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British Standard Codes:

a. Codes for Bridges -BS5400.
b. Concrete -BS8110.
c. Steel -BS5950.
d. Construction Drawing -BS1192.

Design methods:
1. Limit State method:
a. In this method acceptable of limit of safety and serviceability requirements
were taken into account while designing the structures.
I.e. Factor of safety is taken into account.

 Concrete -1.5 * Actual load.

 Steel -1.15*Actual load.
2. Working stress method:
a. Structures were analysed by elastic theory. The stress was considered into
normal working conditions. The working loads were limited under normal
working conditions.
I.e. only serviceability load is taken into account.

Types of bridges:
 Arch Bridges, Beam Bridges, lifting bridge, Swing Bridge, suspension
bridge, Cable stays bridge.

Preliminary design of bridge:

1. Loading condition
a. Dead load -1.05 (F.O.S Ultimate limited state )
b. Super imposed load -1.75 ( “ )
c. Live load -1.5 ( “ )
2. Geometry
a. Alignment, total length, depth span ration etc.
3. Soil condition and foundation
a. Bearing capacity, type of foundation etc.
4. Cost of construction and time etc.
5. Maintenance cost.
6. Safety aspects.
7. Aesthetic effects.
8. Materials used. (Pre-stressed concrete, steel girders etc.)

Pre-Stressed concrete:
Pre stressing forces has produced by high tensile steel to resist the high compressive
strength of concrete.
1. Pre stressed concrete:
a. Rods are kept in position in concrete and tensioning the rods up to 70% of
their ultimate strength of steel. And the mould is prepared and cured to
attain strength. Later stressing force is released.

2. Post tensioning:
a. Mould is prepared and for reinforcement the holes were created.
b. Concrete is cast into beam and cured to attain initial strength.
c. Later the reinforcement was tensioned up to 70% of ultimate strength.

Difference between cable stay & suspension bridge:

Sl no Suspension bridge Cable Stay Bridge

1. Two towers Two towers
2. Suspended structure Suspended structure
3. Two main cables (1)
4. Many hanger cables(1) Many inclined cables(2)
5. Two terminal piers(3) Two terminal piers(3)
Four anchorages (Connected to - -
6. ground)

Resist bending and torsion caused by The cable-stayed deck is in

live loads and aerodynamic forces. compression, pulled towards the
7. towers, and has to be stiff against
buckling at all stages of
construction and use.
8. Not in suspension Made of cantilever s
Due to daily loading in morning and Greater rigidity of the triangle
evening leads periodic tension. shape.
Bridge should be able to resist fatigue.
In this case it’s ok.
11. Japan 1991m in 1998 yr Japan 890m in 1999 yr
Support Conditions:
Types of support’s Restrained (Known values)
 Hinged Supp - Horizontal, Vertical (Moment).
 Roller Supp - Vertical (Ra, M=0).
 Fixed Supp - Ra, Rb, M


Why Bridge Engg:

It covers all the areas of civil Engg
1. Structures - Structural Engg
2. Soil investigation - Soil Engg, Earthquake Engg
3. vehicle load - Traffic Engg & Transportation Engg
4. Fluid - Hydraulic Engg
5. Pre stressed Concrete- Material Science.

Challenging work in your life:

1. Computer,
2. Team work - part time work, Fatsams.

Total employees -7000.
UK -2760.
Europe -2420.
Offices -35 countries.
Areas - property, environment, transportation.

1. Kabul Highway, Afghanistan.
2. M25 Widening project.
3. Masdar City, Abu Dhabi.

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केरळवमाा िवजय ् तमबुरान ्
1. BM & BMD.
2. Sand, concrete density.
3. What r the forces taken into account at joint connection.
4. Problem solving management description.
5. Ramya Atha (Rail) 2 year.
6. Naga Aravind.

Density of Soil:
1. Sand, wet 1922
2. Sand, wet, packed 2082
3. Sand, dry 1602 Sand,
4. loose 1442 Sand,
5. rammed 1682 Sand,
6. water filled 1922
7. Sand with Gravel, dry 1650
8. Sand with Gravel, wet 2020
9. Sandstone, solid 2323
Density of concrete:
1. Normal concrete with -1750 to 2400 kg/m3
2. Steel AISI (340) -8030 kg/m3.