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**18.02 Multivariable Calculus
**

Fall 2007

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e. ∂u v ∂x v ∂x y In above example. When there is no risk of confusion we keep the old notation. – Thu. while ∂f /∂u means change u keeping v ﬁxed. we computed (∂z/∂x)y .r. / x with y held ∂x y � � ∂f ﬁxed. Often we have to deal with non-independent variables. 4 dx + dy + 6 dz = 0 (constraint g = c). and ∂z/∂x = −gx /gz . dA = Aθ dθ + Aa da + Ab db = 12 ab cos θ dθ + 12 b sin θ da + and constraint ⇒ da = cos θ db − b sin θ dθ. keep b ﬁxed. V. / u with v held ﬁxed. So ∂z/∂x = −4/6 = −2/3 and ∂z/∂y = −1/6 (taking the coeﬃcients of dx and dy). i. f (P. ∂u v � � � � � � ∂f ∂f ∂f � We now have = = . = deriv. Oct 11. θ changes. while b does what it must to satisfy the � ∂A constraint: . Question: if g(x. Or equivalently: if y is held constant then we substitute dy = 0 to get dz = −4/6 dx. keep a ﬁxed. 1 . 2007 Handouts: PS5 solutions. change x keeping y − x ﬁxed. (Easiest here. ( ∂A ∂θ )a = 2 a sec θ. What are ∂z/∂x. we get db = b tan θ dθ 1 2 a sin θ db. y. Warning: notation can be dangerous! For example: f (x. i.g.g. while b = b(a. z) = c ⇒ gx dx + gy dy + gz dz = 0. or dz = − 46 dx − 16 dy.] 1 2 2 0) Substitution: a = b cos θ so b = a sec θ. If y held ﬁxed. change θ. Take diﬀerential: 2x dx + z dy + (y + 3z 2 ) dz = 0. by default ∂/∂x means we keep y ﬁxed. b. 3 ways in which rate of change of A w. y). get gx dx + gz dz = 0. Non-independent variables. we must precise what is held ﬁxed: = deriv. ∂z/∂y? Example: x 2 + yz + z 3 = 8 at (2. Change of variables x = u. e. i. y) = x + y. but it’s not always possible to solve for b) 1) Total diﬀerentials: da = 0 (a ﬁxed). y = u + v then f = 2u + v. 1). z) = c then can think of z = z(x. θ) independent variables. T ) where P V = nRT . � � ∂f When there’s ambiguity.02 Lecture 14. usual = Aθ (with a and b held ﬁxed). A = 12 ab sin θ = 12 a 2 tan θ. so ∂z/∂x = −4/6 = −2/3. ∂θ b How to compute e. PS6. triangle stops being a right triangle. while a does what it must to satisfy the � ∂A constraint: .t.18. x = u but ∂f /∂x �= ∂f /∂u !! This is because ∂f /∂x means change x keeping y ﬁxed. Example: area of a triangle with 2 sides a and b making an angle θ is A = 12 ab sin θ. ∂θ a 3) constraint a� = b cos θ. ∂f /∂x = 1. dz = −gx /gz dx. Plugging in da = 0. This ∂θ answers the question: a and b ﬁxed. y. Suppose it’s a right triangle with b the hypothenuse. change θ. In general: g(x. ∂f /∂u = 2. practice exams 2A and 2B.e. then constraint a = b cos θ. 3.e. θ makes sense: ∂A 1) view A = A(a. (∂A/∂θ)a ? [treat A as function of a and θ. what happens to A? 2) constraint a� = b cos θ. θ).

2007 Review topics. . checking boundary. (least squares won’t be on the exam) – Diﬀerentials. To ﬁnd (∂f /∂z)y : 1) using diﬀerentials: df = fx dx + fy dy + fz dz. so (∂f /∂z)y = −fx gz /gx + gz . 2nd derivative test. heat equation: ∂f /∂t = k(∂ 2 f /∂x2 + ∂ 2 f /∂y 2 + ∂ 2 f /∂z 2 ) describes evolution of temperature over time. chain rule.. and hence � � ∂A 1 1 1 = ab cos θ + a sin θ b tan θ = ab sec θ. – Functions of several variables. – Non-independent variables: Lagrange multipliers. directional derivatives. 2 2 2 2) Chain rule: (∂A/∂θ)a = Aθ (∂θ/∂θ)a + Aa (∂a/∂θ)a + Ab (∂b/∂θ)b = Aθ + Ab (∂b/∂θ)a . tangent planes. and want to eliminate dx. – Partial derivatives.02 Lecture 15. [Ran out of time here]. Note: partial diﬀerential equations (= equations involving partial derivatives of an unknown function) are very important in physics. y. 2 2 � ∂A ∂θ � a 1 1 1 = ab cos θ + a sin θ b tan θ = ab sec θ. even though things are written diﬀerently. – Min/max problems: critical points. while ∂z y ∂x ∂z y ∂y ∂z y ∂z ∂z y ∂z y � � � � � � � � � � ∂g ∂x ∂g ∂y ∂g ∂z ∂x ∂g 0= = + + = gx + gz ∂z y ∂x ∂z y ∂y ∂z y ∂z ∂z y ∂z y which gives (∂x/∂z)y and hence the answer. gradient. E. change of variables. We set dy = 0 since y held constant. � � � � � � � � � � ∂f ∂f ∂x ∂f ∂y ∂f ∂z ∂x 2) using chain rule: = + + = fx + fz .g. and constrained partial derivatives. so setting dy = 0 we get dx = −gz /gx dz. z) where g(x. Oct 12. contour plots. so (∂b/∂θ)a = b tan θ. Re-explanation of how to compute constrained partials: say f = f (x. Implicit diﬀerentiation of constraint a = b cos θ: we have 0 = (∂a/∂θ)a = (∂b/∂θ)a cos θ − b sin θ.2 and then 1 1 dA = ( ab cos θ + a sin θ b tan θ)dθ. ∂θ a 2 2 2 The two systematic methods essentially involve calculating the same quantities. y. approximation formulas. We ﬁnd (∂b/∂θ)a by using the constraint equation. For this we use the constraint: dg = gx dx + gy dy + gz dz = 0. – Fri. 18. z) = c. Plug into df : df = −fx gz /gx dz + gz dz.