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Harmonically Forced

SDOF Oscillator

181

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

18.1.

18.2.

18.3.

Introduction

Harmonically Excited Viscous-Damped SDOF Oscillator

18.2.1.

Equation of Motion and Steady-State Solution

18.2.2.

Magnication Factor and Phase Lag

. . .

18.2.3.

Frequency Response Features . . . . . .

18.2.4.

Total Response

. . . . . . . . . .

Response to Harmonic Base Excitation

182

.

. .

.

. .

. .

.

. .

.

.

. .

.

. .

. .

.

. .

.

183

183

184

184

185

186

186

18.2

18.1. Introduction

This Lecture generalizes the solutions presented in Lecture 17 for the SDOF oscillator by considering

an applied harmonic force for t 0. The frequency of this harmonic force is called the exciting

frequency. This forced SDOF conguration is called the forced harmonic oscillator.

When an external force is applied, the EOM, while still a second-order ODE, becomes nonhomogenous.

The total response is the superposition of the homogeneous solution, which is dened by the initial

conditions, and the particular solution, which is dened by the prescribed harmonic force. Structural

engineers call these two components the starting transient or simply transient, and the steady-state

components of the dynamic response, respectively.

Those names suggest that the particular (= steady-state) solution will eventually dominate. And indeed

if even a slight amount of damping is present, the homogenous component becomes negligible after

sufcient time has elapsed, and we can focus our attention on the particular or steady-state solution.

This focus will allow us to exhibit the important phenomenon of resonance. This term quanties the

response amplication that occurs when the exciting frequency approaches the natural frequency of

the oscillator.

We will consider a damped oscillator from the start since the presence of damping is crucial in establishing the peak magnitude of resonance amplication. The undamped case can be easily recovered

by setting the damping factor to zero.

;;

(a)

Static equilibrium

position

Dynamic

motion

Fs =k u

u=u(t)

.

F =cu

d

Mass m

Mass m

Figure 18.1.

(b)

p0 cos t

..

FI = m u

excitation: (a) dynamic equilibrium position; (b) dynamic FBD.

We consider again the mass-dashpot-spring system studied in 17.3, but now subjected to a harmonic

excitation force

(18.1)

p(t) = p0 cos t,

183

(a)

(b)

200

100

Magnification factor Ds

100

50

=0.01

10

5

=0.1

=0.2

=0.5

1

0.5

=1

=5

0.1

0.2

0.5

Frequency ratio r = /n

=5

=1

=0.5

=0.2

50

20

10

=0.1

=0.01

2

0

10

0.5

1.5

Frequency ratio r = /n

Figure 18.2. Axially loaded ductile bar: failure by yield due to crystal slip at 45 .

in which is the excitation frequency. See Figure 18.1(a). Note that all static actions, such as gravity,

are omitted from the drawing to improve clarity, being tacitly understood that u = u(t) is the dynamic

motion measured from the static equilibrium position.

18.2.1. Equation of Motion and Steady-State Solution

The DFD shown in Figure 18.1(b) gives us the dynamic equations

m u + c u + k u = p0 cos t.

(18.2)

As remarked in the Introduction, the complete response will be the sum of the transient (= homogenous)

and steady-state (= particular)components. If damping is present, after a while the transient part, which

is that dependent on initial conditions, becomes unimportant. This solution, denoted by u p (t), with

subscript p for particular, is conveniently expressed in the phased form

u p (t) = U cos( t ).

(18.3)

u p (t) = U sin( t ),

u p (t) =

U cos( t ).

(18.4)

Inserting this into the EOM (18.2), and representing its components as a force vector polygon in the

phase space (see Craig-Kurdila, pages 8788) we obtain

(k U m

2

U )2 + (c U )2 = p0 ,

tan =

c

km

(18.5)

For convenience introduce the static displacement U0 and the frequency ratio as

U0 =

p0

,

k

184

r=

(18.6)

18.2

(a)

(b)

175

Magnification factor D

s

10

150

=0.01

125

100

=0.1

4

=0.2

2

0

=1

=5

0

=0.5

1

0.5

1.5

75

25

0

Frequency ratio r = /n

=5

=1

=0.2

=0.5

50

=0.1

=0.01

1

0.5

1.5

Frequency ratio r = /n

Figure 18.3. Frequency response log plots for harmonically forced viscous-damped oscillator: (a) plot of

magnication factor versus frequency ratio; (b) plot of phase lag angle versus frequency ratio.

(a)

(b)

200

100

Magnification factor Ds

100

50

=0.01

10

5

=0.1

=0.2

=0.5

1

0.5

=1

=5

0.1

0.2

0.5

Frequency ratio r = /n

=5

=1

=0.5

=0.2

50

20

10

=0.1

=0.01

10

0.5

1.5

Frequency ratio r = /n

Figure 18.4. Frequency response log plots for harmonically forced viscous-damped oscillator: (a) log-log

plot of magnication factor versus frequency ratio; (b) log plot of phase lag angle versus frequency ratio.

Observe that U0 is the displacement that the mass would undergo if a force of magnitude p0 were to

be applied statically.

With the help of (18.6) the the expressions in (18.5) can be compactly expressed as

def

Ds (r ) =

U (r )

=

U0

1

(1 r 2 )2 + (2r )2

tan (r ) =

2 r

.

1 r2

(18.7)

Here Ds is the steady-state magnication factor, also called gain. These are plotted in Figures 18.2(a,b).

The peaks observed as r is near unity and << 1 identify resonance.

Since Ds may be quite large near resonance whereas r may cover a broad range of frequencies, the

plots are often shown in log-log format, as shown in Figure 18.3(a,b). The log-log frequency plot is

known in control applications as the Bode plot.

185

Prescribed

base motion

ub =Ub cos ( t b )

;;;

;;;

(a)

Static equilibrium k

position for zero

base motion

u=u(t)

(b)

c

. .

F =c (u ub)

d

Fs =k (u ub)

Mass m

..

FI = m u

Figure 18.5. Damped spring-dashpot-mass oscillator under prescribed harmonic base

motion: (a) dynamic equilibrium position; (d) dynamic FBD.

The combination of amplitude versus frequency and phhase versus frequency information is called the

frequency response of the system. Graphs such as shown in Figures 18.2 and 18.3 are called frequency

response plots. The following signicant features can be observed:

1.

The steady state motion (18.3) is also harmonic and has the same frequency

as the excitation.

2.

The amplitude of the steady-state response is a function of both the amplitude and frequency

of the excitation, as well as of the natural frequency and damping factor of the system. The

magnication factor Ds may be considerably greater than unity (near resonance) or may be less

than unity.

3.

The excitation p0 cos t and the steady-state response u p = U cos( t ) are not in phase;

meaning that they do not attain their maximum values at the same times. The steady-state

Transcribing results of Lecture 17 for the free damped oscillator, the total response may be expressed

as

u h (t) = e n t (A1 cos n t + A2 sinn t).

(18.8)

where Ds and are given by (18.7) whereas A1 and A2 in the homogeneous solution u h (t) are

determined by the initial conditions. Since u h (t) dies out with time if > 0, that justies the name

starting transient in commonly uses by structural engineers.

u(t) = U0 Ds cos ( t ) + u h (t),

in which

Suppose now that the SDOF oscillator is not subject to an applied force, but instead the base displaces

by a prescribed harmonic motion specied in the form

u b (t) = Ub cos( t ),

186

(18.9)

18.3

See Figure 18.4(a). This kind of excitation is commonly called ground motion or ground excitation

in Civil structures subject to seismic loads. It also appears in vibration isolation design problems in

which equipment, instruments or payloads must be protected from base vibratory motions caused by

launches, maneuvers, etc. It is also the conguration pertinent to vibration resonance tests such as the

Airplane Shaker Lab 3 demos on November 9.

Assume that the only excitation is base motion. From the FBD of Figure 18.4(b) we get FI +Fs +Fd = 0,

or

(18.10)

m u + k(u u b ) + c(u u b ) = 0,

Passing the prescribed motion terms to the RHS we arrive at the EOM:

m u + cu + ku = ku b + cu b .

(18.11)

m u + cu + ku = Ub k cos( t b ) c ) sin( t b ) .

(18.12)

Comparing to (18.2) shows that this is similar to the equation of motion of a harmonically forced

oscillator, except that both cosine and sine terms are present in the forcing function. If the damping

vanishes: c = 0, (18.12) and (18.2) are identical if U0 is replaced by k Ub .

187

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