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Amity International School, Sector-46, Gurgaon

Heritage G.K Assignment

Architecture and Monuments
Maharashtra is famous for its caves and rock cut architectures. It is said that the varieties found
in Maharashtra are wider than the caves and rock cut architectures found in the rock cut areas
of Egypt, Assyria, Persia and Greece. The Buddhist monks first started these caves in the 2nd
century BC, in search of serene and peaceful environment for meditation, and they found these
caves on the hillsides.

Later, Hindu cave temples at Ellora and Ajanta became finest designs of human art. Some of
India's oldest wall paintings can be seen here. Maharashtra's famous rock-cut caves have
several distinct design elements; even though sculptures of the time are regarded to be so stiff
and unmoving. The Buddhist caves particularly the older ones are either temples (Chaityas) or
monasteries (Viharas).

One of the other most significant Maharashtra Monuments is Aga Khan Palace which is
incredibly popular. The fact that it is very elaborately and intricately connected with the day to
day life of Mahatma Gandhi that makes it a very well known and frequently visited monument.

Other Monuments that attract a lot of attention from foreign and local tourists are, Khuldabad,
Kesari Wada, Lal Mahal, Raste Wada, Shaniwar Wada, and Vishrambag Wada, Aga Khan
Palace, Bibi Ka Maqbara, Bombay high Court, Chattrapati Shivaji terminus. These are popular
for their historical significance as well as for the fact that they speak volumes about the brilliance
and the intricate skill of the craftsmen of our country. Millions of tourists come from all over the
country and overseas to see the remarkable architecture of these Maharashtra Monuments.
Each single monument portrays a different architecture style namely, Maratha, Mughal, or

Cave Architecture
Maharashtra is famous for its caves and rock cut architectures. It is said that the varieties found
in Maharashtra are wider than the caves and rock cut architectures found in the rock cut areas
of Egypt, Assyria, Persia and Greece.

Rock Cut Architecture
Rock cut architectures are also found in the countries like Egypt, Assyria, Persia and Greece,
but not so wide as the kinds of Maharashtra's caves. It is different as it is more of sculpture type
than architecture. In this type, the visualized final product is carved from a huge rock.

Maharashtra Forts

There are nearly 350 forts in Maharashtra, so it is said that forts are the glory of Maharashtra.
Most of these forts are associated with the great Maratha ruler, Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj. It is
believed that he developed as many as thirteen forts.

Vijaydurg fort is regarded to be the best sea fort developed by Shivaji. Every fort has temple
inside that was a powerful inspiration to the Maratha fighters. 510 km away from Mumbai is the
famous Sindhudurg and Vijaydurg forts. This twin fort was constructed with the special
guidelines from Shivaji. This fort is famous for its serene environmental beauty and its historic

Shivner fort is the fort where Shivaji was born. This fort is nearly about 120 km from Pune.
Pratapgad fort reminds the fiery battle fought between Shivaji and Afzal Khan. One must see
the 300-year old fine architectural fort of Murud - Janjira fort, Lohagad and Visapur Forts,
Harishchandragad Fort, Arnala Fort and Ajinkyatara Fort are ideal for trekking. Adventure lovers
must visit these forts.

Ahmadnagar Fort
Ahmadnagar Fort, which was built in 1490 AD, is located 1 km away east of Ahmadnagar city in
Maharashtra. This 500-year old fort is circular in shape and has 18m high wall reinforced with
22 bastions.

Ajinkyatara Fort
Ajinkyatra Fort is in Satara, Maharashtra. The fort is located at Ajinkyatara Mountain, which is
3,300 feet high. As the fort is in the higher altitude, visitors can enjoy a magnificent view of the
entire Satara city.

Arnala Fort
Anara Fort is located at Arnala Islands, which is at a distance of 8 miles north of Vasai in
Maharashtra. As it is surrounded on all sides by water, Arnala Fort is also known as 'Jaldurg' or
'Janjire Arnala'.

Bassein Fort
Bassein Fort is located at Vasai, about 55 km from Mumbai, Maharashtra. Bahadur Shah,
Sultan of Gujarat, built the fort. The main gate of this large fort leads to a small courtyard;

Chakan Fort
Chakan Fort is located at Chakan near Pune in Maharashtra. The last Maratha-British war was
fought in this fort. This fort was built keeping in mind that it might become a rare kind of fort in

Daulatabad Fort
Daulatabad is located at a distance of 13 km from Aurangabad. This fort, which was once
known as Devagiri, is a magnificent 12th century fortress standing atop a hill.

Gavilgad Fort
Gavilgad Fort is near Chikhaldara hill station in Amravati district, Maharashtra. It is believed that
the fort is 300 years old. Some beautifully carved idols,

Harishchandragad Fort
Harishchandragad Fort is famous for its height, its toughness and the famous 'Konkan Kada'.
Harishchandra Temple is known to be the pride of the fort.

Kandhar Fort
Kandhar Fort is at Kandhar town in Nanded district of Maharashtra. The fort is encircled with a
ditch full of water. It is believed that Rashtrakuta King Krishna III of Malkhed who styled himself
as Kandharpuradhi Swar constructed the fort.

Lohagad Forts
Lohagad and Visapur Forts are situated atop an impressive hill near Malavali, 52 km away from
Pune. These forts were built in the 18th century. A 1 km long ridge separates the two forts.

Mumbai Fort
An old British fort was located at north of Colaba, so the area north of Colaba is known as
Mumbai Fort. There are a lot of imposing buildings from Mumbai's golden period here.

Murud Janjira
Murud-Janjira is located 60 km away from Alibaug, Maharashtra. This small village is on the top
of a hillock. It is believed that the rulers of Ahmednagar constructed the fort in the 15th century.

Narnala Fort
Narnala Fort is located in Akola district in Maharashtra. The fort is still in a good condition. The
fort is located amidst forest. The fort is well maintained and is worth giving a shot.

Panhala Fort
Raja Bhoja founded Panhala fort in the late 12th century. This fort is located 18 km northwest of
Kolhapur. It has connection with God Parashurama as well.

Pratapgad Fort
Pratapgad Fort is a mountain fort built by Chatrapati Shivaji Maharaj. The fort is at a distance of
24 km from the hill station of Mahabaleshwar.

Purandhar Fort
Purandhar Fort is located at a distance of 40 km from Pune. It played an important role in the
history of the brave ruler of the Maratha kingdom, Chhatrapati Shivaji. Purandhar was the
capital of the Maratha Kingdom,

Raigad Fort
Raigad was the capital of the Marathas under Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj. Britishers named it
'Gibralter of the East' as the well-fortified structure atop a hill that had repeatedly defied
attackers. Shivaji built the fort in the 14th century.

Shivner Fort
Chatrapathi Shivaji was born in Shivneri Fort in 1627. The Fort is located at a distance of
around 3 km from Junnar (125 km from Pune). Shahaji, father of Shivaji kept his wife Jijabai in
this fort during her pregnancy,

Sidhudurg Fort
Sindhudurg, Shivaji built this ocean fort in 1664 AD on a low rocky 48-acre island off the Malvan
coast. Vijaydurg and Sindhudurg are twin forts from the days of Shivaji's time that is a historic
place with its serene coastal beauty.

Ajanta and Ellora

Ajanta and Ellora are the pride of Maharashtra. The rock-cut caves of both these sites are
world famous and illustrate the degree of skill and artistry that Indian craftsmen had achieved
several hundred years ago. Ajanta dates from 100 B.C. while Ellora is younger by some 600
years. The village of Ajanta is in the Sahyadri hills, about 99 kms.

From Aurangabad; a few miles away in a mammoth horseshoe-formed rock, are 30 caves
overlooking a gorge, `each forming a room in the hill and some with inner rooms. Al these
have been carved out of solid rock with little more than a hammer and chisel and the faith and
inspiration of Buddhism. Here, for the Buddhist monks, the artisans excavated Chaityas
(chapels) for prayer and Viharas (monasteries) where they lived and taught. Many of the
caves have the most exquisite detailed carvings on the walls, pillars and entrances as well as
magnificent wall paintings.
These caves were discovered early in the 19th century quite by chance by a party of British
Officers on manoeuvres. Today the paintings and sculptures on Buddhas life, belonging to
the more mellow and ritualistic Mahayana Buddhism period, are world famous. Copies of them
were shown in the Crystal Palace exhibition in London in 1866. These were destroyed in a fire
there. Further copies were published soon afterwards and four volumes of reproductions were
brought out in 1933 by Ghulam Yazdani, the Director of Archaeology of the then Hyderabad
State. Ajanta has formed an epicentre of interest for those who appreciate and are eager to
know more about Indian history and art.

It is a protected monument under the Archaeological
Survey of India and has been listed in the World
Heritage list of monuments.The 30 caves of Ajanta
were created over a span of some 600 years.


9 nautical miles across the sea from the Gateway of India lay Elephanta, also known as
'Gharapuri'. Visit this green island for the wonders of the 7 th century, the painstakingly hewn
rock-cut cave temple, dedicated to Shiva. The Maheshamurti panel in which Shiva is shown as
a creator, protector and destroyer, is a sight that should be enjoyed at least once in a lifetime.
The cave temples and monasteries at Ellora, excavated out of the vertical face of an
escarpment, are 26 km north of Aurangabad. Extending in a linear arrangement, the 34 caves
contain Buddhist Chaityas or halls of worship, and Viharas, or monasteries, Hindu and Jai
Spanning a period of about 600 years between the 5 th and 11 th century AD, the earliest
excavation here is of the Dhumar Lena (Cave 29).The most imposing excavation is, without
doubt, that of the magnificent Kailasa Temple (Cave 16) which is the largest monolithic structure
in the world. Interestingly, Ellora, unlike the site of Ajanta, was never 'rediscovered'. Known as
Verul in ancient times, it has continuously attracted pilgrims through the centuries to the present
Ellora has been designed as a World Heritage Site, to be preserved as an artistic legacy that
will continue to inspire and enrich the lives of generations to come.

Gate way of India

The majestic Gateway of India is a glorious historical memorial built during British rule. This
magnificent monument has been built in Indo-Sarcenic style to commemorate the visit King
George V and Queen Mary to Bombay. Gateway of India is one of the finest example of colonial
architectural heritage in India. This grand structure stands at the Apollo Bunder, a popular
meeting place in Mumbai. The gateway of
India was designed by the British architect
George Wittet and was opened for general public in the year 1924.
Agha Khan Palace
Agha Khan Palace is situated in Pune in Yerwada district and is one of the prominent
monuments of Gujarat. Agha Khan Palace is famous for its architectural excellence and
historical values. It is constructed with the Italian arches on a 19 acre land.
Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (formerly Victoria Terminus)
Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus is an outstanding example of late 19th-century railway architecture
in the British Commonwealth, characterized by Victorian Gothic Revival and traditional Indian
features, as well as its advanced structural and technical solutions. It became a symbol for
Bombay (now Mumbai) as a major mercantile port city on the Indian subcontinent within the
British Commonwealth

About Gate way of India

The Gateway is built with yellow Kharodi basalt and reinforced with concrete. The central dome
has a diameter of 48 feet and it is 83 feet from the ground at its highest point. The entire
harbour front was realigned in order to be in line with the walkway that was planned to go right
down to the center of the town.
The Government of India mainly funded the construction of the gateway. It cost Rs.21 lakhs in
those days. Due to the lack funds the approach road to the Gateway was never built and the
Gateway stands at an angle to the road leading to it. The construction was completed in 1924
and was opened on December 4th 1924 by the Viceroy, Earl of Reading. The last British troops
to leave India after its independence was the First Battalion of Somerset Light Infantry. They
passed under the Gateway in a ceremony On February 28th 1948.
The Gateway of India is a sight to behold in the changing light of the sun. The light of the rising
and setting sun gives it different shades of gold, russet and pink to the enormous arch.

The site on which this property is situated is associated with the origins of Mumbai as a city.
Bombay Island had formed a coastal outpost of the Hindu in western India, but was not used for
commerce. It was first passed to the Portuguese and then, in 1661, to the British. In 1667, the
island was transferred to the East India Company, who was principally responsible for its
commercial development. Merchants settled here from elsewhere, and the shipbuilding industry
and the cotton trade prospered.
The Victoria Terminus, the most impressive building, was named after Queen Victoria,
Empress of India, on whose Golden Jubilee it was formally opened in 1887. The terminus, now
called Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus, was designed by the British architect Frederick William
Stevens (1848-1900). Work began in 1878 and was completed 10 years later. Originally
intended only to house the main station and the administrative offices of the Great Indian
Peninsula Railway, a number of ancillary buildings have been added subsequently, all designed
to harmonize with the main structure. A new station to handle main-line traffic was erected in
1929. The original building is still in use for suburban traffic and is used by over 3 million
commuters daily. It is also the administrative headquarters of the Central Railway.
The terminus is one of the first and the best products of use of industrial revolution technology
merged with the Gothic Revival style, which was based on late medieval Italian models. This
style was acceptable to both European and Indian taste, as it is compatible in its use of colour
and ornamentation with the Mughal and Hindu architecture of the subcontinent.
Its C-shaped plan is symmetrical on an east-west axis. All the sides of the building are given
equal value in the design. It is crowned by a high central dome, which acts as the focal point.
The dome is an octagonal ribbed structure with a colossal female figure symbolizing Progress,
holding a torch pointing upwards in her right hand and a spoked wheel in her left. The side
wings enclose the courtyard, which opens on to the street. The wings are anchored by
monumental turrets at each of their four corners, which balance and frame the central dome.
The facades present the appearance of well-proportioned rows of windows and arches. The
ornamentation in the form of statuary, bas-reliefs and friezes is exuberant yet well controlled.
The columns of the entrance gates are crowned by figures of a lion (representing Great Britain)
and a tiger (representing India). The main structure is built from a judicious blend of India
sandstone and limestone, while high-quality Italian marble was used for the key decorative
elements. The main interiors are also lavishly decorated: the ground floor of the North Wing,
known as the Star Chamber, which is still the booking office, is embellished with Italian marble
and polished Indian blue stone. The stone arches are covered with carved foliage and

Amity International School, Sector-46, Gurgaon
Heritage -G.K

1. Where are Ajanta caves located and which river flows near to it.
2. What does the Ajanta caves depict?
3. Which popular caves are 29 kms from Aurangabad.
4. What does the Ellora caves depict?
5. Which famous island is island just 10 kilometers away from the Apollo Bunder near
Gateway of India, and what is it famous for.
6. Why and when Gateway of India made and what was the material used in its
7. What is the new name of the Victoria Terminus and what style of architecture have been
used to make this station?
8. What is unique about Victoria Terminus?
9. How many forts were built by the famous ruler Shivaji?
10. Describe in brief about the fort built by Shivaji?
11. Describe the Zoroastrian fire temple at Alibag in Mumbai?
12. Where is Bassein Fort located and who built the fort?

ANSWER KEY- Architecture
1. Ajanta caves located on the Ajanta Village and above Waghora river.
2. Carved on the side of the ravines and depict story of Buddhism spanning a
period from 200 BC to 650 AD.
3. Ellora caves
4. It depicts the impeccable blend of the Jain and Hindu temples carved around six
and seven century in the Ellora village.
5. Elephanta caves is 10, kms form gateway ofm India and is famous for The
imposing image of three headed Shiva most akin to trinity of Brahma, Vishnu and
Maheshwar adds to its religious tint of these caves. The other sculptures are the
idols of Natraja, Sadashiva and splendid sculptures of Ardhanarishwara.
6. Gateway of India was built to mark the visit of King George and Queen Mary in
1919. It was built on the Yellow basalt with four turrets and intricate latticework,
the structure stand 26 meter high.
7. Victoria Terminus (VT) is now called Shivaji Terminus (CST) presently included
in the list of World Heritage Site, this station has been made in Venetian Gothic
8. This structure presents the exquisite design work especially in filigrees, carvings
and arches. On top of this building you can find the statue of progress. This is the
historic railway station of the Mumbai Suburban Railways and presently serves
as the Headquarter of the Central Railways of India and is the busiest station in
the country.
9. 350
10. The forts where built all around the state with a single purpose to protect the
enemy invasions. The famous forts of the state are Panhala Fort built on the
beautiful hills of Panhala region; Raigadh Fort the 14th century fort of Marathas
built in the their capital city Raigadh in such a way that its three sides are
completely inaccessible. It is here Shivaji crowned himself as Chhatrapatti
Shivaji; Vijaydurg (victory fort) and Sindhdurg (ocean fort) are the witness to the
architectural genius of the Maratha Ruler Shivaji. Similarly the Murd Janjara and
Daulatabad fort are the two forts nobody has conquered up to this time except
with treachery. The fool proof defensive system of these forts where the thorn in
the heart of enemies.
11. A Parsi trader established the temple in 1709 and it is officially the oldest
surviving fire temple in Mumbai. The temple was established by Seth Banaji
Limji, a prosperous Parsi businessman. In those days, Parsi enclaves were
located in and around the Fort area. Over a period of time, as many as seven fire
temples were built in this locality The Banaji Limji agiary has an outer facade that
resembles a fortress.
12. Vasai or Bassein Fort is a large fort in Vasai village, in the Vasai taluka (county)
of the District of Thane, Konkan Division, and Maharashtra State, built by