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:Characteristics

1. cytoplasm lipid membrane
2. thick peptidoglycan layer
o teichoic acids and lipoids are present, forming
lipoteichoic acids which serve to act as chelating
agents, and also for certain types of adherence.
3. capsule polysaccharides (only in some species)
4. flagellum (only in some species)
o if present, it contains two rings for support as
opposed to four in Gram-negative bacteria because
Gram-positive bacteria have only one membrane
layer.

:Classification
In the original bacterial phyla, the Gram-positive organisms
made up the phylum Firmicutes, a name now used for the largest
group. It includes many well-known genera such as
Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Enterococcus, (which are cocci)
and Bacillus, Corynebacterium, Nocardia, Clostridium,
Actinobacteria, and Listeria (which are rods and can be
remembered by the mnemonic obconical). It has also been
expanded to include the Mollicutes, bacteria like Mycoplasma
that lack cell walls and cannot be Gram stained, but are derived
from such forms. Actinobacteria are the other major group of
Gram-positive bacteria, which have a high guanosine and
cytosine content in their genomes (high G+C group). This
contrasts with the Firmicutes, which have a low G+C content.

Both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria may have a
membrane called an S-layer. In Gram-negative bacteria, the S-
layer is directly attached to the outer membrane. In Gram-
positive bacteria, the S-layer is attached to the peptidoglycan
layer. Unique to Gram-positive bacteria is the presence of
teichoic acids in the cell wall. Some particular teichoic acids,
lipoteichoic acids, have a lipid component and can assist in
anchoring peptidoglycan, as the lipid component is embedded in
the membrane.

:Exception
The Deinococcus-Thermus bacteria have Gram-positive stains,
although they are structurally similar to Gram-negative bacteria.

Pathogenesis:
Most pathogenic bacteria in humans are gram-negative
organisms. Classically, six gram-positive genera are typically
pathogenic in humans. Two of these, Streptococcus and
Staphylococcus, are cocci (round bacteria). The remaining
organisms are bacilli (rod-shaped bacteria) and can be
subdivided based on their ability to form spores. The non-spore
formers are Corynebacterium and Listeria (a coccobacillus),
while Bacillus and Clostridium produce spores.[3] The spore-
forming bacteria can again be divided based on their respiration:
Bacillus is a facultative anaerobe, while Clostridium is an
obligate anaerobe.
:Characteristics
1. Cytoplasmic membrane
2. Thin peptidoglycan layer (which is much thicker in
Gram-positive bacteria)
3. Outer membrane containing lip polysaccharide (LPS,
which consists of lipid A, core polysaccharide, and O
antigen) outside the peptidoglycan layer
4. Porins exist in the outer membrane, which act like
pores for particular molecules
5. There is a space between the layers of peptidoglycan
and the secondary cell membrane called the periplasmic
space
6. The S-layer is directly attached to the outer
membrane, rather than the peptidoglycan
7. If present, flagella have four supporting rings instead
of two
8. No teichoic acids or lipoteichoic acids are present
9. Lipoproteins are attached to the polysaccharide
backbone.
10. Most do not sporulate (Coxiella burnetii, which
produces spore-like structures, is a notable exception)

Medical treatment:
One of the several unique characteristics of Gram-negative
bacteria is the structure of the outer membrane. The outer leaflet
of the membrane comprises a complex lip polysaccharide whose
lipid portion acts as an endotoxin. If endotoxin enters the
circulatory system it causes a toxic reaction with the sufferer
having a high temperature and respiration rate and a low blood
pressure. This may lead to endotoxic shock, which may be fatal.

This outer membrane protects the bacteria from several
antibiotics, dyes, and detergents which would normally damage
the inner membrane or cell wall (peptidoglycan). The outer
membrane provides these bacteria with resistance to lysozyme
and penicillin. Fortunately, alternative medicinal treatments
such as lysozyme with EDTA, and the antibiotic ampicillin have
been developed to combat the protective outer membrane of
some pathogenic Gram-negative organisms. Other drugs can be
used, namely chloramphenicol, streptomycin, and nalidixic acid.

:Example species
Proteobacteria
are a major group ofGram-negative bacteria,including:
Escherichia col,and other Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas,
Moraxella, Helicobacter, Stenotrophomonas, Bdellovibrio,
acetic acid bacteriai, Salmonella, Shigella

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