routed by Ahmed Shah Abdali.
53.Indian National Army was founded by Subash Chander Bose in 1943 in Singapore alongwith
Rasbihari Bose. The main aim of Azad Hind Fauz
was to liberation of India.
54.The Brahmo Samaj was established by Raja Ram Mohan Roy in 1828 whose leadership was later
taken by Debendernath tagore and Keshub Chande Sen.
55.The Arya Samaj founded by Swami Dayananda Saraswati in 1875 attempted to reform the Hindu
religion from its decadence.
56.The Ramakrishana Mission was founded by
Swami Vevekananda in 1896 .
57.Annie besant:- Founded Theosophical society started home rule league in 1916. She was the first
woman president of Indian National Congress.Indian National Congress Founded by A.O.Hume in
1885. However first President of Indian national congress was W.C. Banerjee.
58.Swadeshi movement was started in 1905.
59.Gadder party was founded by lala Hardayal singh in 1913 at Francisco.
60.Home rule league founded by Annie Besant and Bal Ganga Dhar Tilak in 1916.
1916.Rowlatt Act. Passed in 1919.
61.Non-Co-Operation movement started in 1920 by Gandhi ji. This movement ended in 1922 after
Chauri Chaura incident.
62.Simons commission 1928
63.Civil Disobedience movement-1930
64. Do or die Mahatma Gandhi
65. Nightingale of India-Saorjini Naidu.
66. Father of Indian Unrest-Bal Ganga Dhar Tilak.
67. Architect of India- Pandit Nehru.
Man of Peace-Lal Bhadur Shastri.
69. Iron Man of India-Sardar.
70. jai hind subash chander bose
71. Grand old man of India Dada Bhai Naroji

Basic General Knowledge For All Exams
1.Dada Bhai Naoroji was the first Indian to became a member of the British Parliament
2.Govt.of India banned the student Islamic movement of India (SIMI)because it had linked with
Osama Bin Ladens a1-Qaeda Group
3.The Salary of member of parliament and higher perks is ehanced from Rs.4000 to 12,000 per
month and constituency allowance from Rs.8000 to 10,000 per month and daily allowance of Rs.400
to Rs. 500 for a period of five year
4.Competition bill to replace MRTPC (Monopolies and Restrictive Trade Practice Act.)
5.Supreme court ruled on August 2,2001 that a public servant convicted in corruption case should not
hold office till he was cleared of the charges by a superior court
6.Number of amendments in constitution is 8 till now
7.The terrorist out fit that brought the WTC and destroyed part of Pantagon in Washington is A1-
Queda.the network association with Osama Bin Laden
8. ISI-Inter Service Intelligence
9.Durent line boundary between India and Afghanistan
11.Mc Mohan Line:-boundary between India and china
12.Redcliff Line:- boundary between India and Pakistan
13.Palk Strait:- boundary between India and Sri Lanka
14.Prithvi:-Surface to surface missile.It has a range 250km
15.Agni:- Is Surface to surface has a range1500-2000km
16.Akash:- Is Surface to surface has a range of 25km
17 Nag: It is an anti tank missile having range of 4km
18.Bank rate is the rate at which the reserve Bank of India gives credit to commercial Banks
19.Amicus Curiae-Lawyer appointment by the court to represent a poor means friend of
20.C.R.R- Cash Reserve Ratio
21.Medico Legal case-Accidental Case
22.The most important influence of the moon on the earth is the effect on ocean tides
23.Ranthambore:- Ranthambore National park in Rajasthan(410 ones the private tiger
reserve of the Maharaja of Jaipur
24.Ghana Bird Sanctuary-Bharatpur Rajasthan
25.Standerd Deduction in income tax-30,000/-
26.Maximum income not liable to tax-50,000/-
27.Americans Robinson Walton(Bill gates)is the richest person in the world
28.Bio terrorism:-It refer to the use of disease causing micro oganism as terroist weapons to cause
devastating ipack on the people.for example.Anthrax
29.Public University founded in 1982 at Lahore.After partition in was re-established in India on 1st of
October 1947.the University moved to Chandigarh in 1956,vice chancellor of Punjab university is
30.Kapil Dev has been chosen the wisdom Indian cricketer of the century.
31.Akshardham Temple is in Gandhi Nagar (Gujrat
35 people were killed by terrorist )
32.Metro rail Delhi 24 Dec,2002(Shahdra to is Hagari 8.3km)
33.CAG- V.N.Kaul
34.Chairman of SBI-A.K.Purwar
35.Guru Nanak born in Talwandi now called Nankana Sahib in 1469 .He died in 1539.Guru was
founder of Sikhism
36. Guru Angad Dev- introduced langer system
37. Guru Amar Das- social reformer and discarded sati pratha
38. Guru Ram Das- founded city of Amritsar
40. Guru Arjun Deb- Built GoldenTemple and compiled Aadi Granph or Guru Granth Sahib. Guru
Arjun Deb compled Granth Sahib in 1604 with the of bhai Gurdas Bhalla ji. Guru Arjun Dev was
executed by Jahangir on the advice of Chandu Singh. Guru Arjun Dev got the foundation of
Harmandir Sahib laid down by a Muslim Faqir main mir.
41.Guru hargobind singh stared the system of
Akal takht and miri,piri
42.Guru Har Rai
43.Guru Harkishan
44.Guru Teg Bahadur-Guru Teg Bahadur executed by Aurangzeb
45. Guru Gobind Singh Founder of Khalsa 13th April,1699,Baisakhi, Khalsa means military
brotherhood Zafarnama :- This is Letter written by
Guru Gobind Singh to Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb.
This letter was written because Aurangzeb was committed many atrocities on people.Guru Gobind
Singh asked Aurangzeb to give up the policy at Anandpur Sahib on the 1st Baisakh 13th April,1699
46.Dasam Granth was compiled by a devoted sikh mani singh after passing away Of Guru Gobind
Singh .
47.Guru Ki kashi-Takhat Damdma Sahib. It is famous Gurudwara, Which is situated at Talwandi
Sabo. It is called Guru Ki Kashi
48.Guru Ki Wadali it is Birth place of Guru Hargobind Ji . it is famous Gurudwara of Punjab
49.Banda Bahadur- Was born on 27th October, 1670. His real name was Lachaman Das. Once,
during hunting an arrow of Banda Bahadur stuck a pregnant she deer; Banda Bahadur was greatly
pained to see the tragic death of the deer and its two kids. He renounced the world and become a
Bairagi. Banda Bahadur adopted the name Madho Das after becoming a Bairagi. Madho Das (Banda
Bahadur) met Guru Sahib. He said I am your Banda (Servant). Thus Madho Das become Banda.
Guru Gobind Sahib called him Banda the brave. Thus acquired the name Banda Bahadur
50. Sharomani Gurdawara Prabandhak Committee was established on 15th Nov. 1990, at Akal
Takhat Amritsar.
51.Aklis launched a non-movement in 1921 with the aim of Librating Sikh Guru Gurudwara from
52. Article 1 of the constitution of India declares India as a - Union Of State
General Science :
The study of bones is called ostelogy
Total no of bones 206
Smallest bone-Stapes(ear boe)
Longest bone-Femus(Thigh bone)
Strongest bone-Tibia(leg bone)
Total no of muscles-639
Largest grand-liver
Longest gland-thyroid
Longest nerve-Sciatic
Hardest bone-Tooth enamal
Tolal amount of blood in the body is (1/15 of body weight)
Normal body Temperature-98.6F(37C)
53.Creator of Bachittar Natak- Guru Gobind Singh
54.Creator of Jab Sahibh- Guru Gobind Singh
55.Creator of Anand Sahib- Guru Amar Das ji
56.Creator of Sukhmani Sahib Guru Arjan Dev ji
57. Compiler of Guru Granth Sahib Guru Arjan Dev ji
58.Writer of Adhi Granth at the time of its compilation of Bahi Gurdas Bhalla ji
59.Creator of Bani written in Dasam Granth-Guru Gobind singh ji
60.Most famous writer of Qisa Puran Bhagat Fazal Shah.
Maharaja Ranjit Singh and his Administration:-
61.Date of Birth of Maharaja Ranjit Singh-Nov.2,1780.
62.Name of the parents of Maharaja Ranjit Singh- Father name:-Maha singh ,Mother name :-Raj Kaur
63.Time of treaty of Amritsar between Maharaja Ranjit Singh and British 25th April,1809
64.Name of the Foreign minister of Maharaja Ranjit Singh-Faqir Azizudeen
65.Head of Finance minister at the the time of Maharaja Ranjit Singh- Deewan Kaura Mal
66.Most famous prime minister of Maharaja Ranjit Singh- Dhian Singh Dogra
67.Meaning of Kankut system started by Maharaja Ranjit Singh- Tax on standing crop in the field
68.Nazim Adalat at the time of Maharaja Ranjit Singh state level- Court
69.Capital city of maharaja Ranjit Singh- Lahore
70.First war between Sikh and British 1845 A.D.
71.Second Anglo Sikh War-1848-1849 A.D.
72. Ranjit Singh (Thein) Dam has been constructed on the river- Ravi
73.Which Dam is built on Beas near Talwara- Pong Dam.
74. Dam built on the river Satluj- Bhakrha Dam
75.The Dusi dam has been constructed on the river Beas
76.The old name of the Amritser Ramdas nagar
77.Which Guru got constructor Akal Takhat GuruHargobind Sahib
78The real Granth Sahib has been placed at Kartarpur
79.Guru Nanak Dav Ji was enlightenment at- Sultan Pur
80.Which Guru built Buraj Baba Atal- Guru Hargobind Sahib
81. The old name Punjab- Sapat Sindhu
82.The Gurudwara situated at present where foundation of Khalsa Panth was laid Gurudwara
Kesgarh Sahib.
83.The other name of Harmandir Sahib is-Darbar Sahib.
84.The Guru;who founded Anandpur Sahib was Guru Teg Bahadur
85.Bhagat Singh was hanged on-23rd March, 1931
86.Number of district in Punjab-17, Lok Sabha seats-13
87. Highest Gallantry Award-Param Vir Chakra
88.NOBLE PRIZES;-The Honors of Wining the Noble Prizes go to the Following 7 Indians
(i)Rabinder Nath Tagore win the noble prizes from literature in 1913.
(ii)C.V. Raman win the noble prizes from physics in 1930.
(iii)Hargobind Khurana win the noble prizes from medicine in 1968.
(iv)Mother Teresa win the noble price from peace in 1979.
(vi) S. chandrashekher win the noble prize from physics in 1986.
(vii) Prof. Amaritya Sen win the noble prizes from Economics in 1998.
(viii) V.S.Naipal win the noble prizes from Literature in 2001.
90.Highest Gallantry Award- ParamVir Chakra
91.Highest Civilian Award- Bharat Ratana
92.First Olympic Game held at Athens in 1896
93.First Deputy Prime Minister of India-Sardar Patel
94.2nd deputy Prime Minister of India-Morarzi Desai
95. 3hd Deputy Prime Minister of India Choudhari Charan Singh
96. 5th Deputy Prime Minister of India Y.V.Chauan.
97.6th Deputy Prime Minister of India Dev Lal
98. 7th Deputy Prime Minister of India- Lal Krishan
99. AIDS:Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
100.HIV: Human Immunodeficiency Virus
101.AIDS:Is caused by Virus Aids is due to Human Immunodeficiency Virus
102.Classical Dance of India:-
-Manipur of Manipur
-Oddisi of Orissa
-Katha-Kali of Kerala
-Kuchi-Pudi of Andhra Pradesh
-Bharat Natyam of Tamil Nadu
-Kathak of Utter Pradesh
-Bihu of Assam
103.Legal Service Clinic:-A Legal Service Clinic open 24 hours on all days, has been established in
Ahemdabad to provide free service of retired high court judge and reputed lawyear.
105.The State of Haryana-:Came into begin on , Nov.1,1966 as result of the re- organizations
of the old Punjab state into two separate seats.It consist of the Hind speaking area of Punjab,secong
language status has been given to Punjab(1996)
106.Book and Author:-
-Life Diving
-Ain-I-Akbari -Aourbinbo Ghosh
-Panchtantra -Abdul Fazal
-Mahabharta -Vishnu Sharma
-India wins Freedom -Ved Vyas
-Discovery of India -Maulana Abdul Kalam
-My Experiment with Truth -Gandhi
-Madhushala -Harivansh Rai Bachan
-Prisoners Scorapbook -L.K.Advani
-Agha Khan Cup -Hockey
-Durant Cup -Football(India)
-Duleep/renjit Trophyre -Cricket
-Santosh Trophy -National Football
-Thomas Cup -World Bedminton(Men)
-Davis Cup -Lawn Tennis
108.Buddhism:Buddhism was founded by Gautam
Buddha. His Original name was Gautam Siddhartha , A Kashatriya, Boran in 563 B.C at Lumbini in
Nepal . He attended enlightenment at Bodhgaya under papal tree.Budha died at the age of 80 years
in 483 B.C at Kushinagar (District Utter Pradesh).He gave 8 fold paths to control the desire.1st
sermon was delivered by him at Srnarth at Banaras .The Language used by Buddhist people was pali
Summary of Economic Survey
Survey Pegs GDP Growth At 6.9% in 2011-12
Outlook Brighter for Next Fiscals

Indian economy is estimated to grow by 6.9% in 2011-12 mainly due to weakening industrial
growth. This indicates a slowdown compared not just to the previous two years, when the
economy grew by 8.4%, but also from 2003 to 2011, except 2008-9 economic downturn,
when the growth rate was 6.7 percent. The Economic Survey 2011-12, presented by the
Finance Minister, Sh Pranab Mukherjee in the Lok Sabha, however predicts 7.6% GDP
growth in 2012-13 and 8.6% in 2013-14. With agriculture and services continuing to perform
well, the slowdown can be attributed almost entirely to weakening industrial growth. The
services sector continues to be a star performer as its share in GDP has climbed from 58% in
2010-11 to 59% in 2011-12 with a growth rate of 9.4%. Similarly, agriculture and allied
sectors are estimated to achieve a growth rate of 2.5% in 2011-12 with foodgrains production
likely to cross 250.42 million tonnes owing to increase in the production of rice in some
States. The industrial sector has performed poorly, retreating to a 27% share of the GDP.
Overall growth during April-December 2011 reached 3.6% compared to 8.3% in the
corresponding period of the previous year.

The Survey points out that inflation as measured by the wholesale price index (WPI) was
high during most of the current fiscal year, though by year end there has been a clear
slowdown in price rise. Food inflation, in particular, has come down significantly, with most
of the remaining WPI inflation being driven by non-food manufacturing products. Monetary
policy was tightened by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) to control inflation and curb
inflationary expectations. The growth rate of investment in the economy is estimated to have
registered a significant decline during the current year. The year witnessed a sharp increase in
interest rates that resulted in higher costs of borrowings; and other rising costs affecting
profitability and, thereby, internal accruals that could be used to finance investment.

But despite the low growth figure of 6.9%, India remains one of the fastest growing
economies of the world as all major countries including the fast growing emerging economies
are seeing a significant slowdown. The global economic environment which was tenuous at
best throughout the year, turned sharply adverse in September, 2011, owing to the turmoil in
the euro-zone countries and questions about others, reflected in sharp ratings downgrades of
sovereign debt in most major advanced countries. While a large part of the reason for the
slowing of the Indian economy can be attributed to global factors, domestic factors also
played role. Among these are the tightening of monetary policy owing to high and persistent
headline inflation and slowing investment and industrial activity. However, for the Indian
economy, the outlook for growth and price stability at this juncture looks more promising.
There are signs from some high frequency indicators that the weakness in economic activity
has bottomed out and a gradual upswing is imminent. The Economic Survey expects the
growth rate of real GDP to pick up to 7.6% in 2012-13 and faster beyond that. The main
reason for a gradual recovery is the decline in overall investment rate. Gross capital
formation during the third quarter of 2011-12 as a ratio of GDP was at 30%, down from 32%
one year ago. As fiscal consolidation gets back to track, savings and capital formation should
begin to rise; moreover, with the easing of inflationary pressures in the months to come, there
could be a reduction in policy rates by RBI, which should encourage investment activity and
have a positive impact on growth. Preliminary calculations suggest that the growth rate of
GDP in 2013-14 will be 8.6%. These projections are based on assumptions regarding factors
like normal monsoons, reasonably stable international prices, particularly oil prices, and
global growth somewhere between where it now stands and 0.5% higher .The Global
economy remains quite fragile and concerted efforts will be needed through G-20 and other
forums to restore stability and renewed growth, including addressing the sovereign debt
crisis, financial regulation, growth and job creation efforts and energy security.

The Economic Survey suggests that the progressive deregulation of interest rates on savings
accounts will help raise financial savings and improve transmission of monetary policy.
Other key areas include the deepening of domestic financial markets, especially corporate
bond market and attracting longer-term inflows from abroad. Efforts at attracting dedicated
infrastructure funds have begun. Indias foreign trade performance will remain a key driver of
growth. During the first half of 2011-12, Indias export growth was a high 40.5%, but has
been decelerating since. Imports have growth rapidly, by 30.4% during 2011-12 (April-
December). Similarly, countrys Balance of Payments has widened to $ 32.8 billion in the
first half of 2011-12, compared to $29.6 billion during the corresponding period of 2010-11.
The foreign exchange reserves increased from US $ 279 billion at end March 2010 to US $
305 billion at end March 2011. Reserves varied from an all-time peak of US$ 322.2 billion at
end August, 2011 and a low of US $ 292.8 billion at end-January, 2012.

The Survey recognizes that sustainable development and climate change are becoming
central areas of global concern and India too is equally concerned and engaged constructively
in global negotiations. Climate change challenges ahead are large and India is doing more
than its fair share in reducing its energy-intensity of growth. India is now much more closely
integrated with the world economy as its share of trade to GDP of goods and services has
tripled between 1990-2010. At the same time, the extent of financial integration, measured by
flows of capital as a share of GDP, has also increased dramatically and the role of India in the
world economy has commensurately expanded, along with the other major members of
emerging markets.

(Release ID :80972)

The Union Budget 2012-13 presented by the Finance Minister Pranab Mukherjee in Lok
Sabha today identified five objectives to be addressed effectively in the ensuing fiscal
They include focus on domestic demand driven growth recovery; create conditions for
rapid revival of high growth in private investment; address supply bottlenecks in
agriculture, energy and transport sectors particularly in coal, power, national highways,
railways and civil aviation; intervene decisively to address the problem of malnutrition
especially in the 200 high-burden districts and expedite coordinated implementation of
decisions being taken to improve delivery systems , governance, and transparency; and
address the problem of black money and corruption in public life.
Mukherjee said that India's GDP growth in 2012-13 is expected to be 7.6 per cent +/-
0.25 per cent. He said that in 2011-12, India's GDP is estimated to grow at 6.9 per cent
after having grown at the rate of 8.4 per cent in each of the two preceding years He said
though the global crisis had affected India, it still remains among the front runners in
economic growth. Mukherjee said the slowdown is primarily due to deceleration in
industrial growth. Stating that the headline inflation remained high for most part of the
year, the Finance Minister expressed hope that it will moderate further in the next few
months and remain stable thereafter.
FM laid emphasis on striking a balance between fiscal consolidation and strengthening
macroeconomic fundamentals. He announced introduction of amendments to the Fiscal
Responsibility and Budget Management Act, 2003 (FRBM Act) as part of the Finance
Bill 2012. He said that concept of "Effective Revenue Deficit" and "Medium Term
Expenditure Framework" statement are two important features of Amendment to FRBM
Act in the direction of expenditure reforms. This statement shall set forth a three year
rolling targets for expenditure indicatoRs
The Finance Minister called for a need to have a close look at the growth of revenue
expenditure, particularly, on subsidies. He announced that from 2012-13 while subsidies
related to food and for administering the Food Security Act will be fully provided for, all
other subsidies would be funded to the extent that they can be borne by the economy
without any adverse implications. He said that the Government will endeavor to restrict
the expenditure on central subsidies under 2 per cent of GDP in 2012-13and over the
next three years, it would be further brought down to 1.75 per cent of GDP.
Finance Minister said that based on recommendations of the Task Force headed by
Nandan Nilekani, a mobile-based Fertilizer Management System has been designed to
provide end-to-end information on movement of fertilizers and subsidies which will be
rolled out nation-wide during 2012. He said that transfer of subsidy to the retailer and
eventually to the farmers will be implemented in subsequent phases which will benefit 12
crore farmer families.
On the tax reforms, the Finance Minister said that the Direct Taxes Code (DTC) Bill will
be enacted at the earliest after expeditious examination of the report of the
Parliamentary Standing Committee. He said drafting of model legislation for Centre and
State Goods and Services Tax (GST) in concert with States is under progress. He added
that the GST network will be set up as a National Information Utility and will become
operational by August 2012.
On the disinvestment policy, Mukherjee said that the Central Public Sector Enterprises
(CPSEs) are being given a level playing field vis--vis private sector with regard to
practices like buy-backs and listing at stock exchange. Stating that while in 2011-12, the
Government will raise about Rs 14,000crore from disinvestment as against a target of Rs
40,000 crore, the Finance Minister proposed to raise Rs 30,000 crore through
disinvestment in 2012-13. He said at least 51 per cent ownership and management of
CPSEs will remain with the government.
Calling for strengthening investment environment, Mukherjee said that efforts are on to
arrive at a broad-based consensus in respect of decision to allow FDI in multi-brand
retail up to 51 per cent. He proposed to introduce a new scheme called Rajiv Gandhi
Equity Savings Scheme to allow for income tax deduction of 50 per cent to new retail
investors who invest up to Rs 50,000 directly in equities and whose annual income is
below Rs 10 lakh. The scheme will have a lock-in period of 3 years Regarding capital
markets, the Finance Minister proposed to allow Qualified Foreign Investors (QFIs) to
access Indian Corporate Bond market. He also proposed simplifying the process of
Initial Public Offer (IPO).
Pranab Mukherjee said that the government is committed to protect the financial health
of Public Sector Banks and Financial Institutions. He proposed to provide Rs 15,888
crore for capitalization of Public Sector Banks, Regional Rural Banks and other financial
institutions including NABARD. He added that a Central Know Your Customer (KYC)
depositary will be developed in 2012-13 to avoid multiplicity of registration and data
The Finance Minister informed that out of 73,000 identified habitations that were to be
covered under "Swabhimaan" campaign for providing banking facilities by March 2012,
about 70,000 habitations have been covered while the rest are likely to be covered by
March 31, 2012.He added that as a next step Ultra Small Branches are being set up at
these habitations. In 2012-13, Swabhimaan campaign will be extended to more
Emphasizing on infrastructure and industrial development, Mukherjee said that during
the 12th Plan, infrastructure investment will go up to Rs 50 lakh crore with half of this
expected from private sector. Stating that in 2011-12 tax free bonds for Rs 30,000 crore
were announced for financing infrastructure projects, he proposed to double it to raise
Rs 60,000 crore in 2012-13. The Minister proposed to allow External Commercial
Borrowings (ECB) to part finance Rupee debt of existing power projects.
The Finance Minister announced a target of covering 8,800 km. under NHDP next year
and increase in allocation of the Road Transport and Highways Ministry by14 per cent to
Rs 25,360 crore in 2012-13. He proposed to permit ECB for working capital
requirements of the Airline Industry for a period of one year, subject to a total ceiling of
US dollar 1 billion to address the immediate financial concerns of the Civil Aviation
Sector.He added that a proposal to allow foreign airlines to participate up to 49 per cent
in the equity of an air transport undertaking is under active consideration.
Expressing concern over shortage in housing sector, the Finance Minister proposed
various measures to address the shortage of housing for low income groups in major
cities and towns including ECB for low cost housing projects and setting up of a Credit
Guarantee Trust Fund.
Regarding textile sector, the Finance Minister announced setting up of two more mega
clusters, one to cover Prakasam and Guntur districts in Andhra Pradesh and other for
Godda and neighboring districts in Jharkhand in addition to 4 mega handloom clusters
already operationalized. He also proposed setting up of three Weavers Service Centres,
one each in Mizoram, Nagaland and Jharkhand. The Minister proposed aRs 500 crore
pilot scheme in twelfth plan for promotion and application of Geo-textiles in the North
East.A powerloom Mega Cluster will be set up in Ichalkaranji in Maharashtra.
FM proposed to set up a Rs 5000 crore India Opportunities Venture Fund with SIDBI to
enhance availability of equity to micro, small and medium enterprises.
Stating that agriculture will continue to be a priority for the government, Mukherjee
proposed an increase by 18 per cent to Rs 20,208 crore in the total Plan Outlay for the
Department of Agriculture and Cooperation in 2012-13. He said that the outlay for
Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY) is being increased to Rs 9217 crore in 2012-13.
Underlining importance of timely access to affordable credit for farmers, the Finance
Minister proposed to raise the target for agricultural credit to Rs 5,75,000 crore, which
represents an increase of Rs 1,00,000 crore over the target for the current year.
He said that a short term RRB Credit Refinance Fund is being set up to enhance the
capacity of Regional Rural Banks to disburse short term crop loans to the small and
marginal farmeRs He added that Kisan Credit Card Scheme will be modified to make it a
smart card which can be used at ATMs.
The Financed Minister said that in order to have a better out reach of the food processing
sector, a new centrally sponsored scheme titled National Mission on Food Processing
will be started in cooperation with the States in 2012-13.
Minister proposed an increase of 18 per cent to Rs 37,113crore for Scheduled Castes Sub
Plan and an increase of 17.6 per cent to Rs 21,710 crore for Tribal Sub Plan during 2012-
Regarding food security, Mukherjee said that National Food Security Bill 2011 is before
Parliamentary Standing Committee. He said a multi-sectoral programme to address
maternal and child malnutrition in selected 200 high burdened districts is being rolled
out during 2012-13. He further said that an allocation of Rs 15,850 crore has been made
for ICDS scheme which is an increase of 58% and Rs 11,937 crore for National
Programme of Mid-Day Meals in schools for the year 2012-13. He added that an
allocation of Rs 750 crore is proposed for Rajiv Gandhi Scheme for Empowerment of
Adolescent Girls, SABLA.
The allocation for rural drinking water and sanitation is proposed to be increased by over
27 per cent to Rs 14,000 crore and for Pradhan Mantri Road SadakYojana by 20 per cent
to Rs 24,000 crore in 2012-13. He proposed to enhance the allocation under Rural
Infrastructure Development Fund to Rs 20,000 crore with Rs 5,000 crore exclusively
earmarked for .creating warehousing facilities.
The Finance Minister proposed an increase in allocation by 21.7 per cent for Right to
Education Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan to Rs 25,555 crore and by 29 per cent for Rashtriya
Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan to Rs 3,124 crore. He proposed to set up a Credit
Guarantee Fund to ensure better flow of funds to students.
Regarding health sector he proposed an increase in allocation for NRHM to Rs 20,822
crore in 2012-13. He also said that National Urban Health Mission is being launched.
The Finance Minister said that Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee
Scheme has had a positive impact. He proposed an allocation of Rs 3915 crore for
National Rural Livelihood Mission (NRLM) which represents an increase of 34 per cent.
He proposed to provide Rs 200 crore to enlarge the corpus to Rs 300 crore of the
Women's SHG's Development Fund. He said the fund will also support the objectives of
Aajeevika i.e. NRLM and will empower women SHGs to access bank credit. He also
proposed to establish a Bharat Livelihoods Foundation of India through Aajeevika which
will support and scale up civil society initiatives and interventions particularly in the
tribal regions covering around 170 districts.
Allocation under National Social Assistance Programme (NSAP) is proposed to be raised
by 37 per cent to Rs 8447 crore. Under the Indira Gandhi National Widow Pension
Scheme and Indira Gandhi National Disability Pension Scheme for BPL beneficiaries,
the monthly pension amount per person is being raised from Rs 200 to Rs 300.
FM announced a provision of Rs 1,93,407crore for Defence Services including Rs 79,579
crore for capital expenditure. He said the allocation is based on present needs and any
further requirement would be met.
Addressing governance related issues, Mukherjee said adequate funds are proposed to be
allocated to complete enrollments of another 40 crore persons under UID Mission.
Outlining the steps taken by the Government to address the issue of black money, the
Minister proposed to lay a White Paper on Black Money in the current session of
In the Budget estimates for 2012-13, the Gross Tax Receipts are estimated at Rs 10,
77,612 crore which is an increase of 15.6 per cent over the Budget Estimates and 19.5 per
cent over the revised estimates for 2011-12. After devolution to States, the net tax to the
Centre in 2012-13 is estimated at Rs 7,71,071crore.
The Non Tax Revenue Receipts are estimated at Rs 1,64,614crore and Non-debt Capital
Receipts at Rs 41,650 crore. The total expenditure for 2012-13 is budgeted at Rs
14,90,925 crore. Of this Rs 5,21,025crore is the Plan Expenditure while Rs 9,69,900
crore is budgeted as Non Plan Expenditure.
The tax proposals are guided by the need to move towards the Direct Tax Code(DTC) in
the case of direct taxes and Goods & Services Tax (GST) in the case of indirect taxes.
Individual income up to Rs 2 lakh will be free from income tax; income upto Rs 1.8 lakh
was exempt in 2011-12. Income above Rs 5 lakh and upto Rs 10 lakh now carries tax at
the rate of 20 per cent; the 20% tax slab was from Rs 5 lakh to Rs 8 lakh in 2011-12. A
deduction of up to Rs 10,000 is now available for interest from savings bank accounts.
Within the existing limit for deduction allowed for health insurance, a deduction of up to
Rs 5000 is being allowed for preventive health check-up. Senior citizens not having
income from business will now not need to pay advance tax.
While no changes have been made in corporate taxes, the budget proposes a number of
measures to promote investment in specific sectors. In order to provide low cost funds to
some stressed infrastructure sectors, withholding tax on interest payments on external
borrowings (ECBs) is being reduced from 20 percent to 5 per cent for 3 years. These
sectors are power, airlines, roads and bridges, ports and shipyards, affordable housing,
fertilizer, and dam.
Investment linked deduction of capital expenditure in some businesses is proposed to be
provided at 150 per cent as against the current rate of 100 per cent. These sectors include
cold chain facility, warehouses for storing foodgrain, hospitals, fertilizers and affordable
housing. Bee keeping, container freight and warehousing for storage of sugar will now
also be eligible for investment linked deduction.
The budget also proposes weighted deduction for R&D expenditure, agri-extension
services and expenditure on skill development in the manufacturing sector.
For small and medium enterprises (SMEs) the turnover limit for compulsory tax audit of
accounts as well as for presumptive taxation is proposed to be raised from Rs 60 lakh to
Rs 1 crore. In order to augment funds for SMEs, sale of residential property will be
exempt from capital gains tax, if the proceeds are used for purchase of plant and
machinery, etc.
A General Anti-Avoidance Rule (GAAR) is being introduced in order to counter
aggressive tax avoidance. Securities transaction tax (STT) is being reduced by 20 per
cent on cash delivery transactions, from 0.125% to 0.1%. Alternative Minimum Tax is
proposed to be levied from all persons, other than companies, claiming profit linked
The Finance Minister has proposed a series of measures to deter the generation and use
of unaccounted money. In the case of assets held abroad, compulsory reporting is being
introduced and assessment up to 16 years will now be allowed to be re-opened. Tax will
be collected at source on trading in coal, lignite and iron ore; purchase of bullion or
jewellery above Rs 2 lakh in cash; and transfer of immovable property (other than
agricultural land) above a specified threshold. Unexplained money, credits, investments,
expenditures etc. will be taxed at the highest rate of 30 per cent irrespective of the slab of
The Finance Minister has made an effort to widen the service tax base, strengthen its
enforcement and bring it as close as possible to the central excise. A common simplified
registration form and a common return are being introduced for central excise and
service tax.
All services will now attract service tax, except those in the negative list. The negative list
has 17 heads and includes specified services provided by the government or local
authorities, and services in the fields of education, renting of residential dwellings,
entertainment and amusement,public transportation, agriculture and animal husbandry.
A number of other services including health care, and services provided by charities,
independent journalist, sport persons, performing artists in folk and classical arts, etc
are exempt from service tax. Film industry also gets tax exemption on copyrights relating
to recording of cinematographic films.
Service tax rate is being increased from 10 per cent to 12 per cent, with consequential
change in rates for services that have individual tax rates. The standard rate of excise
duty for non-petroleum goods is also being raised from 10 per cent to 12 per cent. No
change is proposed in peak rate of customs duty of 10 per cent on non-agricultural
The Budget offers relief to different sectors of economy, especially those under stress.
Import of equipment for fertilizer projects are being fully exempted from basic customs
duty of 5 per cent for 3 years Basic customs duty is also being lowered for a number of
equipment used in agriculture and related areas.
In the realm of infrastructure, customs relief is being given to power, coal and railways
sectors while steam coal gets full customs duty exemption for 2 years (with the
concessional counter-veiling duty of 1 per cent), natural gas, LNG and certain uranium
fuel get full duty exemption this year. Different levels of duty concessions are being
provided to help mining, railways, roads, civil aviation, manufacturing, health and
nutrition and environment. So as to help modernization of the textile industry, a number
of equipment are being fully exempted from basic customs duty, and lower customs duty
is being proposed for some other items used by the textile industry.
Customs duty is being raised for gold bars and coins of certain categories, platinum and
gold ore. Customs duty is to be imposed on coloured gem stones. Excise duty on certain
categories of cigarettes and bidis, pan masala and chewing tobacco is being increased.
Customs duty is being increased on completely built large cars/ SUVs/ MUVs of value
exceeding $40,000.
Silver jewellery will now be fully exempt from excise duty. Unbranded precious metal
jewellery will attract excise duty on the lines of branded jewellery. Operations are being
simplified and measures taken to minimize impact of this provision on small artisans
and goldsmiths.
While direct tax proposals in the Budget will result in a net revenue loss of Rs
4,500crore, indirect taxes will result in a net revenue gain of Rs 45,940 crore. Thus, the
tax proposals will lead to a net gain of Rs 41,440crore. (With PIB inputs)
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