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Paper 0019

Paper No 0019 Page 1/ 4

O OP PT TI IM MI IZ ZA AT TI IO ON N O OF F R RE EL LI IA AB BI IL LI IT TY Y C CE EN NT TE ER RE ED D M MA AI IN NT TE EN NA AN NC CE E ( (R RC CM M) ) F FO OR R P PO OW WE ER R

T TR RA AN NS SM MI IS SS SI IO ON N A AN ND D D DI IS ST TR RI IB BU UT TI IO ON N N NE ET TW WO OR RK KS S

Ovidiu GEORGESCU Dorin SARCHIZ Daniel BUCUR

The Branch of Electrical Energy Petru Maior University Petru Maior University

Distribution Mures Romania Romania Romania

Oidiu.Georgescu@electricats.ro sarchiz@engineering.upm.ro bucur.daniel@engineering.upm.ro

ABSTRACT

The paper develops a model for preventive maintenance

planning based on reliability (RCM), by optimizing the

number of maintenance actions on power transmission

and distribution networks. Maintenance actions on the

system, known in the technical literature as renewal

process, have the effect of restoring system performance

in the presence of technical limitations (maximizing safety

in power supply) and economic constraints (minimizing

the number and the costs of interventions).

The optimization model of maintenance based on

reliability has been applied to the situation of a 20 kV

electric line from Romania, resulting:

- the optimal number of interventions on the entire line for

different time intervals;

- the optimum number of interventions on components of

the line: pillars, insulators, conductors, for an interval of

time.

1. INTRODUCTION

Currently, limiting preventive maintenance strategies in

planning or workloads at fixed intervals cannot be

accepted, both technically and economically. Thus, it is

considered that preventive maintenance strategies should

have mathematical models, based in turn on the

probabilistic interpretation of the actual state of transport

facilities and electricity supply while planning

maintenance actions. The solutions to these mathematical

models should lead to preventive maintenance actions that

result in restoring the status of the system, changing wear,

respectively of reliability. Determination as objective

needs, priorities and scale/number of such preventive

maintenance actions, are known in the technical literature

that as preventive actions of renewal. The study of renewal

processes and their influence on shaping the system will

make the following assumptions:

- the system is known by function of reliability and

indicators of reliability, based on data mining;

- the renewal actions aimed at reducing the influence of

wear and thus improving reliability system considered in

this regard as preventive maintenance actions;

- the renewal does not change all system features and after

renewing the system follows the same evolution law of

reliability to a new renewal;

- determine the frequency of renewals on the system will

be on optimization models based on technical criteria

and/or economic;

- renewal system components will be made under the same

assumptions as the study of the system as a whole.

2. ESTIMATION OF SYSTEMRELIABILITY

Knowing the availability of a system at a time impose the

knowledge of mathematical statistics using analytical form

(type) function of distribution/function of reliability

known by the numerical values of her parameters.

The energy systems in general and power lines in

particular, contain parts with mechanical and electrical

character whose function is directly influenced by weather,

so it can be said with certainty that the failure of systems

due to wear and aging slowly.

Given these findings, for modelling the reliability function

of such processes of survival, using Weibull distribution

law, characteristic of systems with wear, so and power

lines. Of the known forms of law to accept the Weibull

distribution for modelling the reliability function P

0

(t), in

the absence of preventive maintenance, as the

mathematical expression with two parameters:

P

o

(t) = exp ( - * t

) (1)

where:

, > 0 is the scale parameter and form parameter of

Weibull distribution.

For estimating , parameters of Weibull distribution for

the system in study and optimize preventive maintenance,

we can use statistics while the behaviour of system by:

- the number and duration of periods of operation and

interruption, due to preventive maintenance actions and/or

corrective;

- the costs of such actions on the whole system and/or his

components.

3. SHAPING PROCESSES OF RENEWAL

In this preventive maintenance, while the behaviour of the

system will be in the form of reliability function:

- P

r

(t) for new systems put into operation

P

r

(t) = exp ( - (r+1)

(1- )

*

t

) (2)

or, P

or

(t) for systems in operation

P

r

(t) = P

o

exp ( - (r+1)

(1- )

*

t

) (3)

where:

r is the number of preventive renwal system;

P

o

system relaibility when planning preventive

maintenance.

Influence of the number of renewal r on growth in system

reliability function expressed by relationship (2), is shown

in Figure 1, for a time.

t = 1800 days and P

o

, , are constants.

CIRED Workshop - Lyon, 7>8 June 2010

Paper 0019

Paper No 0019 Page 2/ 4

0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1

t [days]

Reliability functions

Number of renewals r0=0

r1=10

r2=50

r3=100

Figure 1. Influence of the number of renewals on system

reliability

3.1 Shaping processes of renewal per interval time

Evolution of a renewal system with different time intervals

will be represented by a number of renewal sequence r

1

,

r

2

, .r

n

and the intervals between them T

i

| i = 1,2n

at each period end with system reliability Pi, shown in

Figure 2.

Figure 2. The parameters of the periods T

i

of renewal

Starting from relation (2), P

n

system reliability can be

calculated at the end of n time periods T

i

| i=1,n ,

each time with a number of renewal r

i

| i=1,n, with

relationship:

A - + =

[

= =

n

i

i

j

j j n

T r P P

1 1

) 1 (

0 0

) 1 ( exp

(4)

Representing the variation of system reliability in the

relationship (4), on three intervals time T=1000 days

with different renewal period for each P

o

, , constant,

resulting the graph shown in Figure 3.

0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1

[days]

Reliability Function

Po=0.991

dT1[r1] dT2[r2] dT3[r3]

r1=50

r1=0

r2=30

r2=0

r3=20

r3=0

Figure 3. Influence of the renewals r

i

on the reliability

of the line, for three intervals of time T

i

3.2. Shaping processes of renewal per components

of electrical line

The operating state of a electrical line is directly

influenced by the status of each component, so that the

establishment of preventive maintenance of a line through

the components involves the following steps and

assumptions for calculation:

- constructive functional knowledge of the line profile and

her components: pillars, conductors, isolators, protections;

- analysis and processing based on statistical and

probabilistic models of data mining, resulting in the final

the indicators of operating reliability and probability of

electrical line and components, as long a period of

operation;

- modelling and optimization of preventive maintenance

of electrical line through the components;

- preventive renewal system components will be made

under the same assumptions as the study of the system as a

whole , in this case reliability function of each component

follows a Weibull distribution of the form (1).

For case of electrical line for power transmission and

distribution simple circuit, in terms of reliability, security

scheme is a scheme with all elements connected in series

represented in Figure 4, each component having

parameters Pi

0

; i; i | i=1,3.

Figure 4. Equivalent safety scheme for power line

Assuming a mentenance functions of the form (3) on each

component of the line, the probability of functioning of the

entire line at the end of the time T, will be given by (5):

( ) | |

i

i i

L

) ( ) ( ) (

) (

3

1

3

1

T 1 r exp P T P T P

i

0

1

i i i i

A - + - = A = A

= =

[ [

(5)

where for the component i we have:

r

i

the number of renewal on time T;

Pi

0

the reliability of the component in the moment of

planning preventive maintenance.

4. THE OPTIMIZATION OF PROCESSES OF

RENEWAL PREVENTIVE

In base of relations (4) and (5), it can be establish a

mathematical model for Optimizing Reliability Based

Maintenance (RCM), model that would allow determining

the optimal number of renewal actions for a system or his

components for one or more intervals time, on the basis of

technical limitations and/or economic. Such a

mathematical model has the following structure:

4.1. Variables by optimized

We choose the variables by optimized measurements:

r

i

- number of renewals in the system, every time

T

i

| i = 1,n

CIRED Workshop - Lyon, 7>8 June 2010

Paper 0019

Paper No 0019 Page 3/ 4

or,

r

i

the number of renewals on components with i=1,2,3.

Crowd these parameters whose optimal value we want to

establish, are treated unit by X, vector of optimized

variables of the form:

T

n

x x x X ] [

2 1

= (6)

with:

n n

r x r x r x r x

3 3 2 2 1 1

(7)

4.2. Objective function

The objective function is an expression of mathematical

optimization criterion chosen, which requires that

expression to model as accuracy reliability renewal P

S

(X),

or the costs of maintenance processes C(X) involved in

the maintenance and operation, expressed as the function

of optimized variables X, or:

max { P

S

(X) }, respective min {Q (X) = 1- P

S

(X)} (8)

or, min { C (X) } (9)

in the presence of constraints imposed to variables by

optimized "X", or functions of these variables.

4.3. Constraints of the model

The constraints model can have two types:

4.3.1. Formulated to the optimization variables x

i

| i = 1, n

if having this form on the conditions:

- variables x

i

| i = 1, n, were considered real and

continuous on the interval x

i

min

x

i

x

i

max

(10)

where:

x

i

min

the minimum number of renewals;

x

i

max

the maximum number of renewals.

This set of constraints, form a system of linear constraints.

4.3.2. Formulated on technical and economic parameters

of the systemin study, for example:

- reliability of consumer P

S

(X) or, after a period of time

following renewal applied to be greather than a minimum

required reliability of the safety P

min

or,

P

S

(x) P

min

(11)

- time of unplanned interruption to the consumer for a

period of time T should not exceed a required value T

max

established by contractual relationship with the consumer,

or: [ 1- P

S

(x)]*T T

max

(12)

- the number of unplanned interruptions to the consumer

for a period of time T does not exceed a maximum

number imposed NV

max

, through contractual relationship

with the consumer, or:

max

] ) ( [ NV T x P

m S

s A - - (13)

- the total cost of system maintenance, not exceed a

targeted CT

max

, or:

max

) ( ) ( CT x CMC x CMP s + (14)

where:

CMP(x) preventive maintenance costs;

CMC(x) corrective maintenance costs due.

In all cases, the constraints by the form (11) - (14) are in

terms of mathematical nonlinear constraints, forming

one or more systems of nonlinear inequalities.

As worded, the mathematical model for Optimizing

Reliability Based Maintenance (RCM) forming a nonlinear

programming problem. This problem was solved with the

specialized software package MATLAB 7.0.

5. NUMERICAL RESULTS

Optimization model presented in paragraph 4, it was

applied to electrical power line 20 kV TGM-L, with the

length of 89 km, 1106 pillars and conductors of OL-AL at

50 mm. To establish the reliability function of the line

currently Po(t), relationship (1), from the "sheets of

interventions" on maintenance in recent years the line was

chosen as variable parameters:

a) time moments (expressed in days) corresponding to

incident i when the functioning of line was interrupted,

considering only corrective instances to restore line

function;

b) duration of corrective instances (expressed in minutes)

to restore the line after corresponding incident i; presented

in Table 1, resulting in the Weibull function parameters:

= - 0.00126688

= 1.29398252

Table 1. The incidents, moments and corresponding

interruption time

Based on these parameters of reliability of the line at

baseline and optimization model were established in

assumptions 4.3., the optimal number of renewals " r

o

" on

electric line or her components during a year, resulting

these graphs of variation.

Figure 5. The variation of the optimal number of

renewals with minimum reliability required line

CIRED Workshop - Lyon, 7>8 June 2010

Paper 0019

Paper No 0019 Page 4/ 4

Figure 6. The variation of the optimal number of

renewals depending on the maximum number of allowed

damage

Figure 7. The variation of costs with power line

mentenance depending by the optimal number of

renewals

Figure 8. The variation of renewals number on the

electrical power line components, depending by

minimum reliability reqiured on each component

6. CONCLUSIONS

This paper presents results of research in mathematical

modelling of the reliability of stochastic systems with type

wear, so that's the prediction of future behaviour can only

with some probability and is based on knowledge of its

evolution in the past and planned interventions - known in

work "renewal". Determining the optimal number of

renewals planned (expected?) on a 20 KV electric lines for

aces while maintaining performance - that maintainability,

is applied to the reliability-based Maintenance (RCM).

7. REFERENCES

Conference citations:

[1] M. Louit, R. Pascual, D. Banjevic, 2009, "Optimal

interval for major maintenance actions in electricity

distribution networks" International Journal of

Electrical Power & Energy Systems,

www.elsevier.com/locate/ijepes.

[2] A. Sittithumwat, F. Soudi, A. Tomsovic, 2004,

"Optimal allocation of distribution maintenance

resources with limited information." Electr Power

Syst Res 2004:68:20820.

Book citations:

[3] V.M. Ctuneanu, A. Mihalache, 1983, Theoretical

Fundamentals of Reliability, Romanian Academy

Publishing House, Bucharest, Romania, p.236.

[4] D. Sarchiz, 2005, Optimization of electric systems

reliability, Matrixrom Publishing House, Bucharest,

Romania, p.138.

Standards:

[5] [NTE 005/06], 2007, Regulations related to the

methods and accounting elements in safety operating

of the energetic appliances. ANRE Romanian

Energy Regulatory Authority, Bucharest, Romania.

[6] ***, 2001, Quality of electricity supply: Initial

benchmarking on levels, standards and regulatory

strategies, Council of European Energy Regulators.

Dissertation:

[7] O. Georgescu, 2009, "Contributions to maintenance

of electric power distribution" PhD Dissertation,

Transilvania University of Brasov, Romania.

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