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Cognitive Processes 1

Running Head: COGNITIVE PROCESSES

Cognitive Processes

[name of the writer]

[name of the institution ]

[name of the Professor]

[Course]

.
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Cognitive Processes

Introduction

The term cognition refers to an ability to process information, apply knowledge, and change

penchants. Cognitive processes can be innate or acquired, cognizant or cataleptic. These

processes are analyzed from varied viewpoints within different framework, especially in the

fields of psychology, anesthesia, neurology, systemics, philosophy and computer science. In

philosophy and psychology, the concept of cognition pertains to intelligence, reasoning,

learning, perception and other such capabilities of the mind. (Sci-Tech Encyclopedia:

Cognition Definition from Answers.com).

In psychology the term is used to refer to the mental tasks and thoughts. The field especially

concentrates on the understanding of particular mental processes like inference,

comprehension, planning, decision-making and learning.

The term “cognition” is also used to define the knowledge, and may also be interpreted in a

social or cultural aspect to portray the emergence of knowledge and ideologies within a

faction.

The Three Chosen Cognitive Processes

For this paper I have chosen critical thinking and logical argument; decision making and

problem solving as my research topics.

Reasons behind the Selection

A number of reasons have contributed towards my selection of these three topics. First of all

there is this increased level of awareness about all of the aforementioned cognitive processes,

at the same time the amount of work researchers are doing on these topics is really colossal

and inspiring. Secondly, there is this increased number of available studies on these three

topics courtesy of the current hype about a deep inside into knowledge about these three most

confounding human functions. And lastly, because I have also developed a penchant for these
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three topics as these three terms have become household words used by everyone and

everywhere, this buzz-effect has had its effect on myself as well.

Summary of the Study. Duplass, J. A., Ziedler, D. L. (2002). Critical thinking and logical

argument. Social Education.

Critical thinking and logical argument is one of the most important, yet, most ignored facets

of Cognitive processes. Stuart Chase was probably the first man during the last century who

had attempted to make citizens notice deceptive point of views in public policy issues. Even

in today’s modern age, all the attention has been paid by teachers to critical thinking skills,

and little/no attention has been given to differentiate valid and misleading arguments that are

a vital part of critical thinking. The study under scrutiny analyzes this problem and in the

mean time also tries to present a few suggestions to eradicate this hitch.

Barry Beyer presented one of the best concepts of critical thinking. His operations were

derived from a multitude of literature from language arts, science, and social studies. Its main

points were distinguishing between provable facts and value statements; differentiating

relevant from irrelevant interpretations or causes; assessing the realistic correctness of a

statement; judging the reliability of a source; identifying confusing statements; identifying

unspoken suppositions; detecting prejudice; finding rational fallacies; recognizing reasonable

discrepancies in reasoning; assessing the general potency of an case or conclusion. Critical

thinking operations are perhaps best demonstrated in the area of argumentation. When

students are made to make assertions, support and defend their claims through an intense line

of reasoning, and evaluating the efficacy of counter arguments during these discussions, they

start making use of the functions listed above. A failure to use them during dialogue results in

erroneous reasoning and imperfect construction of ideas and opinions. Some of the most

common fallacies are attacked and neutralized in this study by the author, he severely

criticizes the practices of “ad hominem” (argument to the man) (attacking someone's
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character instead of the accuracy of his/her statements or criticizing some personal aspect of

the speaker which is totally unrelated to the topic or pointing out some special event or

connection that might have existed between the speaker and the topic at hand, but which is

not very relevant to the legitimacy of their statements), “appeal to authority” (depending upon

an expert in one field for advice in a completely different field), “appeal to popularity”

(believing a particular claim acceptable or accurate only because one thinks that all other

people believe in the same manner), “begging the question” also known as circular reasoning

(including in the heat of an argument some part of the very same claim about which they are

arguing), “false dilemma” (assuming that there are only two possible options, when, in fact,

there may be more), “equivocation” (using the same word with different intended meanings

in different places within an argument) and “inadequate sampling” (making or accepting a

generalization on the basis of a very inadequate or non-randomly selected sample failing to

attend to new evidence or revisit an opinion already held).

Summary of the Study. Hartzler, G., Hartzler, M. (2005). Functions of Type: Activities to

Develop the Eight Jungian Functions. Telos Publications.

Nearly every one of us, at one time or another would like to accumulate more functional data

in order to make better decisions. When one commit mistakes, he/she always pledges

himself/herself to pay more attention in the future to what is going on and to take into

account all the factors before making a final decision. But the reality is, one might not know

the way to pay proper attention to the happenings and he/she has little or no idea how to mull

over all the aspects of the issue at hand before making a right decision.

This particular study provides one with a multitude of activities that he/she can use to fortify

his/her memory and data-collection skills along with their respective decision-making ability.

According to the study, these particular mental skills that one try so hard to gain are

associated with the eight psychological functions originally described by Carl Jung in his
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legendary book Psychological Types. Over the last century, many practitioners have been

distilling the description of these eight functions in order to make them sharper and crispier.

This study has primarily focused on procedures to make individual selections about one’s

self-development incorporating these highly refined definitions.

Carl Jung and Isabel Myers have explained a progression of psychological evolution which is

now known as type development. Its basis was kept on Jung’s characterization of four

perceiving functions in juxtaposition with four judging functions. This evolutionary process

necessitates awareness of one’s own self and the traditions by which he/she collects data and

makes the ultimate decisions.

There exists this natural struggle between dissimilar processes: as one develops any one facet

of his self/herself, he/she unsurprisingly makes it harder to develop the other facet of his

self/herself, there was an innate consciousness of this struggle in Jung’s work. The main

purpose of this study is to help one focus his/her self-development labors on those under-

developed feature of his/her.

Summary of the Study. Lee, Y.; Baylor, A. L.; Nelson, D. W. (2005). Supporting Problem-

Solving Performance through the Construction of Knowledge Maps. Journal of Interactive

Learning Research.

This study gives five empirically-derived guiding principles for knowledge map construction

tools in order to assist problem solving. First, the combinational representation principle

which says that conceptual and parallel procedural knowledge should be represented together,

instead of rather than separately, within the knowledge map. Second, the contextual

enhancement principle which proposes that learner ought to supply information related to the

context of the problem within the knowledge map. Third, the spatial flexibility principle

offers a flexible and natural space where learners represent concepts. Fourth is the property

association principle which recommends that the extent of relationship between the concept
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under study and related processes should be classified by the user within the knowledge map.

And lastly, the multiple representation principle which suggests that the knowledge map

construction tool should have the capacity to symbolize concepts through various modalities.

This study also presents a model of a new knowledge map construction tool that takes into

account all of the above principles.

The knowledge map is found to be useful particularly for making easier. These maps may

facilitate users to externalize their internal problem-solving processes and as a consequence

recognize functional information embed in the problem at hand; recover and rearrange their

past knowledge with fresh knowledge that is carefully associated with the problem; recognize

probable limitations; and produce astute ideas. Problem-solving performance requires both

conceptual and procedural knowledge. Conventional knowledge maps do not adequately

represent the background of a given problem.

Evaluation of Research Methodology Used

Many individuals demonstrate forms of provincialism and are sometimes egocentric and/or

ethnocentric in their reasoning. This limits their ability to objectively evaluate statements.

Before analyzing and criticizing another person's standpoint, one has to listen vigilantly what

that person is saying. Tolerance is a quality that is lauded by many, but it is extremely

difficult to practice. This tolerance provides one a chance to test the strength of one’s

reasoning and opinions. The first study is an excellent source of strengthening one’s

reasoning and thinking. The second study is more complex in nature but the underlying gist is

that way to better decision making goes through better data storage and analysis, so the study

has provided many tips for this purpose. The third study is deemed to develop learners’

problem solving by facilitating them to merge concept with process, present the conceptuality

of the problem, go beyond the constraints of two-dimensional representational space,

categorize concept/process relations, and assist multiple modalities during the development
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of a knowledge map. Among the more common instructional approaches used to help

individuals make decisions concerning societal issues are values clarification, decision-

making, and inquiry.

Mostly these concepts were developed after centuries of human research and theory, still

empirical studies are necessary to test the efficacy of them. If empirical studies show that the

concept under study is vague or slightly miscued further fine-tuning of the concept can be

explored and tested. The end result could be a concept that optimizes the knowledge legacy

of mankind.
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Reference

Duplass, J. A., Ziedler, D. L. (2002). Critical thinking and logical argument. Social

Education. Volume: 66. Issue: 5. Page Number: M10+.

Hartzler, G., Hartzler, M. (2005). Functions of Type: Activities to Develop the Eight Jungian

Functions. Telos Publications.

Lee, Y.; Baylor, A. L.; Nelson, D. W. (2005). Supporting Problem-Solving Performance

through the Construction of Knowledge Maps. Journal of Interactive Learning

Research. Volume: 16. Issue: 2. Page Number: 117+. COPYRIGHT 2005 Association

for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE); COPYRIGHT 2005 Gale

Group

Sci-Tech Encyclopedia: Cognition Definition from Answers.com. Retrieved October 30,

2008 from http://www.answers.com/topic/cognition