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12 The Second War for Independence and the Upsurge of


On to Canada over Land and Lakes
the war of 1812, largely because the widespread disunity, ranks as one of Americas
worst fought wars
the regular Army was scandalously inadequate, for it was ill trained, ill disciplined, and
widely scattered
it was supplemented by the even more poorly trained militia, who were sometimes
distinguished by the speed and therefore leaving the battlefield
the offensive strategy against Canada was especially poorly conceived had the
Americans capture Montral, the center of population and transportation, everything to
the west the would of died, but instead of laying the ax the trunk the Americans
frittered away their strength in the three prolonged invasion of 1812
by contrast, the British and Canadians displayed energy from the outset
when several American land invasions and Canada were again hurtled back and 1813,
Americans look for success on water
control of the Great Lakes is vital, American naval officer Oliver hazard Perry managed
to build a fleet of green timber ships in the shore of Lake Erie
the Navy captured a British fleet and a fear against engagement and made the redcoats
despite the success, the Americans by late 1814 are far from invading Canada. They
were grimly defending their own soil against the invading British
the United States provoked war behind the protective skirts and Napoleon, was now left
to face the music alone as thousands of victorious veteran redcoats began to pour in
from the continent into Canada
1814, 10,000 crack troops of British prepared for a crushing blow into New York
because of the absence of roads, the invader was forced to bring supplies over Lake
I want to battle commanded by Thomas McDonough challenged the British snatching
victory from the fangs of defeat
the results of this heroic naval battle were momentous, the invading British army was
forced to retreat

Washington Burned and New Orleans Defended
the second formidable British force, numbering 4000, landed in Chesapeake Bay
advancing rapidly on Washington
it easily dispersed some 6000 panicky militia and the invaders introduced capital and set
fire on most of public buildings including the Capitol and the White House
the British Lee appear before Baltimore but was beaten off by defenders at Fort
Francis Scott Key, at the detained American anxiously watching the bombardment of
Baltimore form British ship was inspired to write the words of the Star-Spangled Banner
a third British blow aimed down New Orleans menaced the entire Mississippi Valley
Andrew Jackson was placed in command against the British advancement
the overconfident British, numbering will some 8000 battle seasoned veterans,
blundered badly
they made the mistake of a frontal assault on to entrench American riflemen and the
attackers suffer the most the most devastating defeat of the entire war
Jackson became the war hero of the West
man for man a ship for a ship, the American Navy did much better than the Army
overall, American craft or more skillfully handled, had better gutters, and were manned
by crews burning to avenge the numerous indignities
the Royal Navy have finally retaliated by enforcing a naval blockade
American economy, including fishing was crippled

The Treaty of Ghent
Czar Alexander I of Russia, hard-pressed by Napoleons army and not wanting his British
ally to figure away his strength in America, proposed a mediation between clashing
Anglo-Saxon cousins in 1812
Czar Alexander I brought five American peacemakers of the Queen Belgian city of Ghent
the British envoys made sweeping demands for neutralized Indian buffer state in the
Great Lakes and a substantial part of conquered Maine Americans rejected
the news of British reverses in upper New York and Baltimore made London more
willing to compromise
occupied with redrafting Napoleons map of Europe revenge against the upstart
American offspring will be sweet but expensive
the Treaty of Ghent signed on Christmas eve in 1814 was essentially an armistice

Federalist Grievances and the Hartford Convention
as the war dragged on, New England extremists became more vocal
Hartford convention was called in 1814 when the capture of New Orleans seemed
the convention demanded first, financial assistance from Washington to compensate for
lost trade. Second, constitutional amendments requiring a two thirds vote in Congress
before in embargo to be imposed
three envoys from Massachusetts carried these demands to the capital Washington but
were pursued by sneers and jeers of the press overwhelmed by the glorious news phone
New Orleans followed by Ghent
the Hartford resolutions turned out to be the death dirges of the Federalist party

The Second War for American Independence
war heroes emerged, especially Indian fighters, Andrew Jackson and William Henry
manufacturing prospered behind the theory wooden wall of the British blockade
the war of 1812 may be regarded as a second war for American independence
the industries that were stimulated by the war of 1812 rendered America less
dependent on Europes workshops
1817: the Rush-Bagot agreement between Britain and United States severely limited
naval armaments on the lakes
Napoleons final defeat at Waterloo in 1815 brought the old world to a rest

Nascent Nationalism
the most impressive byproduct of the war of 1812 was the heightened nationalism
the change of mood even manifested itself in the birth of instinctively national literature
school textbooks often British in an earlier era, were now being written by Americans
for Americans
a revival of the Bank of United States was voted by Congress in 1815
a new national capital began to rise from the ashes of Washington in the army was
expanded to 10,000 men

The American System
nationalism likewise manifested itself in manufacturing
by nationalistic Congress responded to the harassment of small industries by passing a
new Tariff of 1816 the first tariff in American history Institute are primarily for
protection, not revenue
nationalism was further highlighted by a grand and those plan of Henry Clay for
developing a profitable home market
American system has three main parts. 1. a strong banking system which will provide
easy and abundant credit, 2. protection tariff behind which Easter manufacturing could
flourish 3. A network of roads provided transportation
because attempts to secure federal funding for roads and canals stumbled to the
responsibility of the government, Congress voted to distribute $1.5 million to states for
internal improvements. Pres. Madison sternly veto this measure as unconstitutional

The So-Called Era of Good Feelings
James Monroe was elected president
he straddled two generations: the bygone age of the founding fathers and the emergent
age of nationalism
the era of good feelings has been used commonly to describe the administrations of
the era of good feelings unfortunately was something of a misnomer
It was a troubled era: acute issues of the tariff, the bank, internal improvements, sale of
public lands were being hotly contested sectionalism was crystallizing in the conflict
over slavery was beginning to rise

Panic of 1819 and the Curse of Hard Times
1819: much of the good in this one out the good feelings when the paralyzing economic
panic descended
it brought deflation, depression, bankruptcies, bank failures, unemployment, soup
kitchens, an overcrowded pest houses known as debtors prison
over speculation in the frontier lands was the largest factor contributing to this
the bank had United States was forced to foreclose mortgages on countless farms and it
is viewed as a kind of financial double
the panic of 1819 also created backlashes in political and the social world
the poorer classes the one suspended men and their families was severely strapped
in their troubles and was sown the seed bed for Jackson democracy

Growing Pain of the West
the explosive expansion to the West was simply a continuation of the generations old
westward movement
in addition, the siren song of cheap land the Ohio fever had a special appeal to
European immigrants
land exhaustion and odor tobacco states where the soil was mind rather than cultivated
drove people West as well

Slavery and the Sectional Balance
sectional tensions, involving rivalry between slave South and free North over the control
of the Virgin West
1819: Missouri apply to be a slave state but the House of Representatives denied the
plans of Missourians by passing the incendiary Tallmadge amendment which stipulated
that no more slaves should be brought into misery and also provided for a emancipation
for slave children
Southerners saw the Tallmadge amendment as an ominous threat to sectional balance
the North was becoming wealthier and also thickly settled an advantage reflected in
an increasing northern majority in the House of Representatives
the future of the slave system cost Southerners profound concern,
burning moral questions also protruded, a small group of growing anti-slavery agitators
in the North seized the occasion to raise an outcry against the evils of slavery

Uneasy Missouri Compromise
deadlock a Washington was at length broken 1820 of that long time-honored American
solution of compromise
Missouri was admitted as a slave state and at the same time, Maine was admitted as a
separate state so the balance between North and South was 12 states each
although Missouri was permitted to retain slaves, all future bondage was prohibited in
the remainder of the Louisiana purchase north of the line 36 30
neither the North nor the South was acutely displeased although neither was
completely happy
the Missouri compromise made President Monroe so popular that he received every
electoral vote except for one

John Marshall and Judicial Nationalism
McCulloch v. Maryland involved an attempt by the state of Maryland to destroy a
branch of the Bank of the United States by imposing tax on his notes
John Marshall, declared the bank constitutional by invoking the hemorrhage and
doctrine for implied powers
at the same time, he strengthened the federal authority in a slap at the state
infringements when he denied the right of Maryland attacks the bank
Marshalls ruling in this case give the doctrine of loose construction of the
Cohens v. Virginia Cohens was found guilty by Virginia court of either legally selling
lottery tickets
Marshall defended federal power and Virginia won
throughout John Marshalls term as supreme justice, he repeatedly reminded states that
certain powers belong only to the federal government

Judicial Dikes Against Democratic Excesses
Fletcher v. Peck or roles one Georgia legislatures swayed by bribery granted a
35,000,000 acres to private speculators. The next legislature yielding to an angry public
outcry canceled the cricket transaction
but the Supreme Court, with Marshall presiding, decreed the legislative grants was
contract (even though fraudulently secured)
the decision was perhaps most noteworthy for its further protection of property rights
against popular pressures
Darthmouth College v. Woodward was perhaps the best remembered of Marshalls
decisions. Marshall ruled that contracts are protected by the Constitution against state
in motions
if John Marshall was a molding father of the Constitution, Daniel Webster was
expounding father
Marshalls decisions helped create a stable, nationally uniform environment for business

Sharing Oregon and Acquiring Florida
Monroe administration negotiated the much underrated treaty of 1818 with the Britain
this pact permit of Americans to share the Newfoundland fisheries with the Canadian
this multisided agreement also fixed the big northern limits of the Louisiana purchase
along the 49
Americans wanted to acquire the semi tropical Spanish Florida as part of the United
Jackson was sent to Florida on a pubs-tomp to clean up some noobs. He ruthlessly took
out all Spanish expansions exceeding his instructions
Cabinet members voted to punish Jackson except for John Adams
Florida Purchase Treaty Spain ceded Florida as well as Oregon in exchange for America
abandonment of Texas

The Menace of Monarchy in America
after the Napoleon nightmare, the autocrats of Europe been a together in a kind of
monarchical protective Association determined to restore the good old days by
stamping out democratic tendencies
European rumor hinted that Russia, Austria, Prussia, and friends acting in partnership, or
presumably send powerful fleet and army to revolted colonies of Spanish America and
restored their autocratic Spanish came to his ancestral domains
many Americans were alarmed, sympathetic to Democratic revolutions everywhere
Share one Latin America republic arose from the ruins of monarchy
the cell of the word push of the Russian bear, from the chill region known as Alaska had
already publicized the minutes of monarchy to North America
British Foreign Minister approach American minister in London with a startling
proposition: when not the United States combine Woodburn on a joint declaration
renouncing any interest in acquiring Latin America territory
American minister, liking instructions, refer to his superiors in Washington

Monroe and His Doctrine
sticker Terry Adams was suspicious of the British offering
British feared that aggressive Yankees a one day see Spanish territory in America
perhaps Cuba which will jeopardize Englands possession in the Caribbean
if Cannings can seduce the United States to join him in support of territorial integrity of
the New World Americas own hands will be tied
a self-denying alliance with Britain will not only hamper American expansion but it was
an necessary concluded Adams
Monroe Doctrine continues to basic features: non-colonization, nonintervention
Monroes strategy is to sit back and macro his forces while waiting for the rest to fight it
out in this world FFA

Monroes Doctrine Appraised
the monarchs of Europe were angered at Monroes doctrine
President Monroe was concerned with the security of his own country
Monroe Doctrine was largely an expression of post-1812 nationalism energizing the
United States
Stimulated isolationism