Vocabulary

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search A person's vocabulary is the set of words they are familiar with in a language. A vocabulary usually grows and evolves with age, and serves as a useful and fundamental tool for communication and acquiring knowledge.

Contents
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• • • • •

1 Knowing and Using a Word 2 Types of Vocabulary o 2.1 Reading Vocabulary o 2.2 Listening Vocabulary o 2.3 Writing Vocabulary o 2.4 Speaking Vocabulary 3 Focal Vocabulary 4 Vocabulary Growth 5 Passive vs. Active Vocabulary 6 The Importance of a Vocabulary 7 Native and Foreign Language Vocabulary o 7.1 Native Language Vocabulary o 7.2 Foreign Language Vocabulary  7.2.1 The Effects of Vocabulary Size on Language Comprehension

o •

7.3 Basic English Vocabulary

8 References

[edit] Knowing and Using a Word
A vocabulary is defined as "all the words known and used by a particular person". [1] However, the words known and used by a particular person do not constitute all the words a person is exposed to. By definition, a vocabulary includes the last two categories of this list: [2] 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Never encountered the word. Heard the word, but cannot define it. Recognize the word due to context or tone of voice. Able to use the word but cannot clearly explain it. Fluent with the word – its use and definition.

[edit] Types of Vocabulary
Listed in order of most ample to most limited: [3]

[edit] Reading Vocabulary
A person’s reading vocabulary is all the words he or she can recognize when reading. This is the largest type of vocabulary simply because it includes the other three.

[edit] Listening Vocabulary
A person’s listening vocabulary is all the words he or she can recognize when listening to speech. This vobalulary is aided in size by context and tone of voice.

[edit] Writing Vocabulary
A person’s writing vocabulary is all the words he or she can employ in writing. Contrary to the previous two vocabulary types, the writing vocabulary is stimulated by its user.

[edit] Speaking Vocabulary
A person’s speaking vocabulary is all the words he or she can use in speech. Due to the spontaneous nature of the speaking vocabulary, words are often misused. This misuse – though slight and unintentional – may be compensated by facial expressions, tone of voice, or hand gestures.

[edit] Focal Vocabulary
Focal Vocabulary is a specialized set of terms and distinctions that is particularly important to a certain group; those with particular focuses of experience or activity. A lexicon, or vocabulary, is a language’s dictionary, its set of names for things, events, and ideas. Lexicon influences people’s perception on things. For example, many Eskimo languages have several distinct words for different types of snow that in English are all called snow (Miller,1999). Most English speakers never noticed the differences between these types of snow and might have trouble seeing them even if someone pointed them out. Eskimos, on the other hand, recognize and think about the differences in snow that English speakers don’t see because

our language gives us just one word. Similarly, the Nuer of Sudan have an elaborate vocabulary to describe cattle. The Nuer have dozens of names for cattle because of the cattle’s particular histories, economies, and environments. English speakers can also elaborate their snow and cattle vocabularies when the need arises. [4] [5]

[edit] Vocabulary Growth
Initially, in the infancy phase, vocabulary growth requires no effort. Infants hear words and mimic them, eventually associating them with objects and actions. This is the listening vocabulary. The speaking vocabulary follows, as a child's thoughts become more reliant on its ability to express itself without gestures and mere sounds. Once the reading and writing vocabularies are attained - through questions and education - the anomalies and irregularities of language can be discovered. In first grade, an advantaged student (i.e. a literate student) knows about twice as many words as a disadvantaged student. Generally, this gap does not tighten. This translates into a wide range of vocabulary size in the fifth and sixth grade, when students know about 2,500 - 5,000 words. These young students have learned an average of 3,000 words per year, approximately eight words per day. [6] After leaving school, vocabulary growth plateaus. People may then expand their vocabularies by reading, playing word games, participating in vocabulary programs, etc.

[edit] Passive vs. Active Vocabulary
Even if we learn a word, it takes a lot of practice and context connections for us to learn it well. A rough grouping of words we understand when we hear them encompasses our "passive" vocabulary, whereas our "active" vocabulary is made up of words that come to our mind immediately when we have to use them in a sentence, as we speak. In this case, we often have to come up with a word in the timeframe of milliseconds, so one has to know it well, often in combinations with other words in phrases, where it is commonly used.

[edit] The Importance of a Vocabulary
• • • • •

An extensive vocabulary aids expressions and communication Vocabulary size has been directly linked to reading comprehension. [7] A person may be judged by others based on their vocabulary [8] Lingusitic vocabulary is synonymous with thinking vocabulary [9] The greater a person’s vocabulary, the greater their understanding of themselves, society, the economy, history, etc. [10]

[edit] Native and Foreign Language Vocabulary
[edit] Native Language Vocabulary
Native speakers' vocabularies vary widely within a language, and are especially dependent on the level of the speaker's education. A 1995 study estimated the vocabulary size of college-educated speakers at about 17,000 word families, and that of first-year college students (high-school educated) at about 12,000.[11]

[edit] Foreign Language Vocabulary
[edit] The Effects of Vocabulary Size on Language Comprehension

Francis and Kucera[12] studied texts totaling one million words and found that if one knows the words with the highest frequency, they will quickly know most of the words in a text: Vocabulary Size Written Text Coverage 0 words 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 15,851 0% 72.0 79.7 84.0 86.8 88.7 89.9 97.8

By knowing the 2000 words with the highest frequency, one would know 80% of the words in those texts. The numbers look even better than this if we want to cover the words we come across in an informally spoken context. Then the 2000 most common words would cover 96% of the vocabulary.[13] These numbers should be encouraging to beginning language learners, especially because the numbers in the table are for word lemmas and knowing that many word families would give even higher coverage. But before you start thinking you would learn a language in no time, think how well you would understand a book in your own language where every fifth word was blacked-out! We cannot usually guess meanings from context when that many words are missing.[14] We need to understand about 95% of a text[15] in order to gain close to full understanding and it looks like one needs to know more than 10,000 words for that.

[edit] Basic English Vocabulary
Several word lists have been developed to provide people with a limited vocabulary either quick language proficiency or an effective means of communication. In 1930, Charles Kay Ogden created Basic English (850 words). Other lists include Simplified English (1000 words) and Special English (1500 words). The General Service List,[16] 2000 high frequency words compiled by Michael West from a 5,000,000 word corpus, has been used to create a number of adapted reading texts for English language learners. Knowing 2000 English words, one could understand quite a lot of English, and even read a lot of simple material without problems.

[edit] References
1. ^ Cambridge Advanced Learners Dictionary [1] 2. ^ Partially composed using: “Vocabulary”. Sebastian Wren, Ph.D. BalancedReading.com [2] 3. ^ The World Book Dictionary. Clarence L. Barnhart. 1968 Edition. Published by Thorndike-Barnhart,
Chicago, Illinois. 4. ^ Miller,B.,(1999). Cultural Anthropology(4th. ed.,pg 315). New York: Allyn and Bacon 5. ^ Roberta Lenkeit "Cultural Anthropology" (3rd. ed.) 6. ^ “Vocabulary”. Sebastian Wren, Ph.D. BalancedReading.com http://www.balancedreading.com/vocabulary.html 7. ^ Stahl, Steven A. Vocabulary Development. Cambridge: Brookline Books, 1999. p. 3. “The Cognitive Foundations of Learning to Read: A Framework,” Southwest Educational Development Laboratory, [3], p. 14. 8. ^ The Importance Of A Good Vocabulary - Why Your Vocabulary Can Be the Make Or Break Factor In Your Career And Life Success [4] 9. ^ Ibid 10. ^ The Importance of a Large Vocabulary. [5] 11. ^ E.B. Zechmeister, A.M. Chronis, W.L. Cull, C.A. D'Anna and N.A. Healy, Growth of a functionally important lexicon, Journal of Reading Behavior, 1995, 27(2), 201-212 12. ^ W.N. Francis, and H. Kucera. Frequency Analysis of English Usage, Houghton Mifflin, Boston, 1982 13. ^ F.J. Schonell, I.G. Meddleton and B.A. Shaw, A Study of the Oral Vocabulary of Adults, University of Queensland Press, Brisbane, 1956 14. ^ Liu Na and I.S.P. Nation, Factors affecting guessing vocabulary in context, RELC Journal, 1985,16, 1, pp. 33-42 15. ^ B. Laufer, What percentage of text-lexis is essential for comprehension? in C. Lauren and M. Nordman (eds.), Special Language: From Humans Thinking to Thinking Machines, Multilingual Matters Ltd., Clevedon, 1989. 16. ^ Michael West, A General Service List of English Words, Longman, Green & Co., London, 1953

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Lexicography
Types of reference works Dictionary · Glossary · Lexicon · Thesaurus Biographical · Defining · Electronic · Encyclopedic · LSP · Machinereadable · Maximizing · Medical · Minimizing · Monolingual learner's · Multi-field · Picture · Reverse · Rhyming · Rime · Single-field · Specialized · Sub-field · Visual

Types of dictionaries

Focal vocabulary · Function word · Headword · Holonymy · Hyponymy · Vocabulary topics Idiom · International Scientific Vocabulary · Lemma · Lexeme · Meronymy · Morphology · Synonym · Vocabulary size · Word Controlled vocabulary · English lexicology and lexicography · Lexicographic topics Lexicographic error · Lexicographic information cost · Linguistic prescription · Specialised lexicography Lexicographic projects Lexigraf · WordNet

Other List of lexicographers

Speech
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

(Redirected from Speech communication) Jump to: navigation, search This article does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unverifiable material may be challenged and removed. (July 2007) For other uses, see Speech (disambiguation). Speech refers to the processes associated with the production and perception of sounds used in spoken language. A number of academic disciplines study speech and speech sounds, including acoustics, psychology, speech pathology, linguistics, cognitive science and computer science.

Contents
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1 Speech production 2 Speech perception 3 Problems involving speech 4 See also

[edit] Speech production
Main article: Speech production

In linguistics (articulatory phonetics), manner of articulation describes how the tongue, lips, and other speech organs are involved in making a sound make contact. Often the concept is only used for the production of consonants. For any place of articulation, there may be several manners, and therefore several homorganic consonants.

[edit] Speech perception
Main article: Speech perception Speech perception refers to the processes by which humans are able to interpret and understand the sounds used in language. The study of speech perception is closely linked to the fields of phonetics and phonology in linguistics and cognitive psychology and perception in psychology. Research in speech perception seeks to understand how human listeners recognize speech sounds and use this information to understand spoken language. Speech research has applications in building computer systems that can recognize speech, as well as improving speech recognition for hearing- and language-impaired listeners.

[edit] Problems involving speech
See also: Speech pathology There are several biological and psychological factors that can affect speech. Among these are: 1. Diseases and disorders of the lungs or the vocal cords, including paralysis, respiratory infections, vocal fold nodules and cancers of the lungs and throat. 2. Diseases and disorders of the brain, including alogia, aphasias, dysarthria, dystonia and speech processing disorders, where impaired motor planning, nerve transmission, phonological processing or perception of the message (as opposed to the actual sound) leads to poor speech production. 3. Hearing problems, such as otitis media effusion can lead to phonological problems. 4. Articulatory problems, such as stuttering, lisping, cleft palate, ataxia, or nerve damage leading to problems in articulation. Tourette syndrome and tics can also affect speech. A lot of people also have a slur in their voice 5. In addition to aphasias, anomia and certain types of dyslexia can impede the quality of auditory perception, and therefore, expression. Hearing impairments and deafness can be considered to fall into this category.

[edit] See also
Look up speech in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
• • • • • • • • • •

Esophageal speech Speech synthesis Speech recognition Speech encoding Speech delay Freedom of speech Vocalization Oracy phonation human voice

vocology

This linguistics article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it. Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Speech" Categories: Oral communication | Linguistics stubs Hidden categories: Articles lacking sources from July 2007 | All articles lacking sources

Sound
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (November 2007) This article is about audible acoustic waves. For other uses, see Sound (disambiguation). "Soundwave" redirects here. For the Transformer, see Soundwave (Transformers).

A membrane of a drum makes vibration Sound is vibration transmitted through a solid, liquid, or gas; particularly, sound means those vibrations composed of frequencies capable of being detected by ears.[1]

Contents
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• •

1 Perception of sound 2 Physics of sound o 2.1 Longitudinal and transverse waves o 2.2 Sound wave properties and characteristics o 2.3 Speed of sound o 2.4 Acoustics and noise 3 Sound pressure level

• • • • •

o 3.1 Examples of sound pressure and sound pressure levels 4 Equipment for dealing with sound 5 References 6 Sound measurement 7 See also

8 External links

Perception of sound

Human ear For humans, hearing is limited to frequencies between about 20 Hz and 20,000 Hz (20 kHz), with the upper limit generally decreasing with age. Other species have a different range of hearing. For example, dogs can perceive vibrations higher than 20 kHz. As a signal perceived by one of the major senses, sound is used by many species for detecting danger, navigation, predation, and communication. Earth's atmosphere, water, and virtually any physical phenomenon, such as fire, rain, wind, surf, or earthquake, produces (and is characterized by) its unique sounds. Many species, such as frogs, birds, marine and terrestrial mammals, have also developed special organs to produce sound. In some species, these have evolved to produce song and speech. Furthermore, humans have developed culture and technology (such as music, telephone and radio) that allows them to generate, record, transmit, and broadcast sound.

Physics of sound
The mechanical vibrations that can be interpreted as sound are able to travel through all forms of matter: gases, liquids, solids, and plasmas. The matter that supports the sound is called the medium. Sound cannot travel through vacuum.

Longitudinal and transverse waves

Sinusoidal waves of various frequencies; the bottom waves have higher frequencies than those above. The horizontal axis represents time. Sound is transmitted through gases, plasma, and liquids as longitudinal waves, also called compression waves. Through solids, however, it can be transmitted as both longitudinal and transverse waves.

Longitudinal sound waves are waves of alternating pressure deviations from the equilibrium pressure, causing local regions of compression and rarefaction, while transverse waves in solids, are waves of alternating shear stress. Matter in the medium is periodically displaced by a sound wave, and thus oscillates. The energy carried by the sound wave converts back and forth between the potential energy of the extra compression (in case of longitudinal waves) or lateral displacement strain (in case of transverse waves) of the matter and the kinetic energy of the oscillations of the medium.

Sound wave properties and characteristics
Sound waves are characterized by the generic properties of waves, which are frequency, wavelength, period, amplitude, intensity, speed, and direction (sometimes speed and direction are combined as a velocity vector, or wavelength and direction are combined as a wave vector). Transverse waves, also known as shear waves, have an additional property of polarization. Sound characteristics can depend on the type of sound waves (longitudinal versus transverse) as well as on the physical properties of the transmission medium. Whenever the pitch of the soundwave is affected by some kind of change, the distance between the sound wave maxima also changes, resulting in a change of frequency. When the loudness of a soundwave changes, so does the amount of compression in airwave that is travelling through it, which in turn can be defined as amplitude.

Speed of sound

U.S. Navy F/A-18 breaking the sound barrier. The white halo is formed by condensed water droplets which are thought to result from a drop in air pressure around the aircraft (see Prandtl-Glauert Singularity). [2][3] Main article: Speed of sound The speed of sound depends on the medium through which the waves are passing, and is often quoted as a fundamental property of the material. In general, the speed of sound is proportional to the square root of the ratio of the elastic modulus (stiffness) of the medium to its density. Those physical properties and the speed of sound change with ambient conditions. For example, the speed of sound in gases depends on temperature. In 20°C (68°F) air at sea level, the speed of sound is approximately 343 m/s (767.3 mph). In fresh water, also at 20°C, the speed of sound is approximately 1482 m/s (3,315.1 mph). In steel the speed of sound is about 5960 m/s (13,332.1 mph).[4] The speed of sound is also slightly sensitive (a second-order effect) to the sound amplitude, which means that there are nonlinear propagation effects, such as the production of harmonics and mixed tones not present in the original sound (see parametric array).

Acoustics and noise
The scientific study of the propagation, absorption, and reflection of sound waves is called acoustics. Noise is a term often used to refer to an unwanted sound. In science and engineering, noise is an undesirable component that obscures a wanted Sound measurements signal. Sound pressure p

Sound pressure level
Main article: Sound pressure Sound pressure is defined as the difference between the average local pressure of the medium outside of the sound wave in which it is traveling through (at a given point and a given time) and the pressure found within the sound wave itself within that same medium. A square of this difference (i.e. a square of the deviation from the equilibrium pressure) is usually averaged over time and/or space, and a square root of such average is taken to obtain a root mean square (RMS) value. For example, 1 Pa RMS sound pressure in atmospheric air implies that the actual pressure in the sound wave oscillates between (1 atm Pa) and (1 atm Pa), that is between 101323.6 and 101326.4 Pa. Such a tiny (relative to atmospheric) variation in air pressure at an audio frequency will be perceived as quite a deafening sound, and can cause hearing damage, according to the table below.

Particle velocity v Particle velocity level (SVL) (Sound velocity level) Particle displacement ξ Sound intensity I Sound intensity level (SIL) Sound power Pac Sound power level (SWL) Sound energy density E Sound energy flux q Surface S Acoustic impedance Z Speed of sound c
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As the human ear can detect sounds with a very wide range of amplitudes, sound pressure is often measured as a level on a logarithmic decibel scale. The sound pressure level (SPL) or Lp is defined as where p is the root-mean-square sound pressure and pref is a reference sound pressure. Commonly used reference sound pressures, defined in the standard ANSI S1.1-1994, are 20 µPa in air and 1 µPa in water. Without a specified reference sound pressure, a value expressed in decibels cannot represent a sound pressure level. Since the human ear does not have a flat spectral response, sound pressures are often frequency weighted so that the measured level will match perceived levels more closely. The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) has defined several weighting schemes. A-weighting attempts to match the response of the human ear to noise and A-weighted sound pressure levels are labeled dBA. C-weighting is used to measure peak levels.

Examples of sound pressure and sound pressure levels
Source of sound RMS sound pressure sound pressure level Pa Theoretical limit for undistorted sound at 1 atmosphere environmental pressure dB re 20 µPa

101,325

191

1883 Krakatoa eruption Stun grenades rocket launch equipment acoustic tests threshold of pain hearing damage during short-term effect jet engine, 100 m distant jackhammer, 1 m distant / discotheque hearing damage from long-term exposure traffic noise on major road, 10 m distant moving automobile, 10 m distant TV set – typical home level, 1 m distant normal talking, 1 m distant very calm room quiet rustling leaves, calm human breathing auditory threshold at 2 kHz – undamaged human ears 100 20 6–200 2 0.6 0.2–0.6 0.02–0.2 0.02 0.002–0.02 0.0002–0.0006 0.00006 0.00002

approx 180 at 100 miles 170-180 approx. 165 134 approx. 120 110–140 approx. 100 approx. 85 80–90 60–80 approx. 60 40–60 20–30 10 0

Equipment for dealing with sound

Equipment for generating or using sound includes musical instruments, hearing aids, sonar systems and sound reproduction and broadcasting equipment. Many of these use electro-acoustic transducers such as microphones and loudspeakers.

References
1. ^ The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company. 2006. http://www.bartleby.com/61/65/S0576500.html. 2. ^ APOD: 19 August 2007- A Sonic Boom 3. ^ http://www.eng.vt.edu/fluids/msc/gallery/conden/mpegf14.htm 4. ^ The Soundry: The Physics of Sound

Sound measurement
• • • • • • • • • •

Decibel, sone, mel, phon, hertz Sound pressure level Particle velocity, acoustic velocity Particle displacement, particle amplitude, particle acceleration Sound power, acoustic power, sound power level Sound energy flux Sound intensity, acoustic intensity, sound intensity level Acoustic impedance, sound impedance, characteristic impedance Speed of sound, amplitude See also Template:Sound measurements

See also
Pitch Acoustics | Auditory imagery | Audio bit depth | Audio signal processing | Beats | Cycles | Diffraction | Doppler effect | Echo | Music | Note | Phonons | Physics of music | Pitch | Psychoacoustics | Resonance | Rijke tube | Reflection | Reverberation | Sonic weaponry | Sound localization | Soundproofing | Timbre | Ultrasound |

External links
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Sound Wikibooks has more on the topic of Sound
• • • • • • • •

HyperPhysics: Sound and Hearing Introduction to the Physics of Sound Hearing curves and on-line hearing test Audio for the 21st Century Conversion of sound units and levels Sounds Amazing a learning resource for sound and waves Sound calculations Audio Check: a free collection of audio tests and test tones playable on-line

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sound" Categories: Sound measurements | Sound | Acoustics | Hearing | Waves

Death
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search For other uses, see Death (disambiguation).

The symbolic face of death: detail from an 18th century painting

Death in war: a soldier's corpse sprawled out in Petersburg, Virginia, 1865, during the American Civil War Death is the permanent termination of the biological functions that define living organisms. It refers both to a specific event and to a condition, the true nature of which it has for millennia been a central concern of the world's religious traditions and philosophers to penetrate; in particular, the possibility or otherwise of what is known as life after death, or the afterlife.[1] Numerous factors can cause death: predation, disease, habitat destruction, senescence, suicide, conflict, malnutrition, or mere accidents resulting in terminal physical injury. The principal cause of death among those in developed countries is disease precipitated by aging. The chief concern of medical science has been to postpone and avert death. Paradoxically, precise medical definition of death becomes more problematic as scientific knowledge and technology advance.

Contents
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• • •

1 Biological death o 1.1 Fate of dead organisms o 1.2 Competition, natural selection and extinction  1.2.1 Extinction o 1.3 Death and evolution 2 Death in medicine o 2.1 Problems of definition  2.1.1 Misdiagnosed death o 2.2 Death and the law o 2.3 Causes of human death  2.3.1 Symptoms of death  2.3.2 Autopsy o 2.4 The quest for life extension 3 Death in culture 4 See also 5 References o 5.1 Additional references 6 External links

[edit] Biological death
[edit] Fate of dead organisms
In animals, humans included, small movements of the limbs (for example twitching legs or wings) known as a postmortem spasm can sometimes be observed for some time following death. Pallor mortis is a postmortem paleness which accompanies death due to a lack of capillary circulation throughout the body. Algor mortis describes the predictable decline in body temperature until ambient temperature is reached. Within a few hours of death rigor mortis is observed with a chemical change in the muscles, causing the limbs of the corpse to become stiff (Latin rigor) and difficult to move or manipulate. Assuming mild temperatures, full rigor occurs at about 12 hours, eventually subsiding to relaxation at about 36 hours; however, decomposition is not always a slow process. Fire, for example, is the primary mode of decomposition in most grassland ecosystems.[2] Some organisms have hard parts such as shells or bones which may remain intact after decomposition has occurred. These remains can, over time, become fossils, which are the mineralized or otherwise preserved remains or traces (such as footprints) of animals, plants, and other organisms. Fossils vary in size from microscopic, such as single cells, to gigantic, such as dinosaur fossils. A fossil normally preserves only a small portion of the deceased organism, usually that portion that was partially mineralized during life, such as the bones and teeth of vertebrates, or the chitinous exoskeletons of invertebrates. Preservation of soft tissues, such as in mummification, is extremely rare in the fossil record.

[edit] Competition, natural selection and extinction
Main articles: Competition (biology), natural selection, and extinction Death is an important part of process of natural selection. Organisms that are less adapted to their current environment than others are more likely to die having produced fewer offspring, reducing their contribution to the gene pool of succeeding generations. Weaker genes are thus eventually bred out of a population, leading to processes such as speciation and extinction. It should be noted however that

reproduction plays an equally important role in determining survival, for example an organism that dies young but leaves many offspring will have a much greater Darwinian fitness than a long-lived organism which leaves only one. [edit] Extinction

Dead as a Dodo: the bird that became a byword in English for species extinction [3] Extinction is the cessation of existence of a species or group of taxa, reducing biodiversity. The moment of extinction is generally considered to be the death of the last individual of that species (although the capacity to breed and recover may have been lost before this point). Because a species' potential range may be very large, determining this moment is difficult, and is usually done retrospectively. This difficulty leads to phenomena such as Lazarus taxa, where a species presumed extinct abruptly "reappears" (typically in the fossil record) after a period of apparent absence. Through evolutional theory, new species arise through the process of speciation — where new varieties of organisms arise and thrive when they are able to find and exploit an ecological niche — and species become extinct when they are no longer able to survive in changing conditions or against superior competition. A typical species becomes extinct within 10 million years of its first appearance,[4] although some species, called living fossils, survive virtually unchanged for hundreds of millions of years. Only one in a thousand species that have existed remain today.[4][5]

Still part of life even after death: a decomposing mole has entered Earth's biogeochemical cycle After death the remains of an organism become part of the biogeochemical cycle. Animals may be consumed by a predator or a scavenger. Organic material may then be further decomposed by detritivores,

organisms which recycle detritus, returning it to the environment for reuse in the food chain. Examples of detritivores include earthworms, woodlice and dung beetles. Microorganisms also play a vital role, raising the temperature of the decomposing matter as they break it down into yet simpler molecules. Not all material need be decomposed fully, however. Coal, a fossil fuel formed over vast tracts of time in swamp ecosystems, is one example.

[edit] Death and evolution
Main article: Evolution of aging Enquiry into the evolution of aging aims to explain why almost all living things weaken and die with age (a notable exception being hydra, which may be biologically immortal). The evolutionary origin of senescence remains one of the fundamental puzzles of biology. Gerontology specializes in the science of human aging processes.

[edit] Death in medicine
[edit] Problems of definition

What is death? A flower, a skull and an hour-glass stand in for Life, Death and Time Historically, attempts to define the exact moment of death have been problematic. Death was once defined as the cessation of heartbeat (cardiac arrest) and of breathing, but the development of CPR and prompt defibrillation have rendered that definition inadequate because breathing and heartbeat can sometimes be restarted. This is now called "death". Events which were causally linked to death in the past no longer kill in all circumstances; without a functioning heart or lungs, life can sometimes be sustained with a combination of life support devices, organ transplants and artificial pacemakers. Today, where a definition of the moment of death is required, doctors and coroners usually turn to "brain death" or "biological death"; people are considered dead when the electrical activity in their brain ceases (cf. persistent vegetative state). It is presumed that a stoppage of electrical activity indicates the end of consciousness. However, suspension of consciousness must be permanent, and not transient, as occurs during certain sleep stages, and especially a coma. In the case of sleep, EEGs can easily tell the difference. Identifying the moment of death is important in cases of transplantation, as an organ for transplant must be harvested as quickly as possible after the death of the body. The possession of brain activities, or ability to resume brain activity, is a necessary condition to legal personhood in the United States. "It appears that once brain death has been determined … no criminal or

civil liability will result from disconnecting the life-support devices." (Dority v. Superior Court of San Bernardino County, 193 Cal.Rptr. 288, 291 (1983)) Those people maintaining that only the neo-cortex of the brain is necessary for consciousness sometimes argue that only electrical activity there should be considered when defining death. Eventually it is possible that the criterion for death will be the permanent and irreversible loss of cognitive function, as evidenced by the death of the cerebral cortex. All hope of recovering human thought and personality is then gone given current and foreseeable medical technology. However, at present, in most places the more conservative definition of death — irreversible cessation of electrical activity in the whole brain, as opposed to just in the neo-cortex — has been adopted (for example the Uniform Determination Of Death Act in the United States). In 2005, the Terri Schiavo case brought the question of brain death and artificial sustenance to the front of American politics. Even by whole-brain criteria, the determination of brain death can be complicated. EEGs can detect spurious electrical impulses, while certain drugs, hypoglycemia, hypoxia, or hypothermia can suppress or even stop brain activity on a temporary basis. Because of this, hospitals have protocols for determining brain death involving EEGs at widely separated intervals under defined conditions. [edit] Misdiagnosed death There are many anecdotal references to people being declared dead by physicians and then 'coming back to life', sometimes days later in their own coffin, or when embalming procedures are just about to begin. Owing to significant scientific advancements in the Victorian era, some people in Britain became obsessively worried about living after being declared dead.[6] A first responder is not authorized to pronounce a patient dead. Some EMT training manuals specifically state that a person is not to be assumed dead unless there are clear and obvious indications that death has occurred.[7] These indications include mortal decapitation, rigor mortis (rigidity of the body), livor mortis (blood pooling in the part of the body at lowest elevation), decomposition, incineration, or other bodily damage that is clearly inconsistent with life. If there is any possibility of life and in the absence of a do not resuscitate (DNR) order, emergency workers are instructed to begin resuscitation and not end it until a patient has been brought to a hospital to be examined by a physician. This frequently leads to the situation of a patient being pronounced dead on arrival (DOA). However, some states allow paramedics to pronounce death. This is usually based on specific criteria. Aside from the above mentioned, conditions include advanced measures including CPR, intubation, IV access, and administering medicines without regaining a pulse for at least 20 minutes. In cases of electric shock, CPR for an hour or longer can allow stunned nerves to recover, allowing an apparently dead person to survive. People found unconscious under icy water may survive if their faces are kept continuously cold until they arrive at an emergency room.[7] This "diving response", in which metabolic activity and oxygen requirements are minimal, is something humans share with cetaceans called the mammalian diving reflex.[7] As medical technologies advance, ideas about when death occurs may have to be re-evaluated in light of the ability to restore a person to vitality after longer periods of apparent death (as happened when CPR and defibrillation showed that cessation of heartbeat is inadequate as a decisive indicator of death). The lack of electrical brain activity may not be enough to consider someone scientifically dead. Therefore, the concept of information theoretical death has been suggested as a better means of defining when true death actually occurs, though the concept has few practical applications outside of the field of cryonics.

There have been some scientific attempts to bring dead organisms back to life, but with limited success.[8] In science fiction scenarios where such technology is readily available, real death is distinguished from reversible death.

[edit] Death and the law
See also: Legal death By law, a person is dead if a Statement of Death or Death Certificate is approved by a licensed medical practitioner. Various legal consequences follow death, including the removal from the person of what in legal terminology is called personhood.

[edit] Causes of human death
See also: List of causes of death by rate and Leading preventable causes of death

Pope John Paul II lying in state in St. Peter's Basilica, Rome, 2005 Death can be caused by disease, suffocation/asphyxiation or prolonged lack of oxygen to the brain, or physical trauma as a result of an accident ("unintentional circumstance"), homicide ("intentional act by someone else"), or suicide ("intentional act against one's self").[9] The leading cause of death in developing countries is infectious disease. The leading causes of death in developed countries are atherosclerosis (heart disease and stroke), cancer, and other diseases related to obesity and aging. These conditions cause loss of homeostasis, leading to cardiac arrest, causing loss of oxygen and nutrient supply, causing irreversible deterioration of the brain and other tissues. With improved medical capability, dying has become a condition to be managed. Home deaths, once normal, are now rare in the developed world. In developing nations, inferior sanitary conditions and lack of access to modern medical technology makes death from infectious diseases more common than in developed countries. One such disease is tuberculosis, a bacterial disease which killed 1.7 million people in 2004.[10] Malaria causes about 400–900 million cases of fever and approximately one to three million deaths annually.[11] AIDS death toll in Africa may reach 90-100 million by 2025.[12][13] According to Jean Ziegler, who was the United Nations Special reporter on the Right to Food from 2000 to March 2008; mortality due to malnutrition accounted for 58% of the total mortality rate in 2006. Ziegler says worldwide approximately 62 million people died from all causes and of those deaths more than 36 million died of hunger or diseases due to deficiencies in micronutrients."[14] Tobacco smoking killed 100 million people worldwide in the 20th century and could kill 1 billion people around the world in the 21st century, the WHO Report warned.[15][16]

Many leading developed world causes of death can be postponed by diet and physical activity, but the accelerating incidence of disease with age still imposes limits on human longevity. The evolutionary cause of aging is, at best, only just beginning to be understood. It has been suggested that direct intervention in the aging process may now be the most effective intervention against major causes of death.[17] [edit] Symptoms of death Signs of death, strong indications, at the very least, that a person is no longer alive are:
• • • • •

Pallor mortis, paleness which happens almost instantaneously (in the 15–120 minutes after the death) Algor mortis, the reduction in body temperature following death. This is generally a steady decline until matching ambient temperature Rigor mortis, the limbs of the corpse become stiff (Latin rigor) and difficult to move or manipulate Livor mortis, a settling of the blood in the lower (dependent) portion of the body Decomposition, the reduction into simpler forms of matter.

[edit] Autopsy

Rembrandt turns an autopsy into a masterpiece: The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp An autopsy, also known as a postmortem examination or an obduction, is a medical procedure that consists of a thorough examination of a human corpse to determine the cause and manner of a person's death and to evaluate any disease or injury that may be present. It is usually performed by a specialized medical doctor called a pathologist. Autopsies are either performed for legal or medical purposes. A forensic autopsy is carried out when the cause of death may be a criminal matter, while a clinical or academic autopsy is performed to find the medical cause of death and is used in cases of unknown or uncertain death, or for research purposes. Autopsies can be further classified into cases where external examination suffices, and those where the body is dissected and an internal examination is conducted. Permission from next of kin may be required for internal autopsy in some cases. Once an internal autopsy is complete the body is reconstituted by sewing it back together. Autopsy is important in a medical environment and may shed light on mistakes and help improve practices. A necropsy is an older term for a postmortem examination, unregulated, and not always a medical procedure.

[edit] The quest for life extension
Main article: Life extension Life extension refers to an increase in maximum or average lifespan, especially in humans, by slowing down or reversing the processes of aging. Average lifespan is determined by vulnerability to accidents and age or lifestyle-related afflictions such as cancer or cardiovascular disease. Extension of average lifespan can be achieved by good diet, exercise and avoidance of hazards such as smoking. Maximum lifespan is determined by the rate of aging for a species inherent in its genes. Currently, the only widely recognized method of extending maximum lifespan is calorie restriction. Theoretically, extension of maximum lifespan can be achieved by reducing the rate of aging damage, by periodic replacement of damaged tissues, or by molecular repair or rejuvenation of deteriorated cells and tissues. Researchers of life extension are a subclass of biogerontologists known as "biomedical gerontologists". They try to understand the nature of aging and they develop treatments to reverse aging processes or to at least slow them down, for the improvement of health and the maintenance of youthful vigor at every stage of life. Those who take advantage of life extension findings and seek to apply them upon themselves are called "life extensionists" or "longevists". The primary life extension strategy currently is to apply available anti-aging methods in the hope of living long enough to benefit from a complete cure to aging once it is developed, which given the rapidly advancing state of biogenetic and general medical technology, could conceivably occur within the lifetimes of people living today. Many biomedical gerontologists and life extensionists believe that future breakthroughs in tissue rejuvenation with stem cells, organs replacement (with artificial organs or xenotransplantations) and molecular repair will eliminate all aging and disease as well as allow for complete rejuvenation to a youthful condition. Whether such breakthroughs can occur within the next few decades is impossible to predict. Some life extensionists arrange to be cryonically preserved upon legal death so that they can await the time when future medicine can eliminate disease, rejuvenate them to a lasting youthful condition and repair damage caused by the cryonics process.

[edit] Death in culture
Main article: Death in culture

Death haunts even the beautiful: an early 20th century artist says, "All is Vanity" Death is the center of many traditions and organizations, and is a feature of every culture around the world. Much of this revolves around the care of the dead, as well as the afterlife and the disposal of bodies upon the onset of death. The disposal of human corpses does, in general, begin with the last offices before significant time has passed, and ritualistic ceremonies often occur, most commonly interment or cremation. This is not a unified practice, however, as in Tibet for instance the body is given a sky burial and left on a mountain top. Mummification or embalming is also prevalent in some cultures, to retard the rate of decay. Such rituals are accompanied by grief and mourning in almost all cases, and this is not limited to human loss, but extends to the loss of an animal. Legal aspects of death are also part of many cultures, particularly the settlement of the deceased estate and the issues of inheritance and in some countries, inheritance taxation. Capital punishment is also a divisive aspect of death in culture. In most places that practice capital punishment today, the death penalty is reserved as punishment for premeditated murder, espionage, treason, or as part of military justice. In some countries, sexual crimes, such as adultery and sodomy, carry the death penalty, as do religious crimes such as apostasy, the formal renunciation of one's religion. In many retentionist countries, drug trafficking is also a capital offense. In China human trafficking and serious cases of corruption are also punished by the death penalty. In militaries around the world courtsmartial have imposed death sentences for offenses such as cowardice, desertion, insubordination, and mutiny.[18] Death in warfare and in suicide attack also have cultural links, and the ideas of dulce et decorum est pro patria mori, mutiny punishable by death, grieving relatives of dead soldiers and death notification are embedded in many cultures. Recently in the western world, with the supposed increase in terrorism following the September 11 attacks, but also further back in time with suicide bombers and terrorism in Northern Ireland, kamikaze missions in World War II and suicide missions in a host of other conflicts in history, death for a cause by way of suicide attack, and martyrdom have had significant cultural impacts. Suicide in general, and particularly euthanasia are also points of cultural debate. Both acts are understood very differently in contrasting cultures. In Japan, for example, ending a life with honor by seppuku was considered a desirable death, whereas in many western cultures the idea of euthanasia is looked upon with mixed feelings. Death is also personified in many cultures, with such creations as the Grim Reaper, Azrael, Father Time. Such cultural ideas are part of a global fascination with death. Abortion is the deliberate termination of a human pregnancy. This is partially legalised in many Western countries if the mother requests it, and a doctor prescribes it, often taking into account the physical and mental state of the mother-to-be, and the development of the fetus. In countries where abortion is legal, it is understood that the rights of the mother outweigh the rights of the fetus. Some ethicists and religious groups argue that this is wrong and that the fetus has a right to life. In countries where abortion is illegal, many "back-alley" (unsafe abortions) may still occur with great risk to the health of the mother. The inclusion of certain items in this list is disputed.
Please see the relevant discussion on the talk page.

[edit] See also

-cide

Karōshi

• • • • • • • • • •

Bardo Thodol ("Tibetan Book of the Dead") Burial Cadaveric spasm Death, Desire and Loss in Western Culture by Jonathan Dollimore Death erection Death (personification) Death rattle Día de los Muertos, (Day of the Dead) Dying declaration Euphemisms for death

• • • • • • • • • • •

Last rites Legal death List of causes of death by rate Leading preventable causes of death Mortician Near-death experience Post Mortem Interval Thanatology World War I casualties World War II casualties Zombie

[edit] References
1. ^ The Hour of Our Death, Philippe Ariès, 1981 2. ^ DeBano, L.F., D.G. Neary, P.F. Ffolliot (1998) Fire’s Effects on Ecosystems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.,
New York, New York, USA.

3. ^ Diamond, Jared (1999). "Up to the Starting Line". Guns, Germs, and Steel. W. W. Norton. pp. 43–44.
ISBN 0-393-31755-2. 4. ^ a b Newman, Mark. "A Mathematical Model for Mass Extinction". Cornell University. May 20, 1994. URL accessed July 30, 2006. 5. ^ Raup, David M. Extinction: Bad Genes or Bad Luck? W.W. Norton and Company. New York. 1991. pp.3-6 ISBN 978-0393309270 6. ^ As reflected from at least one article of literature by authors like Edgar Allan Poe, where subjects were buried alive. 7. ^ a b c Limmer, D. et al. (2006). Emergency care (AHA update, Ed. 10e). Prentice Hall. 8. ^ Blood Swapping Reanimates Dead Dogs 9. ^ WHO: 1.6 million die in violence annually 10. ^ World Health Organization (WHO). Tuberculosis Fact sheet N°104 - Global and regional incidence. March 2006, Retrieved on 6 October 2006. 11. ^ USAID’s Malaria Programs 12. ^ Aids could kill 90 million Africans, says UN 13. ^ AIDS Toll May Reach 100 Million in Africa, Washington Post 14. ^ Jean Ziegler, L'Empire de la honte, Fayard, 2007 ISBN 978-2-253-12115-2 p.130. 15. ^ Tobacco Could Kill One Billion By 2100, WHO Report Warns 16. ^ Tobacco could kill more than 1 billion this century: WHO 17. ^ SJ Olshanksy et al. (2006). "Longevity dividend: What should we be doing to prepare for the unprecedented aging of humanity?". The Scientist (Scientist (The), Philadelphia) 20: 28–36. http://www.grg.org/resources/TheScientist.htm. Retrieved on 31 March 2007. 18. ^ "Shot at Dawn, campaign for pardons for British and Commonwealth soldiers executed in World War I". Shot at Dawn Pardons Campaign. Retrieved on 2006-07-20.

[edit] Additional references
• • •

Pounder, Derrick J. (2005-12-15). "POSTMORTEM CHANGES AND TIME OF DEATH". University of Dundee. Retrieved on 2006-12-13. Appel, JM. Defining Death: When Physicians and Families Differ” Journal of Medical Ethics Fall 2005. Vass AA (2001) Microbiology Today 28: 190-192 at: [1]

• • •

Piepenbrink H (1985) J Archaeolog Sci 13: 417-430 Piepenbrink H (1989) Applied Geochem 4: 273-280 Child AM (1995) J Archaeolog Sci 22: 165-174

[edit] External links
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Death Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Death Look up Death in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
• • • • • • • •

Death at the Open Directory Project Death (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) Doctors Change the Way They Think About Death Odds of dying from various injuries or accidents Source: National Safety Council, United States, 2001 Causes of Death Causes of Death 1916 How the medical profession categorized causes of death a century ago. George Wald: The Origin of Death A biologist explains life and death in different kinds of organisms in relation to evolution. Before and After Death Interviews with people dying in hospices, and portraits of them before, and shortly after, death [hide]

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Death and related topics
In medicine Autopsy · Brain death · Clinical death · Euthanasia · Lazarus Syndrome · Persistent vegetative state · Terminal illness Causes of death by rate · People by cause of death · Notable deaths in 2007 · Notable deaths in 2008 Immortality · Infant mortality · Legal death · Maternal death · Mortality rate Afterlife · Burial · Cremation · Decomposition · Funeral · Grief · Mourning · Promession · Resomation · Séance · Customs · Intermediate state Cryonics · Out-of-body experience · Near-death experience · Near-death studies · Reincarnation research

Lists

Mortality

After death

Research

Murder · Race-murder · Suicide · Fascination with death · Martyrdom · Sacrifices Other (Human · Animal) · War · Personification of Death · Death and culture · Death by country Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death"

Categories: Death | Demography

Hatred
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

(Redirected from Hate) Jump to: navigation, search "Hate" redirects here. For other uses, see Hate (disambiguation). "Hates" redirects here. For the German singer, see Adrian Hates. Hatred or hate is a word that describes intense feelings of dislike. It can be used in a wide variety of contexts, from hatred of inanimate objects (e.g. homework, vegetables) to hatred of other people, or even groups of people. Philosophers have offered many influential definitions of hatred. Rene Descartes viewed hate as an awareness that something is bad, combined with an urge to withdraw from it. Baruch Spinoza defined hate as a type of pain that is due to an external cause. Aristotle viewed hate as a desire for the annihilation of an object that is incurable by time. Finally, David Hume believed that hate is an irreducible feeling that is not definable at all.[1] In psychology, Sigmund Freud defined hate as an ego state that wishes to destroy the source of its unhappiness[2]. In a more contemporary definition, the Penguin Dictionary of Psychology defines hate as a "deep, enduring, intense emotion expressing animosity, anger, and hostility towards a person, group, or object."[3] Because hatred is believed to be long-lasting, many psychologists consider it to be more of an attitude or disposition than a (temporary) emotional state. The neural correlates of hate have been investigated with an fMRI procedure. In this experiment, people had their brains scanned while viewing pictures of people they hated. The results showed increased activity in the medial frontal gyrus, right putamen, bilaterally in the premotor cortex, in the frontal pole,

and bilaterally in the medial insula of the human brain. The researchers concluded that there is a distinct pattern of brain activity that occurs when people are experiencing hatred.[4]

See also
Look up hatred in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Look up hate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Find more about Hate on Wikipedia's sister projects: Dictionary definitions Textbooks Quotations Source texts Images and media News stories Learning resources
• • • •

Ethnic cleansing Genocide Hate crime Hate speech

References Further reading
• • • • • •

The Psychology of Hate by Robert Sternberg (Ed.) Hatred: The Psychological Descent into Violence by Willard Gaylin Why We Hate by Jack Levin The Psychology of Good and Evil : Why Children, Adults, and Groups Help and Harm Others by Ervin Staub Prisoners of Hate: The Cognitive Basis of Anger, Hostility, and Violence by Aaron T. Beck Becoming Evil: How Ordinary People Commit Genocide and Mass Killing by James Waller [hide]

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Emotions (list)
Acceptance · Affection · Alertness · Ambivalence · Anger · Angst · Annoyance · Anticipation · Anxiety · Apathy · Awe · Boredom · Calmness · Compassion · Confusion · Contempt · Contentment · Curiosity ·

Depression · Desire · Disappointment · Disgust · Doubt · Ecstasy · Embarrassment · Empathy · Emptiness · Enthusiasm · Envy · Epiphany · Euphoria · Fanaticism · Fear · Frustration · Gratification · Gratitude · Grief · Guilt · Happiness · Hatred · Homesickness · Honesty · Hope · Hostility · Humiliation · Hysteria · Inspiration · Interest · Jealousy · Kindness · Limerence · Loneliness · Love · Lust · Melancholia · Nostalgia · Panic · Patience · Pity · Pride · Rage · Regret · Remorse · Repentance · Resentment · Righteous indignation · Sadness · Saudade · Schadenfreude · Sehnsucht · Self-pity · Shame · Shyness · Suffering · Surprise · Suspicion · Sympathy · Wonder · Worry Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hatred" Categories: Hate | Love | Core issues in ethics Hidden category: Semi-protected

Shame
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search This article is about psychological, philosophical, and societal aspects of shame. For other uses, see Shame (disambiguation). Shame is, variously, an affect, emotion, cognition, state, or condition. The roots of the word shame are thought to derive from an older word meaning to cover; as such, covering oneself, literally or figuratively, is a natural expression of shame.[1]

Contents
[hide]
• • • • • •

1 Description 2 Shame vs. guilt and embarrassment 3 Subtypes 4 Social aspects 5 See also 6 Footnotes

• •

7 Additional references 8 External links

[edit] Description
Nineteenth century scientist Charles Darwin, in his book The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals, described shame affect as consisting of blushing, confusion of mind, downward cast eyes, slack posture, and lowered head, and he noted observations of shame affect in human populations worldwide.[2] He also noted the sense of warmth or heat (associated with the vasodilation of the face and skin) occurring in intense shame. A "sense of shame" is the consciousness or awareness of shame as a state or condition. Such shame cognition may occur as a result of the experience of shame affect or, more generally, in any situation of embarrassment, dishonor, disgrace, inadequacy, humiliation, or chagrin.[3] A condition or state of shame may be also be assigned externally, by others, regardless of the one's own experience or awareness. "To shame" generally means to actively assign or communicate a state of shame to another. Behaviors designed to “uncover” or "expose" others are sometimes used for this purpose, as are utterances like “Shame!” or “Shame on you!” Finally, to "have shame" means to maintain a sense of restraint against offending others while to "have no shame" is to behave without such restraint.

[edit] Shame vs. guilt and embarrassment
The location of the dividing line between the concepts of shame, guilt, and embarrassment is not fully standardized.[4] According to cultural anthropologist Ruth Benedict, shame is a violation of cultural or social values while guilt feelings arise from violations of one's internal values. Thus, it is possible to feel ashamed of thought or behavior that no one knows about and to feel guilty about actions that gain the approval of others. Psychoanalyst Helen B. Lewis argued that "The experience of shame is directly about the self, which is the focus of evaluation. In guilt, the self is not the central object of negative evaluation, but rather the thing done is the focus."[5] Similarly, Fossum and Mason say in their book Facing Shame that "While guilt is a painful feeling of regret and responsibility for one's actions, shame is a painful feeling about oneself as a person."[6] Clinical psychologist Gershen Kaufman's view of shame is aligned with that of Affect Theory, namely that shame is one of a set of instinctual short-duration physiological reactions to stimulation of a given kind (i.e., shame is a pre-cognitive affect). Kaufman considers guilt to be a learned behavior consisting essentially of self-directed blame or contempt, with shame occurring consequent to such behaviors making up a part of the overall experience of guilt. Here, by self-blame and self-contempt Kaufman means the application, towards (a part of) one's self, of exactly the same dynamic that blaming of, and contempt for, others represents when it is applied interpersonally. Kaufman saw that mechanisms such as blame or contempt may be used as a defending strategy against the experience of shame and that someone who has a pattern of applying them to himself may well attempt to defend against a shame experience by applying self-blame or self-contempt. This, however, can lead to an internalized, self-reinforcing sequence of shame events for which Kaufman coined the term "shame spiral."[7]

One view of difference between shame and embarrassment is that shame does not necessarily involve public humiliation while embarrassment does, that is, one can feel shame for an act known only to oneself but in order to be embarrassed one's actions must be revealed to others. In the field of ethics (moral psychology, in particular), however, there is debate as to whether or not shame is a heteronomous emotion, i.e. whether or not shame does involve recognition on the part of the ashamed that they have been judged negatively by others. Immanuel Kant and his followers held that shame is heteronomous; Bernard Williams and others have argued that shame can be autonomous.[8][9] Shame may carry the connotation of a response to something that is morally wrong whereas embarrassment is the response to something that is morally neutral but socially unacceptable. Another view of shame and embarrassment, though, is that the two emotions lie on a continuum and only differ in intensity.

[edit] Subtypes
Genuine shame is associated with genuine dishonor, disgrace, or condemnation. False shame is associated with false condemnation as in the double-bind form of false shaming; "he brought what we did to him upon himself". Author and TV personality John Bradshaw calls shame the "emotion that lets us know we are finite".[10] "Toxic" shame describes false, pathological shame, and Bradshaw states that toxic shame is induced, inside children, by all forms of child abuse. Incest and other forms of child sexual abuse can cause particularly severe toxic shame. Toxic shame often induces what is known as complex trauma in children who cannot cope with toxic shaming as it occurs and who dissociate the shame until it is possible to cope with.[citation needed] In the 1990s, psychologists introduced the notion of vicarious shame, which refers to the experience of shame on behalf of another person. Individuals vary in their tendency to experience vicarious shame, which is related to neuroticism and to the tendency to experience personal shame. Extremely shame-prone people might even experience vicarious shame even to an increased degree, in other words: shame on behalf of another person who is already feeling shame on behalf of a third party (or possibly on behalf of the individual proper).

[edit] Social aspects
This article may contain original research or unverified claims. Please improve the article by adding references. See the talk page for details. (September 2007) This article includes a list of references or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations.
You can improve this article by introducing more precise citations where appropriate. (February 2008)

Shame is considered one aspect of socialization in all societies. Shame is enshrouded in legal precedent as a pillar of punishment and ostensible correction. Shame has been linked to narcissism in the psychoanalytic literature. It is one of the most intense emotions. The individual experiencing shame may feel totally despicable, worthless and feel that there is no redemption. According to the anthropologist Ruth Benedict, cultures may be classified by their emphasis of using either shame or guilt to regulate the social activities of their members. Shared opinions and expected behaviours that cause the feeling of shame (as well as an associated reproval) if violated by an individual are in any case proven to be very efficient in guiding behaviour in a group or society. Shame is a common form of control used by those people who commit relational aggression. It is also used in the workplace as a form of overt social control or aggression. Shamery is also a central feature of punishment, shunning, or ostracism. In addition, shame is often seen in victims of child neglect, child

abuse and a host of other crimes against children. Parental incest is considered by child psychologists to be the ultimate form of shaming.[citation needed] A "shame campaign" is a tactic in which particular individuals are singled out because of their behavior or suspected crimes, often by marking them publicly, such as Hester Prynne in Nathaniel Hawthorne's The Scarlet Letter. In the Philippines, Alfredo Lim popularized such tactics during his term as mayor of Manila. On July 1, 1997, he began a controversial "spray paint shame campaign” in an effort to stop drug use. He and his team sprayed bright red paint on two hundred squatter houses whose residents had been charged, but not yet convicted, of selling prohibited substances. Officials of other municipalities followed suit. Former Senator Rene A. Saguisag condemned Lim’s policy.[11] Despite this criticism, the shame campaigns continued. In January 2005, Metro Manila Development Authority Chair Bayani Fernando announced shame campaign to target jaywalkers by splashing them with wet rags. Sen. Richard Gordon disagreed with the shame tactic, and Rep. Vincent Crisologo called this approach "martial law tactics". Rep. Rozzano Rufino Biazon argued jaywalkers were being treated like cattle.[12][13]

[edit] See also
Look up Shame in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
• • •

Badge of shame Blushing Modesty

[edit] Footnotes

Emotion
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search This article includes a list of references or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. Please improve this article by introducing more precise citations where appropriate. (March 2008) For other uses, see Emotion (disambiguation). "Emotional" redirects here. For other uses, see Emotional (disambiguation) An emotion is a term for a mental and physiological state associated with a wide variety of feelings, thoughts, and behavior. Emotions are subjective experiences, or experienced from a individual point of view. Emotion is often associated with mood, temperament, personality, and disposition. The English word 'emotion' is derived from the French word émouvoir. This is based on the Latin emovere, where e(variant of ex-) means 'out' and movere means 'move'.[1] The related term "motivation" is also derived from movere. Emotions can be divided between 'cognitive' theories of emotions and 'non-cognitive' theories of emotions; or instinctual emotions (from the amygdala), and cognitive emotions (from the prefrontal cortex). Some psychologists divide emotions into basic and complex categories, where base emotions lead

to more complex ones. Emotions can be categorized by their duration. Some emotions occur over a period of seconds (e.g. surprise) where others can last years (e.g. love). No definitive taxonomy exists. A related distinction is between the emotion and the results of the emotion, principally behaviours and emotional expressions. People often behave in certain ways as a direct result of their emotional state, such as crying, fighting or fleeing. Yet again, if one can have the emotion without the corresponding behaviour then we may consider the behaviour not to be essential to the emotion. The James-Lange theory posits that emotional experience is largely due to the experience of bodily changes. The functionalist approach to emotions (e.g.,Nico Frijda) holds that emotions have evolved for a particular function, such as to keep the subject safe.

Contents
[hide]
• •

• • • • •

1 Classification 2 Theories o 2.1 Somatic theories  2.1.1 James-Lange theory o 2.2 Neurobiological theories o 2.3 Cognitive theories  2.3.1 Perceptual theory  2.3.2 Affective Events Theory  2.3.3 Cannon-Bard theory  2.3.4 Two-factor theory  2.3.5 Component process model 3 Disciplinary approaches o 3.1 Evolutionary biology o 3.2 Sociology o 3.3 Psychotherapy o 3.4 Computer science 4 Notable theorists 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links

[edit] Classification
Main article: Emotion classification There has been considerable debate concerning how emotions should be classified. Firstly, are emotions distinctive discrete states or do they vary more smoothly along one or more underlying dimensions? The circumplex model of James Russell (1979) is an example of the latter, placing emotions along bi-polar dimensions of valence and arousal. Another popular option is to divide emotions into basic and complex categories, where some emotions are considered foundational to the existence of others (e.g. Paul Ekman). In this respect complex emotions may be regarded as developments upon basic emotions. Such development may occur due to cultural conditioning or association. Alternatively, analogous to the way primary colors combine, primary emotions could blend together to form the full spectrum of human emotional experience. For example interpersonal anger and disgust could blend to form contempt.

Robert Plutchik proposed a three-dimensional "circumplex model" which describes the relations among emotions. This model is similar to a color wheel. The vertical dimension represents intensity, and the circle represents degrees of similarity among the emotions. He posited eight primary emotion dimensions arranged as four pairs of opposites. [2] Some have also argued for the existence of meta-emotions which are emotions about emotions.[3] In general discussion centres around which emotions or dimensions should be considered foundational. Combined views are also available. Another important means of distinguishing emotions concerns their occurrence in time. Some emotions occur over a period of seconds (e.g. surprise) where others can last years (e.g. love). The latter could be regarded as a long term tendency to have an emotion regarding a certain object rather than an emotion proper (though this is disputed). A distinction is then made between emotion episodes and emotional dispositions. Dispositions are also comparable to character traits, where someone may be said to be generally disposed to experience certain emotions, though about different objects. For example an irritable person is generally disposed to feel irritation more easily or quickly than others. Finally some theorists (e.g. Klaus Scherer, 2005) place emotions within a more general category of 'affective states'. Where affective states can also include emotion-related phenomena such as pleasure and pain, motivational states (e.g. hunger or curiosity), moods, dispositions and traits.

[edit] Theories
Theories about emotions stretch back at least as far as the Ancient Greek Stoics, as well as Plato and Aristotle. We also see sophisticated theories in the works of philosophers such as René Descartes[4], Baruch Spinoza[5] and David Hume. More recent theories of emotions tend to be informed by advances in empirical research. Often theories are not mutually exclusive and many researchers incorporate multiple perspectives in their work.

[edit] Somatic theories
Somatic theories of emotion claim that bodily responses rather than judgements are essential to emotions. The first modern version of such theories comes from William James in the 1880s. The theory lost favour in the 20th Century, but has regained popularity more recently thanks largely to theorists such as António Damásio, Joseph E. LeDoux and Robert Zajonc who are able to appeal to neurological evidence. [edit] James-Lange theory Main article: James-Lange theory William James in the article 'What is an Emotion?' (Mind, 9, 1884: 188-205) argued that emotional experience is largely due to the experience of bodily changes. These changes might be visceral, postural, or facially expressive. Danish psychologist Carl Lange also proposed a similar theory at around the same time and thus the resulting position is known as the James-Lange theory. This theory and its derivates state that a changed situation leads to a changed bodily state. As James says 'the perception of bodily changes as they occur IS the emotion.' James further claims that 'we feel sorry because we cry, angry because we strike, afraid because we tremble, and not that we cry, strike, or tremble, because we are sorry, angry, or fearful, as the case may be.' This theory is supported by experiments in which by manipulating the bodily state, a desired emotion is induced.[6] Such experiments also have therapeutic implications (e.g. in laughter therapy, dance therapy). The James-Lange theory is often misunderstood because it seems counter-intuitive. Most people believe that emotions give rise to emotion-specific actions: i.e. "I'm crying because I'm sad," or "I ran away because I was scared." The James-Lange theory, conversely, asserts that first we react to a situation

(running away and crying happen before the emotion), and then we interpret our actions into an emotional response. In this way, emotions serve to explain and organize our own actions to us.

[edit] Neurobiological theories
This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (November 2008) Based on discoveries made through neural mapping of the limbic system, the neurobiological explanation of human emotion is that emotion is a pleasant or unpleasant mental state organized in the limbic system of the mammalian brain. If distinguished from reactive responses of reptiles, emotions would then be mammalian elaborations of general vertebrate arousal patterns, in which neurochemicals (e.g., dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin) step-up or step-down the brain's activity level, as visible in body movements, gestures, and postures. In mammals, primates, and human beings, feelings are displayed as emotion cues. For example, the human emotion of love is proposed to have evolved from paleocircuits of the mammalian brain (specifically, modules of the cingulated gyrus) designed for the care, feeding, and grooming of offspring. Paleocircuits are neural platforms for bodily expression configured millions of years before the advent of cortical circuits for speech. They consist of pre-configured pathways or networks of nerve cells in the forebrain, brain stem and spinal cord. They evolved prior to the earliest mammalian ancestors, as far back as the jawless fishes, to control motor function. Presumably, before the mammalian brain, life in the non-verbal world was automatic, preconscious, and predictable. The motor centers of reptiles react to sensory cues of vision, sound, touch, chemical, gravity, and motion with pre-set body movements and programmed postures. With the arrival of night-active mammals, circa 180 million years ago, smell replaced vision as the dominant sense, and a different way of responding arose from the olfactory sense, which is proposed to have developed into mammalian emotion and emotional memory. In the Jurassic Period, the mammalian brain invested heavily in olfaction to succeed at night as reptiles slept — one explanation for why olfactory lobes in mammalian brains are proportionally larger than in the reptiles. These odor pathways gradually formed the neural blueprint for what was later to become our limbic brain. Emotions are thought to be related to activity in brain areas that direct our attention, motivate our behavior, and determine the significance of what is going on around us. Pioneering work by Broca (1878), Papez (1937), and MacLean (1952) suggested that emotion is related to a group of structures in the center of the brain called the limbic system, which includes the hypothalamus, cingulate cortex, hippocampi, and other structures. More recent research has shown that some of these limbic structures are not as directly related to emotion as others are, while some non-limbic structures have been found to be of greater emotional relevance.

[edit] Cognitive theories
There are a number of theories of emotions that argue that cognitive activity in the form of judgements, evaluations, or thoughts are necessary in order for an emotion to occur. This, it is argued[who?], is necessary to capture the fact that emotions are about something or have intentionality. Such cognitive activity may be conscious or unconscious and may or may not take the form of conceptual processing. An influential theory here is that of Richard Lazarus (1991). A prominent philosophical exponent is Robert C. Solomon (e.g. The Passions, Emotions and the Meaning of Life, 1993). The theory proposed by Nico Frijda where appraisal leads to action tendencies is another example.

[edit] Perceptual theory A recent hybrid of the somatic and cognitive theories of emotion is the perceptual theory. This theory is neo-Jamesian in arguing that bodily responses are central to emotions, yet it emphasises the meaningfulness of emotions or the idea that emotions are about something, as is recognised by cognitive theories. The novel claim of this theory is that conceptually based cognition is unnecessary for such meaning. Rather the bodily changes themselves perceive the meaningful content of the emotion as a result of being causally triggered by certain situations. In this respect emotions are held to be analogous to faculties such as vision or touch, which provide information about the relation between the subject and the world in various ways. A sophisticated defense of this view is found in philosopher Jesse Prinz's book Gut Reactions (2004) and psychologist James Laird's book Feelings: The Perception of Self (2007). Related views are also found in the work of Peter Goldie and Ronald de Sousa. [edit] Affective Events Theory Main article: Affective Events Theory The Affective Events Theory is a communication-based theory developed by Howard M. Weiss and Russell Cropanzano (1996), that looks at the causes, structures, and consequences of emotional experience (especially in work contexts.) This theory suggests that emotions are influenced and caused by events which in turn influence attitudes and behaviors. This theoretical frame also emphasizes time in that human beings experience what they call emotion episodes - a “series of emotional states extended over time and organized around an underlying theme” (Weiss & Beal, 2005, p. 6). This theory has been utilized by numerous researchers to better understand emotion from a communicative lens, and was reviewed further by Howard M. Weiss and Daniel J. Beal in their article, Reflections on Affective Events Theory published in Research on Emotion in Organizations in 2005. [edit] Cannon-Bard theory Main article: Cannon-Bard theory In the Cannon-Bard theory, Walter Bradford Cannon argued against the dominance of the James-Lange theory regarding the physiological aspects of emotions in the second edition of Bodily Changes in Pain, Hunger, Fear and Rage. Where James argued that emotional behaviour often precedes or defines the emotion, Cannon and Bard argued that the emotion arises first and then stimulates typical behaviour. [edit] Two-factor theory Main article: Two factor theory of emotion Another cognitive theory is the Singer-Schachter theory. This is based on experiments purportedly showing that subjects can have different emotional reactions despite being placed into the same physiological state with an injection of adrenaline. Subjects were observed to express either anger or amusement depending on whether another person in the situation displayed that emotion. Hence the combination of the appraisal of the situation (cognitive) and whether participants received adrenaline or a placebo together determined the response. This experiment has been criticized in Jesse Prinz (2004) Gut Reactions. [edit] Component process model A recent version of the cognitive theory comes from Klaus Scherer which regards emotions more broadly as the synchronization of many different bodily and cognitive components. Emotions are identified with

the overall process whereby low level cognitive appraisals, in particular the processing of relevance, trigger bodily reactions, behaviors, feelings, and actions.

[edit] Disciplinary approaches
Many different disciplines have produced work on the emotions. Human sciences study the role of emotions in mental processes, disorders, and neural mechanisms. In psychiatry, emotions are examined as part of the discipline's study and treatment of mental disorders in humans. Psychology examines emotions from a scientific perspective by treating them as mental processes and behavior and they explore the underlying physiological and neurological processes. In neuroscience sub-fields such as affective neuroscience, scientists study the neural mechanisms of emotion by combining neuroscience with the psychological study of personality, emotion, and mood. In linguistics, the expression of emotion may change to the meaning of sounds. In education, the role of emotions in relation to learning are examined. Social sciences often examine emotion for the role that it plays in human culture and social interactions. In sociology, emotions are examined for the role they play in human society, social patterns and interactions, and culture. In anthropology, the study of humanity, scholars use ethnography to undertake contextual analyses and cross-cultural comparisons of a range of human activities; some anthropology studies examine the role of emotions in human activities. In the field of communication sciences, critical organizational scholars have examined the role of emotions in organizations, from the perspectives of managers, employees, and even customers. A focus on emotions in organizations can be credited to Arlie Russell Hochschild's concept of emotional labor. The University of Queensland host's EmoNet([1]), an email distribution list comprised of a network of academics that facilitates scholarly discussion of all matters relating to the study of emotion in organizational settings. The list was established in January, 1997 and has over 700 members from across the globe. In economics, the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services, emotions are analyzed in some sub-fields of microeconomics, in order to assess the role of emotions on purchase decision-making and risk perception. In criminology, a social science approach to the study of crime, scholars often draw on behavioral sciences, sociology, and psychology; emotions are examined in criminology issues such as anomie theory and studies of "toughness", aggressive behavior, and hooliganism. In law, which underpins civil obedience, politics, economics and society, evidence about people's emotions is often raised in tort law claims for compensation and in criminal law prosecutions against alleged lawbreakers (as evidence of the defendant's state of mind during trials, sentencing, and parole hearings). In political science, emotions are examined in a number of sub-fields, such as the analysis of voter decision-making. In philosophy, emotions are studied in sub-fields such as ethics, the philosophy of art (e.g., sensoryemotional values, and matters of taste and sentiment), and the philosophy of music. In history, scholars examine documents and other sources to interpret and analyze past activities; speculation on the emotional state of the authors of historical documents is one of the tools of interpretation. In literature and film-making, the expression of emotion is the cornerstone of genres such as drama, melodrama, and romance. In communication studies, scholars study the role that emotion plays in the dissemination of ideas and messages. Emotion is also studied in non-human animals in ethology, a branch of zoology which focuses on the scientific study of animal behavior. Ethology is a combination of laboratory and field science, with strong ties to ecology and evolution. Ethologists often study one type of behavior (e.g. aggression) in a number of unrelated animals.

[edit] Evolutionary biology
This section does not cite any references or sources.

Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unverifiable material may be challenged and removed. (July 2008)

Perspectives on emotions from evolution theory were initiated in the late 19th century with Charles Darwin's book The Expression of Emotions in Man and Animals.[7] Darwin's original thesis was that emotions evolved via natural selection and therefore have cross-culturally universal counterparts. Furthermore animals undergo emotions comparable to our own (see emotion in animals). Evidence of universality in the human case has been provided by Paul Ekman's seminal research on facial expression. Other research in this area focuses on physical displays of emotion including body language of animals and humans (see affect display). The increased potential in neuroimaging has also allowed investigation into evolutionarily ancient parts of the brain. Important neurological advances were made from this perspectives in the 1990s by, for example, Joseph E. LeDoux and António Damásio. American evolutionary biologist Robert Trivers argues that moral emotions are based on the principal of reciprocal altruism. The notion of group selection is of particular relevance. This theory posits the different emotions have different reciprocal effects. Sympathy prompts a person to offer the first favor, particularly to someone in need for whom the help would go the furthest. Anger protects a person against cheaters who accept a favor without reciprocating, by making him want to punish the ingrate or sever the relationship. Gratitude impels a beneficiary to reward those who helped him in the past. Finally, guilt prompts a cheater who is in danger of being found out, by making them want to repair the relationship by redressing the misdeed. As well, guilty feelings encourage a cheater who has been caught to advertise or promise that he will behave better in the future.

[edit] Sociology
Main article: Sociology of emotions We try to regulate our emotions to fit in with the norms of the situation, based on many - sometimes conflicting - demands upon us which originate from various entities studied by sociology on a micro level -- such as social roles and 'feeling rules' the everyday social interactions and situations are shaped by -and, on a macro level, by social institutions, discourses, ideologies etc. For example, (post-)modern marriage is, on one hand, based on the emotion of love and on the other hand the very emotion is to be worked on and regulated by it. The sociology of emotions also focuses on general attitude changes in a population. Emotional appeals are commonly found in advertising, health campaigns and political messages. Recent examples include no-smoking health campaigns and political campaign advertising emphasizing the fear of terrorism.

[edit] Psychotherapy
Depending on the particular school's general emphasis either on cognitive component of emotion, physical energy discharging, or on symbolic movement and facial expression components of emotion, different schools of psychotherapy approach human emotions differently. While, for example, the school of Re-evaluation Counseling propose that distressing emotions are to be relieved by "discharging" them hence crying, laughing, sweating, shaking, and trembling.[8] Other more cognitively oriented schools approach them via their cognitive components, such as rational emotive behavior therapy. Yet other approach emotions via symbolic movement and facial expression components (like in contemporary gestalt therapy[9]).

[edit] Computer science
Main article: Affective computing

In the 2000s, in research in computer science, engineering, psychology and neuroscience has been aimed at developing devices that recognize human affect display and model emotions (Fellous, Armony & LeDoux, 2002). In computer science, affective computing is a branch of the study and development of artificial intelligence that deals with the design of systems and devices that can recognize, interpret, and process human emotions. It is an interdisciplinary field spanning computer sciences, psychology, and cognitive science.[10] While the origins of the field may be traced as far back as to early philosophical enquiries into emotion,[11] the more modern branch of computer science originated with Rosalind Picard's 1995 paper[12] on affective computing.[13][14] Detecting emotional information begins with passive sensors which capture data about the user's physical state or behavior without interpreting the input. The data gathered is analogous to the cues humans use to perceive emotions in others. Another area within affective computing is the design of computational devices proposed to exhibit either innate emotional capabilities or that are capable of convincingly simulating emotions. Emotional speech processing recognizes the user's emotional state by analyzing speech patterns. The detection and processing of facial expression or body gestures is achieved through detectors and sensors.

[edit] Notable theorists
In the late nineteenth century, the most influential theorists were William James (1842 – 1910) and Carl Lange (1834 - 1900). James was an American psychologist and philosopher who wrote about educational psychology, psychology of religious experience/mysticism, and the philosophy of pragmatism. Lange was a Danish physician and psychologist. Working independently, they developed the James-Lange theory, a hypothesis on the origin and nature of emotions. The theory states that within human beings, as a response to experiences in the world, the autonomic nervous system creates physiological events such as muscular tension, a rise in heart rate, perspiration, and dryness of the mouth. Emotions, then, are feelings which come about as a result of these physiological changes, rather than being their cause. In the twentieth century, some of the most influential theorists on emotion have now passed away. They include Magda B. Arnold (1903-2002), an American psychologist who developed the appraisal theory of emotions; Richard Lazarus (1922-2002), an American psychologist who specialized in emotion and stress, especially in relation to cognition; Robert Plutchik (1928-2006), an American psychologist who developed a psychoevolutionary theory of emotion. In addition, an American philosopher, Robert C. Solomon (1942 – 2007), contributed to the theories on the philosophy of emotions with books such as What Is An Emotion?: Classic and Contemporary Readings (Oxford, 2003). Influential theorists who are still active include psychologists, neurologists, and philosophers including:
• • • • • • • • •

Lisa Feldman Barrett - Social psychologist specializing in affective science and human emotion António Damásio (1944- ) - Portuguese behavioral neurologist and neuroscientist who works in the US Paul Ekman (1934- ) - Psychologist specializing in study of emotions and their relation to facial expressions Barbara Fredrickson - Social psychologist who specializes in emotions and positive psychology. Nico Frijda (1927- ) - Dutch psychologist who specializes in human emotions, especially facial expressions Peter Goldie - British philosopher who specializes in ethics, aesthetics, emotion, mood and character Joseph E. LeDoux (1949- ) - American neuroscientist who studies the biological underpinnings of memory and emotion, especially the mechanisms of fear Jesse Prinz - American philosopher who specializes in emotion, moral psychology, aesthetics and consciousness Klaus Scherer (1943- ) - Swiss psychologist and director of the Swiss Center for Affective Sciences in Geneva; he specializes in the psychology of emotion

• • •

Ronald de Sousa (1940- ) - English-Canadian philosopher who specializes in the philosophy of emotions, philosophy of mind and philosophy of biology. Robert Zajonc (1923- ) - Polish-American social psychologist who specializes in social and cognitive processes such as social facilitation Arlie Russell Hochschild (1940- ) - American sociologist whose central contribution was in forging a link between the subcutaneous flow of emotion in social life and the larger trends set loose by modern capitalism within organizations.

[edit] See also
Look up Emotion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
• • • • • • • • • •

Affect (psychology) Emotion in animals Emotions and culture Emotion and memory Emotional expression Feeling List of emotions Mood (psychology) Sociology of emotions Somatic markers hypothesis

[edit] References External links
• • • • • • • • •

Facial Emotion Expression Lab CNX.ORG: The Psychology of Emotions, Feelings and Thoughts (free online book) Humaine Emotion-Research.net: The Humaine Portal: Research on Emotions and HumanMachine Interaction Kerstin Dautenhahn: Socially Intelligent Agents PhilosophyofMind.net: Philosophy of Emotions portal Swiss Center for Affective Sciences The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Emotion University of Arizona: Salk Institute: Emotion Home Page eqi.org [show]

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Instinct
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search For other uses, see Instinct (disambiguation). Instinct is the inherent disposition of a living organism toward a particular behavior. Instincts are unlearned, inherited fixed action patterns of responses or reactions to certain kinds of stimuli. Examples of instinctual fixed action patterns can be observed in the behavior of animals, which perform various activities (sometimes complex) that are not based upon prior experience and do not depend on emotion or learning, such as reproduction, and feeding among insects. Sea turtles, hatched on a beach, automatically move toward the ocean, and honeybees communicate by dance the direction of a food source, all without

formal instruction. Other examples include animal fighting, animal courtship behavior, internal escape functions, and building of nests. Instinctual actions - in contrast to actions based on learning which is served by memory and which provides individually stored successful reactions built upon experience - have no learning curve, they are hard-wired and ready to use without learning, but do depend on maturational processes to appear. Biological predispositions are innate biologically vectored behaviors that can be easily learned. For example in one hour a baby colt can learn to stand, walk, and run with the herd of horses. Learning is required to fine tune the neurological wiring reflex like behavior. True reflexes can be distinguished from instincts by their seat in the nervous system; reflexes are controlled by spinal or other peripheral ganglion, but instincts are the province of the brain.

Contents
[hide]
• • • •

• •

1 Overview 2 Evolution 3 The Baldwin Effect 4 Definitions o 4.1 Scientific definition o 4.2 In humans 5 See also 6 References

[edit] Overview
Technically speaking, any event that initiates an instinctive behavior is termed a key stimulus (KS) or a releasing stimulus. Key stimuli in turn lead to innate releasing mechanisms (IRM), which in turn produce fixed action patterns (FAP). More than one key stimulus may be needed to trigger a FAP. Sensory receptor cells are critical in determining the type of FAP which is initiated. For instance, the reception of pheromones through nasal sensory receptor cells may trigger a sexual response, while the reception of a "frightening sound" through auditory sensory receptor cells may trigger a fight or flight response. The neural networks of these different sensory cells assist in integrating the signal from many receptors to determine the degree of the KS and therefore produce an appropriate degree of response. Several of these responses are determined by carefully regulated chemical messengers called hormones. The endocrine system, which is responsible for the production and transport of hormones throughout the body, is made up of many secretory glands that produce hormones and release them for transport to target organs. Specifically in vertebrates, neural control of this system is funneled through the hypothalamus to the anterior and posterior pituitary gland. Whether or not the behavioral response to a given key stimuli is either learned, genetic, or both is the center of study in the field of behavioural genetics. Researchers use techniques such as inbreeding and knockout studies to separate learning and environment from genetic determination of behavioral traits. The definitions of what constitutes instinct in humans beyond infancy is conjectural. It could be said that as well as obvious instincts such as breathing, sex-drive, desire to communicate, etc., humans also have an instinct toward knowledge[citation needed]. The will to invent solutions to requirements, to present self and possessions aesthetically and to be organised economically, culturally, religiously and politically could be described as instincts to promote survival, which are further enhanced by learning which is not instinctive.

In a situation when two instincts contradict each other, an animal may resort to a displacement activity.

[edit] Evolution
Instinctive behavior can be demonstrated across much of the broad spectrum of animal life. According to Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection, a favorable trait, such as an instinct, will be selected for through competition and improved survival rate of life forms possessing the instinct. Thus, for evolutionary biology, instincts can be explained in terms of behaviors that favor survival. A good example of an immediate instinct for certain types of bird is imprinting. This is the behaviour that causes geese to follow around the first moving object that they encounter, as it tends to be their mother. Much work was done on this concept by the psychologist Konrad Lorenz.

[edit] The Baldwin Effect
In 1896, James Mark Baldwin offered up "a new factor in evolution" through which acquired characteristics could be indirectly inherited. This "new factor" was termed phenotypic plasticity: the ability of an organism to adjust to its environment during the course of its lifetime. An ability to learn is the most obvious example of phenotypic plasticity, though other examples are the ability to tan with exposure to the sun, to form a callus with exposure to abrasion, or to increase muscle strength with exercise. In addition, Baldwin pointed out that, among other things, the new factor could explain punctuated equilibria. Over time, this theory became known as the Baldwin effect. The Baldwin effect functions in two steps. First, phenotypic plasticity allows an individual to adjust to a partially successful mutation, which might otherwise be utterly useless to the individual. If this mutation adds to inclusive fitness, it will succeed and proliferate in the population. Phenotypic plasticity is typically very costly for an individual; learning requires time and energy, and on occasion involves dangerous mistakes. Therefore there is a second step: provided enough time, evolution may find an inexorable mechanism to replace the plastic mechanism. Thus a behavior that was once learned (the first step) may in time become instinctive (the second step). At first glance, this looks identical to Lamarckian evolution, but there is no direct alteration of the genotype, based on the experience of the phenotype.

[edit] Definitions
[edit] Scientific definition
The term "instincts" has had a long and varied use in psychology. In the 1870s, Wilhelm Wundt established the first psychology laboratory. At that time, psychology was primarily a branch of philosophy, but behavior became increasingly examined within the framework of the scientific method. This method has come to dominate all branches of science. While use of the scientific method led to increasingly rigorous definition of terms, by the close of the 19th century most repeated behavior was considered instinctual. In a survey of the literature at that time, one researcher chronicled 4000 human instincts, meaning someone applied the label to any behavior that was repetitive. As research became more rigorous and terms better defined, instinct as an explanation for human behavior became less common. In a conference in 1960, chaired by Frank Beach, a pioneer in comparative psychology and attended by luminaries in the field, the term was restricted in its application. During the 60's and 70's, textbooks still contained some discussion of instincts in reference to human behavior. By the year 2000, a survey of the 12 best selling textbooks in Introductory Psychology revealed only one reference to instincts, and that was in regard to Freud's referral to the "id" instincts.

Any repeated behavior can be called "instinctual." As can any behavior for which there is a strong innate component. However, to distinguish behavior beyond the control of the organism from behavior that has a repetitive component we can turn to the book "Instinct"(1961) stemming from the 1960 conference. A number of criteria were established which distinguishes instinctual from other kinds of behavior. To be considered instinctual a behavior must a) be automatic, b) be irresistible, c) occur at some point in development, d) be triggered by some event in the environment, e) occur in every member of the species, f) be unmodifiable, and g) govern behavior for which the organism needs no training (although the organism may profit from experience and to that degree the behavior is modifiable). The absence of one or more of these criteria indicates that the behavior is not fully instinctual. Instincts do exist in insects and animals as can be seen in behaviors that can not be changed by learning. Psychologists do recognize that humans do have biological predispositions or behaviors that are easy to learn due to biological wiring, for example walking and talking. If these criteria are used in a rigorous scientific manner, application of the term "instinct" cannot be used in reference to human behavior. When terms, such as mothering, territoriality, eating, mating, and so on, are used to denote human behavior they are seen to not meet the criteria listed above. In comparison to animal behavior such as hibernation, migration, nest building, mating and so on that are clearly instinctual, no human behavior meets the necessary criteria. And even in regard to animals, in many cases if the correct learning is stopped from occurring these instinctual behaviors disappear, suggesting that they are potent, but limited, biological predispostions. In the final analysis, under this definition, there are no human instincts.

[edit] In humans
Some sociobiologists and ethologists have attempted to comprehend human and animal social behavior in terms of instincts. Psychoanalysts have stated that instinct refers to human motivational forces (such as sex and aggression), sometimes represented as life instinct and death instinct. This use of the term motivational forces has mainly been replaced by the term instinctual drives. Instincts in humans can also be seen in what are called instinctive reflexes. Reflexes, such as the Babinski Reflex (fanning of the toes when foot is stroked), are seen in babies and are indicative of stages of development. These reflexes can truly be considered instinctive because they are generally free of environmental influences or conditioning. Additional human traits that have been looked at as instincts are: sleeping, altruism, disgust, face perception, language acquisitions, "fight or flight" and "subjugate or be subjugated". Some experiments in human and primate societies have also come to the conclusion that a sense of fairness could be considered instinctual, with humans and apes willing to harm their own interests in protesting unfair treatment of self or others.[1][2] Other sociologists argue that humans have no instincts, defining them as a "complex pattern of behavior present in every specimen of a particular species, that is innate, and that cannot be overridden." Said sociologists argue that drives such as sex and hunger cannot be considered instincts, as they can be overridden. This definitory argument is present in many introductory sociology and biology textbooks,[3] but is still hotly debated.

[edit] See also
• • •

Maladaptivity Biological Imperative Organism

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Nature Preparedness (learning) Psychological nativism

[edit] References
1. ^ Researchers wonder if fairness instinct has been bred into the human race (summary of a Philadelphia
Inquirer article of 2000)

2. ^ Programme 4 - Natural Born Heroes - BBC, Wednesday 13 November 2002 3. ^ Sociology: An Introduction - Robertson, Ian; Worth Publishers, 1989 Beach, F. A. The descent of instinct. Psychol. Rev. 62:401-10. [hide]
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Neuroethology
Feedforward · Coincidence detector · Umwelt · Instinct · Feature detector · Central Concepts pattern generator (CPG) · NMDA receptor · Lateral inhibition · Fixed action pattern · Krogh's Principle · Hebbian theory · Anti-Hebbian Learning · Sound localization Theodore Holmes Bullock · Walter Heiligenberg · Niko Tinbergen · Konrad Lorenz · History Eric Knudsen · Donald Griffin · Donald Kennedy · Karl von Frisch · Erich von Holst · Jörg-Peter Ewert Methods Whole Cell Patch Clamp Animal echolocation · Waggle dance · Electric fish · Vision in toads · Frog hearing and communication · Infrared sensing in snakes · Caridoid escape reaction Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Instinct" Categories: Ethology | Neuroethology Concepts Hidden categories: All articles with unsourced statements | Articles with unsourced statements since September 2008 Model Systems

Laughter
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

(Redirected from Laugh) Jump to: navigation, search This article includes a list of references or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. Please improve this article by introducing more precise citations where appropriate. For other uses, see Laughter (disambiguation). "Laugh" redirects here. For the 2002 rock album, see Laugh (Keller Williams album).

Two girls laughing

Late 19th century or early 20th century depiction of different stages of laughter on advertising cards Laughter is an audible expression, or appearance of merriment or happiness, or an inward feeling of joy and pleasure (laughing on the inside). It may ensue (as a physiological reaction) from jokes, tickling, and other stimuli. Inhaling nitrous oxide can also induce laughter; other drugs, such as cannabis, can also induce episodes of strong laughter. Strong laughter can sometimes bring an onset of tears or even moderate muscular pain.

Laughter is a part of human behaviour regulated by the brain. It helps humans clarify their intentions in social interaction and provides an emotional context to conversations. Laughter is used as a signal for being part of a group — it signals acceptance and positive interactions with others. Laughter is sometimes seemingly contagious, and the laughter of one person can itself provoke laughter from others as a positive feedback.[1] An extreme case of this is the Tanganyika laughter epidemic. This may account in part for the popularity of laugh tracks in situation comedy television shows. The study of humor and laughter, and its psychological and physiological effects on the human body is called gelotology.

Contents
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1 Laughter in animals o 1.1 Non-human primates o 1.2 Rats o 1.3 Dogs o 1.4 Humans o 1.5 Gender differences 2 Laughter and the brain 3 Causes 4 Notes 5 References 6 See also 7 External links
o

7.1 Video

[edit] Laughter in animals
Laughter is not confined or unique to humans, despite Aristotle's observation that "only the human animal laughs". The differences between the laughter of chimpanzees and humans may be the result of adaptations that evolved to enable human speech. However, some behavioral psychologists argue that self-awareness of one's situation, or the ability to identify with another's predicament are prerequisites for laughter, and thus certain animals are not laughing in the "human manner". Laughter is a rich experience and expression in human beings. Thus there are several shades of smiling and laughing expressions. They involve elaborate neurophysiological and physiological processes. Such laughter is not often seen in animals. Nevertheless, one can not deny occurrences of primitive laughter in terms of experience and expression in animals. Owners of pets can vouch on this point, if they understand when their pet is happy and how it expresses the same.[citation needed] According to Dr. Shriniwas Kashalikar, self awareness is conscious concommitant of the physiological processes involving laughter or smiling reflex [response] and its grades, degrees or spectrum varies according to phylogenetic development, with no clear cut demarcation. The emotional ingredients [such as contempt, hatred, ridicule, sarcasm, love, amusement etc] are variable and involve different neurophysiological and physiological processes.[citation needed] Self awareness and ability to identify with another's predicament may be prerequisite to intellectual jokes with specific references and contexts, but not for laughing behavior as such. Laughing also feels good.

An Orangutan "laughing" Research of laughter in animals may identify new molecules to alleviate depression, disorders of excessive exuberance such as mania and ADHD, or addictive urges and mood imbalances. [edit] Non-human primates Chimpanzees, gorillas, bonobos and orangutans show laughter-like vocalizations in response to physical contact, such as wrestling, play chasing, or tickling. This is documented in wild and captive chimpanzees. Chimpanzee laughter is not readily recognizable to humans as such, because it is generated by alternating inhalations and exhalations that sound more like breathing and panting. It sounds similar to screeching. The differences between chimpanzee and human laughter may be the result of adaptations that have evolved to enable human speech. It is hard to tell, though, whether or not the chimpanzee is expressing joy. There are instances in which non-human primates have been reported to have expressed joy. One study analyzed and recorded sounds made by human babies and bonobos (also known as pygmy chimpanzees) when tickled. It found that although the bonobo’s laugh was a higher frequency, the laugh followed the same spectrographic pattern of human babies to include as similar facial expressions. Humans and chimpanzees share similar ticklish areas of the body such as the armpits and belly. The enjoyment of tickling in chimpanzees does not diminish with age. A chimpanzee laughter sample. Goodall 1968 & Parr 2005

Brown Rat [edit] Rats It has been discovered that rats emit long, high frequency, ultrasonic, socially induced vocalization during rough and tumble play and when tickled. The vocalization is described a distinct “chirping”. Humans

cannot hear the "chirping" without special equipment. It was also discovered that like humans, rats have "tickle skin". These are certain areas of the body that generate more laughter response than others. The laughter is associated with positive emotional feelings and social bonding occurs with the human tickler, resulting in the rats becoming conditioned to seek the tickling. Additional responses to the tickling were those that laughed the most also played the most, and those that laughed the most preferred to spend more time with other laughing rats. This suggests a social preference to other rats exhibiting similar responses. However, as the rats age, there does appear to be a decline in the tendency to laugh and respond to tickle skin. The initial goal of Jaak Panksepp and Jeff Burgdorf’s research was to track the biological origins of joyful and social processes of the brain by comparing rats and their relationship to the joy and laughter commonly experienced by children in social play. Although, the research was unable to prove rats have a sense of humour, it did indicate that they can laugh and express joy. Panksepp & Burgdorf 2003 Chirping by rats is also reported in additional studies by Brain Knutson of the National Institutes of Health. Rats chirp when wrestling one another, before receiving morphine, or when mating. The sound has been interpreted as an expectation of something rewarding. Science News 2001 [edit] Dogs The dog laugh sounds similar to a normal pant. But by analyzing the pant using a sonograph, this pant varies with bursts of frequencies, resulting in a laugh. When this recorded dog-laugh vocalization is played to dogs in a shelter setting, it can initiate play, promote pro-social behavior, and decrease stress levels. In a study by Simonet, Versteeg, and Storie, 120 subject dogs in a mid-size county animal shelter were observed. Dogs ranging from 4 months to 10 years of age were compared with and without exposure to a dog-laugh recording. The stress behaviors measured included panting, growling, salivating, pacing, barking, cowering, lunging, play-bows, sitting, orienting and lying down. The study resulted in positive findings when exposed to the dog laughing: significantly reduced stress behaviors, increased tail wagging and the display of a play-face when playing was initiated, and the increase of pro-social behavior such as approaching and lip licking were more frequent. This research suggests exposure to dog-laugh vocalizations can calm the dogs and possibly increase shelter adoptions. Simonet, Versteeg, & Storie 2005 A dog laughter sample. Simonet 2005 [edit] Humans

Laughter is a common response to tickling Recently researchers have shown infants as early as 17 days old have vocal laughing sounds or spontaneous laughter. Early Human Development 2006This conflicts with earlier studies indicating that babies usually start to laugh at about four months of age; J.Y.T. Greig writes, quoting ancient authors, that laughter is not believed to begin in a child until the child is forty days old. [2] "Laughter is Genetic" Robert R. Provine, Ph.D. has spent decades studying laughter. In his interview for WebMD, he indicated "Laughter is a mechanism everyone has; laughter is part of universal human vocabulary. There are thousands of languages, hundreds of thousands of dialects, but everyone speaks laughter in pretty much

the same way.” Everyone can laugh. Babies have the ability to laugh before they ever speak. Children who are born blind and deaf still retain the ability to laugh. “Even apes have a form of ‘pant-pant-pant’ laughter.” Provine argues that “Laughter is primitive, an unconscious vocalization.” And if it seems you laugh more than others, Provine argues that it probably is genetic. In a study of the “Giggle Twins,” two exceptionally happy twins were separated at birth and not reunited until 43 years later. Provine reports that “until they met each other, neither of these exceptionally happy ladies had known anyone who laughed as much as she did.” They reported this even though they both had been brought together by their adoptive parents they indicated were “undemonstrative and dour.” Provine indicates that the twins “inherited some aspects of their laugh sound and pattern, readiness to laugh, and perhaps even taste in humor.” WebMD 2002 Raju Mandhyan states "The physical and psychological benefits of laughter come second only to the physical and psychological benefits of sex." [edit] Gender differences Men and women take jokes differently. A study that appeared in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences found in a study, 10 men and 10 women all watched 10 cartoons, rating them funny or not funny and if funny, how funny on a scale of 1–10. While doing this, their brains were scanned by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Men and women for the most part agreed which cartoons were funny. However, their brains handled humor differently. Women’s brains showed more activity in certain areas, including the nucleus accumbens. When women viewed cartoons they did not find humorous, their nucleus accumbens had a “ho-hum response.” A man's nucleus accumbens did not react to funny cartoons, and its natural activity level dropped during unfunny cartoons. Researchers suspect the element of surprise may be at the heart of the study. They suggested that maybe women did not expect the cartoons to be funny, while men did the opposite. When the men in the study “got what they expected, their nucleus accumbens were calm.” However, the women’s brains could have had increased activity when they were “pleasantly surprised” by the cartoons’ humour. Researchers also suspect that men might have been “let down by unfunny cartoons, causing a dip in that brain area’s activity.” It was indicated that this study might be a clue about the different emotional responses between men and women and could help with depression research. The research suggests men and women “differ in how humour is used and appreciated,” says Allan Reiss, M.D. WebMD 2005

[edit] Laughter and the brain
Principal fissures and lobes of the cerebrum viewed laterally. (Frontal lobe is blue, temporal lobe is green.) Modern neurophysiology states that laughter is linked with the activation of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, which produces endorphins after a rewarding activity. Research has shown that parts of the limbic system are involved in laughter[citation needed]. The limbic system is a primitive part of the brain that is involved in emotions and helps us with basic functions necessary for survival. Two structures in the limbic system are involved in producing laughter: the amygdala and the hippocampus[citation needed].

The December 7, 1984 Journal of the American Medical Association describes the neurological causes of laughter as follows: "Although there is no known 'laugh center' in the brain, its neural mechanism has been the subject of much, albeit inconclusive, speculation. It is evident that its expression depends on neural paths arising in close association with the telencephalic and diencephalic centers concerned with respiration. Wilson considered the mechanism to be in the region of the mesial thalamus, hypothalamus, and subthalamus. Kelly and co-workers, in turn, postulated that the tegmentum near the periaqueductal grey contains the integrating mechanism for emotional expression. Thus, supranuclear pathways, including those from the limbic system that Papez hypothesised to mediate emotional expressions such as laughter, probably come into synaptic relation in the reticular core of the brain stem. So while purely emotional responses such as laughter are mediated by subcortical structures, especially the hypothalamus, and are stereotyped, the cerebral cortex can modulate or suppress them." This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards.
Please improve this article if you can. (July 2008)

[edit] Causes
Common causes for laughter are sensations of joy and humor, however other situations may cause laughter as well. A general theory that explains laughter is called the relief theory. Sigmund Freud summarized it in his theory that laughter releases tension and "psychic energy". This theory is one of the justifications of the beliefs that laughter is beneficial for one's health.[3] This theory explains why laughter can be as a coping mechanism for when one is upset, angry or sad. Philosopher John Morreall theorizes that human laughter may have its biological origins as a kind of shared expression of relief at the passing of danger. For example, this is how this theory works in the case of humour: a joke creates an inconsistency, the sentence appears to be not relevant, and we automatically try to understand what the sentence says, supposes, doesn't say, and implies; if we are successful in solving this 'cognitive riddle', and we find out what is hidden within the sentence, and what is the underlying thought, and we bring foreground what was in the background, and we realize that the surprise wasn't dangerous, we eventually laugh with relief. Otherwise, if the inconsistency is not resolved, there is no laugh, as Mack Sennett pointed out: "when the audience is confused, it doesn't laugh" (this is the one of the basic laws of a comedian, called "exactness"). It is important to note that the inconsistency may be resolved, and there may still be no laugh. Due to the fact that laughter is a social mechanism, we may not feel like we are in danger, however, the physical act of laughing may not take place. In addition, the extent of the inconsistency (timing, rhythm, etc) has to do with the amount of danger we feel, and thus how intense or long we laugh. This explanation is also confirmed by modern neurophysiology (see section Laughter and the Brain)

[edit] Notes
1. ^ Camazine, Deneubourg, Franks, Sneyd, Theraulaz, Bonabeau, Self-Organization in Biological Systems,
Princeton University Press, 2003. ISBN 0-691-11624-5 --ISBN 0-691-01211-3 (pbk.) p. 18

2. ^ J.Y.T. Greig, The Psychology of Comedy and Laughter 3. ^ M.P. Mulder, A. Nijholt (2002) "Humour Research: State of the Art"

[edit] References [edit] See also
• • • • • • •

Evil laugh Fatal hilarity Gelotology Laughter in Literature Nervous laughter Pathological laughing and crying Joke

[edit] External links
Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Laughter Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Laughter Look up Laughter in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
• • • • • • • •

The Origins of Laughter Humor therapy for cancer patients Etymology of Gelotology More information about Gelotology from the University of Washington How Stuff Works - Laughter Where Did Laughter Come From? Humor Theory Formulae of laughter

[edit] Video

Therapeutic laughter video

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Brain
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search For other uses, see Brain (disambiguation). This article is about the brains of all types of animals, including humans. For information specific to the human brain, see Human brain.

A chimpanzee brain The brain is the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate, and most invertebrate, animals. Some primitive animals such as jellyfish and starfish have a decentralized nervous system without a brain, while sponges lack any nervous system at all. In vertebrates, the brain is located in the head, protected by the skull and close to the primary sensory apparatus of vision, hearing, balance, taste, and smell. Brains can be extremely complex. The human brain contains roughly 100 billion neurons, linked with up to 10,000 synaptic connections each. These neurons communicate with one another by means of long protoplasmic fibers called axons, which carry trains of signal pulses called action potentials to distant parts of the brain or body and target them to specific recipient cells. From a philosophical point of view, it might be said that the most important function of the brain is to serve as the physical structure underlying the mind. From a biological point of view, though, the most important function is to generate behaviors that promote the welfare of an animal. Brains control behavior either by activating muscles, or by causing secretion of chemicals such as hormones. Even single-celled organisms may be capable of extracting information from the environment and acting in response to it.[1] Sponges, which lack a central nervous system, are capable of coordinated body contractions and even locomotion.[2] In vertebrates, the spinal cord by itself contains neural circuitry capable of generating reflex responses as well as simple motor patterns such as swimming or walking.[3] However, sophisticated control of behavior on the basis of complex sensory input requires the information-integrating capabilities of a centralized brain. Despite rapid scientific progress, much about how brains work remains a mystery. The operations of individual neurons and synapses are now understood in considerable detail, but the way they cooperate in ensembles of thousands or millions has been very difficult to decipher. Methods of observation such as EEG recording and functional brain imaging tell us that brain operations are highly organized, but these methods do not have the resolution to reveal the activity of individual neurons. Thus, even the most fundamental principles of neural network computation may to a large extent remain for future investigators to discover.[4]

Contents
[hide]

• • •

• • •

• • • • •

1 Macroscopic structure o 1.1 Bilaterians o 1.2 Invertebrates o 1.3 Vertebrates o 1.4 Mammals o 1.5 Primates, including humans 2 Microscopic structure 3 Development 4 Functions o 4.1 Neurotransmitter systems o 4.2 Sensory systems o 4.3 Motor system o 4.4 Arousal system o 4.5 Brain energy consumption 5 Effects of damage and disease 6 Brain and mind 7 How it is studied o 7.1 Neuroanatomy o 7.2 Electrophysiology o 7.3 Lesion studies o 7.4 Computation o 7.5 Genetics 8 History of its study 9 Notes 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links

[edit] Macroscopic structure

Brains of 8 species of mammals The brain is the most complex biological structure known,[5] and comparing the brains of different species on the basis of appearance is often difficult. Nevertheless, there are common principles of brain architecture that apply across a wide range of species. These are revealed mainly by three approaches. The evolutionary approach means comparing brain structures of different species, and using the principle that features found in all branches that descend from a given ancient form were probably present in the ancestor as well. The developmental approach means examining how the form of the brain changes during the progression from embyronic to adult stages. The genetic approach means analyzing gene expression in

various parts of the brain across a range of species. Each approach complements and informs the other two. The cerebral cortex is a part of the brain that most strongly distinguishes mammals from other vertebrates, primates from other mammals, and humans from other primates. In non-mammalian vertebrates, the surface of the cerebrum is lined with a comparatively simple layered structure called the pallium.[6] In mammals, the pallium evolves into a complex 6-layered structure called neocortex. In primates, the neocortex is greatly enlarged in comparison to its size in non-primates, especially the part called the frontal lobes. In humans, this enlargement of the frontal lobes is taken to an extreme, and other parts of the cortex also become quite large and complex. The relationship between brain size, body size and other variables has been studied across a wide range of species. Brain size increases with body size but not proportionally. Averaging across all orders of mammals, it follows a power law, with an exponent of about 0.75[7] This formula applies to the average brain of mammals but each family departs from it, reflecting their sophistication of behavior.[8] For example, primates have brains 5 to 10 times as large as the formula predicts. Predators tend to have larger brains. When the mammalian brain increases in size, not all parts increase at the same rate. The larger the brain of a species, the greater the fraction taken up by the cortex.[9]

[edit] Bilaterians

Body plan of a generic bilaterian animal. The nervous system has the form of a nerve cord with segmental enlargements, and a "brain" at the front. With the exception of a few primitive forms such as sponges and jellyfish, all living animals are bilaterians, meaning animals with a bilaterally symmetric body shape (that is, left and right sides that are approximate mirror images of each other). All bilaterians are thought to have descended from a common ancestor that appeared early in the Cambrian period, 550-600 million years ago.[10] This ancestor had the shape of a simple tube worm with a segmented body, and at an abstract level, that worm-shape continues to be reflected in the body and nervous system plans of all modern bilaterians, including humans.[11] The fundamental bilaterian body form is a tube with a hollow gut cavity running from mouth to anus, and a nerve cord with an enlargement (a "ganglion") for each body segment, with an especially large ganglion at the front, called the "brain".

[edit] Invertebrates

Drosophila For invertebrates—insects, molluscs, worms, etc.—the components of the brain differ so greatly from the vertebrate pattern that it is hard to make meaningful comparisons except on the basis of genetics. Two

groups of invertebrates have notably complex brains: arthropods (insects, crustaceans, arachnids, and others), and cephalopods (octopuses, squids, and similar molluscs).[12] The brains of arthropods and cephalopods arise from twin parallel nerve cords that extend through the body of the animal. Arthropods have a central brain with three divisions and large optical lobes behind each eye for visual processing.[12] Cephalopods have the largest brains of any invertebrates. The brain of the octopus in particular is highly developed, comparable in complexity to the brains of some vertebrates. There are a few invertebrates whose brains have been studied intensively. The large sea slug Aplysia was chosen by Nobel Prize-winning neurophysiologist Eric Kandel, because of the simplicity and accessibility of its nervous system, as a model for studying the cellular basis of learning and memory, and subjected to hundreds of experiments.[13] The most thoroughly studied invertebrate brains, however, belong to the fruit fly Drosophila and the tiny roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans. Because of the large array of techniques available for studying their genetics, fruit flies have been a natural subject for studying the role of genes in brain development.[14] Remarkably, many aspects of Drosophila neurogenetics have turned out to be relevant to humans. The first biological clock genes, for example, were identified by examining Drosophila mutants that showed disrupted daily activity cycles.[15] A search in the genomes of vertebrates turned up a set of analogous genes, which were found to play similar roles in the mouse biological clock—and therefore almost certainly in the human biological clock as well.[16] Like Drosophila, C. elegans has been studied largely because of its importance in genetics.[17] In the early 1970s, Sydney Brenner chose it as a model system for studying the way that genes control development. One of the advantages of working with this worm is that the body plan is very stereotyped: the nervous system of the hermaphrodite morph contains exactly 302 neurons, always in the same places, making identical synaptic connections in every worm.[18] In a heroic project, Brenner's team sliced worms into thousands of ultrathin sections and photographed every section under an electron microscope, then visually matched fibers from section to section, in order to map out every neuron and synapse in the entire body.[19] Nothing approaching this level of detail is available for any other organism, and the information has been used to enable a multitude of studies that would not have been possible without it.

[edit] Vertebrates
This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (October 2008)

The brain of a shark. The brains of vertebrates are made of very soft tissue, with a texture that has been compared to Jello.[20] Living brain tissue is pinkish on the outside and mostly white on the inside, with subtle variations in color. Vertebrate brains are surrounded by a system of connective tissue membranes called meninges that separate the skull from the brain.[21] This three-layered covering is composed of (from the outside in) the dura mater ("hard mother"), arachnoid mater ("spidery mother"), and pia mater ("soft mother"). The arachnoid and pia are physically connected and thus often considered as a single layer, the pia-arachnoid. Below the arachnoid is the subarachnoid space which contains cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which circulates in the narrow spaces between cells and through cavities called ventricles, and serves to nourish, support, and protect the brain tissue. Blood vessels enter the central nervous system through the perivascular space above the pia mater. The cells in the blood vessel walls are joined tightly, forming the blood-brain barrier which protects the brain from toxins that might enter through the blood.

The first vertebrates appeared over 500 million years ago (Mya), during the Cambrian period, and may have somewhat resembled the modern hagfish in form.[22] Sharks appeared about 450 Mya, amphibians about 400 Mya, reptiles about 350 Mya, and mammals about 200 Mya. No modern species should be described as more "primitive" than others, since all have an equally long evolutionary history, but the brains of modern hagfishes, lampreys, sharks, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals show a gradient of size and complexity that roughly follows the evolutionary sequence.[23] All of these brains contain the same set of basic anatomical components, but many are rudimentary in hagfishes, whereas in mammals the foremost parts are greatly elaborated and expanded. All vertebrate brains share a common underlying form, which can most easily be appreciated by examining how they develop.[24] The first appearance of the nervous system is as a thin strip of tissue running along the back of the embryo. This strip thickens and then folds up to form a hollow tube. The front end of the tube develops into the brain. In its earliest form, the brain appears as three swellings, which eventually become the forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain. In many classes of vertebrates these three parts remain similar in size in the adult, but in mammals the forebrain becomes much larger than the other parts, and the midbrain quite small. Neuroanatomists usually consider the brain to consist of six main regions: the telencephalon (cerebral hemispheres), diencephalon (thalamus and hypothalamus), mesencephalon (midbrain), cerebellum, pons, and medulla.[25] Each of these areas in turn has a complex internal structure. Some areas, such as the cortex and cerebellum, consist of layers, folded or convoluted to fit within the available space. Other areas consist of clusters of many small nuclei. If fine distinctions are made on the basis of neural structure, chemistry, and connectivity, thousands of distinguishable areas can be identified within the vertebrate brain. Some branches of vertebrate evolution have led to substantial changes in brain shape, especially in the forebrain. The brain of a shark shows the basic components in a straighforward way, but in teleost fishes (the great majority of modern species), the forebrain has become "everted", like a sock turned inside out. In birds, also, there are major changes in shape.[26] One of the main structures in the avian forebrain, the dorsal ventricular ridge, was long thought to correspond to the basal ganglia of mammals, but is now thought to be more closely related to the neocortex.[27]

Main anatomical regions of the vertebrate brain. Several brain areas have maintained their identities across the whole range of vertebrates, from hagfishes to humans. Here is a list of some of the most important areas, along with a very brief description of their functions as currently understood (but note that the functions of most of them are still disputed to some degree):
• •

The medulla, along with the spinal cord, contains many small nuclei involved in a wide variety of sensory and motor functions. The hypothalamus is a small region at the base of the forebrain, whose complexity and importance belies its size. It is composed of numerous small nuclei, each with distinct connections and distinct neurochemistry. The hypothalamus is the central control station for sleep/wake cycles, control of eating and drinking, control of hormone release, and many other critical biological functions.[28] Like the hypothalamus, the thalamus is a collection of nuclei with diverse functions. Some of them are involved in relaying information to and from the cerebral hemispheres. Others are involved in motivation. The subthalamic area (zona incerta) seems to contain action-generating systems for several types of "consummatory" behaviors, including eating, drinking, defecation, and copulation.[29]

The cerebellum modulates the outputs of other brain systems to make them more precise. Removal of the cerebellum does not prevent an animal from doing anything in particular, but it makes actions hesitant and clumsy. This precision is not built-in, but learned by trial and error. Learning how to ride a bicycle is an example of a type of neural plasticity that may take place largely within the cerebellum.[30] The tectum, often called "optic tectum", allows actions to be directed toward points in space. In mammals it is called the "superior colliculus", and its best studied function is to direct eye movements. It also directs reaching movements, though. It gets strong visual inputs, but also inputs from other senses that are useful in directing actions, such as auditory input in owls, input from the thermosensitive pit organs in snakes, etc. In some[which?] fishes, it is the largest part of the brain.[31] The pallium is a layer of gray matter that lies on the surface of the forebrain. In reptiles and mammals it is called cortex instead. The pallium is involved in multiple functions, including olfaction and spatial memory. In mammals, where it comes it dominate the brain, it subsumes functions from many subcortical areas.[32] The hippocampus, strictly speaking, is found only in mammals. However, the area it derives from, the medial pallium, has counterparts in all vertebrates. There is evidence that this part of the brain is involved in spatial memory and navigation in fishes, birds, reptiles, and mammals.[33] The basal ganglia are a group of interconnected structures in the forebrain, of which our understanding has increased enormously over the last few years. The primary function of the basal ganglia seems to be action selection. They send inhibitory signals to all parts of the brain that can generate actions, and in the right circumstances can release the inhbition, so that the actiongenerating systems are able to execute their actions. Rewards and punishments exert their most important neural effects within the basal ganglia.[34] The olfactory bulb is a special structure that processes olfactory sensory signals, and sends its output to the olfactory part of the pallium. It is a major brain component in many vertebrates, but much reduced in primates.[35]

[edit] Mammals
The hindbrain and midbrain of mammals are generally similar to those of other vertebrates, but dramatic differences appear in the forebrain, which is not only greatly enlarged, but also altered in structure.[36] In mammals, the surface of the cerebral hemispheres is mostly covered with 6-layered isocortex, more complex than the 3-layered pallium seen in most vertebrates. Also the hippocampus of mammals has a distinctive structure. Unfortunately, the evolutionary history of these mammalian features, especially the 6-layered cortex, is difficult to work out.[37] This is largely because of a "missing link" problem. The ancestors of mammals, called synapsids, split off from the ancestors of modern reptiles and birds about 350 million years ago. However, the most recent branching that has left living results within the mammals was the split between monotremes (the platypus and echidna), marsupials (opossum, kangaroo, etc.) and placentals (most living mammals), which took place about 120 million years ago. The brains of monotremes and marsupials are distinctive from those of placentals in some ways, but they have fully mammalian cortical and hippocampal structures. Thus, these structures must have evolved between 350 and 120 million years ago, a period that has left no evidence except fossils, which do not preserve tissue as soft as brain.

[edit] Primates, including humans
Main article: Human brain The primate brain contains the same structures as the brains of other mammals, but is considerably larger in proportion to body size.[9] Most of the enlargement comes from a massive expansion of the cortex,

focusing especially on the parts subserving vision and forethought.[38] The visual processing network of primates is very complex, including at least 30 distinguishable areas, with a bewildering web of interconnections. Taking all of these together, visual processing makes use of about half of the brain. The other part of the brain that is greatly enlarged is the prefrontal cortex, whose functions are difficult to summarize succinctly, but relate to planning, working memory, motivation, attention, and executive control.

[edit] Microscopic structure
Structure of a typical neuron
Neuron

Dendrite Soma Axon Nucleus Node of Ranvier Axon Terminal Schwann cell Myelin sheath The brain is composed of two broad classes of cells, neurons and glia.[39] Neurons receive more attention, but glial cells actually outnumber them by at least 10 to 1. Glia come in several types, which perform a number of critical functions, including structural support, metabolic support, insulation, and guidance of development. The property that makes neurons so important is that, unlike glia, they are capable of sending signals to each other over long distances.[40] They send these signals by means of an axon, a thin protoplasmic fiber that extends from the cell body and projects, usually with numerous branches, to other areas, sometimes nearby, sometimes in distant parts of the brain or body. The extent of an axon can be extraordinary: to take an example, if a pyramidal cell of the neocortex were magnified so that its cell body became the size of a human, its axon, equally magnified, would become a cable a few inches in diameter, extending farther than a mile. These axons transmit signals in the form of electrochemical pulses called action potentials, lasting less than a thousandth of a second and traveling along the axon at speeds of 1–100 meters per second. Some neurons emit action potentials constantly, at rates of 10–100 per second, usually in irregular temporal patterns; other neurons are quiet most of the time, but occasionally emit a burst of action potentials. Axons transmit signals to other neurons, or to non-neuronal cells, by means of specialized junctions called synapses.[41] A single axon may make as many as several thousand synaptic connections. When an action potential, traveling along an axon, arrives at a synapse, it causes a chemical called a neurotransmitter to be released. The neurotransmitter binds to receptor molecules in the membrane of the target cell. Some types of neuronal receptors are excitatory, meaning that they increase the rate of action potentials in the target

cell; other receptors are inhibitory, meaning that they decrease the rate of action potentials; others have complex modulatory effects on the target cell. Axons actually fill most of the space in the brain.[42] Often large groups of them travel together in bundles called nerve fiber tracts. In many cases, each axon is wrapped in a thick sheath of a fatty substance called myelin, which serves to greatly increase the speed of action potential propagation. Myelin is white in color, so parts of the brain filled exclusively with nerve fibers appear as white matter, in contrast to the gray matter that marks areas where high densities of neuron cell bodies are located. The illustration on the right shows a thin section of one hemisphere of the brain of a Chlorocebus monkey, stained using a Nissl stain, which colors the cell bodies of neurons.[43] This makes the gray matter show up as a dark blue, and the white matter show up as a paler blue. Several important forebrain structures, including the cortex, can easily be identified in brain sections that are stained in this way. Neuroanatomists have invented hundreds of stains that color different types of neurons, or different types of brain tissue, in distinct ways; the Nissl stain shown here is probably the most widely used.

[edit] Development
Diagram depicting the main subdivisions of the embryonic vertebrate brain. These regions will later differentiate into forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain structures. The brain does not simply grow; it develops in an intricately orchestrated sequence of steps.[44] Many neurons are created in special zones that contain stem cells, and then migrate through the tissue to reach their ultimate locations.[45] In the cortex, for example, the first stage of development is the formation of a "scaffold" by a special group of glial cells, called radial glia, which send fibers vertically across the cortex. New cortical neurons are created at the bottom of the cortex, and then "climb" along the radial fibers until they reach the layers they are destined to occupy in the adult. Once a neuron is in place, it begins to extend dendrites and an axon into the area around it.[46] Axons, because they commonly extend a great distance from the cell body and need to make contact with specific targets, grow in a particularly complex way. The tip of a growing axon consists of a blob of protoplasm called a "growth cone", studded with chemical receptors. These receptors sense the local environment, causing the growth cone to be attracted or repelled by various cellular elements, and thus to be pulled in a particular direction at each point along its path. The result of this pathfinding process is that the growth cone navigates through the brain until it reaches its destination area, where other chemical cues cause it to begin generating synapses. Taking the entire brain into account, many thousands of genes give rise to proteins that influence axonal pathfinding. The synaptic network that finally emerges is only partly determined by genes, though. In many parts of the brain, axons initially "overgrow", and then are "pruned" by mechanisms that depend on neural activity.[47] In the projection from the eye to the midbrain, for example, the structure in the adult contains a very precise mapping, connecting each point on the surface of the retina to a corresponding point in a midbrain layer. In the first stages of development, each axon from the retina is guided to the right general vicinity in the midbrain by chemical cues, but then branches very profusely and makes initial contact with a wide swath of midbrain neurons. The retina, before birth, contains special mechanisms that cause it to generate waves of activity that originate spontaneously at some point and then propagate slowly across the retinal layer.[48] These waves are useful because they cause neighboring neurons to be active at the same time: that is, they produce a neural activity pattern that contains information about the spatial arrangement of the neurons. This information is exploited in the midbrain by a mechanism that causes synapses to weaken, and eventually vanish, if activity in an axon is not followed by activity of the target

cell. The result of this sophisticated process is a gradual tuning and tightening of the map, leaving it finally in its precise adult form. Similar things happen in other brain areas: an initial synaptic matrix is generated as a result of genetically determined chemical guidance, but then gradually refined by activity-dependent mechanisms, partly driven by internal dynamics, partly by external sensory inputs. In some cases, as with the retina-midbrain system, activity patterns depend on mechanisms that operate only in the developing brain, and apparently exist solely for the purpose of guiding development. In humans and many other mammals, new neurons are created mainly before birth, and the infant brain actually contains substantially more neurons than the adult brain.[49] There are, however, a few areas where new neurons continue to be generated throughout life. The two areas for which this is well established are the olfactory bulb, which is involved in the sense of smell, and the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, where there is evidence that the new neurons play a role in storing newly acquired memories. With these exceptions, however, the set of neurons that are present in early childhood is the set that are present for life. (Glial cells are different: as with most types of cells in the body, these are generated throughout the lifespan.) Although the pool of neurons is largely in place by birth, their axonal connections continue to develop for a long time afterward. In humans, full myelination is not completed until adolescence.[50] There has long been debate about whether the qualities of mind, personality, and intelligence can mainly be attributed to heredity or to upbringing; the nature versus nurture debate.[51] This is not just a philosophical question: it has great practical relevance to parents and educators. Although many details remain to be settled, neuroscience clearly shows that both factors are essential. Genes determine the general form of the brain, and genes determine how the brain reacts to experience. Experience, however, is required to refine the matrix of synaptic connections. In some respects it is mainly a matter of presence or absence of experience during critical periods of development.[52] In other respects, the quantity and quality of experience may be more relevant: for example, there is substantial evidence that animals raised in enriched environments have thicker cortices (indicating a higher density of synaptic connections) than animals whose levels of stimulation are restricted.[53]

[edit] Functions
From a biological perspective, the function of a brain is to generate behaviors that promote the genetic fitness of an animal.[54] To do this, it extracts enough relevant information from sense organs to refine actions. Sensory signals may stimulate an immediate response as when the olfactory system of a deer detects the odor of a wolf; they may modulate an ongoing pattern of activity as in the effect of light-dark cycles on an organism's sleep-wake behavior; or their information may be stored in case of future relevance. The brain manages its complex task by orchestrating functional subsystems, which can be categorized in a number of ways: anatomically, chemically, and functionally.

[edit] Neurotransmitter systems
Main article: Neurotransmitter systems With few exceptions, each neuron in the brain releases the same chemical neurotransmitter, or set of neurotransmitters, at all of the synaptic connections it makes with other neurons.[55] Thus, a neuron can be characterized by the neurotransmitters it releases. The two neurotransmitters that appear most frequently are glutamate, which is almost always excitatory, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which is

almost always inhibitory. Neurons using these transmitters can be found in nearly every part of the brain, making up, numerically, more than 99% of the brain's entire pool of synapses.[citation needed] Nevertheless, the great majority of psychoactive drugs exert their effects by altering neurotransmitter systems not directly involving glutamatergic or GABAergic transmission.[56] Drugs such as caffeine, nicotine, heroin, cocaine, Prozac, Thorazine, etc., act on other neurotransmitters. Many of these other transmitters come from neurons that are localized in particular parts of the brain. Serotonin, for example —the primary target of antidepressant drugs and many dietary aids—comes exclusively from a small brainstem area called the Raphe nuclei. Norepinephrine, which is involved in arousal, comes exclusively from a nearby small area called the locus ceruleus. Histamine, as a neurotransmitter, comes from a tiny part of the hypothalamus called the tuberomammilary nucleus (histamine also has non-CNS functions, but the neurotransmitter function is what causes antihistamines to have sedative effects). Other neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine and dopamine have multiple sources in the brain, but are not as ubiquitously distributed as glutamate and GABA.

[edit] Sensory systems
Main article: Sensory system One of the primary functions of a brain is to extract biologically relevant information from sensory inputs. [57] Even in the human brain, sensory processes go well beyond the classical five senses of sight, sound, taste, touch, and smell: our brains are provided with information about temperature, balance, limb position, and the chemical composition of the bloodstream, among other things. All of these modalities are detected by specialized sensors that project signals into the brain. In non-humans, additional senses may be present, such as the infrared heat-sensors in the pit organs of snakes; or the "standard" senses may be used in nonstandard ways, as in the auditory "sonar" of bats. Every sensory system has idiosyncrasies, but here are a few principles that apply to most of them, using the sense of hearing for specific examples:[58] 1. Each system begins with specialized "sensory receptor" cells. These are neurons, but unlike most neurons, they are not controlled by synaptic input from other neurons: instead they are activated by membrane-bound receptors that are sensitive to some physical modality, such as light, temperature, or physical stretching. The axons of sensory receptor cells travel into the spinal cord or brain. For the sense of hearing, the receptors are located in the inner ear, on the cochlea, and are activated by vibration. 2. For most senses, there is a "primary nucleus" or set of nuclei, located in the brainstem, that gathers signals from the sensory receptor cells. For the sense of hearing, these are the cochlear nuclei. 3. In many cases, there are secondary subcortical areas that extract special information of some sort. For the sense of hearing, the superior olivary area and inferior colliculus are involved in comparing the signals from the two ears to extract information about the direction of the sound source, among other functions. 4. Each sensory system also has a special part of the thalamus dedicated to it, which serves as a relay to the cortex. For the sense of hearing, this is the medial geniculate nucleus. 5. For each sensory system, there is a "primary" cortical area that receives direct input from the thalamic relay area. For the auditory system this is the primary auditory cortex, located in the upper part of the temporal lobe. 6. There are also usually a set of "higher level" cortical sensory areas, which analyze the sensory input in specific ways. For the auditory system, there are areas that analyze sound quality, rhythm, and temporal patterns of change, among other features.

7. Finally, there are multimodal areas that combine inputs from different sensory modalities, for example auditory and visual. At this point, the signals have reached parts of the brain that are best described as integrative rather than specifically sensory. All of these rules have exceptions, for example: (1) For the sense of touch (which is actually a set of at least half-a-dozen distinct mechanical senses), the sensory inputs terminate mainly in the spinal cord, on neurons that then project to the brainstem.[59] (2) For the sense of smell, there is no relay in the thalamus; instead the signals go directly from the primary brain area—the olfactory bulb—to the cortex.[60]

[edit] Motor system
Main article: Motor system Motor systems are areas of the brain that are more or less directly involved in producing body movements, that is, in activating muscles. With the exception of the muscles that control the eye, all of the voluntary muscles[61] in the body are directly innervated by motor neurons in the spinal cord, which therefore are the final common path for the movement-generating system.[62] Spinal motor neurons are controlled both by neural circuits intrinsic to the spinal cord, and by inputs that descend from the brain. The intrinsic spinal circuits implement many reflex responses, and also contain pattern generators for rhythmic movements such as walking or swimming.[63] The descending connections from the brain allow for more sophisticated control. The brain contains a number of areas that project directly to the spinal cord.[64] At the lowest level are motor areas in the medulla and pons. At a higher level are areas in the midbrain, such as the red nucleus, which is responsible for coordinating movements of the arms and legs. At a higher level yet is the primary motor cortex, a strip of tissue located at the posterior edge of the frontal lobe. The primary motor cortex sends projections to the subcortical motor areas, but also sends a massive projection directly to the spinal cord, via the so-called pyramidal tract. This direct corticospinal projection allows for precise voluntary control of the fine details of movements. Other "secondary" motor-related brain areas do not project directly to the spinal cord, but instead act on the cortical or subcortical primary motor areas. Among the most important secondary areas are the premotor cortex, basal ganglia, and cerebellum:

The premotor cortex (which is actually a large complex of areas) adjoins the primary motor cortex, and projects to it. Whereas elements of the primary motor cortex map to specific body areas, elements of the premotor cortex are often involved in coordinated movements of multiple body parts.[65] The basal ganglia are a set of structures in the base of the forebrain that project to many other motor-related areas.[66] Their function has been difficult to understand, but one of the most popular theories currently is that they play a key role in action selection.[67] Most of the time they restrain actions by sending constant inhibitory signals to action-generating systems, but in the right circumstances, they release this inhibition and therefore allow their targets to take control of behavior. The cerebellum is a very distinctive structure attached to the back of the brain.[30] It does not control or originate behaviors, but instead generates corrective signals to make movements more precise. People with cerebellar damage are not paralyzed in any way, but their body movements become erratic and uncoordinated.

In addition to all of the above, the brain and spinal cord contain extensive circuitry to control the autonomic nervous system, which works by secreting hormones and by modulating the "smooth" muscles of the gut.[68] The autonomic nervous system affects heart rate, digestion, respiration rate, salivation,

perspiration, urination, and sexual arousal—but most of its functions are not under direct voluntary control.

[edit] Arousal system
Main article: Sleep Perhaps the most obvious aspect of the behavior of any animal is the daily cycle between sleeping and waking. Arousal and alertness are also modulated on a finer time scale, though, by an extensive network of brain areas.[69] A key component of the arousal system is the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), a tiny part of the hypothalamus located directly above the point at which the optic nerves from the two eyes cross.[70] The SCN contains the body's central biological clock. Neurons there show activity levels that rise and fall with a period of about 24 hours, circadian rhythms: these activity fluctuations are driven by rhythmic changes in expression of a set of "clock genes". The SCN continues to keep time even if it is excised from the brain and placed in a dish of warm nutrient solution, but it ordinarily receives input from the optic nerves, through the retinohypothalamic tract (RHT), that allow daily light-dark cycles to calibrate the clock. The SCN projects to a set of areas in the hypothalamus, brainstem, and midbrain that are involved in implementing sleep-wake cycles. An important component of the system is the so-called reticular formation, a group of neuron-clusters scattered diffusely through the core of the lower brain.[69] Reticular neurons send signals to the thalamus, which in turn sends activity-level-controlling signals to every part of the cortex. Damage to the reticular formation can produce a permanent state of coma. Sleep involves great changes in brain activity.[71] Until the 1950s it was generally believed that the brain essentially shuts off during sleep,[citation needed] but this is now known to be far from true: activity continues, but the pattern becomes very different. In fact, there are two types of sleep, slow wave sleep (usually nondreaming) and REM sleep (dreaming), each with its own distinct brain activity pattern. During slow wave sleep, activity in the cortex takes the form of large synchronized waves, where in the waking state it is noisy and desynchronized. Levels of the neurotransmitters norepinephrine and serotonin drop during slow wave sleep, and fall almost to zero during REM sleep; levels of acetylcholine show the reverse pattern.

[edit] Brain energy consumption

PET Image of the human brain showing energy consumption Although the brain represents only 2% of the body weight, it receives 15% of the cardiac output, 20% of total body oxygen consumption, and 25% of total body glucose utilization.[72] The demands of the brain limit its size in some species, such as bats.[73] The brain mostly utilizes glucose for energy, and deprivation

of glucose, as can happen in hypoglycemia, can result in loss of consciousness. The energy consumption of the brain does not vary greatly over time, but active regions of the cortex consume somewhat more energy than inactive regions: this fact forms the basis for the functional brain imaging methods PET and fMRI.[74]

[edit] Effects of damage and disease
Main article: Neurology Even though it is protected by the skull and meninges, surrounded by cerebrospinal fluid, and isolated from the bloodstream by the blood-brain barrier, the delicate nature of the brain makes it vulnerable to numerous diseases and several types of damage. Because these problems generally manifest themselves differently in humans than in other species, an overview of brain pathology and how it can be treated is deferred to the Human brain, Brain damage, and Neurology articles.

[edit] Brain and mind
Main article: Philosophies of mind
Mind and Brain portal

Understanding the relationship between the physical brain and the functional mind is a challenging problem both philosophically and scientifically.[75] The most straightforward scientific evidence that there is a strong relationship between the physical brain matter and the mind is the impact physical alterations to the brain, such as injury and drug use, have on the mind.[citation needed] The mind-body problem is one of the central issues in the history of philosophy,[76] which asks us to consider if the correlation between the physical brain and the mind are identical, partially distinct, or related in some unknown way. There are three major schools of thought concerning the answer: dualism, materialism, and idealism. Dualism holds that the mind exists independently of the brain;[77] materialism holds that mental phenomena are identical to neuronal phenomena;[78] and idealism holds that only mental substances and phenomena exist.[78] In addition to the philosophical questions, the relationship between mind and brain involves a number of scientific questions, including understanding the relationship between thought and brain activity, the mechanisms by which drugs influence thought, and the neural correlates of consciousness. Through most of history many philosophers found it inconceivable that cognition could be implemented by a physical substance such as brain tissue.[79] Philosophers such as Patricia Churchland posit that the drug-mind interaction is indicative of an intimate connection between the brain and the mind, not that the two are the same entity[80]. Even Descartes, notable for his mechanistic philosophy which found it possible to explain reflexes and other simple behaviors in mechanistic terms, could not believe that complex thought, language in particular, could be explained by the physical brain alone[citation needed].

[edit] How it is studied
Main article: Neuroscience Neuroscience seeks to understand the nervous system, including the brain, from a biological and computational perspective.[81] Psychology seeks to understand behavior and the brain. Neurology refers to the medical applications of neuroscience. The brain is also the most important organ studied in psychiatry, the branch of medicine that works to study, prevent, and treat mental disorders.[82] Cognitive science seeks

to unify neuroscience and psychology with other fields that concern themselves with the brain, such as computer science (artificial intelligence and similar fields) and philosophy. Some methods of examining the brain are mainly useful in humans, and are described in the human brain article. This section focuses on methods that are usable across a wide range of animal species. (However, the great majority of neuroscience experiments are done using rats or mice as subjects.)

[edit] Neuroanatomy
Main article: Neuroanatomy The oldest method of studying the brain is anatomical, and until the middle of the 20th century, much of the progress in Neuroscience came from the development of better stains and better microscopes. Much critical information about synaptic function has come from study of electron microscope images of synapses. On a larger scale, neuroanatomists have invented a plethora of stains that reveal neural structure, chemistry, and connectivity. In recent years, the development of immunostaining techniques has allowed staining of neurons that express specific sets of genes.

[edit] Electrophysiology
Electrophysiology allows scientists to record the electrical activity of individual neurons or groups of neurons.[83] There are two general approaches: intracellular and extracellular recordings. Intracellular recording uses glass electrodes with very fine tips in order to pick up electrical signals from the interior of a neuron. This method is very sensitive, but also very delicate, and usually is carried out in vitro—i.e., in a dish of warm nutrient solution; using tissue that has been extracted from the brain of an animal. Extracellular recording uses larger electrodes that can be used in the brains of living animals. This method cannot usually resolve the tiny electrical signals generated by individual synaptic connections, but it can pick up action potentials generated by individual neurons, as well as field potentials generated by synchronous synaptic activity in large groups of neurons. Because the brain does not contain pain receptors, it is possible using these techniques to record from animals that are awake and behaving without causing distress. The same techniques have occasionally been used to study brain activity in human patients suffering from intractable epilepsy, in cases where there was a medical necessity to implant electrodes in order to localize the brain area responsible for seizures.[84]

[edit] Lesion studies
In humans, the effects of strokes and other types of brain damage have been a key source of information about brain function. Because there is no ability to experimentally control the nature of the damage, however, this information is often difficult to interpret. In animal studies, most commonly involving rats, it is possible to use electrodes or locally injected chemicals to produce precise patterns of damage and then examine the consequences for behavior.

[edit] Computation
Main article: Computational neuroscience A computer, in the broadest sense, is a device for storing and processing information. In an ordinary digital computer, information is represented by magnetic elements that have two possible states, often denoted 0 and 1. In a brain, information is represented both dynamically, by trains of action potentials in

neurons, and statically, by the strengths of synaptic connections between neurons.[85] In a digital computer, information is processed by a small set of "registers" that operate at speeds of billions of cycles per second. In a brain, information is processed by billions of neurons all operating simultaneously, but only at speeds around 100 cycles per second. Thus brains and digital computers are similar in that both are devices for processing information, but the ways that they do it are very different. Computational neuroscience encompasses two approaches: first, the use of computers to study the brain; second, the study of how brains perform computation.[85] On one hand, it is possible to write a computer program to simulate the operation of a group of neurons by making use of systems of equations that describe their electrochemical activity: such simulations are known as biologically realistic neural networks. On the other hand, it is possible to study algorithms for neural computation by simulating, or mathematically analyzing, the operations of simplified "units" that have some of the properties of neurons but abstract out much of their biological complexity. Most programs for digital computers rely on long sequences of operations executed in a specific order, and therefore could not be "ported" into a brain without becoming extremely slow. Computer scientists, however, have found that some types of problems lend themselves naturally to algorithms that can efficiently be executed by brainlike networks of processing elements. One very important problem that falls into this group is object recognition. On a digital computer, the seemingly simple task of recognizing a face in a photo turns out to be tremendously difficult, and even the best current programs don't do it very well. The human brain, however, reliably solves this problem in a fraction of a second. The process feels almost effortless, but this is only because our brains are heavily optimized for it. Other tasks that are computationally a great deal simpler, such as adding pairs of hundred-digit numbers, feel more difficult because the human brain is not adapted to execute them efficiently. The computational functions of brain are studied both by neuroscientists and computer scientists. There have been several attempts to build electronic computers that operate on brainlike principles, including a supercomputer called the Connection Machine, but to date none of them has achieved notable success. Brains have several advantages that are difficult to duplicate in an electronic device, including (1) the microscopic size of the processing elements, (2) the three-dimensional arrangement of connections, and (3) the fact that each neuron generates its own power (metabolically).

[edit] Genetics
Recent years have seen the first applications of genetic engineering techniques to the study of the brain.[86] The most common subjects are mice, because the technical tools are more advanced for this species than for any other. It is now possible with relative ease to "knock out" or mutate a wide variety of genes, and then examine the effects on brain function. More sophisticated approaches are also beginning to be used: for example, using the Cre-Lox recombination method it is possible to activate or inactivate genes in specific parts of the brain, at specific times.

[edit] History of its study
Main article: History of the brain Early views were divided as to whether the seat of the soul lies in the brain or heart. On one hand, it was impossible to miss the fact that awareness feels like it is localized in the head, and that blows to the head can cause unconsciousness much more easily than blows to the chest, and that shaking the head causes dizziness. On the other hand, the brain to a superficial examination seems inert, whereas the heart is constantly beating. Cessation of the heartbeat means death; strong emotions produce changes in the heartbeat; and emotional distress often produces a sensation of pain in the region of the heart ("heartache"). Aristotle favored the heart, and thought that the function of the brain is merely to cool the

blood. Democritus, the inventor of the atomic theory of matter, favored a three-part soul, with intellect in the head, emotion in the heart, and lust in the vicinity of the liver.[87] Hippocrates, the "father of medicine", was entirely in favor of the brain. In On the Sacred Disease, his account of epilepsy, he wrote:
Men ought to know that from nothing else but the brain come joys, delights, laughter and sports, and sorrows, griefs, despondency, and lamentations. ... And by the same organ we become mad and delirious, and fears and terrors assail us, some by night, and some by day, and dreams and untimely wanderings, and cares that are not suitable, and ignorance of present circumstances, desuetude, and unskilfulness. All these things we endure from the brain, when it is not healthy… —Hippocrates, On the Sacred Disease[88]

The famous Roman physician Galen also advocated the importance of the brain, and theorized in some depth about how it might work. Even after physicians and philosophers had accepted the primacy of the brain, though, the idea of the heart as seat of intelligence continued to survive in popular idioms, such as "learning something by heart".[89] Galen did a masterful job of tracing out the anatomical relationships between brain, nerves, and muscles, demonstrating that all muscles in the body are connected to the brain via a branching network of nerves. He postulated that nerves activate muscles mechanically, by carrying a mysterious substance he called pneumata psychikon, usually translated as "animal spirits". His ideas were widely known during the Middle Ages, but not much further progress came until the Renaissance, when detailed anatomical study resumed, combined with the theoretical speculations of Descartes and his followers. Descartes, like Galen, thought of the nervous system in hydraulic terms. He believed that the highest cognitive functions—language in particular—are carried out by a non-physical res cogitans, but that the majority of behaviors of humans and animals could be explained mechanically. The first real progress toward a modern understanding of nervous function, though, came from the investigations of Luigi Galvani, who discovered that a shock of static electricity applied to an exposed nerve of a dead frog could cause its leg to contract.

Drawing by Santiago Ramon y Cajal of two types of Golgi-stained neurons from the cerebellum of a pigeon The ensuing history of brain research can perhaps be epitomized by a quip from Floyd Bloom: "The gains in brain are mainly in the stain".[90] The purport of this line is that progress in brain research has come for the most part not from theoretical work, but from advances in technology. Each major advance in understanding has followed more or less directly from the development of a new method of investigation. Until the early years of the 20th century, the most important advances were literally derived from new stains. Particularly critical was the invention of the Golgi stain, which (when correctly used) stains only a small, and apparently random, fraction of neurons, but stains them in their entirety, including cell body, dendrites, and axon. Without such a stain, brain tissue under a microscope appears as an impenetrable

tangle of protoplasmic fibers, in which it is impossible to determine any structure. In the hands of Camillo Golgi, and especially of the Spanish neuroanatomist Santiago Ramon y Cajal, the new stain revealed hundreds of distinct types of neurons, each with its own unique dendritic structure and pattern of connectivity. In the 20th century, progress in electronics enabled investigation of the electrical properties of nerve cells, culminating in the work by Alan Hodgkin, Andrew Huxley, and others on the biophysics of the action potential, and the work of Bernard Katz and others on the electrochemistry of the synapse.[91] The earliest studies used special preparations, such as the "fast escape response" system of the squid, which involves a giant axon as thick as a pencil lead, and giant synapses connecting to this axon. Steady improvements in electrodes and electronics allowed ever finer levels of resolution. These studies complemented the anatomical picture with a conception of the brain as a dynamic entity. Reflecting the new understanding, in 1942 Charles Sherrington visualized the workings of the brain in action in somewhat breathless terms:
The great topmost sheet of the mass, that where hardly a light had twinkled or moved, becomes now a sparkling field of rhythmic flashing points with trains of traveling sparks hurrying hither and thither. … It is as if the Milky Way entered upon some cosmic dance. Swiftly the head mass becomes an enchanted loom where millions of flashing shuttles weave a dissolving pattern, always a meaningful pattern though never an abiding one; a shifting harmony of subpatterns. —Sherrington, 1942, Man on his Nature[92]

[edit] Notes

Food
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search For the Jan Švankmajer short film, see Food (film).

Foods from plant sources
Food portal

Food is any substance, usually composed primarily of carbohydrates, fats, water and/or proteins, that can be eaten or drunk by an animal or human for nutrition or pleasure. Items considered food may be sourced from plants, animals or other categories such as fungus or fermented products like alcohol. Although many human cultures sought food items through hunting and gathering, today most cultures use farming, ranching, and fishing, with hunting, foraging and other methods of a local nature included but playing a minor role. Most traditions have a recognizable cuisine, a specific set of cooking traditions, preferences, and practices, the study of which is known as gastronomy. Many cultures have diversified their foods by means of preparation, cooking methods and manufacturing. This also includes a complex food trade which helps the cultures to economically survive by-way-of food, not just by consumption. Many cultures study the dietary analysis of food habits. While humans are omnivores, religion and social constructs such as morality often affect which foods they will consume. Food safety is also a concern with foodborne illness claiming many lives each year. In many languages, food is often used metaphorically or figuratively, as in "food for thought".

Contents
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• •

1 Food sources o 1.1 Plants o 1.2 Animals 2 Production 3 Preparation o 3.1 Animal slaughter and butchering o 3.2 Cooking

• • •

• • • • •

3.2.1 Cooking equipment and methods 3.2.2 Raw food o 3.3 Restaurants o 3.4 Food manufacture 4 Commercial trade o 4.1 International exports and imports o 4.2 Marketing and retailing o 4.3 Prices 5 Famine and hunger o 5.1 Food aid 6 Safety o 6.1 Allergies 7 Diet o 7.1 Cultural and religious diets o 7.2 Diet deficiencies o 7.3 Moral, ethical, and health conscious diet 8 Nutrition 9 Legal definition 10 See also 11 Notes
 

12 References

Food sources
Almost all foods are of plant or animal origin, although there are some exceptions. Foods not coming from animal or plant sources include various edible fungi, such mushrooms. Fungi and ambient bacteria are used in the preparation of fermented and pickled foods such as leavened bread, alcoholic drinks, cheese, pickles, and yogurt. Many cultures eat seaweed, a protist, or blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) such as Spirulina.[1] Additionally, salt is often eaten as a flavoring or preservative, and baking soda is used in food preparation. Both of these are inorganic substances, as is water, an important part of human diet.

Plants

A variety of foods from plant sources Many plants or plant parts are eaten as food. There are around 2,000 plant species which are cultivated for food, and many have several distinct cultivars.[2]

Seeds of plants are a good source of food for animals, including humans because they contain nutrients necessary for the plant's initial growth. In fact, the majority of food consumed by human beings are seedbased foods. Edible seeds include cereals (such as maize, wheat, and rice), legumes (such as beans, peas, and lentils), and nuts. Oilseeds are often pressed to produce rich oils, such as sunflower, rapeseed (including canola oil), and sesame.[3] One of the earliest food recipes made from ground chickpeas is called hummus, which can be traced back to Ancient Egypt times. Fruits are the ripened ovaries of plants, including the seeds within. Many plants have evolved fruits that are attractive as a food source to animals, so that animals will eat the fruits and excrete the seeds some distance away. Fruits, therefore, make up a significant part of the diets of most cultures. Some botanical fruits, such as tomatoes, pumpkins and eggplants, are eaten as vegetables.[4] (For more information, see list of fruits.) Vegetables are a second type of plant matter that is commonly eaten as food. These include root vegetables (such as potatoes and carrots), leaf vegetables (such as spinach and lettuce), stem vegetables (such as bamboo shoots and asparagus), and inflorescence vegetables (such as globe artichokes and broccoli). Many herbs and spices are highly-flavorful vegetables.[5]

Animals

Various raw meats Main article: Animal source foods Animals can be used as food either directly, or indirectly by the products they produce. Meat is an example of a direct product taken from an animal, which comes from either muscle systems or from organs. Food products produced by animals include milk produced by mammals, which in many cultures is drunk or processed into dairy products such as cheese or butter. In addition birds and other animals lay eggs, which are often eaten, and bees produce honey, a popular sweetener in many cultures. Some cultures consume blood, some in the form of blood sausage, as a thickener for sauces, a cured salted form for times of food scarcity, and others use blood in stews such as civet.[6]

Production

Tractor and Chaser Bin Main article: Agriculture

Food is traditionally obtained through farming, ranching, and fishing, with hunting, foraging and other methods of subsistence locally important. More recently, there has been a growing trend towards more sustainable agricultural practices. This approach, which is partly fueled by consumer demand, encourages biodiversity, local self-reliance and organic farming methods.[7] Major influences on food production are international organizations, (e.g. the World Trade Organization and Common Agricultural Policy), national government policy (or law), and war.[8]

Preparation
While some food can be eaten raw, many foods undergo some form of preparation for reasons of safety, palatability, or flavor. At the simplest level this may involve washing, cutting, trimming or adding other foods or ingredients, such as spices. It may also involve mixing, heating or cooling, pressure cooking, fermentation, or combination with other food. In a home, most food preparation takes place in a kitchen. Some preparation is done to enhance the taste or aesthetic appeal; other preparation may help to preserve the food; and others may be involved in cultural identity. A meal is made up of food which is prepared to be eaten at a specific time and place.[9]

Animal slaughter and butchering

Workers and cattle in a slaughterhouse. The preparation of animal-based food will usually involve slaughter, evisceration, hanging, portioning and rendering. In developed countries, this is usually done outside the home in slaughterhouses which are used to process animals en mass for meat production. Many countries regulate their slaughterhouses by law. For example the United States has established the Humane Slaughter Act of 1958, which requires that an animal be stunned before killing. This act, like those in many countries, exempts slaughter in accordance to religious law, such as kosher shechita and dhabiĥa halal. Strict interpretations of kashrut require the animal to be fully aware when its carotid artery is cut.[10] On the local level a butcher may commonly break down larger animal meat into smaller manageable cuts and pre-wrapped for commercial sale or wrapped to order in butcher paper. In addition fish and seafood may be fabricated into smaller cuts by a fish monger at the local level. However fish butchery may be done on board a fishing vessel and quick-frozen for preservation of quality.[11]

Cooking
Main article: Cooking

Cooking with a Wok in China The term "cooking" encompasses a vast range of methods, tools and combinations of ingredients to improve the flavor or digestibility of food. Cooking technique, known as culinary art, generally requires the selection, measurement and combining of ingredients in an ordered procedure in an effort to achieve the desired result. Constraints on success include the variability of ingredients, ambient conditions, tools, and the skill of the individual cooking.[12] The diversity of cooking worldwide is a reflection of the myriad nutritional, aesthetic, agricultural, economic, cultural and religious considerations that impact upon it.[13] Cooking requires applying heat to a food which usually, though not always, chemically transforms it, thus changing its flavor, texture, appearance, and nutritional properties.[14] Cooking proper, as opposed to roasting, requires the boiling of water in a container, and was practiced at least since the 10th millennium BC with the introduction of pottery.[15] There is archaeological evidence of roasted foodstuffs at Homo erectus campsites dating from 420,000 years ago.[16] Cooking equipment and methods There are many types of cooking equipment used for cooking. Ovens are one type of cooking equipment which can be used for baking or roasting and offer a dry-heat cooking method. Different cuisines will use different types of ovens, for example Indian culture uses a Tandoor oven is a cylindrical clay oven which operates at a single high temperature,[17] while western kitchens will use variable temperature convection ovens, conventional ovens, toaster ovens in addition to non-radiant heat ovens like the microwave oven. Ovens may be wood-fired, coal-fired, gas, electric, or oil-fired.[18]

A stainless steel frying pan. Various types of cook-tops are used as well. They carry the same variations of fuel types as the ovens mentioned above. cook-tops are used to heat vessels placed on top of the heat source, such as a sauté pan,

sauce pot, frying pan, pressure cooker, etc. These pieces of equipment can use either a moist or dry cooking method and include methods such as steaming, simmering, boiling, and poaching for moist methods; while the dry methods include sautéing, pan frying, or deep-frying.[19]

Traditional asado In addition, many cultures use grills for cooking. A grill operates with a radiant heat source from below, usually covered with a metal grid and sometimes a cover. An open bit barbecue in the American south is one example along with the American style outdoor grill fueled by wood, liquid propane or charcoal along with soaked wood chips for smoking.[20] A Mexican style of barbecue is called barbacoa, which involves the cooking of meats and whole sheep over open fire. In Argentina, asado is prepared on a grill held over an open pit or fire made upon the ground, on which a whole animal is grilled or in other cases smaller cuts of the animal.[21] Raw food

Many types of sushi ready to be eaten. Certain cultures highlight animal and vegetable foods in their raw state. Sushi in Japan is one such cuisine that features raw sliced fish, either in sashimi, nigiri, or maki styles.[22] Steak tartare and salmon tartare are dishes made from diced or ground raw beef or salmon respectively, mixed with various ingredients and served with baguette, brioche or frites.[23] In Italy, carpaccio is a dish of very thin sliced raw beef, drizzled with a vinaigrette made with olive oil.[24] A popular health food movement known as raw foodism promotes a mostly vegan diet of raw fruits, vegetables and grains prepared in various ways, including juicing, food dehydration, not passing the 118 degree mark, and sprouting.[25]

Restaurants

Tom's Restaurant, a restaurant in New York Many cultures produce food for sale in restaurants for paying customers. These restaurants often have trained chefs who prepare the food, while trained waitstaff serve the customers. The term restaurant is credited to the French from the 19th century, as it relates to the restorative nature of the bouillons that were once served in them. However, the concept pre-dates the naming of these establishments, as evidence suggests commercial food preparation may have existed during the age of the city of Pompeii, as well as an urban sales of prepared foods in China during the Song Dynasty. The coffee shops or cafes of 17th century Europe may also be considered an early version of the restaurant.[26] In 2005 the United States spent $496 billion annually for out-of-home dining. Expenditures by type of out-of-home dining was as follows, 40% in full-service restaurants, 37.2% in limited service restaurants (fast food), 6.6% in schools or colleges, 5.4% in bars and vending machines, 4.7% in hotels and motels, 4.0% in recreational places, and 2.2% in other which includes military bases.[27]

Food manufacture

Packaged household food items Main article: Food manufacture Packaged foods are manufactured outside the home for purchase. This can be as simple as a butcher preparing meat, or as complex as a modern international food industry. Early food processing techniques were limited by available food preservation, packaging and transportation. This mainly involved salting, curing, curdling, drying, pickling, fermentation and smoking.[28] During the industrialization era in the 19th century, food manufacturing arose.[29] This development took advantage of new mass markets and emerging new technology, such as milling, preservation, packaging and labeling and transportation. It brought the advantages of pre-prepared time saving food to the bulk of ordinary people who did not employ domestic servants.[30]

At the start of the 21st century, a two-tier structure has arisen, with a few international food processing giants controlling a wide range of well-known food brands. There also exists a wide array of small local or national food processing companies.[31] Advanced technologies have also come to change food manufacture. Computer-based control systems, sophisticated processing and packaging methods, and logistics and distribution advances, can enhance product quality, improve food safety, and reduce costs.[30]

Commercial trade
International exports and imports

Food imports in 2005 World Bank reported that the EU was the top food importer in 2005 followed at a distance by the USA and Japan. Food is now traded and marketed on a global basis. The variety and availability of food is no longer restricted by the diversity of locally grown food or the limitations of the local growing season.[32] Between 1961 and 1999 there has been a 400% increase in worldwide food exports.[33] Some countries are now economically dependent on food exports, which in some cases account for over 80% of all exports.[34] In 1994 over 100 countries became signatories to the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade in a dramatic increase in trade liberalization. This included an agreement to reduce subsidies paid to farmers, underpinned by the WTO enforcement of agricultural subsidy, tariffs, import quotas and settlement of trade disputes that cannot be bilaterally resolved.[35] Where trade barriers are raised on the disputed grounds of public health and safety, the WTO refer the dispute to the Codex Alimentarius Commission, which was founded in 1962 by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization and the World Health Organization. Trade liberalization has greatly affected world food trade.[36]

Marketing and retailing

Packaged food aisles of supermarket in Portland, Oregon Food marketing brings together the producer and the consumer. It is the chain of activities that brings food from "farm gate to plate."[37] The marketing of even a single food product can be a complicated process involving many producers and companies. For example, fifty-six companies are involved in making one can of chicken noodle soup. These businesses include not only chicken and vegetable processors but also the companies that transport the ingredients and those who print labels and

manufacture cans.[38] The food marketing system is the largest direct and indirect non-government employer in the United States. In the pre-modern era, the sale of surplus food took place once a week when farmers took their wares on market day, into the local village market place. Here food was sold to grocers for sale in their local shops for purchase by local consumers.[13][30] With the onset of industrialization, and the development of the food processing industry, a wider range of food could be sold and distributed in distant locations. Typically early grocery shops would be counter-based shops, in which purchasers told the shop-keeper what they wanted, so that the shop-keeper could get it for them.[13][39] In the 20th century supermarkets were born. Supermarkets brought with them a self service approach to shopping using shopping carts, and were able to offer quality food at lower cost through economies of scale and reduced staffing costs. In the latter part of the 20th century, this has been further revolutionized by the development of vast warehouse-sized out-of-town supermarkets, selling a wide range of food from around the world.[40] Unlike food processors, food retailing is a two-tier market in which a small number of very large companies control a large proportion of supermarkets. The supermarket giants wield great purchasing power over farmers and processors, and strong influence over consumers. Nevertheless, less than ten percent of consumer spending on food goes to farmers, with larger percentages going to advertising, transportation, and intermediate corporations.[41]

Prices
Consumers worldwide faced rising food prices, it was reported on March 24, 2008. Reasons for this development are freak weather, dramatic changes in the global economy, including higher oil prices, lower food reserves and growing consumer demand in China and India. In the long term, prices are expected to stabilize. Farmers will grow more grain for both fuel and food and eventually bring prices down. Already this is happening with wheat, with more crops to be planted in the United States, Canada and Europe in 2009. However, the Food and Agriculture Organization projects that consumers still face at least until 2018 more expensive food. It is rare that the spikes are hitting all major foods in most countries at once. Food prices rose 4 percent in the United States 2007, the highest rise since 1990, and are expected to climb as much again 2008. As of December 2007, 37 countries faced food crises, and 20 had imposed some sort of food-price controls. In China, the price of pork has jumped 58 percent in 2007. In the 1990s and 1980s, farm subsidies and support programs allowed major grain exporting countries to hold large surpluses, which could be tapped during food shortages to keep prices down. But new trade policies have made agricultural production much more responsive to market demands -- putting global food reserves at their lowest since 1983.[42] Food prices are rising, wealthier Asian consumers are westernizing their diets, and farmers and nations of the third world are struggling to keep up the pace. The past five years have seen rapid growth in the contribution of Asian nations to the Global Fluid and Powdered Milk Manufacturing industry, which in 2008 accounts for more than 30% of production, while China alone accounts for more than 10% of both production and consumption in the Global Fruit and Vegetable Processing and Preserving industry. The trend is similarly evident in industries such as Soft Drink and Bottled Water Manufacturing, as well as Global Cocoa, Chocolate and sugar Confectionery Manufacturing, forecast to grow by 5.7% and 10.0% respectively during 2008 in response to soaring demand in China and Southeast Asian markets [43].

Famine and hunger

Italian €2 commemorative coin of 2004 celebrating the World Food Programme Food deprivation leads to malnutrition and ultimately starvation. This is often connected with famine, which involves the absence of food in entire communities. This can have a devastating and widespread effect on human health and mortality. Rationing is sometimes used to distribute food in times of shortage, most notably during times of war.[8] Starvation is a significant international problem. Approximately 815 million people are undernourished, and over 16,000 children die per day from hunger-related causes.[44] Food deprivation is regarded as a deficit need in Maslow's hierarchy of needs and is measured using famine scales.[45]

Food aid
Food aid can benefit people suffering from a shortage of food. It can be used to improve peoples' lives in the short term, so that a society can increase its standard of living to the point that food aid is no longer required.[46] Conversely, badly managed food aid can create problems by disrupting local markets, depressing crop prices, and discouraging food production. Sometimes a cycle of food aid dependence can develop.[47] Its provision, or threatened withdrawal, is sometimes used as a political tool to influence the policies of the destination country, a strategy known as food politics. Sometimes, food aid provisions will require certain types of food be purchased from certain sellers, and food aid can be misused to enhance the markets of donor countries.[48] International efforts to distribute food to the neediest countries are often co-ordinated by the World Food Programme.[49]

Safety
Main article: Food safety

Salmonella bacteria is a common cause of foodborne illness, particularly in undercooked chicken and chicken eggs Foodborne illness, commonly called "food poisoning," is caused by bacteria, toxins, viruses, parasites, and prions. Roughly 7 million people die of food poisoning each year, with about 10 times as many suffering from a non-fatal version.[50] The two most common factors leading to cases of bacterial foodborne illness are cross-contamination of ready-to-eat food from other uncooked foods and improper

temperature control. Less commonly, acute adverse reactions can also occur if chemical contamination of food occurs, for example from improper storage, or use of non-food grade soaps and disinfectants. Food can also be adulterated by a very wide range of articles (known as 'foreign bodies') during farming, manufacture, cooking, packaging, distribution or sale. These foreign bodies can include pests or their droppings, hairs, cigarette butts, wood chips, and all manner of other contaminants. It is possible for certain types of food to become contaminated if stored or presented in an unsafe container, such as a ceramic pot with lead-based glaze.[50]

Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) Flowchart Food poisoning has been recognized as a disease of man since as early as Hippocrates.[51] The sale of rancid, contaminated or adulterated food was commonplace until introduction of hygiene, refrigeration, and vermin controls in the 19th century. Discovery of techniques for killing bacteria using heat and other microbiological studies by scientists such as Louis Pasteur contributed to the modern sanitation standards that are ubiquitous in developed nations today. This was further underpinned by the work of Justus von Liebig, which led to the development of modern food storage and food preservation methods.[52] In more recent years, a greater understanding of the causes of food-borne illnesses has led to the development of more systematic approaches such as the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP), which can identify and eliminate many risks.[53]

Allergies
Main article: food allergy Some people have allergies or sensitivities to foods which are not problematic to most people. This occurs when a person's immune system mistakes a certain food protein for a harmful foreign agent and attacks it. About 2% of adults and 8% of children have a food allergy.[54] The amount of the food substance required to provoke a reaction in a particularly susceptible individual can be quite small. In some instances, traces of food in the air, too minute to be perceived through smell, have been known to provoke lethal reactions in extremely sensitive individuals. Common food allergens are gluten, corn, shellfish (mollusks), peanuts, and soy.[54] Allergens frequently produce symptoms such as diarrhea, rashes, bloating, vomiting, and regurgitation. The digestive complaints usually develop within half an hour of ingesting the allergen.[54] Rarely, food allergies can lead to a medical emergency, such as anaphylactic shock, hypotension (low blood pressure), and loss of consciousness. An allergen associated with this type of reaction is peanut, although latex products can induce similar reactions.[54] Initial treatment is with epinephrine (adrenaline), often carried by known patients in the form of an Epi-pen.[55]

Diet

A package of halal-certified frozen food (steamed cabbage buns) from Jiangsu province, China

Main article: Diet (nutrition)

Cultural and religious diets
Dietary habits are the habitual decisions a person or culture makes when choosing what foods to eat.[56] Although humans are omnivores, many cultures hold some food preferences and some food taboos. Dietary choices can also define cultures and play a role in religion. For example, only kosher foods are permitted by Judaism, and halal/haram foods by Islam, in the diet of believers.[57] In addition, the dietary choices of different countries or regions have different characteristics. This is highly related to a culture's cuisine.

Children in this photograph from a Nigerian orphanage show symptoms of malnutrition, with four illustrating the gray-blond hair symptomatic of kwashiorkor.

Diet deficiencies
Dietary habits play a significant role in the health and mortality of all humans. Imbalances between the consumed fuels and expended energy results in either starvation or excessive reserves of adipose tissue, known as body fat.[58] Poor intake of various vitamins and minerals can lead to diseases which can have far-reaching effects on health. For instance, 30% of the world's population either has, or is at risk for developing, Iodine deficiency.[59] It is estimated that at least 3 million children are blind due to vitamin A deficiency.[60] Vitamin C deficiency results in scurvy.[61] Calcium, Vitamin D and phosphorus are interrelated; the consumption of each may affect the absorption of the others. Kwashiorkor and marasmus are childhood disorders caused by lack of dietary protein.[62]

Moral, ethical, and health conscious diet
Many individuals limit what foods they eat for reasons of morality, or other habit. For instance vegetarians choose to forgo food from animal sources to varying degrees. Others choose a healthier diet, avoiding sugars or animal fats and increasing consumption of dietary fiber and antioxidants.[63] Obesity, a serious problem in the western world, leads to higher chances of developing heart disease, diabetes, and many other diseases.[64] More recently, dietary habits have been influenced by the concerns that some people have about possible impacts on health or the environment from genetically modified food.[65] Further concerns about the impact of industrial farming (grains) on animal welfare, human health and the environment are also having an effect on contemporary human dietary habits. This has led to the emergence of a counterculture with a preference for organic and local food.[66]

Nutrition
USDA Food Pyramid

Between the extremes of optimal health and death from starvation or malnutrition, there is an array of disease states that can be caused or alleviated by changes in diet. Deficiencies, excesses and imbalances in diet can produce negative impacts on health, which may lead to diseases such as scurvy, obesity or osteoporosis, as well as psychological and behavioral problems. The science of nutrition attempts to understand how and why specific dietary aspects influence health. Nutrients in food are grouped into several categories. Macronutrients means fat, protein, and carbohydrates. Micronutrients are the minerals and vitamins. Additionally food contains water and dietary fiber.

Legal definition
Some countries list a legal definition of food. These countries list food as any item that is to be processed, partially processed or unprocessed for consumption. The listing of items included as foodstuffs include any substance, intended to be, or reasonably expected to be, ingested by humans. In addition to these foodstuffs drink, chewing gum, water or other items processed into said food items are part of the legal definition of food. Items not included in the legal definition of food include animal feed, live animals unless being prepared for sale in a market, plants prior to harvesting, medicinal products, cosmetics, tobacco and tobacco products, narcotic or psychotropic substances, and residues and contaminants.[67]

See also
• • • • • •

Category:Lists of foods Contemporary Food Engineering Food and Bioprocess Technology Non-food crop Optimal foraging theory Sustainable food system

Notes

Fruit
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). Fruit and vegetable output in 2004 The term fruit has different meanings dependent on context, and the term is not synonymous in food preparation and biology. In botany, which is the scientific study of plants, fruits are the ripened ovaries of flowering plants. In many plant species, the fruit includes the ripened ovary and surrounding tissues. Fruits are the means by which flowering plants disseminate seeds, and the presence of seeds indicates that a structure is most likely a fruit, though not all seeds come from fruits.[1] No single terminology really fits the enormous variety that is found among plant fruits.[2] The term 'false fruit' (pseudocarp, accessory fruit) is sometimes applied to a fruit like the fig (a multiple-accessory fruit; see below) or to a plant structure that resembles a fruit but is not derived from a flower or flowers. Some gymnosperms, such as yew, have

fleshy arils that resemble fruits and some junipers have berry-like, fleshy cones. The term "fruit" has also been inaccurately applied to the seed-containing female cones of many conifers.[3]

Contents
[hide]
• •

• • •

• • • •

1 Botanic fruit and culinary fruit 2 Fruit development o 2.1 Simple fruit o 2.2 Aggregate fruit o 2.3 Multiple fruit o 2.4 Fruit chart 3 Seedless fruits 4 Seed dissemination 5 Uses o 5.1 Nutritional value o 5.2 Nonfood uses 6 Production 7 See also 8 References 9 External links

[edit] Botanic fruit and culinary fruit
Venn diagram representing the relationship between (culinary) vegetables and (botanical) fruits. Some vegetables fall into one or both categories. Like tomatoes etc. Many true fruits, in a botanical sense, are treated as vegetables in cooking and food preparation because they are not sweet. These botanical fruits include cucurbits (e.g., squash, pumpkin, and cucumber), tomato, peas, beans, corn, eggplant, and sweet pepper, spices, such as allspice and chillies.[4] Occasionally, though rarely, a culinary "fruit" is branded as a true fruit in the botanical sense. For example, rhubarb is often referred to as a fruit, because it is used to make sweet desserts such as pies, though only the petiole of the rhubarb plant is edible.[5] In the culinary sense, a fruit is usually any sweet tasting plant product associated with seed(s), a vegetable is any savoury or less sweet plant product, and a nut any hard, oily, and shelled plant product.[6] Although a nut is a type of fruit, it is also a popular term for edible seeds, such as peanuts (which are actually a legume) and pistachios.[7] Technically, a cereal grain is a fruit termed a caryopsis. However, the fruit wall is very thin and fused to the seed coat so almost all of the edible grain is actually a seed. Therefore, cereal grains, such as corn, wheat and rice are better considered edible seeds, although some references list them as fruits.[8] Edible gymnosperm seeds are often misleadingly given fruit names, e.g. pine nuts, ginkgo nuts, and juniper berries. A Folk taxonomy is a vernacular naming system which describes how non-scientists categorize items.

[edit] Fruit development

The development sequence of a typical drupe, the nectarine (Prunus persica) over a 7½ month period, from bud formation in early winter to fruit ripening in midsummer (see image page for further information) Main article: Fruit anatomy A fruit is a ripened ovary. Inside the ovary is one or more ovules where the megagametophyte contains the megagamete or egg cell.[9] The ovules are fertilized in a process that starts with pollination, which involves the movement of pollen from the stamens to the stigma of flowers. After pollination, a tube grows from the pollen through the stigma into the ovary to the ovule and sperm are transferred from the pollen to the ovule, within the ovule the sperm unites with the egg, forming a diploid zygote. Fertilization in flowering plants involving both plasmogamy, the fusing of the sperm and egg protoplasm and karyogamy, the union of the sperm and egg nucleus.[10] When the sperm enters the nucleus of the ovule and joins with the megagamete and the endosperm mother cell, the fertilization process is completed.[11] As the developing seeds mature, the ovary begins to ripen. The ovules develop into seeds and the ovary wall, the pericarp, may become fleshy (as in berries or drupes), or form a hard outer covering (as in nuts). In some cases, the sepals, petals and/or stamens and style of the flower fall off. Fruit development continues until the seeds have matured. In some multiseeded fruits, the extent to which the flesh develops is proportional to the number of fertilized ovules.[12] The wall of the fruit, developed from the ovary wall of the flower, is called the pericarp. The pericarp is often differentiated into two or three distinct layers called the exocarp (outer layer - also called epicarp), mesocarp (middle layer), and endocarp (inner layer). In some fruits, especially simple fruits derived from an inferior ovary, other parts of the flower (such as the floral tube, including the petals, sepals, and stamens), fuse with the ovary and ripen with it. The plant hormone ethylene causes ripening. When such other floral parts are a significant part of the fruit, it is called an accessory fruit. Since other parts of the flower may contribute to the structure of the fruit, it is important to study flower structure to understand how a particular fruit forms.[3] Fruits are so diverse that it is difficult to devise a classification scheme that includes all known fruits. Many common terms for seeds and fruit are incorrectly applied, a fact that complicates understanding of the terminology. Seeds are ripened ovules; fruits are the ripened ovaries or carpels that contain the seeds. To these two basic definitions can be added the clarification that in botanical terminology, a nut is not a type of fruit and not another term for seed, on the contrary to common terminology.[4] There are three basic types of fruits: 1. Simple fruit

2. Aggregate fruit 3. Multiple fruit

[edit] Simple fruit

Epigynous berries are simple fleshy fruit. From top right: cranberries, lingonberries, blueberries red huckleberries Simple fruits can be either dry or fleshy, and result from the ripening of a simple or compound ovary with only one pistil. Dry fruits may be either dehiscent (opening to discharge seeds), or indehiscent (not opening to discharge seeds).[13] Types of dry, simple fruits, with examples of each, are:
• • • • • • • • • • • • •

achene - (buttercup, strawberry seeds) capsule - (Brazil nut) caryopsis - (wheat) fibrous drupe - (coconut, walnut) follicle - (milkweed) legume - (pea, bean, peanut) loment nut - (hazelnut, beech, oak acorn) samara - (elm, ash, maple key) schizocarp - (carrot) silique - (radish) silicle - (shepherd's purse) utricle - (beet)

Lilium unripe capsule fruit. Fruits in which part or all of the pericarp (fruit wall) is fleshy at maturity are simple fleshy fruits. Types of fleshy, simple fruits (with examples) are:
• • • •

berry - (redcurrant, gooseberry, tomato, avocado) stone fruit or drupe (plum, cherry, peach, apricot, olive) false berry - Epigynous accessory fruits (banana, cranberry, strawberry (edible part).) pome - accessory fruits (apple, pear, rosehip)

[edit] Aggregate fruit

Dewberry flowers. Note the multiple pistils, each of which will produce a drupelet. Each flower will become a blackberry-like aggregate fruit Main article: Aggregate fruit An aggregate fruit, or etaerio, develops from a flower with numerous simple pistils.[14] An example is the raspberry, whose simple fruits are termed drupelets because each is like a small drupe attached to the receptacle. In some bramble fruits (such as blackberry) the receptacle is elongated and part of the ripe fruit, making the blackberry an aggregate-accessory fruit.[15] The strawberry is also an aggregate-

accessory fruit, only one in which the seeds are contained in achenes.[16] In all these examples, the fruit develops from a single flower with numerous pistils. Some kinds of aggregate fruits are called berries, yet in the botanical sense they are not.

[edit] Multiple fruit
Main article: Multiple fruit A multiple fruit is one formed from a cluster of flowers (called an inflorescence). Each flower produces a fruit, but these mature into a single mass.[17] Examples are the pineapple, edible fig, mulberry, osageorange, and breadfruit.

In some plants, such as this noni, flowers are produced regularly along the stem and it is possible to see together examples of flowering, fruit development, and fruit ripening In the photograph on the right, stages of flowering and fruit development in the noni or Indian mulberry (Morinda citrifolia) can be observed on a single branch. First an inflorescence of white flowers called a head is produced. After fertilization, each flower develops into a drupe, and as the drupes expand, they become connate (merge) into a multiple fleshy fruit called a syncarpet.[18] There are also many dry multiple fruits, e.g.
• • • •

Tuliptree, multiple of samaras. Sweet gum, multiple of capsules. Sycamore and teasel, multiple of achenes. Magnolia, multiple of follicles.

[edit] Fruit chart
To summarize common types of fruit (examples follow in the table below):

• •

Berry -- simple fruit and seeds created from a single ovary o Pepo -- Berries where the skin is hardened, like cucurbits o Hesperidium -- Berries with a rind, like most citrus fruit Epigynous berries(false berries) -- Epigynous fruit made from a part of the plant other than a single ovary Compound fruit, which includes: o Aggregate fruit -- multiple fruits with seeds from different ovaries of a single flower o Multiple fruit -- fruits of separate flowers, packed closely together Other accessory fruit -- where the edible part is not generated by the ovary

Types of fruit False berry (Epigynous) Aggregate fruit Multiple Other fruit accessory fruit

True berry

Pepo

Hesperidium

Blackcurrant, Redcurrant, Gooseberry, Tomato, Eggplant, Guava, Lucuma, Chili pepper, Pomegranate, Kiwifruit, Grape,

Pumpkin, Orange, Banana, Gourd, Lemon, Lime, Cranberry, Cucumber, Grapefruit Blueberry Melon

Blackberry, Raspberry, Boysenberry, Hedge apple

Apple, Apricot, Peach, Cherry, Pineapple, Green bean, Fig, Sunflower Mulberry seed, Strawberry, plum,

[edit] Seedless fruits

An arrangement of fruits commonly thought of as vegetables, including tomatoes and various squash Seedlessness is an important feature of some fruits of commerce. Commercial cultivars of bananas and pineapples are examples of seedless fruits. Some cultivars of citrus fruits (especially navel oranges),satsumas, mandarin oranges table grapes, grapefruit, and watermelons are valued for their seedlessness. In some species, seedlessness is the result of parthenocarpy, where fruits set without fertilization. Parthenocarpic fruit set may or may not require pollination. Most seedless citrus fruits require a pollination stimulus; bananas and pineapples do not. Seedlessness in table grapes results from the abortion of the embryonic plant that is produced by fertilization, a phenomenon known as stenospermocarpy which requires normal pollination and fertilization.[19]

[edit] Seed dissemination
Variations in fruit structures largely depend on the mode of dispersal of the seeds they contain. This dispersal can be achieved by animals, wind, water, or explosive dehiscence.[20] Some fruits have coats covered with spikes or hooked burrs, either to prevent themselves from being eaten by animals or to stick to the hairs, feathers or legs of animals, using them as dispersal agents. Examples include cocklebur and unicorn plant.[21][22]

The sweet flesh of many fruits is "deliberately" appealing to animals, so that the seeds held within are eaten and "unwittingly" carried away and deposited at a distance from the parent. Likewise, the nutritious, oily kernels of nuts are appealing to rodents (such as squirrels) who hoard them in the soil in order to avoid starving during the winter, thus giving those seeds that remain uneaten the chance to germinate and grow into a new plant away from their parent.[4] Other fruits are elongated and flattened out naturally and so become thin, like wings or helicopter blades, e.g. maple, tuliptree and elm. This is an evolutionary mechanism to increase dispersal distance away from the parent via wind. Other wind-dispersed fruit have tiny parachutes, e.g. dandelion and salsify.[20] Coconut fruits can float thousands of miles in the ocean to spread seeds. Some other fruits that can disperse via water are nipa palm and screw pine.[20] Some fruits fling seeds substantial distances (up to 100 m in sandbox tree) via explosive dehiscence or other mechanisms, e.g. impatiens and squirting cucumber.[23]

[edit] Uses

Nectarines are one of many fruits that can be easily stewed. Many hundreds of fruits, including fleshy fruits like apple, peach, pear, kiwifruit, watermelon and mango are commercially valuable as human food, eaten both fresh and as jams, marmalade and other preserves. Fruits are also in manufactured foods like cookies, muffins, yoghurt, ice cream, cakes, and many more. Many fruits are used to make beverages, such as fruit juices (orange juice, apple juice, grape juice, etc) or alcoholic beverages, such as wine or brandy.[24] Apples are often used to make vinegar.Fruits are also used for gift giving, Fruit Basket and Fruit Bouquet are some common forms of fruit gifts. Many vegetables are botanical fruits, including tomato, bell pepper, eggplant, okra, squash, pumpkin, green bean, cucumber and zucchini.[25] Olive fruit is pressed for olive oil. Spices like vanilla, paprika, allspice and black pepper are derived from berries.[26]

[edit] Nutritional value
Fruits are generally high in fiber, water and vitamin C. Fruits also contain various phytochemicals that do not yet have an RDA/RDI listing under most nutritional factsheets, and which research indicates are required for proper long-term cellular health and disease prevention. Regular consumption of fruit is associated with reduced risks of cancer, cardiovascular disease, stroke, Alzheimer disease, cataracts, and some of the functional declines associated with aging.[27]

[edit] Nonfood uses
Because fruits have been such a major part of the human diet, different cultures have developed many different uses for various fruits that they do not depend on as being edible. Many dry fruits are used as

decorations or in dried flower arrangements, such as unicorn plant, lotus, wheat, annual honesty and milkweed. Ornamental trees and shrubs are often cultivated for their colorful fruits, including holly, pyracantha, viburnum, skimmia, beautyberry and cotoneaster.[28] Fruits of opium poppy are the source of opium which contains the drugs morphine and codeine, as well as the biologically inactive chemical theabaine from which the drug oxycodone is synthysized.[29] Osage orange fruits are used to repel cockroaches.[30] Bayberry fruits provide a wax often used to make candles. [31] Many fruits provide natural dyes, e.g. walnut, sumac, cherry and mulberry.[32] Dried gourds are used as decorations, water jugs, bird houses, musical instruments, cups and dishes. Pumpkins are carved into Jack-o'-lanterns for Halloween. The spiny fruit of burdock or cocklebur were the inspiration for the invention of Velcro.[33] Coir is a fibre from the fruit of coconut that is used for doormats, brushes, mattresses, floortiles, sacking, insulation and as a growing medium for container plants. The shell of the coconut fruit is used to make souvenir heads, cups, bowls, musical instruments and bird houses.[34]

[edit] Production
Top Ten fresh fruit Producers — 2005 Country India Vietnam People's Republic of China Indonesia Nigeria Iran Myanmar Papua New Guinea Nepal Production (Int $1000) Footnote 1,052,766 438,652 271,167 255,216 223,314 223,314 183,436 129,203 82,945 C C C C C C C C C C Production (MT) 6,600,000 2,750,000 1,790,000 1,600,000 1,400,000 1,400,000 1,150,000 810,000 520,000 490,000 Footnote F F F F F F F F F F

Democratic People's Republic 78,160

of Korea
No symbol = official figure,F = FAO estimate, * = Unofficial figure, C = Calculated figure; Production in Int $1000 have been calculated based on 1999-2001 international prices Source: Food and Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic and Social Department: The Statistical Division

Top Ten tropical fresh fruit Producers — 2005 Country Philippines Indonesia India People's Republic of China Colombia Thailand Pakistan Brazil Bangladesh Mexico Production (Int $1000) Footnote 389,164 377,718 335,368 177,413 131,629 83,556 60,893 55,513 31,934 28,615 C C C C C C C C C C Production (MT) 3,400,000 3,300,000 2,930,000 2,164,000 1,150,000 730,000 532,000 485,000 279,000 250,000 Footnote F F F F F F F F F F

No symbol = official figure, F = FAO estimate, * = Unofficial figure, C = Calculated figure; Production in Int $1000 have been calculated based on 1999-2001 international prices Source: and Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic and Social Department: The Statistical Division

[edit] See also
• •

List of culinary fruits Fruit trees

• •

Tutti frutti Fruitarianism

[edit] References

Planet
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search This article is about the astronomical objects. For "planet" as defined by astrologers, see Planets in astrology. For the related but distinct class of objects, see Dwarf planet. For other uses, see Planet (disambiguation).

Artist's depiction of the extrasolar planet HD 209458 b orbiting its star A planet, as defined by the International Astronomical Union (IAU), is a celestial body orbiting a star or stellar remnant that is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals.[a][1][2] The term planet is ancient, with ties to history, science, myth, and religion. The planets were originally seen by many early cultures as divine, or as emissaries of the gods. Even today, many people believe in astrology, which holds that the movement of the planets affects people's lives, although such a causation is rejected by the scientific community. As scientific knowledge advanced, human perception of the planets changed, incorporating a number of disparate objects. Even now there is no uncontested definition of what a planet is. In 2006, the IAU officially adopted a resolution defining planets within the Solar System. This definition has been both praised and criticized, and remains disputed by some scientists. The planets were thought by Ptolemy to orbit the Earth in deferent and epicycle motions. Though the idea that the planets orbited the Sun had been suggested many times, it was not until the 17th century that this view was supported by evidence from the first telescopic astronomical observations, performed by Galileo Galilei. By careful analysis of the observation data, Johannes Kepler found the planets' orbits to be not circular, but elliptical. As observational tools improved, astronomers saw that, like Earth, the planets rotated around tilted axes, and some share such features as ice-caps and seasons. Since the dawn of the Space Age, close observation by probes has found that Earth and the other planets share characteristics such as volcanism, hurricanes, tectonics, and even hydrology. Since 1992, through the discovery of hundreds of extrasolar planets (planets around other stars), scientists are beginning to understand that planets throughout the Milky Way Galaxy share characteristics in common with our own. Planets are generally divided into two main types: large, low-density gas giants, and smaller, rocky terrestrials. Under IAU definitions, there are eight planets in the Solar System. In order from the Sun, they are the four terrestrials, Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars, then the four gas giants, Jupiter, Saturn,

Uranus, and Neptune. Many of these planets are orbited by one or more moons, which can be larger than small planets. As of December 2008, there are 333 known extrasolar planets, ranging from the size of gas giants to that of terrestrial planets.[3] This brings the total number of identified planets to at least 341. The Solar System also contains at least five dwarf planets: Ceres, Pluto (formerly considered to be the Solar System's ninth planet), Makemake, Haumea and Eris. No extrasolar dwarf planets have yet been detected.

Contents
[hide]

• • • • • •

• • • •

1 History o 1.1 Antiquity o 1.2 Modern times o 1.3 Former classifications o 1.4 2006 definition 2 Mythology 3 Formation 4 Solar System o 4.1 Dwarf planets 5 Extrasolar planets 6 Interstellar "planets" 7 Attributes o 7.1 Dynamic characteristics  7.1.1 Orbit  7.1.2 Axial tilt  7.1.3 Rotation  7.1.4 Orbital clearance o 7.2 Physical characteristics  7.2.1 Mass  7.2.2 Internal differentiation  7.2.3 Atmosphere  7.2.4 Magnetosphere o 7.3 Secondary characteristics 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 External links

History
Main articles: History of astronomy and Definition of planet See also: Timeline of solar system astronomy The idea of planets has evolved over its history, from the divine wandering stars of antiquity to the earthly objects of the scientific age. The concept has also now expanded to include worlds not only in the Solar System, but in hundreds of other extrasolar systems. The ambiguities inherent in defining planets have led to much scientific controversy.

Antiquity

See also: Geocentric model Early printed rendition of a geocentric cosmological model In ancient times, astronomers noted how certain lights moved across the sky in relation to the other stars. Ancient Greeks called these lights "πλάνητες ἀστέρες" (planetes asteres: wandering stars) or simply "πλανήτοι" (planētoi: wanderers),[4] from which the today's word "planet" was derived.[5][6] In ancient Greece as well as in ancient India,[7] ancient China, ancient Babylon and indeed all pre-modern civilisations,[8][9] it was almost universally believed that Earth was in the centre of the Universe and that all the "planets" circled the Earth. The reasons for this perception were that stars and planets appeared to revolve around the Earth each day,[10] and the apparently common sense perception that the Earth was solid and stable, and that it is not moving but at rest. The Greek cosmological system was taken from that of the Babylonians,[11] a contemporary Mesopotamian civilisation from whom they began to acquire astronomical learning from around 600 BC, including the constellations and the zodiac.[12] In the 6th century BC, the Babylonians had a highly advanced level of astronomical knowledge, and had a theory of the planets centuries before the ancient Greeks. The oldest planetary astronomical text that we possess is the Babylonian Venus tablet of Ammisaduqa, a 7th century BC copy of a list of observations of the motions of the planet Venus that probably dates as early as the second millennium BC.[13] The Babylonians also laid the foundations of what would eventually become Western astrology.[14] The Enuma anu enlil, written during the NeoAssyrian period in the 7th century BC,[15] comprises a list of omens and their relationships with various celestial phenomena including the motions of the planets.[16] The Sumerians, predecessors of the Babylonians who are considered as one of the first civilizations and are credited with the invention of writing, had identified at least Venus by 1500 BC.[11] Conversely, there is no evidence of a comparable knowledge of the planets in the earliest written Greek sources, such as the Iliad and the Odyssey.[14] By the first century BC, the Greeks had begun to develop their own mathematical schemes for predicting the positions of the planets. These schemes, which were based on geometry rather than the arithmetic of the Babylonians, would eventually eclipse the Babylonians' theories in complexity and comprehensiveness, and account for most of the astronomical movements observed from Earth with the naked eye. These theories would reach their fullest expression in the Almagest written by Ptolemy in the 2nd century AD. So complete was the domination of Ptolemy's model that it superseded all previous works on astronomy and remained the definitive astronomical text in the Western world for 13 centuries.
[17][13]

To the Greeks and Romans there were seven known planets, each presumed to be circling the Earth according to the complex laws laid out by Ptolemy. They were, in increasing order from Earth (in Ptolemy's order): the Moon, Mercury, Venus, the Sun, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn.[17][18][6]

Modern times
See also: Heliocentrism The five naked-eye planets have been known since ancient times, and have had a significant impact on mythology, religious cosmology, and ancient astronomy. As scientific knowledge progressed, however, understanding of the term "planet" changed from something that moved across the sky (in relation to the star field); to a body that orbited the Earth (or that were believed to do so at the time); and in the 16th century to something that directly orbited the Sun when the heliocentric model of Copernicus, Galileo and Kepler gained sway.

Heliocentrism (lower panel) in comparison to the geocentric model (upper panel) Thus the Earth became included in the list of planets,[19] while the Sun and Moon were excluded. At first, when the first satellites of Saturn were discovered at the end of the 17th century, the terms "planet" and "satellite" were used interchangeably – although the latter would gradually become more prevalent in the following century.[20] Until the mid-19th century, the number of "planets" rose rapidly since any newly discovered object directly orbiting the Sun was listed as a planet by the scientific community. In the 19th century astronomers began to realize that recently discovered bodies that had been classified as planets for almost half a century (such as Ceres, Pallas, and Vesta), were very different from the traditional ones. These bodies shared the same region of space between Mars and Jupiter (the Asteroid belt), and had a much smaller mass; as a result they were reclassified as "asteroids". In the absence of any formal definition, a "planet" came to be understood as any "large" body that orbited the Sun. Since there was a dramatic size gap between the asteroids and the planets, and the spate of new discoveries seemed to have ended after the discovery of Neptune in 1846, there was no apparent need to have a formal definition.[21] However, in the 20th century, Pluto was discovered. After initial observations led to the belief it was larger than Earth,[22] the object was immediately accepted as the ninth planet. Further monitoring found the body was actually much smaller: in 1936, Raymond Lyttleton suggested that Pluto may be an escaped satellite of Neptune,[23] and Fred Whipple suggested in 1964 that Pluto may be a comet.[24] However, as it was still larger than all known asteroids and seemingly did not exist within a larger population,[25] it kept its status until 2006. In the 1990s and early 2000s, there was a flood of discoveries of similar objects in the same region of the Solar System (the Kuiper belt). Like Ceres and the asteroids before it, Pluto was found to be just one small body in a population of thousands. A growing number of astronomers argued for it to be declassified as a planet, since many similar objects approaching its size were found. The discovery of Eris, a more massive object widely publicised as the "tenth planet", brought things to a head. The IAU set about creating the definition of planet, and eventually produced one in 2006. The number of planets dropped to the eight significantly larger bodies that had cleared their orbit (Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus & Neptune), and a new class of dwarf planets was created, initially containing three objects (Ceres, Pluto and Eris).[26] In 1992, astronomers Aleksander Wolszczan and Dale Frail announced the discovery of planets around a pulsar, PSR B1257+12.[27] This discovery is generally considered to be the first definitive detection of a planetary system around another star. Then, on October 6, 1995, Michel Mayor and Didier Queloz of the University of Geneva announced the first definitive detection of an exoplanet orbiting an ordinary mainsequence star (51 Pegasi).[28] The discovery of extrasolar planets led to another ambiguity in defining a planet; the point at which a planet becomes a star. Many known extrasolar planets are many times the mass of Jupiter, approaching that of stellar objects known as "brown dwarfs".[29] Brown dwarfs are generally considered stars due to their ability to fuse deuterium, a heavier isotope of hydrogen. While stars more massive than 75 times that of Jupiter fuse hydrogen, stars of only 13 Jupiter masses can fuse deuterium. However, deuterium is quite rare, and most brown dwarfs would have ceased fusing deuterium long before their discovery, making them effectively indistinguishable from supermassive planets.[30] As large Kuiper belt and scattered disc objects were discovered in the late 1990s and early years of the twenty-first century, a number including Quaoar, Sedna and Eris were heralded in the popular press as the

'tenth planet', however none of these received widespread scientific recognition as such, although Eris has now been classified as a Dwarf Planet.

Former classifications
The table below lists Solar System bodies formerly considered to be planets: Bodies Notes
Classified as planets in antiquity, in accordance with the definition then used.

Sun, Moon

Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto

The four largest moons of Jupiter, known as the Galilean moons after their discoverer Galileo Galilei. He referred to them as the "Medicean Planets" in honor of his patron, the Medici family.

Titan,[b] Iapetus,[c] Rhea,[c] Tethys,[d] and Dione[d]

Five of Saturn's larger moons, discovered by Christiaan Huygens and Giovanni Domenico Cassini.

Ceres,[e] Pallas, Juno, and Vesta

The first known asteroids, from their discoveries between 1801 and 1807 until their reclassification as asteroids during the 1850s.[31] Ceres has subsequently been classified as a dwarf planet.

Astrea, Hebe, Iris, Flora, Metis, Hygeia, Parthenope, Victoria, Egeria, Irene, Eunomia More asteroids,

discovered between 1845 and 1851. The rapidly expanding list of planets prompted

their reclassification as asteroids by astronomers, and this was widely accepted by 1854.[32] Kuiper belt object beyond the orbit of Neptune. In 2006, Pluto was reclassified as a dwarf planet.

Pluto[f]

2006 definition
Main article: 2006 definition of planet With the discovery during the latter half of the 20th century of more objects within the Solar System and large objects around other stars, disputes arose over what should constitute a planet. There was particular disagreement over whether an object should be considered a planet if it was part of a distinct population such as a belt, or if it was large enough to generate energy by the thermonuclear fusion of deuterium. In 2003, The International Astronomical Union (IAU) Working Group on Extrasolar Planets made a position statement on the definition of a planet that incorporated the following working definition, mostly focused upon the boundary between planets and brown dwarves:[2]

The IAU's 2006 decision was prompted by discovery of the largest trans-Neptunian objects. 1. Objects with true masses below the limiting mass for thermonuclear fusion of deuterium (currently calculated to be 13 times the mass of Jupiter for objects with the same isotopic abundance as the Sun[33]) that orbit stars or stellar remnants are "planets" (no matter how they formed). The minimum mass and size required for an extrasolar object to be considered a planet should be the same as that used in the Solar System. 2. Substellar objects with true masses above the limiting mass for thermonuclear fusion of deuterium are "brown dwarfs", no matter how they formed or where they are located. 3. Free-floating objects in young star clusters with masses below the limiting mass for thermonuclear fusion of deuterium are not "planets", but are "sub-brown dwarfs" (or whatever name is most appropriate). This definition has since been widely used by astronomers when publishing discoveries of exoplanets in academic journals.[34] Although temporary, it remains an effective working definition until a more permanent one is formally adopted. However, it does not address the dispute over the lower mass limit,[35] and so it steered clear of the controversy regarding objects within the Solar System. The matter of the lower limit was addressed during the 2006 meeting of the IAU's General Assembly. After much debate and one failed proposal, the assembly voted to pass a resolution that defined planets within the Solar System as[1]:

A celestial body that is (a) in orbit around the Sun, (b) has sufficient mass for its self-gravity to overcome rigid body forces so that it assumes a hydrostatic equilibrium (nearly round) shape, and (c) has cleared the neighbourhood around its orbit.

Under this definition, the Solar System is considered to have eight planets. Bodies which fulfill the first two conditions but not the third (such as Pluto, Makemake and Eris) are classified as dwarf planets, provided they are not also natural satellites of other planets. Originally an IAU committee had proposed a definition that would have included a much larger number of planets as it did not include (c) as a criterion. [36] After much discussion, it was decided via a vote that those bodies should instead be classified as dwarf planets.[37] This definition is based in theories of planetary formation, in which planetary embryos initially clear their orbital neighborhood of other smaller objects. As described by astronomer Steven Soter:[38]
The end product of secondary disk accretion is a small number of relatively large bodies (planets) in either nonintersecting or resonant orbits, which prevent collisions between them. Asteroids and comets, including KBOs, differ from planets in that they can collide with each other and with planets.

In the aftermath of the IAU's 2006 vote, there has been controversy and debate about the definition,[39][40] and many astronomers have stated that they will not use it.[41] Part of the dispute centres around the belief that point (c) (clearing its orbit) should not have been listed, and that those objects now categorised as dwarf planets should actually be part of a broader planetary definition. The next IAU conference is not until 2009, when modifications could be made to the IAU definition, also possibly including extrasolar planets. Beyond the scientific community, Pluto has held a strong cultural significance for many in the general public considering its planetary status since its discovery in 1930. The discovery of Eris was widely reported in the media as the tenth planet and therefore the reclassification of all three objects as dwarf planets has attracted a lot of media and public attention as well.[42]

Mythology
See also: Days of the week and Naked-eye planet

The gods of Olympus, after whom the Solar System's planets are named The names for the planets in the Western world are derived from the naming practices of the Romans, which ultimately derive from those of the Greeks and the Babylonians. In ancient Greece, the two great luminaries the Sun and the Moon were called Helios and Selene; the farthest planet was called Phainon, the shiner; followed by Phaethon, "bright"; the red planet was known as Pyroeis, the "fiery"; the brightest was known as Phosphoros, the light bringer; and the fleeting final planet was called Stilbon, the gleamer. The Greeks also made each planet sacred to one of their pantheon of gods, the Olympians: Helios and Selene were the names of both planets and gods; Phainon was sacred to Kronos, the Titan who fathered the Olympians; Phaethon was sacred to Zeús, Kronos's son who deposed him as king; Pyroeis was given to Ares, son of Zeus and god of war; Phosphorus was ruled by Aphrodite, the goddess of love; and Hermes, messenger of the gods and god of learning and wit, ruled over Stilbon.[13] The Greek practice of grafting of their gods' names onto the planets was almost certainly borrowed from the Babylonians. The Babylonians named Phosphorus after their goddess of love, Ishtar; Pyroeis after their god of war, Nergal, Stilbon after their god of wisdom Nabu, and Phaethon after their chief god, Marduk.[43] There are too many concordances between Greek and Babylonian naming conventions for them to have arisen separately.[13] The translation was not perfect. For instance, the Babylonian Nergal was a god of war, and thus the Greeks identified him with Ares. However, unlike Ares, Nergal was also god of pestilence and the underworld.[44] Today, most people in the western world know the planets by names derived from the Olympian pantheon of gods. While modern Greeks still use their ancient names for the planets, other European languages, because of the influence of the Roman Empire and, later, the Catholic Church, use the Roman (or Latin) names rather than the Greek ones. The Romans, who, like the Greeks, were Indo-Europeans, shared with them a common pantheon under different names but lacked the rich narrative traditions that Greek poetic culture had given their gods. During the later period of the Roman Republic, Roman writers borrowed much of the Greek narratives and applied them to their own pantheon, to the point where they became virtually indistinguishable.[45] When the Romans studied Greek astronomy, they gave the planets their own gods' names: Mercurius (for Hermes), Venus (Aphrodite), Mars (Ares), Iuppiter (Zeus) and Saturnus (Kronos). When subsequent planets were discovered in the 18th and 19th centuries, the naming practice was retained: Uranus (Ouranos) and Neptūnus (Poseidon). Some Romans, following a belief possibly originating in Mesopotamia but developed in Hellenistic Egypt, believed that the seven gods after whom the planets were named took hourly shifts in looking after affairs on Earth. The order of shifts went Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, Sun, Venus, Mercury, Moon (from the farthest to the closest planet).[46] Therefore, the first day was started by Saturn (1st hour), second day by Sun (25th hour), followed by Moon (49th hour), Mars, Mercury, Jupiter and Venus. Since each day was named by the god that started it, this is also the order of the days of the week in the Roman calendar after the Nundinal cycle was rejected – and still preserved many modern languages.[47] Sunday, Monday, and Saturday are straightforward translations of these Roman names. In English the other days were renamed after Tiw, (Tuesday) Wóden (Wednesday), Thunor (Thursday), and Fríge (Friday), the Anglo-Saxon gods considered similar or equivalent to Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, and Venus respectively. Since Earth was only generally accepted as a planet in the 17th century,[19] there is no tradition of naming it after a god (the same is true, in English at least, of the Sun and the Moon, though they are no longer considered planets). The name originates from the 8th century Anglo-Saxon word erda, which means ground or soil and was first used in writing as the name of the sphere of the Earth perhaps around 1300.[48] [49] It is the only planet whose name in English is not derived from Greco-Roman mythology. Many of the Romance languages retain the old Roman word terra (or some variation of it) that was used with the meaning of "dry land" (as opposed to "sea").[50] However, the non-Romance languages use their own respective native words. The Greeks retain their original name, Γή (Ge or Yi); the Germanic languages,

including English, use a variation of an ancient Germanic word ertho, "ground,"[49] as can be seen in the English Earth, the German Erde, the Dutch Aarde, and the Scandinavian Jorde. Non-European cultures use other planetary naming systems. India uses a naming system based on the Navagraha, which incorporates the seven traditional planets (Surya for the Sun, Chandra for the Moon, and Budha, Shukra, Mangala, Bṛhaspati and Shani for the traditional planets Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn) and the ascending and descending lunar nodes Rahu and Ketu. China and the countries of eastern Asia influenced by it (such as Japan, Korea and Vietnam) use a naming system based on the five Chinese elements: water (Mercury), metal (Venus), fire (Mars), wood (Jupiter) and earth (Saturn).[47]

Formation
Main article: Nebular hypothesis It is not known with certainty how planets are formed. The prevailing theory is that they are formed during the collapse of a nebula into a thin disk of gas and dust. A protostar forms at the core, surrounded by a rotating protoplanetary disk. Through accretion (a process of sticky collision) dust particles in the disk steadily accumulate mass to form ever-larger bodies. Local concentrations of mass known as planetesimals form, and these accelerate the accretion process by drawing in additional material by their gravitational attraction. These concentrations become ever denser until they collapse inward under gravity to form protoplanets.[51] After a planet reaches a diameter larger than the Earth's moon, it begins to accumulate an extended atmosphere, greatly increasing the capture rate of the planetesimals by means of atmospheric drag.[52]

An artist's impression of protoplanetary disk When the protostar has grown such that it ignites to form a star, the surviving disk is removed from the inside outward by photoevaporation, the solar wind, Poynting-Robertson drag and other effects.[53][54] Thereafter there still may be many protoplanets orbiting the star or each other, but over time many will collide, either to form a single larger planet or release material for other larger protoplanets or planets to absorb.[55] Those objects that have become massive enough will capture most matter in their orbital neighbourhoods to become planets. Meanwhile, protoplanets that have avoided collisions may become natural satellites of planets through a process of gravitational capture, or remain in belts of other objects to become either dwarf planets or small Solar System bodies. The energetic impacts of the smaller planetesimals (as well as radioactive decay) will heat up the growing planet, causing it to at least partially melt. The interior of the planet begins to differentiate by mass, developing a denser core.[56] Smaller terrestrial planets lose most of their atmospheres because of this accretion, but the lost gases can be replaced by outgassing from the mantle and from the subsequent impact of comets.[57] (Smaller planets will lose any atmosphere they gain through various escape mechanisms.)

With the discovery and observation of planetary systems around stars other than our own, it is becoming possible to elaborate, revise or even replace this account. The level of metallicity – an astronomical term describing the abundance of chemical elements with an atomic number greater than 2 (helium) – is now believed to determine the likelihood that a star will have planets.[58] Hence it is thought less likely that a metal-poor, population II star will possess a more substantial planetary system than a metal-rich population I star.

Solar System
See also: List of Solar System bodies in hydrostatic equilibrium

The terrestrial planets: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars (Sizes to scale)

The four gas giants against the Sun: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune (Sizes to scale) According to the IAU's current definitions, there are eight planets in the Solar System. In increasing distance from the Sun, they are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune

Jupiter is the largest, at 318 Earth masses, while Mercury is smallest, at 0.055 Earth masses. The planets of the Solar System can be divided into categories based on their composition:

• •

Terrestrials: Planets that are similar to Earth, with bodies largely composed of rock: Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars. Gas giants: Planets with a composition largely made up of gaseous material and are significantly more massive than terrestrials: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune. Ice giants, comprising Uranus and Neptune, are a sub-class of gas giants, distinguished from gas giants by their significantly lower mass, and by depletion in hydrogen and helium in their atmospheres together with a significantly higher proportion of rock and ice. Planetary attributes
Orbital Orbital Inclination Rotation Equatorial Orbital Named [a] radius period to Sun's period Rings Atmosphere [a] Mass diameter eccentricity moons (AU) (years) equator (°) (days)

Name

Mercury Venus Terrestrial s Earth[b] Mars Jupiter Saturn Gas giants Uranus Neptun e
a b

0.382 0.949 1.00 0.532

0.06 0.82 1.00 0.11

0.39 0.72 1.00 1.52

0.24 0.62 1.00 1.88

3.38 3.86 7.25 5.65 6.09 5.51 6.48

0.206 0.007 0.017 0.093 0.048 0.054 0.047

58.64 -243.02 1.00 1.03 0.41 0.43 -0.72

— — 1 2 49 52 27

no no no no yes yes yes

minimal CO2, N2 N2, O2 CO2, N2 H2, He H2, He H2, He

11.209 317.8 5.20 11.86 9.449 4.007 95.2 9.54 29.46

14.6 19.22 84.01

3.883

17.2 30.06 164.8

6.43

0.009

0.67

13

yes

H2, He

Measured relative to the Earth. See Earth article for absolute values.

Dwarf planets
Main article: Dwarf planet Before the August 2006 decision, several objects were proposed by astronomers, including at one stage by the IAU, as planets. However in 2006 several of these objects were reclassified as dwarf planets, objects distinct from planets. Currently five dwarf planets in the Solar System are recognized by the IAU: Ceres,

Pluto, Haumea, Makemake and Eris. Several other objects in both the Asteroid belt and the Kuiper belt are under consideration, with as many as 50 that could eventually qualify. There may be as many as 200 that could be discovered once the Kuiper belt has been fully explored. Dwarf planets share many of the same characteristics as planets, although notable differences remain – namely that they are not dominant in their orbits. Their attributes are: Dwarf planetary attributes
Orbital Orbital Inclination Rotation Orbital radius period to ecliptic period Moons Rings Atmosphere eccentricity (AU) (years) (°) (days)

Name

Equatorial diameter[c]

Mass[c]

Ceres

0.08

0.000 2 2.5–3.0

4.60

10.59

0.080

0.38

0

no

none

Pluto

0.19

0.002 2

29.7– 248.09 49.3 35.2– 285.38 51.5 38.5– 309.88 53.1 37.8– 97.6

17.14

0.249

−6.39

3

no

temporary

Haumea

0.37×0.16 0.000 7

28.19

0.189

0.16

2

Makemake

~0.12

0.000 7

28.96

0.159

?

0

?

? [d]

Eris
c

0.19

0.002 5

~557

44.19

0.442

~0.3

1

?

? [d]

Measured relative to the Earth. d A temporary atmosphere is suspected but has not yet been directly observed by stellar occultation.

By definition, all dwarf planets are members of larger populations. Ceres is the largest body in the asteroid belt, while Pluto and Makemake are members of the Kuiper belt and Eris is a member of the scattered disc. Scientists such as Mike Brown believe that there may soon be over forty trans-Neptunian objects that qualify as dwarf planets under the IAU's recent definition.[59]

Extrasolar planets
Main article: Extrasolar planet

HR 8799, the first extrasolar planetary system to be directly imaged

The first confirmed discovery of an extrasolar planet orbiting an ordinary main-sequence star occurred on 6 October 1995, when Michel Mayor and Didier Queloz of the University of Geneva announced the detection of an exoplanet around 51 Pegasi. Of the 306 extrasolar planets discovered by August 2008, most have masses which are comparable to or larger than Jupiter's, though masses ranging from just below that of Mercury to many times Jupiter's mass have been observed.[60] The smallest extrasolar planets found to date have been discovered orbiting burned-out star remnants called pulsars, such as PSR B1257+12.[61] There have been roughly a dozen extrasolar planets found of between 10 and 20 Earth masses,[60] such as those orbiting the stars Mu Arae, 55 Cancri and GJ 436.[62] These planets have been nicknamed "Neptunes" because they roughly approximate that planet's mass (17 Earths).[63] Another new category are the so-called "super-Earths", possibly terrestrial planets far larger than Earth but smaller than Neptune or Uranus. To date, five possible super-Earths have been found: Gliese 876 d, which is roughly six times Earth's mass,[64] OGLE-2005-BLG-390Lb and MOA-2007-BLG-192Lb, frigid icy worlds discovered through gravitational microlensing,[65][66] and two planets orbiting the nearby red dwarf Gliese 581. Gliese 581 d is roughly 7.7 times Earth's mass,[67] while Gliese 581 c is five times Earth's mass and the first terrestrial planet found within a star's habitable zone.[68] It is far from clear if the newly discovered large planets would resemble the gas giants in the Solar System or if they are of an entirely different type as yet unknown, like ammonia giants or carbon planets. In particular, some of the newly-discovered planets, known as hot Jupiters, orbit extremely close to their parent stars, in nearly circular orbits. They therefore receive much more stellar radiation than the gas giants in the Solar System, which makes it questionable whether they are the same type of planet at all. There may also exist a class of hot Jupiters, called Chthonian planets, that orbit so close to their star that their atmospheres have been blown away completely by stellar radiation. While many hot Jupiters have been found in the process of losing their atmospheres, as of 2008, no genuine Chthonian planets have been discovered.[69] More detailed observation of extrasolar planets will require a new generation of instruments, including space telescopes. Currently the COROT spacecraft is searching for stellar luminosity variations due to transiting planets. Several projects have also been proposed to create an array of space telescopes to search for extrasolar planets with masses comparable to the Earth. These include the proposed NASA's Kepler Mission, Terrestrial Planet Finder, and Space Interferometry Mission programs, the ESA's Darwin, and the CNES' PEGASE.[70] The New Worlds Mission is an occulting device that may work in conjunction with the James Webb Space Telescope. However, funding for some of these projects remains uncertain. The first spectra of extrasolar planets were reported in February 2007 (HD 209458 b and HD 189733 b).[71][72] The frequency of occurrence of such terrestrial planets is one of the variables in the Drake equation which estimates the number of intelligent, communicating civilizations that exist in our galaxy.
[73]

Interstellar "planets"
Main article: Rogue planet Several computer simulations of stellar and planetary system formation have suggested that some objects of planetary mass would be ejected into interstellar space.[74] Some scientists have argued that such objects found roaming in deep space should be classed as "planets". However, others have suggested that they could be low-mass stars.[75] The IAU's working definition on extrasolar planets takes no position on the issue. In 2005, astronomers announced the discovery of Cha 110913-773444, the smallest brown dwarf found to date, at only seven times Jupiter's mass. Since it was not found in orbit around a fusing star, it is a subbrown dwarf according to the IAU's working definition. However, some astronomers believe it should be referred to as a planet.[75] For a brief time in 2006, astronomers believed they had found a binary system of

such objects, Oph 162225-240515, which the discoverers described as "planemos", or "planetary mass objects". However, recent analysis of the objects has determined that their masses are probably each greater than 13 Jupiter-masses, making the pair brown dwarfs.[76][77][78]

Attributes
Although each planet has unique physical characteristics, a number of broad commonalities do exist between them. Some of these characteristics, such as rings or natural satellites, have only as yet been observed in planets in the Solar System, whilst others are also common to extrasolar planets.

Dynamic characteristics
See also: Kepler's laws of planetary motion Orbit

The orbit of the planet Neptune compared to that of Pluto. Note the elongation of Pluto's orbit in relation to Neptune's (eccentricity), as well as its large angle to the ecliptic (inclination). All planets revolve around stars. In the Solar System, all the planets orbit in the same direction as the Sun rotates. It is not yet known whether all extrasolar planets follow this pattern. The period of one revolution of a planet's orbit is known as its sidereal period or year.[79] A planet's year depends on its distance from its star; the farther a planet is from its star, not only the longer the distance it must travel, but also the slower its speed, as it is less affected by the star's gravity. Because no planet's orbit is perfectly circular, the distance of each varies over the course of its year. The closest approach to its star is called its periastron (perihelion in the Solar System), while its farthest separation from the star is called its apastron (aphelion). As a planet approaches periastron, its speed increases as it trades gravitational potential energy for kinetic energy, just as a falling object on Earth accelerates as it falls; as the planet reaches apastron, its speed decreases, just as an object thrown upwards on Earth slows down as it reaches the apex of its trajectory.[80] Each planet's orbit is delineated by a set of elements:

The eccentricity of an orbit describes how elongated a planet's orbit is. Planets with low eccentricities have more circular orbits, while planets with high eccentricities have more elliptical orbits. The planets in the Solar System have very low eccentricities, and thus nearly circular orbits. [79] Comets and Kuiper belt objects (as well as several extrasolar planets) have very high eccentricities, and thus exceedingly elliptical orbits.[81][82]

Illustration of the semi-major axis The semi-major axis is the distance from a planet to the half-way point along the longest diameter of its elliptical orbit (see image). This distance is not the same as its apastron, as no planet's orbit has its star at its exact centre.[79]

The inclination of a planet tells how far above or below an established reference plane its orbit lies. In the Solar System, the reference plane is the plane of Earth's orbit, called the ecliptic. For extrasolar planets, the plane, known as the sky plane or plane of the sky, is the plane of the observer's line of sight from Earth.[83] The eight planets of the Solar System all lie very close to the ecliptic; comets and Kuiper belt objects like Pluto are at far more extreme angles to it.[84] The points at which a planet crosses above and below its reference plane are called its ascending and descending nodes.[79] The longitude of the ascending node is the angle between the reference plane's 0 longitude and the planet's ascending node. The argument of periapsis (or perihelion in the Solar System) is the angle between a planet's ascending node and its closest approach to its star.[79]

Axial tilt

Earth's axial tilt is about 23°. Planets also have varying degrees of axial tilt; they lie at an angle to the plane of their stars' equators. This causes the amount of light received by each hemisphere to vary over the course of its year; when the northern hemisphere points away from its star, the southern hemisphere points towards it, and vice versa. Each planet therefore possesses seasons; changes to the climate over the course of its year. The time at which each hemisphere points farthest or nearest from its star is known as its solstice. Each planet has two in the course of its orbit; when one hemisphere has its summer solstice, when its day is longest, the other has its winter solstice, when its day is shortest. The varying amount of light and heat received by each hemisphere creates annual changes in weather patterns for each half of the planet. Jupiter's axial tilt is very small, so its seasonal variation is minimal; Uranus, on the other hand, has an axial tilt so extreme it is virtually on its side, which means that its hemispheres are either perpetually in sunlight or perpetually in darkness around the time of its solstices.[85] Among extrasolar planets, axial tilts are not known for certain, though most hot Jupiters are believed to possess negligible to no axial tilt, as a result of their proximity to their stars.[86] Rotation The planets also rotate around invisible axes through their centres. A planet's rotation period is known as its day. All planets in the Solar System rotate in a counter-clockwise direction, except for Venus, which rotates clockwise[87] (Uranus is generally said to be rotating clockwise as well[88] though because of its extreme axial tilt, it can be said to be rotating either clockwise or anti-clockwise, depending on whether one states it to be inclined 82° from the ecliptic in one direction, or 98° in the opposite direction).[89] There is great variation in the length of day between the planets, with Venus taking 243 Earth days to rotate, and the gas giants only a few hours.[90] The rotational periods of extrasolar planets are not known; however their proximity to their stars means that hot Jupiters are tidally locked (their orbits are in sync with their rotations). This means they only ever show one face to their stars, with one side in perpetual day, the other in perpetual night.[91] Orbital clearance The defining dynamic characteristic of a planet is that it has cleared its neighborhood. A planet that has cleared its neighborhood has accumulated enough mass to gather up or sweep away all the planetesimals in its orbit. In effect, it orbits its star in isolation, as opposed to sharing its orbit with a multitude of similar-sized objects. This characteristic was mandated as part of the IAU's official definition of a planet in August, 2006. This criterion excludes such planetary bodies as Pluto, Eris and Ceres from full-fledged planethood, making them instead dwarf planets.[1] Although to date this criterion only applies to the Solar

System, a number of young extrasolar systems have been found in which evidence suggests orbital clearing is taking place within their circumstellar discs.[92]

Physical characteristics
Mass A planet's defining physical characteristic is that it is massive enough for the force of its own gravity to dominate over the electromagnetic forces binding its physical structure, leading to a state of hydrostatic equilibrium. This effectively means that all planets are spherical or spheroidal. Up to a certain mass, an object can be irregular in shape, but beyond that point, which varies depending on the chemical makeup of the object, gravity begins to pull an object towards its own centre of mass until the object collapses into a sphere.[93] Mass is also the prime attribute by which planets are distinguished from stars. The upper mass limit for planethood is roughly 13 times Jupiter's mass, beyond which it achieves conditions suitable for nuclear fusion. Other than the Sun, no objects of such mass exist in the Solar System; however a number of extrasolar planets lie at that threshold. The Extrasolar Planets Encyclopedia lists several planets that are close to this limit: HD 38529c, AB Pictorisb, HD 162020b, and HD 13189b. A number of objects of higher mass are also listed, but since they lie above the fusion threshold, they would be better described as brown dwarfs.[60] The smallest known planet, excluding dwarf planets and satellites, is PSR B1257+12 a, one of the first extrasolar planets discovered, which was found in 1992 in orbit around a pulsar. Its mass is roughly half that of the planet Mercury.[60] Internal differentiation

Illustration of the interior of Jupiter, with a rocky core overlaid by a deep layer of metallic hydrogen Every planet began its existence in an entirely fluid state; in early formation, the denser, heavier materials sank to the centre, leaving the lighter materials near the surface. Each therefore has a differentiated interior consisting of a dense planetary core surrounded by a mantle which either is or was a fluid. The terrestrial planets are sealed within hard crusts,[94] but in the gas giants the mantle simply dissolves into the upper cloud layers. The terrestrial planets possess cores of magnetic elements such as iron and nickel, and mantles of silicates. Jupiter and Saturn are believed to possess cores of rock and metal surrounded by mantles of metallic hydrogen.[95] Uranus and Neptune, which are smaller, possess rocky cores surrounded by mantles of water, ammonia, methane and other ices.[96] The fluid action within these planets' cores creates a geodynamo that generates a magnetic field.[94] Atmosphere See also: Extraterrestrial atmospheres

Earth's atmosphere All of the Solar System planets have atmospheres as their large masses mean gravity is strong enough to keep gaseous particles close to the surface. The larger gas giants are massive enough to keep large amounts of the light gases hydrogen and helium close by, while the smaller planets lose these gases into space.[97] The composition of the Earth's atmosphere is different from the other planets because the various life processes that have transpired on the planet have introduced free molecular oxygen.[98] The only solar planet without a substantial atmosphere is Mercury which had it mostly, although not entirely, blasted away by the solar wind.[99] Planetary atmospheres are affected by the varying degrees of energy received from either the Sun or their interiors, leading to the formation of dynamic weather systems such as hurricanes, (on Earth), planet-wide dust storms (on Mars), an Earth-sized anticyclone on Jupiter (called the Great Red Spot), and holes in the atmosphere (on Neptune).[85] At least one extrasolar planet, HD 189733 b, has been claimed to possess such a weather system, similar to the Great Red Spot but twice as large.[100] Hot Jupiters have been shown to be losing their atmospheres into space due to stellar radiation, much like the tails of comets.[101][102] These planets may have vast differences in temperature between their day and night sides which produce supersonic winds,[103] although the day and night sides of HD 189733b appear to have very similar temperatures, indicating that that planet's atmosphere effectively redistributes the star's energy around the planet.[100] Magnetosphere

Schematic of Earth's magnetosphere One important characteristic of the planets is their intrinsic magnetic moments which in turn give rise to magnetospheres. The presence of a magnetic field indicates that the planet is still geologically alive. In other words, magnetized planets have flows of electrically conducting material in their interiors, which generate their magnetic fields. These fields significantly change the interaction of the planet and solar wind. A magnetized planet creates a cavity in the solar wind around itself called magnetosphere, which the wind cannot penetrate. The magnetosphere can be much larger than the planet itself. In contrast, nonmagnetized planets have only small magnetospheres induced by interaction of the ionosphere with the solar wind, which can't effectively protect the planet.[104] Of the eight planets in the Solar System, only Venus and Mars lack such a magnetic field.[104] In addition, the moon of Jupiter Ganymede also has one. Of the magnetized planets the magnetic field of Mercury is the weakest, and is barely able to deflect the solar wind. Ganymede's magnetic field is several times larger, and Jupiter's is the strongest in the Solar System (so strong in fact that it poses a serious health risk to future manned missions to its moons). The magnetic fields of the other giant planets are roughly similar in strength to that of Earth, but their magnetic moments are significantly larger. The magnetic fields of Uranus and Neptune are strongly tilted relative the rotational axis and displaced from the centre of the planet.[104] In 2004, a team of astronomers in Hawaii observed an extrasolar planet around the star HD 179949, which appeared to be creating a sunspot on the surface of its parent star. The team hypothesised that the planet's magnetosphere was transferring energy onto the star's surface, increasing its already high 14,000 degree temperature by an additional 750 degrees.[105]

Secondary characteristics

Several planets or dwarf planets in the Solar System (such as Neptune and Pluto) have orbital periods that are in resonance with each other or with smaller bodies (this is also common in satellite systems). All except Mercury and Venus have natural satellites, often called "moons." Earth has one, Mars has two, and the gas giants have numerous moons in complex planetary-type systems. Many gas giant moons have similar features to the terrestrial planets and dwarf planets, and some have been studied as possible abodes of life (especially Europa).[106][107][108]

The rings of Saturn The four gas giants are also orbited by planetary rings of varying size and complexity. The rings are composed primarily of dust or particulate matter, but can host tiny 'moonlets' whose gravity shapes and maintains their structure. Although the origins of planetary rings is not precisely known, they are believed to be the result of natural satellites that fell below their parent planet's Roche limit and were torn apart by tidal forces.[109][110] No secondary characteristics have been observed around extrasolar planets. However the sub-brown dwarf Cha 110913-773444, which has been described as a rogue planet, is believed to be orbited by a tiny protoplanetary disc.[75]

See also
Astronomy portal Solar System portal Space portal • • • • • • • • • •

Extraterrestrial skies Hypothetical planetary object Landings on other planets Minor planet – celestial body smaller than a planet Planetary habitability Planetary science Exoplanetology Planets in astrology Planets in science fiction Theoretical planetology

Notes

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