Iconography - EJ Hill & Friends

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Iconography
From EJ Hill & Friends
ICONOGRAPHY as opposed to ICONOCLASM by EJ Hill (1977-)

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Introduction
It is very common in our day to see pictures of God, and of Christ, both, in churches and at home. We find them in stained glass windows, church foyers, living rooms, even Christian schoolrooms. We find them on Charismatic Television, on Christian Billboards, on Christian Books, Family Bibles, and sometimes, even behind the Pulpit. The vast majority of 'Christian' Bookstores sell a wide variety of these items - containing anything and everything, from the effeminate 'Northern European Messiah' to the grotesquely muscular Conan-like versions of Christ. Even in the Reformed Churches (which, historically, ought to know better) pictures of the Suffering Servant are fairly common in Sunday School materials. The question, which surfaced in my mind at the age of 17, was, "Do these representations violate Scripture, or are they merely works of art, perfectly acceptable, as long as they are not worshipped in His stead?"

The Second Commandment
At the age of sixteen, I attended the Philadelphia Christian Church of Robertson; an offshoot of the Apostolic Faith Mission in South Africa. I would spend much of my free time in Bible study discovering my new-found faith. It was during one of these Bible studies that I hopped onto the SECOND COMMANDMENT: "Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image, or any likeness of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth. Thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them: for I the Lord thy God am a jealous God, ..." (Ex. 20v4-5, AKJV, p.37) At that stage, I had no clue, as how to interpret the Second Commandment. Bible Difficulties and Seeming Contradictions On the one hand we are told not to make "any graven image, or any likeness of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth." (Ex. 20v4-5, AKJV, p.37)
The Ten Commandments

Yet, just five chapters later, in Exodus chapter 25, God Himself commands Moses to make Him a sanctuary (v8), containing "two cherubims of gold" (v18). Likewise, in Numbers chapter 21 verses 8 we find God Himself commanding Moses, "Make thee a fiery serpent, ..." Something, King Hezekiah eventually had to destroy, since it became an idol. (2 Kgs. 18v4) Yet, Jesus Himself, many years later, condoned the same? (Jn. 3v13-15) Again, in First Kings chapter 7 verses 23-26 we read, of Solomon, that: "... he made a molten sea, ten cubits from the one brim to the other: it was round all about, and his height was five cubits: and a line of thirty cubits did compass it round about. And under the brim of it round about there were knops compassing it, ten in a cubit, compassing the sea round about: the knops were cast in two rows, when it was cast. It stood upon twelve oxen, three looking toward the north, and three looking toward the west, and three looking toward the south, and three looking toward the east: and the sea was set above upon them, and all their hinder parts were inward. And it was an hand breadth thick, and the brim thereof was wrought like the brim of a cup, with flowers of lilies: it contained two thousand baths." (1 Kgs. 7v23-26, AKJV, p.168)
Moses' Brazen Serpent

Wait a minute. Did that say that Solomon created a graven image of something on earth, namely oxen? Yes, it did. Again, in First Chronicles chapter 28 verses 11, and 17 to 19, we read, "Then DAVID gave to Solomon his son the pattern of the porch, and of the houses thereof, and of the treasuries thereof, and of the upper chambers thereof, and of the inner parlours thereof, and of the place of the mercy seat, ... Also pure gold for the fleshbooks, and the bowls, and the cups: and for the golden basons he gave gold by weight for every bason; and likewise silver by weight for every bason of

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Iconography - EJ Hill & Friends

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silver: And for the altar of incense refined gold by weight; and gold for the pattern of the chariot of the cherubims, that spread out their wings, and covered the ark of the covenant of the Lord. All this, said David, the Lord made me understand in writing by His hand upon me, even all the works of this pattern." (1 Chr. 28v11, v17-19, AKJV, p.209) For me, as a young Christian (with little theological experience) this seemed a bit confusing. On the one hand we are being told not to make any graven image of anything "in heaven above", "in the earth below", or "that is in the water under the earth" - yet, God Himself tells Moses to do exactly that?! And, as if adding insult to injury, even the wise King Solomon produced twelve oxen - which served within the First Temple for more than 500 years! Context, Context, Context I soon realized, from the immediate context of Exodus chapter 20 verse 4 (verses 3 and 5), and the broader context of the Old Testament (the actions of Moses, David, and Solomon), that it wasn't God's intention to prevent humanity from making graven images, but rather; to prevent them from making graven images which they would worship and serve, in His stead. This, however, left me with yet another question.

An Important Question
How does the Second Commandment relate to those passages of Scripture, that bars us from making any similitude of either, the Father or the Son? On the one hand, if the Second Commandment, by referring to anything "in heaven above", sought to "totally prohibit making material representations of His person" (as have been suggested by Richard Bennett [1], J. Virgil Dunbar [1], and Brian Schwertley [2]) - we could likewise conclude, that from the immediate context of Exodus chapter 20 verse 4 (verses 3 and 5), that it wasn't God's intention to prevent humanity from making any graven image of His Person (in light of the actions of Moses, David, and Solomon), but rather; to prevent them from worshiping the same in His stead. - providing freedom, and no reason for alarm, in making graven images, apart from it potentially being worshiped. Yet, we clearly see, both within the Old- and New Testaments, that making any similitude of His Person, constitutes vanity and sin. "They made a calf in Horeb, and worshipped the molten image. Thus they changed Their glory into the similitude of an ox that eateth grass." (Ps. 106v19-20, AKJV, p.281) "To whom then will ye liken God? or what likeness will ye compare unto Him?" (Is. 40v18, AKJV, p.321) "Because that, when they knew God, they glorified Him not as God, neither were thankful; but became vain in their imaginations, and their foolish heart was darkened. Professing themselves to be wise, they became fools, And changed the glory of the uncorruptible God into an image made like to corruptible man, and to birds, and fourfooted beasts, and creeping things." (Rom. 1v21-23, AKJV, p.498) "Wherefore henceforth know we no man after the flesh: yea, though we have known Christ after the flesh, yet now henceforth know we Him no more." (2 Cor. 5v16, AKJV, p.513)

An Important Answer
» If, the Second Commandment simply prohibited making any graven images, irrespective of whether it would be worshipped or not -- both, God Himself as well as His People (including Moses, David, and Solomon); not only contradicted, but also undermined, the Second Commandment. And, since we know that God, neither contradict, nor undermine, Himself - we have to conclude that, at least in the Second Commandment, He simply didn't prohibit the manufacturing of any graven image, but only the worship thereof. » If, as we already concluded, God didn't prohibit the manufacturing of any graven image, but only the worship thereof - and, if, we assume that God Himself are to be found amongst those things referred to as being "in heaven above" -- God would not only contradict, but also undermine Scripture (in particular, Rom. 1v21-23 and 2 Cor. 5v16). And, since we know that God, neither contradicts, nor undermine, Himself - we have to conclude, that what is referred to in Exodus chapter 20 verse 4, are those "items belonging to the sphere of things indifferent (adiaphora)" [2], "in heaven above", "in the earth beneath", and "in the water under the earth". The "heaven" referred to in Exodus chapter 20 verse 4 comes from the Hebrew shaw-mah'-yim or shaw-meh (G8064): The same "heaven" God created in Genesis chapter 1 verses 1, 8, 9, 14, 15, 17 and Exodus chapter 20v11, and 30v17. The same "heaven" where birds are said to fly. (Gen. 1v20; 7v23) The same "heaven" from which we receive rain. (Gen. 7v11; 8v2; 27v28, v39) The same "heaven" where the stars reside. (Gen. 15v5; 22v17; 26v4) While it could, it does not necessarily, refer to the abode of God - and, therefore, does not of necessity include Himself. Why is this so important? Because, if the Second Commandment, related to the Godhead -- we'd have liberty to make, yet not worship, graven images of His Person.

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However, if the Second Commandment, only related to that which is corporeal (relating to the physical and material, and not the spiritual, immaterial, or intangible) -- we'd be at liberty to make, yet not worship, graven images of anything and everything, except the Godhead. The latter would be in harmony with the Broader Testimony of Scripture -- which allows for Moses' "two cherubims of gold" (Ex. 25v18), as well as his "fiery serpent" (Num. 21v8), and for Solomon's "twelve oxen" (1 Kgs. 7v23-26), yet, does not allow for any graven image as representing the Godhead. (Rom. 1v21-23)

A Burning Conviction
After much study, and much deliberation, I simply could not deny the overwhelming testimony of both, the New- and Old Testaments. Yet, I was very reluctant. The subject matter; and its implications; were of no small concern to any Christian. Iconography (the practice of visually representing God) are prevalent within many Catholic and Protestant churches (whether Pentecostal, Charismatic, or Reformed). By speaking out, I would effectively alienate no less than 90% of the Denominational Church Establishment. Yet, I could not keep silent. First, because I believed that God will hold me responsible for what I know; yet secretly kept hidden. (Js. 3v1) Second, in response to a request of a friend. Who, upon reading the source material, exclaimed, "EJ, you must warn people about this! People don't know." The issue we are about to address, and what is at stake in making idols is clearly presented in Deuteronomy 4v12 and 15-16, "And the Lord spake unto you out of the fire: ye heard the voice of the words, but saw no similitude: only ye heard a voice... Take ye therefore good heed unto yourselves; for ye saw no manner of similitude on the day that the Lord spake unto you in Horeb out of the midst of the fire: Lest ye corrupt yourselves, and make you a graven image, the similitude of any figure, the likeness of male or female." (Deut. 4v12, v15-16, AKJV, p.90) This issue here has nothing to do with personal preference or opinion; "the issue is most serious for in the Bible, idolatry is clearly spoken of as something God hates. Idolatry has always been the Achilles' Heel by which the people of God have been wounded and brought down." [3] As far as I was concerned, the above were sufficient to condemn iconography, once and for all. Whatever debate or objection one might call upon, there was no denying that by Biblical Definition: Iconography constitutes Idolatry. I believed that God's name could never be attached to any image. Therefore, I held that any attempt at making a similitude of God (representing Him in some materialistic form) would constitute the same sin as making a golden calf.

The History and Development of Iconography The History and Development of Iconoclasm Evangelical Iconography
During the Protestant Reformation there was a return to biblical truth. The Bible was considered the ultimate authority, and sufficient to show the transcendent nature of God, Who He is, that He is Spirit, infinite, eternal, and unchangeable. At the dawn of the reformation, there was a universal condemnation of the evils of idolatry. To escape idolatry, many people left the Roman Catholic Church (including many priests, monks and nuns), leading to the establishment of Bible-based churches all over the globe. Until very recently, this was still the case in the evangelical world. But unfortunately, as former Roman Catholic priest, Richard Bennett and J. Virgil Dunbar of Berean Beacon™ confirms: "The Church of Rome has done much to lead modern Evangelicalism into making images of the Lord. Like the Catholics, many Evangelicals today seem not even to be aware that such activity is idolatrous." [1]

The 'Christian' Multimedia Industry
Magazines Joy! Magazine Volume 16 Issue 1: features iconography on pages 4 and 96. [4] Volume 16 Issue 2: features an article by Dr. Peter Hammond entitled "Who Killed Jesus?" containing a full page graphical representation of 'Christ' crucified, pp.16-18. Iconography was also prevalent on pages 3, 4, and 7.
[5]

Movies The Passion of The Christ (2004) was produced by Mel Gibson of New Market Films®, and ironically distributed by Icon Distribution Inc. The New Method English Dictionary defines an "icon" as "a holy object, e.g. picture of a holy person" [6]

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In response to the prophet Isaiah's question, "To whom then will ye liken God?" (Is. 40v18); the modern Church and movie industry have responded with Brian Deacon ("Jesus"); Bruce Marchiano ("The Gospel of Matthew" and "The Gospel According to John"); and Jim Caviezel ("The Passion of The Christ").

General Objections
But the Ten Commandments are no longer binding ... While many reformers believed that the first and second commandment decreed images as an abomination, Luther believed however, that since this was from the Old Testament, it was no longer binding on the New Testament Christian. What Luther seems to have missed, is that the Apostle Paul also condemned the practice in the New Testament. See, Rom. 1v21-23 and 2 Cor. 5v16. That which is condemned in the Old Testament is not justified in the New Testament. But then we are also idols, since, according to Genesis chapter 1 verses 26 to 27 we were created in the 'Image' or 'Likeness' of God ... Amongst those who promulgate this objection on MySpace®, we find a lady by the name of Giulia [37]; a guy called 1messiahJC [38]; as well as a self-proclaimed "Jesus" [39]. In light of Exodus chapter 20 verse 4, "Jesus" confirms the argument on his MySpace® web log as follow:"So not only can you not make heavenly images, but you can not make earthly ones [either]. Which if taken literally would mean you could not even make a painting of a rose, or take a photograph of yourself. Because according to Genesis all of humanity is made in the image of God. So, if I am an idolater, then so are you." [39] I have to make it clear from the outset, that what I believe regarding iconography is not only based upon the Old Testament (Exodus chapter 20 verse 4), but also on the New Testament (Romans chapter 1 verses 21-23). So let's look at the above objection a bit closer. When God said, in Genesis chapter 1 verse 26, "Let us make man in our image, after our likeness." did He suggest, for one moment, that He is 5 foot 7 inches with blond hair and blue eyes? Or handicapped (since He also created the handicapped)? Is dumb (since He created the dumb)? Or deaf (since He created the deaf)? Or that we are Gods, as some have suggested? No. When God "created man in His own image" (Gen. 1v27), He did not create little gods. Neither did He seek to visually represent Himself. It was spiritual. Not only is this the testimony of Scripture; but it is also that of prominent theologians like John Calvin; John Wesley; Adam Clarke; Jamieson, Fausset and Brown. In commenting on Genesis chapter 1 verse 26, John Calvin (1509-1564) writes: "The Anthropomorphites were too gross in seeking this resemblance in the human body; let that reverie therefore remain entombed... Since the image of God had been destroyed in us by the fall, we may judge from its restoration what it originally had been. Paul says that we are transformed into the image of God by the gospel. And, according to him, spiritual regeneration is nothing else than the restoration of the same image. (Colossians 3:10 and Ephesians 4:23) That he made this image to consist in righteousness and true holiness, is by the figure synecdochee; for though this is the chief part, it is not the whole of God's image. Therefore by this word the perfection of our whole nature is designated, as it appeared when Adam was endued with a right judgment, had affections in harmony with reason, had all his senses sound and well-regulated, and truly excelled in everything good. Thus the chief seat of the Divine image was in his mind and heart, where it was eminent: yet was there no part of him in which some scintillations of it did not shine forth." [40] Matthew Henry (1662-1714) says: "That man was made in God's image and after His likeness, two words to express the same thing and making each other the more expressive; 'image' and 'likeness' denote the likest image, the nearest resemblance of any of the visible creatures. Man was not made in the likeness of any creature that went before him, but in the likeness of his Creator; yet still between God and man there is an infinite distance. Christ only is the 'express' image of God's person, as the Son of His Father, having the same nature. It is only some of God's honor that is put upon man, who is God's image only as the shadow in the glass, or the king's impress upon the coin. God's image upon man consists in these three things:-- 1. In his nature and constitution, not those of his body (for God has not a body), but those of his soul... But it is the soul, the great soul, of man, that does especially bear God's image... 2. In his place and authority: 'Let us make man in our image, and let him have dominion.' As he has the government of the inferior creatures, he is, as it were, God's representative, or viceroy, upon earth; they are not capable of fearing and serving God, therefore God has appointed to fear and serve man. Yet his government of himself by the freedom of his will has in it more of God's image than his government of the creatures. 3. In his purity and rectitude. God's image upon man consists in knowledge, righteousness, and true holiness, Ephesians 4:24, Colossians 3:10. He was upright, Ecclesiastes 7:29.... Thus holy, thus happy, were our first parents, in having the image of God upon them." [21] From John Wesley's (1703-1791) confirmed the views of both Calvin and Henry, in his "Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible", by declaring that: "God's image upon man consists in knowledge, righteousness, and true holiness, Ephesians 4:24; Colossians 3:10. He was upright, Ecclesiastes 7:29.... Thus holy, thus happy, were our first parents, in having the image of God upon them. But how art thou fallen, O son of the morning? How is this image

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of God upon man defaced! How small the remains of it, and how great the ruins of it!" [41] Adam Clarke's (1760-1832) “Commentary on the Bible” on Genesis chapter 1 verse 26, says, "What is said above refers only to the body of man, what is here said refers to his soul. This was made in the image and likeness of God. Now, as the Divine Being is infinite, He is neither limited by parts, nor definable by passions; therefore He can have no corporeal image after which He made the body of man. The image and likeness must necessarily be intellectual; his mind, his soul, must have been formed after the nature and perfections of his God.... It was created after the image of God; and that image, St. Paul tells us, consisted in righteousness, true holiness, and knowledge, Ephesians 4:24, Colossians 3:10." [23] Jamieson, Fausset, and Brown's “Commentary Critical and Explanatory of the Whole Bible”, adds, "In our image, after our likeness-- This was a peculiar distinction, the value attached to which appears in the words being twice mentioned. And in what did this image of God consist? Not in the erect form or features of man, not in his intellect, for the devil and his angels are, in this respect, far superior; not in his immortality, for he has not, like God, a past as well as a future eternity of being; but in the moral dispositions of his soul, commonly called 'original righteousness' (Ec. 7:29). As the new creation is only a restoration of this image, the history of the one throws light on the other; and we are informed that it is renewed after the image of God in knowledge, righteousness, and true holiness. (Col. 3:10, Ep. 4:24)" [42] Since man is therefore NOT a visual representation of God, as some of the above have mistakenly assumed; and since the New Testament objects to nothing but the visual representations of God (Rom. 1v21-23), we are at liberty to photograph whatever we like. It doesn't matter God sees my heart ... There is a lie most prevalent today, that "God sees the intentions of the heart", or, "that the attitude of the heart is what God looks at"; and that in response He will excuse the grossest of doctrinal error and sin; solely on the basis of our ignorance. While God did, historically provide some excuse for ignorance (Acts 14v16), it is no longer the case. "And the times of this ignorance God winked at; but now commandeth all men every where to repent: Because He hath appointed a day, in the which He will judge the world in righteousness by that man whom He hath ordained; whereof he hath given assurance unto all men, in that He hath raised Him from the dead." (Acts 17v30-31, AKJV, p.491) Adolf Hitler had some "good intentions" for his Aryan Nation, whether you and I regard them as such, is of no consequence; both he and his followers did. The white supremacist with "good intention" upholds racial segregation. The Crusaders and Muslims of the 11th Century with "good intention" slaughtered millions. Roman Catholics with "good intention" martyred thousands of Protestant believers. When many "good intentioned" Pharisees and Sadducees came to be baptized by John the Baptist, he rebuked them, saying, "O generation of vipers, who hath warned you to flee from the wrath to come?" (Mt. 3v7; Lk. 3v7) Christians are placing way too much emphasis on their "good intentions". If God had to consider our "good intentions", He would have had to allow for just about anything. We have to confess then, that indeed "the road to hell is paved with good intentions".

Frequently Asked Questions
Pictorial Representations of Christ, Idolatry?

Conclusion
Reformation Denied Lately, the Denominational Church Establishment have been confronted by crisis upon crisis. After decades of endeavor and aggregate growth; moral corruption, ecumenism consensus, and the apparent demise of marriage like a volcano, erupts from beneath. The modus vivendi embodied in the 1994 "Evangelicals & Catholics Together" (ECT) are still confusing and deceiving many. Its ecclesiastical endorsement has further led many Evangelicals to believe that there is no essential differences between Catholicism and Biblical Christianity. Mel Gibson's dramatic The Passion of The Christ (2004) movie perpetuating the lie. In Evangelical churches the carnal pandering of "seeker sensitive" churches loiters unquestioned. The unregenerate fill the pews, and silence the pulpits. There is no conviction of sin, because the Gospel remain unavowed. Within the Reformed churches there is division, contention, and strife caused by the “Auburn Avenue Controversy” and the “New Perspective On Justification.” Revival has been preached, pursued, and prayed for; yet still remains aloof. In the words of Isaiah "We have been with child, we have been in pain, we have as it were brought forth wind; we have not wrought any deliverance in the earth; neither have the inhabitants of the world fallen." (Is. 26v18, AKJV, p.316)

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"In the soil of 'another' Gospel can spring no revival!" says Randall Paquette. "In the temple of images and pictures can come no renewal!" [7] From Moses unto Hosea, those who sought to revive the spirit of the nation and would have hearts return to a true worship of God, condemned images. And that which is condemned in the Old Testament is not justified in the New. The great revivals in Christian history have flourished under the true Gospel and the denunciation of idolatry. So it was with the Vaudois, the Waldenses, the Lollards, the Bohemians, and the Reformers. In the Dark Ages, luminaries such as Girolamo Savonarola, John Wycliffe, and John Huss attacked the corruption of idolatry and preached the Gospel. In the Great Awakening in the USA, preachers inspired by George Whitefield, Jonathan Edwards, and William Law, sough to glorify God in the Gospel by uniting veracious worship with the censuring of images. "If Jesse Lee had not come into Massachusetts, some one else pressed in spirit, like Paul at Athens 'when he saw the city wholly given to idolatry,' would have found utterance and would have had followers." [7] Following Jonathan Edwards' publication of the journal of David Brainerd, it was said that, "The revival had greatest impact when Brainerd emphasized the compassion of the Saviour, the provisions of the gospel, and the free offer of divine grace. Idolatry was abandoned, marriages repaired, drunkenness practically disappeared... Their communities were filled with love." [8] We should not, and God knows we can not afford, to ignore the witness of this testimony, if we are to receive the blessings we so long for. The Choice Before Us Many who call themselves Christian have a cavalier attitude towards idolatry. They ignore both Scripture and History, as if immune to the dangers of superstition and idolatry. Proclaiming with the Laodicean Church, "I am rich, and increased with goods, and have need of nothing; and knowest not that thou art wretched, and miserable, and poor, and blind, and naked." (Rev. 3v17, AKJV, p.545) And, it is unfortunately so, that amongst these, we find a great number of ministers ("prelates of wood", as Girolamo Savonarola would say). They have "no fear of God before their eyes" (Rom. 3v18, AKJV, p.499) For them, Christianity exists only in sentiment. Jack Crabtree writes in "Bible Study for What Ails Us": "The lack of real spirituality in today's Christian culture is really a very simple problem: We are a people who stubbornly refuse to confront the truth and do business with it; we are a people who refuse to acknowledge the truth as truth and embrace it with all our soul. The 'just love Jesus and don't worry your pretty little head about doctrine' mentality – which is all too common amongst us today – has led to a virtual famine of biblical understanding in the modern world. We no longer know what the Bible says, and we no longer care. We are becoming a biblically illiterate culture; and that at a time when we are patting ourselves on the back for our rediscovery of spirituality."
[9]

Be Ye Separate! It was the Apostle Paul who warned, in his First Letter to the Corinthians, "not to keep company, if any man that is called a brother be... an idolater, ... with such an one no not to eat." (1 Cor. 5v11, AKJV, p.506) He continues, in his Second Letter to the Corinthians, “Be ye not unequally yoked together with unbelievers: for what fellowship hath righteousness with unrighteousness? And what communion hath light with darkness? And what concord hath Christ with Belial? Or what part hath he that believeth with an infidel? And what agreement hath the temple of God with idols? For ye are the temple of the living God; as God hath said, I will dwell in them, and walk in them; and I will be their God, and thy shall be my people. Wherefore come out from among them, and be ye separate, saith the Lord, and touch not the unclean thing; and I will receive you.” (2 Cor. 6v14-17, AKJV, p.513) Am I telling you to leave your church? No. What I am telling you, is this - that if they stubbornly refuse to be corrected; GOD is COMMANDING you to! Mark my words, the pictures hung in the temple by this generation, will be the idols worshiped by the next. "The papal church did not develop into the demonic monstrosity it now is overnight. But, as Paul warned, 'a little leaven leavens the whole lump' (1 Cor. 5:6)" [2]

Alignments
Iconoclasts Magazines: World Magazine® Individuals: Eusebius of Caesarea (263-339?) [2|10]; Epiphanius of Salamis (310/320-403) [2|10]; St. Gregory of Nazianzen (325/329-389)

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; John Chrysostom (347-407) [2|10]; Roman Catholic Bishop - Serenus of Marseilles () [11]; Byzantine Emperor – Leo III the Isaurian (685-741); John Huss (1370-1415); William Farel (1419-1565) [12]; Girolamo Savonarola (1452-1498) [13]; Desiderius Erasmus (1466-1536) [14|15]; Wolfgang Fabricius Capito (1478-1541); Leo Jud (1482-1542) [16]; Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531) [12]; Hugh Latimer (1485-1555) [17]; Martin Bucer (1491-1551) [18]; Nicholas Ridley (-1555) [17]; Thomas Cranmer (1489-1559) [17]; Prof. Dr. John Calvin (1509-1564) [17]; John Knox (1514-1572) [2|12]; Puritan - William Dowsing (1596-1668); Bishop Edward Stillingfleet; Puritan - Dr. John Owen (1616-1683); Puritan - Thomas Watson (1620-1686) [2|19]; James Durham (1622-1658) [2|20]; Nonconformist - Matthew Henry (1662-1714) [21|22]; Jonathan Edwards (1703-1758) [7|8]; Missionary - David Brainerd (1718-1747) [7]; Methodist - George Whitefield (1714-1770); Methodist - Adam Clarke (1760/1762-1832) [23|24]; PRESBYTERIAN Albert Barnes (1798-1870) [25]; Anglican - John Nelson Darby (1800-1882) [26]; Christian Reformed - Prof. Dr. Johannes Geerhardus Vos (1862-1949) [2|27]; Phillip Schaff [2|10]; Brian Schwertley [2] ; Pst. Greg Price; Andreas von Karlstadt [28]; Carlos R. Piar [17]; Presbyterian - David Bayly; David Orton [29]; Edward P. Meadors [30]; J. Virgil Dunbar [1|3|7]; Jesse Lee [7]; John Phillips; Franciscan – John Ryckes [17]; Richard Bennett [1|3|7]; Presbyterian - Tim Bayly; Sebastiaan Matte; Jacob de Buysere; John K. La Shell [31]; Pst. Doug [32]; and myself. Iconodules / Iconodulists / Iconophiles / Idolaters Affiliations: Apostolic Faith Mission of South Africa [33]; The Dutch Reformed Church of South Africa [33]; Kenneth Copeland Ministries (KCM); New Covenant Ministries International (NCMI) [33]; Rhema Ministries; Roman Catholicism; The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (i.e. Mormons); Wake Up America Seminars [34]; and The Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society (i.e. Jehovah's Witnesses) Magazines: Joy! Magazine [4|5] Individuals: Pope Gregory the Great I (540-604) [11]; John of Damascus (676-749); Theodore the Studite (758-826); Sir Thomas More (1478-1535) [17]; Prof. Dr. Martin Luther (1483-1546); Ralph Adams Cram (1863-1942); Von Ogden Vogt (1879-); Brian Deacon; Bruce Marchiano [4|5|35]; Jim Caviezel; Kenneth Copeland; Larry Wilson [34]; Mel Gibson [1|33]; and Walter Wangerin [36]

[2|10]

Keywords
catholicism, gnosticism, iconoclasm, iconodule, iconodulist, iconography, iconophile, iconostasis, idols, idolatry, imagination, imagery, likenesses, madonnas, panentheism, reformation, representation, revival, visualization, worship, foreign god, holy objects, inner iconoclasm, mental imagery, images of god

Scripture References
Gen. 1v1, v26-27, 5v3, 9v6; Ex. 15v11, 20v2-7, 25v16-20, 26v1, v31, 32v2-8, v24, 34v13; Lev. 26v1; Num. 21v7-9, 33v52; Deut. 4v23, 5v7, 6v14; Jos. 24v1-24; Jud. 6v10; 1 Kgs. 6v22-29, 7v23-26, 9v1-3, 12v28-33; 2 Kgs. 10v29, 18v4; 1 Chr. 28v11, v17-19; 2 Chr. 2v6; Neh. 13v25-30; Ps. 27v13, 44v20-21, 45v2, 81v9, 101v3, 106v19-21; Ecc. 7v29; Is. 3v12, 26v18, 46v5-9, v19; Ezek. 8v3-4, 41v18-19; Dan. 3v16-18, 10v16; Hos. 13v4; Hab. 2v18; Zech. 10v2; Mt. 3v7, 7v2; Lk. 3v7; Jn. 1v14, 3v13-15, 4v24, 6v68, 14v9; Acts 14v11-17, 15v20, 17v16, v29-30, 19v24; Rom. 10v17, 12v2, 14v23; 1 Cor. 1v21, 5v10-11, 6v9-10, 10v7, v14, 12v2; 2 Cor. 4v6, 5v16, 6v14-17; Gal. 3v10; Ep. 4v23, 5v5; Col. 1v15-17, 2v9, 3v10; 1 Tim. 2v5, 3v16, 4v1-3, 6v5; Heb. 1v3, 2v14, 8v1, v6, 9v14, 11v1, 12v1, v22-24; Js. 3v9; 1 Jn. 1v1, v14, 5v20-21; Rev. 1v13-17, 3v1-2, 4v6, 21v1-8, v27, 22v15 "TO WHOM THEN WILL YE LIKEN GOD? or WHAT LIKENESS WILL YE COMPARE UNTO HIM?" (Is. 40v18, AKJV, p.321)

"{12} And the Lord spake unto you out of the midst of the fire: YE HEARD THE VOICE OF THE WORDS, BUT SAW NO SIMILITUDE: ONLY YE HEARD A VOICE. {13} And He declared unto you his covenant, which He commanded you to perform, even ten commandments; and he wrote them upon two tables of stone. {14} And the Lord commanded me at that time to teach you statutes and judgments, that ye might do them in the land whither ye go over to possess it. {15} Take ye therefore good heed unto yourselves; for YE SAW NO MANNER OF SIMILITUDE ON THE DAY that the Lord spake unto you in Horeb out of the midst of the fire: {16} LEST YE CORRUPT YOURSELVES, AND MAKE YOU A GRAVEN IMAGE, THE SIMILITUDE OF ANY FIGURE, THE LIKENESS OF MALE OR FEMALE." (Deut. 4v12-16, AKJV, p.90)

"{21} Because that, when they knew God, they glorified him not as God, neither were thankful; but became vain in their imaginations, and their foolish heart was darkened. {22} Professing themselves to be wise, they became fools. {23} And CHANGED THE GLORY OF THE UNCORRUPTIBLE GOD INTO AN IMAGE MADE LIKE TO CORRUPTIBLE MAN, and to birds, and fourfooted beasts, and creeping things. {24} Wherefore God also gave them up to uncleanness through the lusts of their own hearts, to dishonor their own bodies between themselves: {25} Who changed the truth of God into a lie, and worshipped and served the creature more than the Creator, Who is blessed for ever. Amen." (Rom. 1v21-25, AKJV, p.498)

Bibliography

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1

Richard Bennett and J. Virgil Dunbar; The Passion of Christ: Mel Gibson's Vivid Deception (Portland, OR: Berean Beacon®, 1742 SE 158th Avenue, 97233) http://www.bereanbeacon.org/
2 3

Brian Schwertley; Are Pictures of Christ Unbiblical? (Haslett, MI:)

Richard Bennett and J. Virgil Dunbar; Idolatry in the Evangelical Camp: Pictures of 'Christ' or the Glory of God? (Portland, OR: Berean Beacon®, 1742 SE 158th Avenue, 97233) http://www.bereanbeacon.org/
4 5 6

Joy! Magazine; Volume 16, Issue 1 (Somerset West, WP: Post Box 2990, 7130, RSA); http://www.joymag.co.za/ Joy! Magazine; Volume 16, Issue 2 (Somerset West, WP: Post Box 2990, 7130, RSA); http://www.joymag.co.za/

Michael Philip West, M.A., D.Phil.; James Gareth Endicott, M.A.; The New Method English Dictionary Revised Edition (London: Longmans, Green and Co.; New York; Toronto; Code Number: 74391), p.164.
7

Richard Bennett (former Roman Catholic Priest) and J. Virgil Dunbar; Indifference or Ignorance: The Practice of Idolatry Within the Church (Portland, OR: Berean Beacon®, 1742 SE 158th Avenue, 97233) http://www.bereanbeacon.org/
8 9

Selected and Adapted from Flashpoints of Revival (3 December 2004) http://www.pastornet.net.au/renewal/fire/ff-1700.htm Jack Crabtree; Bible Study for What Ails Us; McKenzie Study Center; http://www.mckenziestudycenter.org/bible/articles/ails.html Philip Schaff; History of the Christian Church (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1987 [1910]), 4:457-458. Ep. Ix, 105, in P.L., LXXVII, 1027; 15 March 2004. http://landru.i-link-2.net/shnyves/Catholic_Tradition_art.html

10 11 12

Dr. Peter Hammond; The Greatest Century of Reformation (Cape Town, South Africa: The Reformation Society®: Christian Liberty Books, Post Box 358, Howard Place, 7450); ISBN 0-9585100-1-6; pp.7, 10, 13, 16, 79.
13 Jeff Ziegler and Jay Rogers; Revival & Spiritual Awakening (The Forerunner™, 26 February 2007) http://forerunner.com/forerunner /X0606_Revival__Spiritual_A.html 14

The Medieval Synthesis Under Attack: Savonarola and the Protestant Reformation (The History Guide, 28 February 2007) http://www.historyguide.org/intellect/lecture5a.html
15 John Henry Cardinal Newman; Did Martin Luther Regard the Roman Catholic Church as a Non-Christian, Apostate Institution? (26 June 2006) http://socrates58.blogspot.com/2006/06/did-martin-luther-regard-roman.html 16 17

Reformation & Iconoclasm. http://www.wga.hu/tours/german/iconocla.html

Carlos R. Piar; Idolatry: Icons & Iconoclasm (Long Beach: California State University) http://www.folger.edu/html/folger_institute/cultural_stress /church_idolatry.html
18

John Henry Cardinal Newman; The Early Protestants Were Ecumenical? Not!: Versus Dr. Paul Owen. http://socrates58.blogspot.com/2004/11 /early-protestants-were-ecumenical-not.html

19 Thomas Watson; The Ten Commandments (Carlisle, PA: Banner of Truth Trust, 1965 [1692, 1890]), p.61. (11/03/2008) http://www.ccel.org /ccel/watson/commandments.html 20 21

James Durham; The Law Unsealed: or, A Practical Exposition of the Ten Commandments.

Matthew Henry; Commentary on the Whole Bible: Genesis 1:26. (28/05/2007) http://www.studylight.org/com/mhc-com/view.cgi?book=ge& chapter=001
22

Matthew Henry; Commentary on the Whole Bible: Exodus 20:4. Adam Clarke; Commentary on the Bible: Genesis 1:26. (29/05/2007) http://www.studylight.org/com/acc/view.cgi?book=ge&chapter=001 Adam Clarke; Commentary on the Bible: Exodus 20:4. Albert Barnes; "Exodus 20:4": Notes on the Bible (eSword). John Nelson Darby; Synopsis of the Bible: Exodus 20.

23 24 25 26 27

Johannes Geerhardus Vos; The Westminster Larger Catechism: A Commentary (Phillipsburg, NJ: Presbyterian and Reformed Publishers, 2002), p.292.

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Michelle Powell-Smith; Martin Luther and the Visual Culture of the Reformation (28 March 2000).

David Orton; Snakes In The Temple: Unmasking Idolatry In Today's Church & Pointing the Way to Spiritual Breakthrough (Sovereign World Limited) ISBN 1-85240-376-4
30 31

Edward P. Meadors; Idolatry and the Hardening of the Heart: A Study in Biblical Theology (Continuum) ISBN 9-7805672-573-9

John K. La Shell; Imagination and Idol: A Puritan Tension (A Puritan Mind) http://www.apuritansmind.com/PuritanArticles /LaShellImaginationIdolPuritan.htm
32 33

Pastor Doug. (30/05/2007) http://www.myspace.com/pastordougie

EJ Hill; The Passion of The Christ (2004) (Hermanus, WP: EJ Hill & Friends; Private Bag X15, Suite 25, Hermanus, 7200, South Africa). http://www.ejays.co.za/

34 Larry Wilson; Warning! Revelation Is About To Be Fulfilled (Wake Up America Seminars, Inc., Post Box 273, Bellbrook, Ohio, 45305) ISBN 1-57258-006-2 35 36 37 38 39 40 41

Bruce Marchiano (Marchiano Ministries) http://www.brucemarchiano.com/ Walter Wangerin; Jesus (Lux Verbi). Giulia. (28/05/2007) http://www.myspace.com/giulia 1messiahJC. (30/05/2007) http://www.myspace.com/tmmtamt Jesus. (28/05/2007) http://www.myspace.com/mark15_2 Prof. Dr. John Calvin; Commentary On Genesis (Volume 1): Genesis 1:26; (28/05/2007) http://www.ccel.org/ccel/calvin/calcom01.vii.i.html

John Wesley; Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible: Genesis 1:26; (28/05/2007) http://www.studylight.org/com/wen/view.cgi?book=ge& chapter=001
42

Jamieson, Fausset and Brown; Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible: Genesis 1:26. (29/05/2007) http://www.studylight.org /com/jfb/view.cgi?book=ge&chapter=001

Self-Study Exam
Questionnaire If the statement is TRUE, place a T within the [bracket], alternatively, if the statement is false use an F. [_] If we are allowed 'no similitude' of God, this includes pictures. (Deut. 4v12, v15; Dan. 10v16) [_] During the Protestant Reformation many statues, pictures, paintings and crosses were destroyed. Answer Sheet If the statement is TRUE, place a T within the [bracket], alternatively, if the statement is false use an F. [T] If we are allowed 'no similitude' of God, this includes pictures. (Deut. 4v12, v15; Dan. 10v16) [T] During the Protestant Reformation many statues, pictures, paintings and crosses were destroyed.

Suggested Readings
Carlos M.N. Eire; War Against The Idols: The Reformation of Worship from Erasmus to Calvin. (New York: Cambridge University Press®, 1986) David Orton; Snakes In The Temple: Unmasking Idolatry In Today's Church & Pointing the Way to Spiritual Breakthrough (Sovereign World Limited®); ISBN 1-85240-376-4 Eamon Duffy; The Stripping of The Altars: Traditional Religion In England, c. 1400-c1580. (New Haven: Yale University Press®, 1992) Edward P. Meadors; Idolatry and the Hardening of the Heart: A Study in Biblical Theology (Continuum); ISBN 9-7805672-573-9 John K. La Shell; Imagination and Idol: A Puritan Tension; A Puritan Mind®; http://www.apuritansmind.com/PuritanArticles/LaShellImaginationIdolPuritan.htm

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http://www.ejays.co.za/index.php/Iconography

John Phillips; The Reformation of Images: Destruction of Arts In England, 1535-1660 (Berkeley: University of California Press, c1973) Margaret Aston; England's Iconoclasts (Oxford: Oxford University Press®, 1988) Dr. Peter Hammond; The Greatest Century of Reformation (Cape Town, South Africa: The Reformation Society®: Christian Liberty Books®, Post Box 358, Howard Place, 7450); ISBN 0-9585100-1-6 Phyllis Mack Crew; Church History: Calvinist Preaching and Iconoclasm in the Netherlands, 1544-1569; Volume 49, Number 3 (Sept, 1980) Richard Bennett and J. Virgil Dunbar; Idolatry In The Evangelical Camp: Pictures of 'Christ' or the Glory of God (Berean Beacon®) http://www.bereanbeacon.org/ Richard Bennett and Randall Paquette; Indifference or Ignorance: The Practice of Idolatry Within The Church (Berean Beacon®) http://www.bereanbeacon.org/ Tessa Watt; Cheap Print & Popular Piety: 1550-1640 (New York: Cambridge University Press®, 1991)

Bookstore

Snakes In The Temple David Orton Best Price $9.81 or Buy New

Graven Ideologies Bruce Ellis Benson... Best Price $9.89 or Buy New $18.40

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Idolatry and Representation BE SAVED FROM THE CURSES OF IDOLATRY... Leora Batnitzky Asaph, C Philips Best Price $44.00 or Buy New $54.27 Best Price $9.85 or Buy New $12.95

Coming Out of Egypt K. C. Stricker Best Price $53.18 or Buy New $59.00

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