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MEPERIDINE

Definition
Meperidine hydrochloride, is a white crystalline substance with a melting
point of 186C to 189C. It is readily soluble in water and has a neutral
reaction and a slightly bitter taste. he solution is not decomposed by a
short period of boiling.
Misused
Meperidine is an opioid agonist of the morphine!type. "uch drugs are
sought by drug abusers and people with addiction disorders and are
sub#ect to criminal di$ersion.
Meperidine is a mu!agonist opioid with an abuse liability similar to
morphine and is a "chedule II controlled substance. Meperidine, li%e
morphineand other opioids used in analgesia, can be abused and is sub#ect
to criminal di$ersion.
&rug addiction is characteri'ed by compulsi$e use, use for non!medical
purposes, and continued use despite harm or ris% of harm. &rug addiction
is a treatable disease, utili'ing a multidisciplinary approach, but relapse is
common.
Meperidine can be abused in a manner similar to other opioid agonists,
legal or illicit. his should be considered when prescribing or dispensing
Meperidine in situations where the physician or pharmacist is concerned
about an increased ris% of misuse, abuse, or di$ersion.
Meperidine has been reported as being abused by crushing, chewing,
snorting, or in#ecting the dissol$ed product. hese practices will result in
the uncontrolled deli$ery of the opioid and pose a significant ris% to the
abuser that could result in o$erdose or death
Use in Drug and Alcohol Addiction
Meperidine is an opioid with no appro$ed use in the management of
addicti$e disorders. Its proper usage in indi$iduals with drug or alcohol
dependence, either acti$e or in remission, is for the management of pain
re(uiring opioid analgesia. Meperidine should be used with caution in
patients with alcoholism and other drug dependencies due to the
increased fre(uency of narcotic tolerance, dependence, and the ris% of
addiction obser$ed in these patient populations. )buse of Meperidine in
combination with other C*" depressant drugs can result in serious ris% to
the patient.
Percodan
Percodan Uses
Percodan is an opioid painkiller used to treat short-term pain considered moderate to
moderately severe. It is made up of aspirin and oxycodone, an opiate. Percodan was
first prescribed in 1950, marketed by DuPont Pharmaceuticals. One tablet contains
4.62 mg of oxycodone hydrochloride, 0.38 mg of oxycodone terephthalate and 325
mg of aspirin. Once widely prescribed in the United States, many health care
professionals instead prescribe other oxycodone compounds, such as Percocet, which
contains acetaminophen instead of aspirin. Both Norco and Vicodin contain
hydrocodone and acetaminophen, and tend to be favored by doctors for post-operative
pain.
Percodan is classified by the U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency as a Schedule II
controlled substance, in the same class as cocaine and morphine. This means it cannot
be filled by telephone and refills are not allowed. The DEA classifies drugs according
to their potential to be abused and habit-forming. Vicodin and Norco are not as
heavily regulated and are considered Schedule III controlled substances. Percodan is
manufactured by Endo Pharmaceuticals. The most commonly prescribed dose is one
pill every six hours as needed for pain. Daily dose should not exceed 4 grams or 12
tablets.
Percodan Components: Oxycodone And Aspirin
Oxycodone is a semi-synthetic opioid used for pain relief. It can cause euphoria,
feelings of relaxation and respiratory depression. It is also considered useful as a
cough suppressant. Aspirin inhibits the bodys production of prostaglandins, which
can cause pain by stimulating muscle contractions and dilating blood vessels in the
body. It is also a fever reducer. Percodan is not recommended for anyone who is
allergic to either. Caution should be taken when driving or performing other tasks that
require alertness. Percodan should not be taken with alcohol, other opiates, sedatives,
tranquilizers or other central nervous system depressants. Because aspirin use in
children and teens can cause Reye Syndrome, Percodan should not be prescribed to
them.
Percodan Misuse, Abuse, Dependence, Withdrawal
& Oerdose
All opiates have the potential to cause dependency, and prescription painkiller abuse
has skyrocketed in recent years. The makers of Percodan say it is susceptible to
misuse, abuse and diversion, whether legally prescribed or not. A tolerance can
develop with use of Percodan, requiring the patient to take more and more to achieve
the pain-killing effect. Withdrawal symptoms can set in when prolonged use is
abruptly discontinued. According to the manufacturer, they include: Flu-like
symptoms, restlessness, yawning, irritability, anxiety, joint pain, aches, weakness,
insomnia, nausea, abdominal cramps, vomiting, diarrhea, and increase of blood
pressure and heart rate. Overdose of Percodan can cause respiratory depression,
stupor, coma, and cold and clammy skin. In severe cases, overdose can cause
circulatory collapse, cardiac arrest or death.
DARVON
Propoxyphene is a narcotic pain-reliever and cough suppressant
but is weaker than morphine, codeine, and hydrocodone. The
precise mechanism of action is not known but may involve
stimulation of opioid (narcotic) receptors in the brain.
Propoxyphene increases pain tolerance and decreases discomfort
but the presence of pain still is apparent. n addition to pain
reduction, propoxyphene also causes sedation and respiratory
depression