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2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ . All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any formor by any means, without permission in writing fromthe publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. 1/29
Part VI MANUFACTURING
SUPPORT SYSTEMS
Chapters:
23. Product Design and CAD/CAM in the Production System
24. Process Planning and Concurrent Engineering
25. Production Planning and Control Systems
26. J ust-In-Time and Lean Production
2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ . All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any formor by any means, without permission in writing fromthe publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. 2/29
Manufacturing Support Systems
in the Production System
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2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ . All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any formor by any means, without permission in writing fromthe publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. 3/29
Ch 23 Product Design and CAD/CAM
in the Production System
Sections:
1. Product Design and CAD
2. CAD System Hardware
3. CAM, CAD/CAM, and CIM
4. Quality Function Deployment
2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ . All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any formor by any means, without permission in writing fromthe publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. 4/29
Manufacturing Support Systems
The procedures and systems used by a firm to manage its
production operations and solve the technical and logistics
problems associated with:
Designing the products,
Planning the processes,
Ordering materials,
Controlling work-in-process as it moves through the
plant, and
Delivering quality products to customers
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2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ . All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any formor by any means, without permission in writing fromthe publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. 5/29
The Design Process
The general process of design is characterized as an
iterative process consisting of six phases:
1. Recognition of need - someone recognizes the need that
can be satisfied by a new design
2. Problem definition - specification of the item
3. Synthesis - creation and conceptualization
4. Analysis and optimization - the concept is analyzed and
redesigned
5. Evaluation - compare design against original specification
6. Presentation - documenting the design (e.g., drawings)
2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ . All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any formor by any means, without permission in writing fromthe publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. 6/29
The Design Process
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2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ . All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any formor by any means, without permission in writing fromthe publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. 7/29
Computer-Aided Design (CAD)
Any design activity that involves the effective use of the
computer to create, modify, analyze, or document an
engineering design
Commonly associated with the use of an interactive
computer graphics system, referred to as a CAD system
The term CAD/CAM is also used if the computer system
supports manufacturing applications as well as design
applications
2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ . All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any formor by any means, without permission in writing fromthe publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. 8/29
Reasons for Using a CAD System
To increase the productivity of the designer
To expand the available geometric forms in design - wider
range of mathematically defined shapes possible
To improve the quality of the design - more engineering
analysis possible, consideration of more alternatives
To improve design documentation - better drawings than
with manual drafting
To create a manufacturing database - creation of the
design documentation also creates manufacturing data
To promote design standardization - use of design rules to
limit the number of hole sizes, fasteners, etc.
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2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ . All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any formor by any means, without permission in writing fromthe publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. 9/29
The Design Process
Using CAD
2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ . All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any formor by any means, without permission in writing fromthe publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. 10/29
How a CAD System is Used
in Product Design (Steps 3 - 6)
3. Geometric modeling
CAD system develops a mathematical description of
the geometry of an object, called a geometric model
4. Engineering analysis
Mass properties, interference checking for
assemblies, finite element modeling, kinematic
analysis for mechanisms
5. Design evaluation and review
Automatic dimensioning, error checking, animation
6. Automated drafting
Preparation of engineering drawings quickly
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2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ . All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any formor by any means, without permission in writing fromthe publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. 11/29
Geometric Models in CAD
Wire-frame model
Solid model
2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ . All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any formor by any means, without permission in writing fromthe publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. 12/29
CAD System Hardware
The hardware for a typical CAD system consists of the
following components:
1. One of more design workstations
2. Digital computer
3. Plotters, printers, and other output devices
4. Storage devices
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2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ . All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any formor by any means, without permission in writing fromthe publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. 13/29
Typical CAD System Configuration
2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ . All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any formor by any means, without permission in writing fromthe publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. 14/29
Design Workstations
The interface between the computer and the user in the
CAD system
Functions:
1. Communicate with the CPU
2. Continuously generate a graphical image
3. Provide digital descriptions of the image
4. Translate user commands into operating functions
5. Facilitate interaction between the user and the system
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2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ . All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any formor by any means, without permission in writing fromthe publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. 15/29
CAD System Configurations
1. Host and terminal
Mainframe serves as host for graphics terminals
The original configuration in the 1970s and 1980s
when CAD technology was first developing
2. Engineering workstation
Stand-alone computer system dedicated to one user
Often networked for sharing data and plotters
3. CAD system based on a personal computer
PC with high-performance CPU and high resolution
graphics display monitor
2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ . All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any formor by any means, without permission in writing fromthe publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. 16/29
Host and Terminal Configuration
Original CAD system configuration in 1970s and 1980s
Host computer is a mainframe or large mini computer
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2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ . All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any formor by any means, without permission in writing fromthe publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. 17/29
Engineering Workstation Configuration
An engineering workstation is a stand-alone computer
system dedicated to one user and capable of executing
graphics software and other programs requiring high-
speed computational power
2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ . All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any formor by any means, without permission in writing fromthe publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. 18/29
CAD System based on a PC
This is a personal computer with a high-performance CPU
and high resolution graphics display screen
PC-based CAD systems can be networked (as shown) to
share files, output devices, and for other purposes
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2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ . All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any formor by any means, without permission in writing fromthe publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. 19/29
Computer-Aided Manufacturing
The effective use of computer technology in
manufacturing planning and control
Most closely associated with functions in manufacturing
engineering, such as process planning and NC part
programming
CAM applications can be divided into two broad
categories:
1. Manufacturing planning
2. Manufacturing control
2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ . All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any formor by any means, without permission in writing fromthe publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. 20/29
CAM Applications in
Manufacturing Planning
Computer-aided process planning (CAPP)
Computer-assisted NC part programming
CAD/CAM assisted NC part programming
Computerized machinability data systems
Computerized work standards
Cost estimating
Production and inventory planning
Computer-aided assembly line balancing
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2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ . All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any formor by any means, without permission in writing fromthe publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. 21/29
CAM Applications in
Manufacturing Control
Process monitoring and control
Quality control
Shop floor control
Inventory control
J ust-in-time production systems
2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ . All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any formor by any means, without permission in writing fromthe publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. 22/29
CAD/CAM
Concerned with the engineering functions in both design
and manufacturing
Denotes an integration of design and manufacturing
activities by means of computer systems
Goal is to not only automate certain phases of design
and certain phases of manufacturing, but to also
automate the transition from design to manufacturing
In the ideal CAD/CAM system, the product design
specification residing in the CAD data base would be
automatically converted into the process plan for
making the product
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2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ . All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any formor by any means, without permission in writing fromthe publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. 23/29
Computer Integrated Manufacturing
Includes all of the engineering functions of CAD/CAM
Also includes the firm's business functions that are related
to manufacturing
Ideal CIM system applies computer and communications
technology to all of the operational functions and
information processing functions in manufacturing
From order receipt,
Through design and production,
To product shipment
2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ . All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any formor by any means, without permission in writing fromthe publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. 24/29
The Scope of CAD/CAM and CIM
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2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ . All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any formor by any means, without permission in writing fromthe publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. 25/29
Computerized Elements
of a CIM System
2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ . All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any formor by any means, without permission in writing fromthe publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. 26/29
Quality Function Deployment
A systematic procedure for defining customer desires and
requirements and interpreting them in terms of product
features and process characteristics
A series of interconnected matrices are established
between customer requirements and the technical
features of a proposed new product
The matrices are a progression of phases in which
customer requirements are first translated into product
features, then into manufacturing requirements, and
finally into quality procedures for controlling the
manufacturing operations
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2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ . All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any formor by any means, without permission in writing fromthe publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. 27/29
Quality Function Deployment
Shown as a series of matrices that relate customer
requirements to successive technical requirements in a
typical progression
2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ . All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any formor by any means, without permission in writing fromthe publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. 28/29
The Starting Matrix:
The House of Quality
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2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ . All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any formor by any means, without permission in writing fromthe publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover. 29/29
Steps in QFD: The House of Quality
1. Identify customer requirements
2. Identify product features needed to meet customer
requirements
3. Determine technical correlations among product features
4. Develop relationship matrix between customer
requirements and product features
5. Comparative evaluation of input customer requirements
6. Comparative evaluation of output technical requirements