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(revised 4/30/08)

Instructions: Submit this completed .doc with attached USGS map, TMK map (with site
location(s) plotted on both) and site Plan(s). Maps may be embedded in this .doc file or attached
as separate .pdf/.jpg. In addition, please fill out the .xls site data form and include with
submission. Email the request to your island’s SHPD.

Total SIHP #’s being requested: 1

Date: November 24, 2009
Firm: Scientific Consultant Services, Inc. (SCS)
PI: Michael Dega, Ph.D.

Island: Maui
Ahupua`a: Kealahou 1 & 2
District: Makawao

Project Area size (acreage): 48 acres

TMK: (2) 2-3-001:174

Owner/Developer: Clayton Nishikawa
Address: 1849 Wili Pa Loop, Wailuku, HI 96793

Site Description:

Burial 1 is located within the proposed 48-acre Kula Ridge Mauka Development, at the
location of a house constructed in the early 20th century. The burial is located within a basalt slab
lined crypt, below the interior of a roughly square C-shape. The interment was situated 73 cm
below the original ground surface (base of feature) and 158 cm below the top of the terrace.
Based on the presence of the burial pit below the base of the terrace, it is suggested that the
burial is not associated with the architectural feature and predates the construction of the terrace
The axis of the skeleton was oriented 78°/158° True North with the top of the skull facing
west (Figure 3). The burial appeared to have been interred within a burial pit that contained
mottled sediments and charcoal fragments that were not present in the surrounding sediments.

Figure 1: Portion of USGS Map Showing Location of Kula Ridge Project Area and Burial 1
Figure 2: TMK (2) 2-3-01 Showing Location of Kula Ridge Project Area and Location of Burial 1
Figure 3: Plan View of Burial 1
In consultation with the SHPD, the burial was exposed from the mandible to the pelvis
(femurs and tibias were not in situ due to the bulldozer disturbance) to better evaluate the age,
gender and ethnicity of the individual. The skeletal remains suggested that the individual was
small in stature with an estimated height of 165 cm (5 feet 5 inches). Stature estimates were
based on the sum of the length of the in situ remains (70 cm) plus the lengths of the right femur
and tibia (74.2 cm) plus the height of the calcaneous and talus (6 cm) and unexposed cranium (15
cm estimate).

The skeletal material exposed showed signs of osteoarthritis or some other degenerative
bone disorder. Along the vertebral bodies (especially apparent in the lumbar and thoracic
vertebra), medial process of the calcaneous, around the perimeter of the acetabulum and along
the iliac crest were numerous osteophytes (bone spurs). The ilium was nearly transparent
suggesting a loss of bone in this region as well. The visible portion of the mandible and teeth
showed probable caries in the dentition (though this is not necessarily related to any bone

Age: 30+
Based on completely fused epiphysis on the distal femur, femoral head, proximal tibia and
ischium it is suggested that the individual was a minimum of 24 y.o. However, with the presence
of the osteoarthritis or other bone degenerative disorder observed on the skeletal material, it is
more likely that the individual was over 40 y.o. at the time of death.

Gender: Male
Gender determination was made based on the gonial angle of the mandible and ramus, and the
relatively narrow greater sciatic notch.

Ethnicity: Asian/Hawaiian/mixed ancestry
No definitive ethnicity could be determined at this time though it is noted that the stature of the
individual would have been diminutive for a Hawaiian male. It is suggested that further
examination be conducted by a professional osteologist.