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Annihilationism
From EJ Hill & Friends

← Conditional Immortality ← The Intermediate State: (Psychopannychism) ← Resurrection ← The Great White
Throne Judgment ← Temporary Torment ᭞ Annihilationism

ANNIHILATIONISM a.k.a ETERNAL DESTRUCTION or ETERNAL VENGEANCE Digg
as opposed to
ETERNAL TORMENT
submit
by EJ Hill (1977-)

About
ANNIHILATIONISM - THE BELIEF THAT THE FINAL FATE OF THE WICKED IS TEMPORARY
TORMENT; FOLLOWED BY A LITERAL, ABSOLUTE, AND IRREVOCABLE OBLIVION. IT REJECTS
THE NOTION OF HELL AS BEING A PLACE OF NEVER-ENDING TORMENT AND/OR SEPARATION
FROM GOD.

Presupposition

The Doctrine of ANNIHILATIONISM PRESUPPOSES CONDITIONAL IMMORTALITY. In other
words, should it be proven that by nature man's soul is immortal, it would be impossible to uphold
Annihilationism. On the other hand, however, if it could be proven that man's soul is by default
mortal (corruptible or destructible), the stage would be set for Annihilationism. I would therefore
highly recommend first researching Conditional Immortality, prior to researching Annihilationism.

The History and Development of Annihilationism
A discussion relating to the History and Development of Annihilationism.

Shadows, Types & Figures
The Destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah

"But the men of Sodom were wicked and sinners before the Lord exceedingly." (Gen. 13v13, AKJV,
p.6)

"" (Gen. 18v20-19v28)

Luke tells us that what happened to Sodom, will also happen to the unrighteous at Christ's Return.

"But the same day that Lot went out of Sodom it rained fire and brimstone from heaven, and
destroyed them all. EVEN THUS SHALL IT BE IN THE DAY WHEN THE SON OF MAN IS
REVEALED. In that day, he which shall be upon the housetop, and his stuff in the house, let him not

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come down to take it away: and he that is in the field, let him likewise not return back. Remember
Lot's wife." (Lk. 17v29-32, AKJV, p.461)

Peter suggests the same.

"And TURNING THE CITIES OF SODOM AND GOMMORRAH INTO ASHES condemned them with
an overthrow, MAKING THEM AN ENSAMPLE UNTO THOSE THAT AFTER SHOULD LIVE
UNGODLY;..." (2 Pt. 2v6, AKJV, p.108)

But it is Jude, who in speaking of "the judgment of the great day" (Jude 1v6) that says:

"Even as Sodom and Gomorrha, and the cities about them in like manner, giving themselves over to
fornication, and going after strange flesh, ARE SET FORTH FOR AN EXAMPLE, SUFFERING
THE VENGEANCE OF ETERNAL FIRE." (Jude 1v7, KJV, p.110)

The Great Deluge

"" (Gen. 6v1-7v24, AKJV, p.)

"And AS IT WAS IN THE DAYS OF NOE, SO SHALL IT BE ALSO IN THE DAY OF THE SON OF
MAN. They did eat, they drank, they married wives, they were given in marriage, until the day that
Noe entered into the ark, and the flood came, and DESTROYED THEM ALL." (Lk. 17v26-27,
AKJV, p.461)

The Wages of Sin

The Parable of The Sower

Statements & Confessions
The 1660 General Baptist Confession of Faith XXII

That the same Lord Jesus who shewed himself alive after his passion, by many infallible proofs, Acts
I. 3. which was taken up from the Disciples, and carried up into Heaven, Luke 24. 51. Shall so come
in like manner as he was seen go into Heaven, Acts. 1. 9, 10.

II. And when Christ who is our life shall appear, we shall also appear with him in glory, Col. 3. 4.
For then shall he be King of Kings, and Lord of Lords, Rev. 19. 16. for the Kingdome is his, and he
is the Governour among the Nations, Psal. 22. 28. and King over all the earth, Zech. 14. 9. and we
shall raign (with him) on the Earth, Rev. 5. 10. the Kingdomes of this World, (which men so mightily
strive after here to enjoy) shall become the Kingdomes of our Lord, and his Christ, Rev. 11. 15. for
all is yours, ( 0 ye that overcome this world) for ye are Christ's, and Christ is Gods, 1 Cor. 3. 22, 23.
For unto the Saints shall be given the Kingdome, and the greatness of the Kingdome, under (mark
that) the whole Heaven, Dan. 7. 27. Though (alas) now many men be scarce content that the Saints
should have so much as being among them; but when Christ shall appear, then shall be their day,
then shall be given unto them power over the Nations, to rule them with a Rod of Iron, Rev. 2. 26,
27. then shall they receive a Crown of life, which no man shall take from them, nor they by any
means turned, or overturned from it, for the oppressor shall be broken in pieces, Psal. 72. 4. and
their now vain, rejoycings turned into mourning, and bitter Lamentations, as ‘tis written, Job 20. 5,
6, 7. THE TRIUMPHING OF THE WICKED IS SHORT, AND THE JOY OF THE HYPOCRITE BUT
FOR A MOMENT; THOUGH HIS EXCELLENCY MOUNT UP TO THE HEAVENS, AND HIS HEAD

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REACH UNTO THE CLOUDS, YET SHALL HE PERISH FOR EVER, LIKE HIS OWN DUNG;
THEY WHICH HAVE SEEN HIM, SHALL SAY, WHERE IS HE?

The 1995 Doctrine Commission of the Church of England in England

"Christians have professed appalling theologies which made God into a sadistic monster. ... HELL
IS NOT ETERNAL TORMENT, BUT IT IS THE FINAL AND IRREVOCABLE CHOOSING OF THAT
WHICH IS OPPOSED TO GOD SO COMPLETELY AND SO ABSOLUTELY THAT THE ONLY END
IS TOTAL NON-BEING." [3|5]

Objections & Responses
Subjective Emotional Impulses

Adherents
Theophilus (died ±183-185 A.D.) [3] - Arnobius (died 330 A.D.) [3|9|14|15] - PHILOSOPHER Epicurus
(341-270 BC) [8] - Prof. Dr. Martin Luther (1483-1546) [49] - Fausto Paolo Sozzini (1539-1604) [9] -
PHILOSOPHER
John Locke (1632-1704) [9] - Prof. Dr. Henry Dodwell (1641-1711) [9] -
NONCONFORMIST
Isaac Watts (1674-1748) [9|50] - BAPTIST Prof. Dr. William Whiston (1667-1752)
[9] ANGLICAN
- William Warburton (1698-1779) [9] - Ferdinand Olivier Petitpierre (1722-1790) [9|17]
- METHODIST John Wesley (1703-1791) [3] - E.J.K. Walter (+-1782) [9|16] - ADVENTIST William
Miller (1782-1849) [3] - ANGLICAN Archbishop Richard Whately (1787-1863) [9|35] - C.H. Weisse
(1801-1866) [9|18|22] - BAPTIST H.H. Dobney (1809-1883) [9|19] - Aaron Ellis (+-1853) [9|11] - Jacob
Blain (+-1857) [9|10] - LUTHERAN Richard Rothe (1799-1867) [9|21] - ANGLICAN Bishop Renn
Dickson Hampden (1793-1868) [9|36] - F. Brandes (+-1872) [9|25] - CONGREGATIONAL Dr. Horace
Bushnell (1802-1876) [9] - George Storrs (1796-1879) [9|12|34] - CONGREGATIONAL Dr. Edward White
(1819-1887) [9|33] - CONGREGATIONAL J.H. Pettingell (1815-1887) [9|46] - PHILOSOPHER Charles
Sécretan (1815-1895) [9|32] - John B. Heard (1828-) [9|36] - CONGREGATIONAL Joseph Parker
(1830-1902) [9] - Emmanuel Petavel-Olliff (1836-1910) [9] - CONGREGATIONAL Dr. Robert William
Dale (1829-1895) [9] - Prof. Dr. Hermann Schultz (1836-1903) [9|23] - ADVENTIST Ellen Gould White
(1827-1915) [9] - CONGREGATIONAL Lyman Abbott (1835-1922) [9] - Henry Clay Sheldon
(1845-1928) [9|47] - Thomas Read (+-1853) [9|11] - Zenas Campbell (+-1854) [9|13] - PHILOSOPHER C.
Lambert (+-1862) [9|29] - H. Plitt (+-1863) [9|24] - PHILOSOPHER P. Janet (+-1863) [9|30] - J.W.
Barlow (+-1865) [9|41] - Stephen T. Davis (+-1866) [9|42|63] - S. Minton (+-1868) [9|40] - J.M.
Denniston (+-1874) [9|39] - PHILOSOPHER C. Renouvier (+-1878) [9|31] - W.R. Huntington (+-1878)
[9|45]
- A. Schäffer (+-1884) [9|26] - PHILOSOPHER C. Ribot (+-1885) [9|32] - ANGLICAN Prebendary
Dr. C.A. Row (+-1887) [9|38|57] - G. Runze (+-1894) [9|27] - J. Rognon (+-1894) [9|20] - Prof. Dr.
George Bradford Caird (-1984) [51|52] - ANGLICAN Prebendary Henry Constable (-1894) [9|37|49] -
J.A. Beet (+-1897) [9|43] - L. Lemme (+-1899) [9|28] - BAPTIST William Graham Scroggie (1877-1958)
[53]
- LUTHERAN Prof. Dr. Oscar Cullmann (1902-1999) [58] - Homer Hailey (1903-2000) [3] -
EVANGELICAL
Prof. Dr. Frederick Fyvie Bruce (1910-1990) [3|53] - ANGLICAN Philip Edgcumbe
Hughes (-1990) [3|53] - ANGLICAN John William Wenham (1913-1996) [1|2|3|53] - ANGLICAN John
R.W. Stott (1921-) [3|53|54] - ANGLICAN Edward Michael Bankes Green (1930-) [3|53] - EVANGELICAL
Clark H. Pinnock (1937-) [3|8|53] - Edward William Fudge (1944-) [3|53] - ANGLICAN Nicholas Thomas

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Wright (1948-) [3] - Prof. Dr. John E. Sanders (1956-) [59] - EJ Hill (1977-) - PRESBYTERIAN Samuel
Holmes [57] - A. Bost [9] - S. Hoekstra [9] - Dale Moody [3|53] - Edward Earle Ellis [3] - Prof. Armand
[9]
- Prof. Auguste [9] - Charles Frederick Hudson [9|44|55] - Roger Forster [3] - L.W. Bacon [9] - L.C.
Baker [9|64] - John W. Loftus [51] - Richard F. Ames [66] - Jeremy K. Moritz [67] - Michael J. Meiring
[68|69]

Seventh-Day Adventists [3] - The Church of England in England [3|5] - Watch Tower Bible & Tract
Society [3]

Keywords
annihilationism, destruction, oblivion, perishing, death sentence, fire unquenchable, second death

Scripture References
Gen. 3v19; Ps. 37v10, 146v4; Ecc. 9v5, v10; Is. 57v20; Jer. 19v5, 32v35; Eze. 18v20; Mal. 4v1-3;
Mt. 3v10-12, 18v8-9, v14, 24v37-51, 25v30; Mk. 9v43-48; Rom. 5v21; 1 Cor. 3v17; 2 Cor.
2v14-16; Philip. 1v28; 2 Pt. 2v1, v3, 3v6-7; Rev. 20v14-15, 21v8

"And the Lord God said, Behold, the man is become as one of us, to know good and evil:
and now, LEST HE PUT FORTH HIS HAND, AND TAKE ALSO OF THE TREE OF LIFE,
AND EAT, AND LIVE FOR EVER: ..." (Gen. 3v22, AKJV, p.2)

"{5} " (Job 20v5-7, AKJV, p.249)

"Treasures of wickedness profit nothing: but RIGHTEOUSNESS DELIVERETH FROM
DEATH." (Pr. 10v2, AKJV, p.293)

"Behold, all souls are mine; as the soul of the father, so also the soul of the son is mine:
THE SOUL THAT SINNETH, IT SHALL DIE." (Ezek. 18v4, AKJV, p.370)

"Therefore THEY SHALL BE LIKE THE MORNING CLOUD, AND AS THE EARLY DEW
THAT PASSETH AWAY, AS THE CHAFF THAT IS DRIVEN WITH THE WHIRLWIND
OUT OF THE FLOOR, AND AS THE SMOKE OUT OF THE CHIMNEY." (Hos. 13v3,
AKJV, p.399)

"The mountains quake at Him, and the hills melt, and the earth is burned at His presence, yea, the
world, and all that dwell therein." (Nah. 1v5, AKJV, p.408)

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"And fear not them which kill the body, but are not able to kill the soul: but rather fear
Him which is able TO DESTROY BOTH SOUL AND BODY IN HELL." (Mt. 10v28, AKJV,
p.425)

The Parable of The Sower
"{24} Another parable put He forth unto them, saying, The kingdom of heaven is likened
unto a man which sowed good seed in his field: {25} But while men slept, his enemy came
and sowed tares among the wheat, and went his way. {26} But when the blade was sprung
up, and brought forth fruit, then appeared the tares also. {27} So the servants of the householder
came and said unto him, Sir, didst not thou sow good seed in thy field? from whence then hath it
tares? {28} He said unto them, An enemy hath done this. The servants said unto him, Wilt thou
then that we go and gather them up? {29} But he said, Nay; lest while ye gather up the tares, ye
root up also the wheat with them. {30} Let both grow together until the harvest: and in the time of
harvest I will say to the reapers, Gather ye together first the tares, and bind them in bundles to
BURN THEM: but gather the wheat into my barn. ... {36} Then Jesus sent the multitude away, and
went into the house: and His disciples came unto Him, saying, Declare unto us the parable of the
tares of the field. {37} He answered and said unto them, He that soweth the good seed is the Son
of man; {38} The field is the world; the good seed are the children of the kingdom; but the tares
are the children of the wicked one; {39} The enemy that sowed them is the devil; the harvest id
the end of the world; and the reapers are the angels. {40} As therefore the tares are gathered and
burned in the fire; so shall it be in the end of this world. {41} The Son of man shall send forth His
angels, and they shall gather out of His kingdom all things that offend, and them which do
iniquity; {42} And shall CAST THEM INTO A FURNACE OF FIRE: THERE SHALL BE WAILING
AND GNASHING OF TEETH. {43} Then shall the righteous shine forth as the sun in the kingdom
of their Father. Who hath ears to hear, let him hear." (Mt. 13v24-30, v36-43, AKJV, p.427-428)

"{25} For whosoever will save his life SHALL LOSE IT: and whosoever will lose his life
for My sake SHALL FIND IT. {26} For what is a man profited, if he shall gain the whole
world, and LOSE HIS OWN SOUL? or what shall a man give in exchange for his soul?"
(Mt. 16v25-26, AKJV, p.429)

"{1} And Jesus answered and spake unto them again by parables, and said, {2} The
kingdom of heaven is like a certain king, which made a marriage for his son, {3} And sent
forth His servants to call them that were bidden to the wedding: and they would not come.
{4} Again, He sent forth other servants, saying, Tell them which are bidden, Behold, I have
prepared My dinner: My oxen and My fatlings are killed, and all things are ready: come unto the
marriage. {5} But they made light of it, and went their ways, one to his farm, another to his
merchandise: {6} And the remnant took His servants, and intreated them spitefully, and slew
them. {7} But when the king heard thereof, He was wroth: and HE SENT FORTH HIS ARMIES,
AND DESTROYED THOSE MURDERERS, AND BURNED UP THEIR CITY. {8} Then saith He
to His servants, The wedding is ready, but they which were bidden were not worthy. {9} Go ye
therefore into the highways, and as many as ye shall find, bid to the marriage. {10} So those
servants went out into the highways, and gathered together all as many as they found, both bad
and good: and the wedding was furnished with guests. {11} And when the King came in to see the
guests, He saw there a man which had not on a wedding garment: {12} And He said unto him,
Friend, how camest thou in hither not having a wedding garment? And he was speechless. {13}
Then said the King to the servants, Bind him hand and foot, and take him away, and cast him into

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outer darkness; there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth." (Mt. 22v1-13, AKJV, p.432-433)

"And these shall go away into EVERLASTING PUNISHMENT: but the righteous into LIFE
ETERNAL" (Mt. 25v46, AKJV, p.435)

"For what shall it profit a man, if he shall gain the whole world, and LOSE HIS OWN
SOUL?" (Mk. 8v36, AKJV, p.443)

"Whose fan is in His hand, and He will throughly purge His floor, and will gather the
wheat into His garner; but THE CHAFF HE WILL BURN WITH FIRE
UNQUENCHABLE." (Lk. 3v17, AKJV, p.451)

"And AS IT WAS IN THE DAYS OF NOE, SO SHALL IT BE ALSO IN THE DAY OF
THE SON OF MAN. They did eat, they drank, they married wives, they were given in
marriage, until the day that Noe entered into the ark, and the flood came, and
DESTROYED THEM ALL." (Lk. 17v26-27, AKJV, p.461)

"{15} That WHOSOEVER BELIEVETH IN HIM SHOULD NOT PERISH, BUT HAVE
ETERNAL LIFE. {16} For God so loved the world, that He gave His only begotten Son,
that WHOSOEVER BELIEVETH IN HIM SHOULD NOT PERISH, BUT HAVE
EVERLASTING LIFE." (Jn. 3v15-16, AKJV, p.468)

"He who believes in the Son POSSESSES EVERLASTING LIFE, but he who does not obey
the Son SHALL NOT SEE LIFE, but the wrath of Elohim remains on him." (Jn. 3v36, TS,
p.1020)

"He that believeth on the Son HATH EVERLASTING LIFE: and he that believeth not the
Son SHALL NOT SEE LIFE; but the wrath of God abideth on him." (Jn. 3v36, AKJV,
p.468)

"If a man abide not in Me, he is cast forth as a branch, and is withered; and men gather
them, AND CAST THEM INTO THE FIRE, AND THEY ARE BURNED." (Jn. 15v6, AKJV,
p.477)

"Who knowing the judgment of God, that they which commit such things are WORTHY OF
DEATH, not only do the same, but have pleasure in them that do them." (Rom. 1v32,
AKJV, p.498)

"WHOSE END IS DESTRUCTION, whose God is their belly, and whose glory is in their
shame, who mind earthly things." (Philip. 3v19, AKJV, p.522)

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"Who SHALL BE PUNISHED WITH EVERLASTING DESTRUCTION FROM THE
PRESENCE OF THE LORD, AND FROM THE GLORY OF HIS POWER." (2 Thes. 1v9,
AKJV, p.525)

"THEY SHALL PERISH; BUT THOU REMAINEST; and they all shall wax old as doth a
garment." (Heb. 1v11, AKJV, p.531)

"{6} If they shall fall away, to renew them again unto repentance; seeing they crucify to
themselves the Son of God afresh, and put Him to an open shame. {7} For the earth which
drinketh in the rain that cometh oft upon it, and bringeth forth herbs meet for them by
whom it is dressed, receiveth blessing from God: {8} BUT THAT WHICH BEARETH THORNS
AND BRIERS IS REJECTED, AND IS NIGH UNTO CURSING: WHOSE END IS TO BE
BURNED." (Heb. 6v6-8, AKJV, p.532)

"But a certain fearful looking for of judgment and FIERY INDIGNATION, WHICH
SHALL DEVOUR THE ADVERSARIES." (Heb. 10v27, AKJV, p.534)

"And TURNING THE CITIES OF SODOM AND GOMMORRAH INTO ASHES condemned
them with an overthrow, MAKING THEM AN ENSAMPLE UNTO THOSE THAT AFTER
SHOULD LIVE UNGODLY;..." (2 Pt. 2v6, AKJV, p.108)

"{12} But these, as natural brute beasts, MADE TO BE TAKEN AND DESTROYED, speak
evil of the things that they understand not; and shall UTTERLY PERISH in their own
corruption;..." (2 Pt. 2v12, AKJV, p.540)

"But the day of the Lord will come as a thief in the night; in the which the heavens shall pass away
with a great noise, and THE ELEMENTS SHALL MELT WITH FERVENT HEAT, THE EARTH
ALSO AND THE WORKS THAT ARE THEREIN SHALL BE BURNED UP." (2 Pt. 3v10, AKJV,
p.540)

"Even as Sodom and Gomorrha, and the cities about them in like manner, giving
themselves over to fornication, and going after strange flesh, ARE SET FORTH FOR AN
EXAMPLE, SUFFERING THE VENGEANCE OF ETERNAL FIRE." (Jude 1v7, KJV,
p.110)

Bibliography
1
"John Wenham": Wikipedia. (30/04/2008) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Wenham
2
John W. Wenham; The Case for Conditional Immortality in Universalism and the Doctrine of Hell (Baker,
1992)

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"Annihilationism": Wikipedia. (30/04/2008) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Annihilationism
4
"Clark Pinnock": Wikipedia. (30/04/2008) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clark_Pinnock
5
The Mystery of Salvation: The Doctrine Commission of the General Synod (Church of England, 1995),
p.199. Published by Church House Publishing, London, 1995; copyrighted by The Central Board of Finance of
the Church of England, 1995. ISBN 0-7151-3778-6
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John Piper; The Desiring God Affirmation of Faith (Desiring God). (24/03/2008) http://www.desiringgod.org
/media/pdf/affirmation_of_faith.pdf
7
Dr. K.P. Yohannan; Revolution In World Missions (GFA Books {a division of Gospel for Asia}, 1800 Golden
Trail Court, Carrollton, TX 75010, USA) pp.93, 108. http://www.gfa.org/
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Conditional Immortality or Annihilationism (Debunking Christianity, 14 July 2006). (30/04/2008)
http://debunkingchristianity.blogspot.com/2006/07/conditional-immortality-or.html
9
B.B. Warfield; Annihilationism (The Highway). (01/05/2008) http://www.the-highway.com/articleJuly04.html
10
Jacob Blain; Death not Life (Buffalo, 1857), pp. 39-42.
11
Aaron Ellis and Thomas Read; Bible versus Tradition (New York, 1853), pp. 13-121.
12
George Storrs; Six Sermons (New York, 1856), pp. 29 ff.
13
Zenas Campbell; The Age of Gospel Light (Hartford, 1854)
14
Salmond; The Christian Doctrine of Immortality (Edinburgh, 1901), pp. 473-474.
15
Falke, Die Lehre von der ewigen Verdammnis (Eisenach, 1892), pp. 27-28.
16
E.J.K. Walter; Prufung wichtiger Lehren theologischen und philosophischen Inhalts (Berlin, 1782)
17
C. Berthoud; 'Les quatre Petitpierres (Neuchatel, 1875)
18
C.H. Weisse; Theologische Studien und Kritiken ix. (1836), pp. 271-340.
19
H.H. Dobney; Notes of Lectures on Future Punishment (London, 1844); new edition, "On the Scripture
Doctrine of Future Punishment" (1846)
20
J. Rognon; L’Immortalité native et l’enseignement biblique (Montauban, 1894), p. 7; but cf. A. Gretillat,
Exposé de théologie systématique (Paris, iv. 1890), p. 602.
21
Richard Rothe; Theologische Ethik 3 vols. (Wittenberg, 1845-1848); ed. 2, 5 vols., 1867-1871, §§ 470-472;
Dogmatik (Heidelberg, II. ii. 1870), §§ 47-48, especially p. 158.
22
C.H. Weisse; Philosophische Dogmatik (Leipzig, 1855-1862), § 970.
23
Hermann Schultz; Voraussetzungen der christlichen Lehre von der Unsterblichkeit (Göttingen, 1861), p.
155; cf. Grundriss der evangelischen Dogmatik (1892), p. 154.

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24
H. Plitt; Evangelische Glaubenslehre (Gotha, 1863).
25
F. Brandes; Theologische Studien und Kritiken (1872), pp. 545, 550.
26
A. Schäffer; Auf der Neige des Lebens (Gotha, 1884); Was ist Glück? (1891), pp. 290-294.
27
G. Runze; Unsterblichkeit und Auferstehung (Berlin, i. 1894), pp. 167, 204.
28
L. Lemme; Endlosigkeit der Verdammnis (Berlin, 1899), pp. 31-32, 60-61. cf. R. Kabisch; Die Esehatologie
des Paulus (Göttingen, 1893).
29
C. Lambert; Le Système du monde moral (1862).
30
P. Janet; Revue des deux mondes (1863).
31
C. Renouvier; La Critique philosophique (1878).
32
Charles Sécretan and C. Ribot; Revue théologique (1885), No. 1
33
Edward White; Life in Christ (London: 1846 [1875, 1878]).
34
George Storrs; Are the Wicked Immortal? (ed. 21, New York, 1852).
35
Archbishop Whately; Scripture Revelations concerning a Future State ed. 8, (London, 1859)
36
Bishop Hampden, J.B. Heard; The Tri-partite Nature of Man ed. 4, (Edinburgh, 1875)
37
Prebendary Constable; The Duration and Nature of Future Punishment (London, 1868)
38
Prebendary Row; Future Retribution (London, 1887)
39
J.M. Denniston; The Perishing Soul ed. 2, (London, 1874)
40
S. Minton; The Glory of Christ (London, 1868)
41
J.W. Barlow; Eternal Punishment (Cambridge, 1865)
42
T. Davis; Endless Suffering not the Doctrine of Scripture (London, 1866)
43
J.A. Beet; The Last Things (London, 1897)
44
C.F. Hudson; Debt and Grace (Boston, 1857), ed. 5, 1859; Christ Our Life (1860).
45
W.R. Huntington; Conditional Immortality (New York, 1878)
46
J.H. Pettingell; The Life Everlasting (Philadelphia, 1882), combining two previously published tractates; The
Unspeakable Gift (Yarmouth, Me., 1884)
47
Henry C. Sheldon; System of Christian Doctrine (Cincinnati, 1903), pp. 573ff.

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48
John Piper; Behold The Kindness & Severity of God: The Echo & Insufficiency of Hell (Part 1)(Desiring
God) (01/04/2008) http://www.soundofgrace.com/piper92/06-14-92.htm
49
Champions of Conditional Immortality in History (02/05/2008) http://www.specialtyinterests.net
/champions_of_conditional_immortality.html
50
Isaac Watts; The World to Come.
51
John W. Loftus; Conditional Immortality or Annihilationism (Debunking Christianity, 14 July 2006). (04/05
/2008) http://debunkingchristianity.blogspot.com/2006/07/conditional-immortality-or.html
52
G.B. Caird; Commentary on Revelation, p. 186.
53
Is Hell Eternal? Biblical Support for the Concept of Annihilationism (Religious Tolerance). (04/05/2008)
http://www.religioustolerance.org/hel_etera.htm
54
John R.W. Stott; Evangelical Essentials, p.316.
55
Ann Lee Bressler; The Universalist Movement in America, 1770-1880 (Oxford University Press US, 2001),
p.133. ISBN: 0195129865 (05/05/2008) http://books.google.co.za/books?id=5LOXo60kdUgC
56
Mr. Spurgeon's Answers on Subjects of General Interest: Annihilationism. (05/05/2008)
http://www.godrules.net/library/spurgeon/NEW8spurgeon_d12.htm
57
Everlasting Punishment (Herald Magazine). (05/05/2008) http://www.heraldmag.org/bookstore
/booklet_punishment.htm
58
Oscar Cullmann; Immortality of the Soul or Resurrection of the Dead?: The Witness of the New
Testament (New York: Macmillan & Co., 1964) (24/03/2008) http://www.religion-online.org
/showbook.asp?title=1115
59
"Annihilationism": Theopedia. (05/05/2008) http://www.theopedia.com/Annihilationism
60
R.A. Peterson; Hell on Trial: the Case for Eternal Punishment (P&R Publishing, 1995), p.31-32
61
R.A. Peterson, A Traditionalist Response to John Stott’s Arguments for Annihilationism (Journal of the
Evangelical Theological Society 37, 1994), pp. 553-68.
62
Prof. Dr. Craig Blomberg; Eschatology and the Church: Some New Testament Perspectives (Denver
Seminary). (06/05/2008) http://www.theologicalstudies.org.uk/pdf/eschatology_blomberg.pdf
63
Sam Storms; Hell and Annihilationism (Enjoying God Ministries, 6 November 2006). (06/05/2008)
http://www.enjoyinggodministries.com/article/hell-and-annihilationism
64
L.C. Baker; The Fire of God's Anger.
65
F.W. Grant; Facts and Theories as to a Future State. (06/05/2008) http://www.newble.co.uk/grant/Facts
/Appen5.html
66
Richard F. Ames; Who Is Burning In Hell? (Tomorrow's World). (22/06/2008)

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http://www.tomorrowsworld.org/cgi-bin/tw/tw-mag.cgi?category=Magazine40&item=1137129107
67
Jeremy K. Moritz; Hell: Eternal Torment or Complete Annihilation (2003). (26/06/2008)
http://jeremyandchristine.com/articles/eternal.php
68
Michael J. Meiring; In An Email (5 August 2008).
69
Michael J. Meiring; The Nature of Hell (5 August 2008).

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