Lec1-Steel-Design-2nd-Sem-2011-12

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Lec1-Steel-Design-2nd-Sem-2011-12

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1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 Structural Design

The structural design of buildings, whether of structural steel or reinforced

concrete requires the determination of the overall proportions and

dimensions of the supporting framework and the selection of the cross-

sections of individual members.

PRIORITIES OF THE DESIGN:

1

ST

: Safety

2

nd

: Serviceability

How well the structure performs in terms of appearance and deflection

3

rd

: Economy

An economical structure requires an efficient use of materials and

construction labor

A good design requires the evaluation of several framing plans that is,

different arrangements of members and their connections.

1.2 Loads

The forces that act on a structure are called loads.

Two Broad Categories:

1. Dead Loads are those that are permanent, including the

weight of the structure itself, which is sometimes called the self-

weight. In addition to the weight of the structure, dead loads in

a building include the weight of nonstructural components such

as floor coverings, partitions, and suspended ceilings (with light

fixtures, mechanical equipment, and plumbing). All the loads

mentioned thus far are forces resulting from gravity and

referred to as gravity loads.

2. Live Loads which can also be gravity loads, are those that

are not as permanent as dead loads. They may or may not be

acting on the structure at any given time, and the location may

not be fixed. Examples of live loads include furniture,

equipment, and occupants of buildings. In general, the

magnitude of a live load is not as well defined as that of a dead

load, and it usually must be estimated.

Special Categories of Loading:

1. Wind Loads belongs in the category of live loads but

considered a separate category because of the relative

complexity of determining wind loads. Wind exerts a pressure

or suction on the exterior surfaces of building.

2. Earthquake Loads need to be considered only in those

geographic locations where there is a reasonable probability of

occurrence.

1.3 Building Codes

Buildings must be designed and constructed according to the provisions

of a building code, which is a legal document containing requirements

related to such things as structural safety, fire safety, plumbing,

ventilation, and accessibility to the physically disabled. A building code

has the force of law and is administered by a governmental entity such as

a city or for, some large metropolitan areas, a consolidated government.

Building codes do not give design procedures, but they do specify the

design requirements and constraints that must be satisfied. Of particular

importance to the structural engineer is the prescription of minimum live

loads for buildings. Although the engineer is encouraged to investigate

the actual loading conditions and attempt to determine realistic values,

the structure must be able to support these minimum loads.

US Codes

1. Uniform Building Code

2. Standard Building Code

3. Building Officials and Code Administrators (BOCA) National

Building Code

4. International Building Code

5. American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) 7, Minimum

Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures (not a building

code)

Philippine Codes

National Building Code of the Philippines

National Structural Code of the Philppines

1.4 Design Specifications

In contrast to building codes, design specifications give more specific

guidance for the design of structural members and their connections.

They present the guidelines and criteria that enable a structural engineer

to achieve the objectives mandated by a building code. Design

specifications represent what is considered to be good engineering

practice based on latest research. They are periodically revised and

updated by the issuance of supplements or completely new editions. As

with model building codes, design specifications are written in a legal

format by nonprofit organizations. They have no legal standing on their

own, but by presenting design criteria and limits in the form of legal

mandates and prohibitions, they can easily be adopted, by reference, as

part of a building code.

The specifications of most interest to the structural steel designer are

those published by the following organizations.

US

1. American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC)

2. AASHTO

3. American Railway Engineering and Maintenance-of-Way

Association (AREMA)

4. American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI)

Philippines

National Structural Code of the Philppines 2001 (5

th

edition)

National Structural Code of the Philppines 2010 (6

th

edition)

1.5 Structural Steel

Steel, an alloy of iron and carbon, with fewer impurities and less carbon

than cast iron, was first used in heavy construction in the 19

th

century.

Properties of Structural Steel

1. Strength

2. Ductility

Stress-strain diagram for steel

Modulus of Elasticity

Est = 29000 ksi or 200000 MPa

Strain Energy Densities

a. Modulus of Resilience

b. Modulus of Toughness

Structural Steel can be grouped according to their composition as follows:

1. Plain carbon steels: mostly iron and carbon, with less than 1%

carbon.

2. Low-alloy steels: iron and carbon plus other components

(usually less than 5%). The additional components are primarily

for increasing strength, which is accomplished at the expense

of a reduction of ductility.

3. High-alloy or specialty steels: similar in composition to the low-

ally steels but with higher percentage of the components added

to iron and carbon. These steels are higher in strength than the

plain carbon steels and also have some special quality, such

as resistance to corrosion.

ASTM A36 or A36 mild steel one of the most commonly used

structural steels

Tensile Properties:

Yield Stress: Fy = 36 ksi or 248 MPa

Tensile Strength: Fu = 58 to 80 ksi or 400 to 550 MPa

Components:

Carbon: 0.26% (maximum)

Phosphorous: 0.04% (maximum)

Sulfur: 0.05% (maximum)

Two other commonly used structural steels

Property A36

A572

Grade 50

A992

Yield Point, min 36 ksi 50 ksi 50 ksi

Tensile strength, min 58 to 80 ksi 65 ksi 65 ksi

Yield to tensile ratio, max - - 0.85

Elongation in 203.2 mm,

min

20% 18% 18%

1.6 Standard Cross-Sectional Shapes

Cross sections of some of the more commonly used hot-rolled

shapes are shown

Other frequently used cross-sectional shapes are shown (done by

welding or hot-rolling for hollow shapes):

Plate is designated as PL

Example: PL 3/8 x 5 x 3-2 (thickness, width, length)

Steel Pipe is designated as Pipe

Pipe 14 S (standard)

Pipe 14 x-strong (extra strong)

Pipe 14 xx-strong (double extra strong)

Example: Pipe 14.000x0.375 (nominal outer diameter, wall thickness in

inch)

Round HSS

Example: HSS 8.625 x 0.250 (outer diameter and wall thickness)

Square and Rectangular HSS

Example: HSS 7 x 5 x 3/8 (nominal outside dimensions and wall

thickness)

Built-up Sections

Shape Preferred Steel

Angles A36

Plates A36

S, M, C, MC A36 Or A572 Grade 50

HP A572 Grade 50

W A992

Pipe A53 Grade B (only choice)

HSS A 500 Grade B or C

Cold Formed Steel

PROBLEMS:

Situation No.1 A tension test for a steel alloy results in the stress-strain

diagram shown in Figure. Calculate the modulus of elasticity and the yield

strength based on a 0.2% offset. Identify on the graph the ultimate stress

and fracture stress.

Situation No.2 A tension test was performed on a steel specimen having

an original diameter of 12.5 mm and gauge length of 50 mm. Using the

data listed in the table, plot the stress-strain diagram, and determine

approximately the modulus of toughness. Use a scale of 20 mm = 50

MPa and 20 mm = 0.05 mm/mm.

Load (kN) Elongation (mm)

0 0

11.1 0.0175

31.9 0.0600

37.8 0.1020

40.9 0.1650

43.6 0.2490

53.4 1.0160

62.3 3.0480

64.5 6.3500

62.3 8.8900

58.8 11.9380

Situation No.3 A tensile test was performed on a metal specimen with a

circular cross section. The diameter was measured to be 0.550 inch. Two

marks were mode along the length of the specimen and were measured

to be 2.030 inches apart. This distance is defined as the gage length, and

all length measurements are made between two marks. The specimen

was loaded to failure. Fracture occurred at a load of 28500 pounds. The

specimen was then reassembled, and the diameter and gage length were

measured to be 0.430 inch and 2.300 inches. Determine the

a. Ultimate stress in ksi

b. Elongation as a percentage

c. Reduction in cross-sectional area as a percentage

Situation No.4

Situation No.5

2. CONCEPTS IN STRUCTURAL STEEL DESIGN

2.1 Design Philosophies

The fundamental requirement of structural design is that the required

strength not exceed the available strength; that is,

In Allowable Strength Design (ASD), a member is selected that has

cross-sectional properties such as area and moment of inertia that are

large enough to prevent the maximum applied axial force, shear, or

bending moment from exceeding an allowable, or permissible, value.

Where

If stresses are used instead of forces and moments, the relationship

becomes

This approach is called Allowable Stress Design or Elastic/Working

Stress Design. Working stresses are those resulting from the working

loads (or service loads), which are the applied loads.

Plastic design is based on a consideration of failure conditions rather

than working load conditions. Failure in this context means either

collapse or substantially higher than the working load. A member is

selected by using criterion that the structure will fail at a load substantially

higher than the working load.

This design procedure is roughly as follows.

1. Multiply the working loads (service loads) by the load factor to

obtain failure loads.

2. Determine the cross-sectional properties needed to resist

failure under these loads. (A member with these properties is

said to have sufficient strength and would be at the verge of

failure when subjected to the factored loads.)

3. Select the lightest cross-sectional shape that has these

properties.

Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) is similar to plastic design in

that strength, or the failure condition, is considered. Load factors are

applied to the service loads, and a member is selected that will have

enough strength to resist the factored loads. In addition, the theoretical

strength of the member is reduced by the application of a resistance

factor.

The factored loads area the loads that bring the structure or member to

its limit. In terms of safety, this limit state can be fracture, yielding, or

buckling, and the factored resistance is the useful strength of the

member, reduced from the theoretical value by the resistance factor. The

limit state can also be done of serviceability, such as a maximum

acceptable deflection.

2.2 Load Factors, Resistance Factors, and Load Combinations for

LRFD

Where

Qi = a load effect (a force or a moment)

i = a load factor

Rn = the nominal resistance, or strength, of the component

under consideration

= resistance factor

Where

Ru = required strength = sum of factored load effects (forces r

moments)

Load Combinations

See NSCP 2010 Section 203.3.1

The resistance factor for each type of resistance is given by NSCP in

the specification dealing with that resistance, but in most cases, one of

two values will be used: 0.90 for limit states involving yielding or

compression buckling and 0.75 fro limit states involving rupture (fracture).

2.3 Safety Factors and Load Combinaitons for ASD

Where

Ra = required strength (sum of the service loads or load effects)

Rn = nominal strength

= safety factor

Rn/ = allowable strength

Load Combinations

See NSCP 2010 Section 203.4.1

Formulation of Allowable Stress Design

Where

f = applied stress

F = allowable stress

EXAMPLE 2.1 A column (comression member) in the upper story of a

building is subject to following load:

Dead load: 485 kN

Floor live load: 205 kN

Roof live load: 85 kN

a. Determine the controlling load combination for LRFD and the

corresponding factored load.

b. If the resistance factor is 0.90, what is the required nominal

strength?

c. Determine the controlling load combination for ASD and the

corresponding required service load strength.

d. If the safety factor is 1.67, what is the required nominal

strength based on the required service load strength?

PROBLEMS

Note: All given loads are service loads.

Situation No. 1 A column in a building is subjected to the following load

effects:

40 kN compression from dead load

22 kN compression from roof live load

36 kN compression from wind

Situation No. 2

Situation No. 3 A tension member must be designed for a service dead

load of 80 kN and a service live load of 9 kN.

AISC or NSCP

2.4 Steel Construction Manual

US: AISCs Steel Construction Manual (AISC, 2005b)

17 Parts of Manual

Part 1. Dimensions and Properties (can be seen also in ASEP

handbook)

(Some Parts can be found in NSCP)

Part 2. General Design Considerations

Part 3. Design of Flexural Members

Part 4. Design of Compression Members

Part 5. Design of Tension Members

Part 6. Design of Members Subject to Combined Loading

Part 7. Design Considerations for Bolts

Part 8. Design Considerations for Welds

Part 9. Design of Connecting Elements

Part 10. Design of Simple Shear Connections

Part 11. Design of Flexibe Moment Connections

Part 12. Design of Fully Restrained (FR) Moment Connections

Part 13. Design of Bracing Connections and Truss Connections

Part 14. Design of Beam Bearing Plates, Column Base Plates, Anchor

Rods, and Column Splices

Part 15. Design of Hanger Connections, Bracket Plates, and Crane Rail

Connections

Part 16. Specifications and Codes

Part 17. Miscellaneous Data and Mathematical Information

3. TENSION MEMBERS

3.1 Introduction

Tension members are structural members that are subjected to axial

tensile forces.

Truss members

Bracing for buildings and bridges

Cables in suspended roof systems

Cables in suspension and cable-stayed bridges

Stress in axially loaded tension member

Where

P = magnitude of load

A = cross-sectional area (area normal to the load)

3.2 Tensile Strength

A tension member can fail by reaching one of two limit states: excessive

deformation (initiated by yielding) and fracture.

Nominal Strength in yielding

Nominal Strength in fracture

Where

Fy = yield stress

Fu = tensile strength (ultimate)

Ag = gross area of the section

Ae = effective net area

LRFD

Pu = governing combination of factores loads

= design strength

Resistance Factors

For Yielding:

= 0.90

For Fracture:

= 0.75

Both of the following conditions must be satisfied:

The smaller of these is the design strength of the member.

ASD

Pa = required strength (applied load)

= allowable load

Safety Factor

For Yielding:

= 1.67

For Fracture:

= 2.00

Allowable stress approach

Yielding for the Gross Section

Fracture for the Net Section

EXAMPLE 3.1 A 13 mm x 125 mm plate of A36 steel is used as a tension

member. It is connected to a gusset plate with four 16-mm-diameter bolts

as shown in Fig. Assume that the effective net area Ae equals the actual

area An.

a. What is the design strength for LRFD?

b. What is the allowable strength for ASD?

EXAMPLE 3.2 A single-agle tension member, an L 87.5 x 87.5 x 9.5mm,

is connected to a gusset plate with 22-mm-diameter bolts as shown in

Fig. A36 steel is used. The service loads are 156 kN dead load and 67

kN live load. Investigate this member for compliance with NSCP. Asume

that the effective net area is 85% of the computed net area.

a. Use LRFD

b. Use ASD

EXAMPLE 3.3 A double-angle shape is shown in Fig. The steel is A36,

and the holes are for 12-mm-diameter bolts. Assume that Ae = 0.75An.

a. Determine the design tensile strength for LRFD.

b. Determine the allowable strength for ASD.

3.3 Effective Area

For bolted connections, the effective net area is

For welded connections, the effective area is

Where U = reduction factor

The rules of determining U fall into 5 categories:

1. A general category for any type of tension member except

plates and round HSS with l 1.3D

2. Plates

3. Round HSS with l 1.3D

4. Alternative values for single angles

5. Alternative values for W, M, S, and HP shapes

Refer to NSCP 2010

PL 13x125 mm

16-mm-diameter bolts

13 mm

16 mm + 3 mm

= 19 mm

L 87.5 x 87.5 x 9.5 mm

2L 125 x 75 x 8 mm LLBB

EXAMPLE 3.4 Determine the effective net area for the tension member

shown in Figure.

EXAMPLE 3.5 If the tension member of EXAMPLE 3.4 is welded as

shown in the figure, determine the effective area.

PROBLEMS

Situation No. 1 A PL 9.5 mm x 175 mm tension member is connected

with three 25-mm-diameter bolts, as shown in Figure. The steel is A36.

Assume that Ae = An and compute

a. The design strength for LRFD

b. The allowable strength for ASD

Situation No. 2 A PL 9.5 mm x 175 mm member is welded to a gusset

plate as shown in Figure. The steel has a yield stress Fy = 345 MPa and

an ultimate tensile stress Fu = 448 MPa. Assume that Ae = Ag and

compute

a. The design strength for LRFD

b. The allowable strength for ASD

3.4 STAGGERED FASTENERS

Cochrane (1922) proposed that when deducting the area corresponding

to a staggered hole, used a reduced diameter, given by

Where

d = hole diameter

s = stagger or pitch of the bolts (spacing in the direction of the

load)

g = gage (transverse spacing)

The net width in a failure line consisting of both staggered and

unstaggered holes is

Where

wn =net width

wg = gross width

EXAMPLE 3.6 Compute the smallest net rea for the plate shown in

figure. The holes are for 25-mm-diameter bolts.

EXAMPLE 3.7 An angle with staggered fasteners in each leg is shown in

figure. A36 steel is used and holes are for 22-mm-diameter bolts.

a. Determine the deisgn strength for LRFD.

b. Determine the allowable strength for ASD.

L 200 x 150 x 12.5

EXAMPLE 3.8 Determine the smallest net area for the American

Standard Channel shown in figure. The holes are for 16-mm-diameter

bolts.

EXAMPLE 3.9 Find the available strength of the S-shape shown in figure.

The holes are for 19-mm-diameter bolts. Use A36 steel.

Properties:

Ag = 9483.85 mm

2

tw = 13.97 mm

tf = 15.80 mm

16-mm bolts

L150 x 150 x 12.5

75 75

41.75 mm

L150 x 150 x 12.5

41.75 mm

137.5 mm

PL 9.5 X 175

PL 9.5 X 175

75

125

75

125

75

75

75 75 75 75 75

8.75 mm

37.5 mm

75 mm

37.5 mm

4 @ 50 mm

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