Angela Yarnell COND 822 J.P. Johnson July 1, 2006 Final Exam 1.

Characteristics of Baroque Choral Music (1600-1750) a. Rhythm i. Meter and rhythm were tied to affection composer wished to evoke ii. Some works improvisatory with flexible rhythms iii. Two types were often paired to provide contrast b. Tuning i. Continuous modulation of the recitatives ii. Fluctuating keys in operas and masses iii. Inconsistent modulatory schemes in the concertos c. Melody i. Opera seria – more natural melodies ii. Moments of great intensity in oratorios marked by arioso with affective melody iii. Word painting common d. Harmony i. Basso continuo – composers notated only treble and bass lines ii. Keyboard or lute player realized the chords using figured bass iii. Chromaticism was used for expression purposes and to govern harmony e. Instrumentation/Voicing i. Idiomatic writing – composers adapted writing to the medium used ii. Instrumental textures are used to precise emotional and dramatic effect iii. Juxtaposition of choral and instrumental sections f. Use of the Voice i. Introduction of recitative to convey plot/text simply and quickly ii. Increasing hierarchy of voices, emphasizing soprano and bass iii. New emphasis on solo singing in oratorios g. Use of Music i. Church music – Venetian church music was independent of Roman rules ii. Lutheran church music – chorales continued, concertos for few voices written for German churches iii. Noble and royal courts supported music and churches had less of a role Characteristics of Classical Choral Music h. Rhythm i. Harmonic rhythm was important ii. Folk or folk like dance rhythms and drones iii. Rhythm as important as melody, especially in developmental sections i. Tuning

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i. Tonality was established clearly at beginning and end of modulations ii. Increased use of secondary dominant chords iii. Major tonalities predominate Melody i. Shorter melodies with clear phrases ii. Emphasis on beauty, elegance, and balance iii. Instrumental melodies frequently resemble operatic arias Harmony i. Less complicated texture than Baroque (more homophonic) ii. Clearly marked cadences iii. More variety and contrast within a work Instrumentation/Voicing i. Larger orchestras ii. Harpsichord fades out of use; piano takes over iii. Woodwinds become self-contained section Use of the Voice i. Instrumental writing for voices (i.e.: Beethoven’s Symphony No. 9) ii. Instrumental music overshadowed vocal music iii. Haydn was the primary composer of vocal music Use of Music i. Music was appreciated and supported increasingly by the middle-class (lessons, tutors, paid concert attendance) ii. More individuals commissioned works of music iii. Church remained important patron; secular court support waned

2. Recording Recommendations a. Bach Magnificat / Handel Dixit Dominus Choir Taverner Consort & Players Capitol ASIN: B00000DNSZ What makes these selections great: Bach’s Magnificat is one of his most often performed works requiring five soloists and a five part choir. The ten verses and the Gloria form a homogenous whole, with each verse receiving extended treatment. Instrumental treatment of voices leads to melismatic passages. This work has an astounding symmetrical key and form scheme. Handel’s Dixit Dominus is simply musically amazing. It is a masterpiece with its extended use of chromaticism, vocal virtuosity, and driving energy. b. Beethoven: Symphony No. 9 / Karajan, Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra Deutsche Grammophon ASIN: B000001GPY This is the first time that a choir was successfully added to a symphony, and with astounding effect. The final movement, where the choir enters) is a symphony within a symphony, matching the form of the entire work in just one movement. It has vast musical contrasts and Beethoven develops thematic material to exhaustion.

c. Vivaldi: Gloria; Bach: Magnificat /Robert Shaw, Atlantic Symphony & Chorus Telarc ASIN: B000003CVK Vivaldi’s Gloria is one of the most accessible masterworks for high school. It is an excellent model for solo, duet, soli, and chorus singing. Another recording of the Bach Magnificat will allow for comparison with Taverner for interpretation and choral tone. This Robert Shaw recording has a warmer and more diffused choral tone, while the Taverner recording features pure and clear tone. The articulations and expressiveness are also markedly different. d. Mozart: Requiem / McNair, Watkinson, Araiza, Lloyd; Marriner Academy of St. Martin-in-the-Fields Philips ASIN: B000004137 Every choral student has heard myths about the Mozart Requiem. The intense and meditative qualities are captured on this recording. Again, the four soloists and chorus are models for musicality and tone. This is an important work to include because it often inspires students to delve deeper into Mozart’s life and works. e. Monteverdi: L'Orfeo London Baroque Angel ASIN: B0007DHQ5M L’Orfeo was the first dramatically viable opera and is still considered to have dramatic power and lively orchestration. This recording demonstrates these qualities with vibrant articulations and dynamic contrasts. The setting of the text conveys emotions by creating striking musical images. Any student interested in these masterworks should first listen to them one by one, alone and uninterrupted. On the first listening, they should jaunt down any ideas that come to mind. I think it is then helpful to learn about the composer by discussing meaningful contributions and by isolating what makes this music different. On the second listening, the student should write responses on a listening log that enumerates the various musical elements of the piece. More discussion should follow with the teacher. If a student is willing, they could gain much on their own with appropriate guidance. 3. Selected Composer: Ludwig van Beethoven If I could travel freely without regard for time or money, I would spend several months in Vienna, Austria. I would tour Bonn and Vienna and stay long enough to become more immersed in the culture. Beethoven lived in some sixty-five homes in Vienna, so I would at least try to see some of them. A visit to Hotel Sacher, the site of Karntnertor Theatre where his Symphony No. 9 premiered would be very interesting and perhaps moving. The Vienna Boys Choir performs Beethoven’s works frequently at The

Musikverein. I would try to attend performances and see if I might gain admittance to a rehearsal. It would be important to plan my trip in May so I could attend the International Music Festival and the Vienna Festival. Hopefully, once in Vienna, I could seek out primary sources. These adventures would inevitably lead me to several schools and conductors that I could apply to study with at a more in-depth level. Final Project I chose to organize my music library single file copies by historical period and voicing. Hopefully, this will enable me to select music from varied styles and periods easily. I found that I have much more Romantic and Baroque music than other periods except for, of course, Contemporary. I need to use this knowledge to seek out more accessible works from other eras and composers. I will use the Texas Required Music List and the Choral Public Domain Library to start this venture. My goal is to amass accessible and exciting literature throughout the eras. My file copies alone took two file cabinets, so I am hoping this description is permissible. I have not yet entered my single copies into a database, although my choral library database does list historical period.

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