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CURSO DE ADAPTAO

Ingls

Name : _____________________________________________________________
Grade: 1st grades
3rd and 4th term HIGH SCHOOL

INDEX

VERB PATTERNS

Different verbs can be followed by different structures.


VERB + ING
Enjoy, like, dont like, love, hate, understand, cant stand, mind, dont mind, avoid, deny, miss, etc.
VERB + TO INFINTIVE
Need, promise, want, try, want, agree, arrange, forget, learn, manage, prepare, etc.
VERB + THAT
Believe, explain, know, feel, suggest, etc.
VERB + SOMEBODY + ( not) to-infinitive
Allow, invite, tell, remind, etc.
VERB + SOMEBODY + THAT
Promise, warn, tell, show, etc.

1.

Use the verbs above to come up with sentences. Be sure to use the correct verb

pattern.

2.

Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form.

(http://www.ssag.sk/SSAG%20study/AJL/VERB%20PATTERNS-exercises.pdf)

1. My sister loves _______(go) shopping.


2. Would you like ________(listen) to some music?
3. Ill try _________(come) to the meeting on time.
4. She told me ________(close) the door.
5. Peter refused ________(lend) me some money.
6. I dont really mind _______(do) the housework.
7. She finally finished _______ (read) the book, so I can give it to you.
8. The film was so sad that it made her ______(cry).
9. I met Susan yesterday and we stopped _________(talk).
10. They invited us _________(spend) summer with them.
11. She continued _________(write) despite her disability.
12. He cant stand _________ (work) with arrogant people.
13. Look this room. It needs ________(paint).
14. I dont know why you havent received the letter yet.
I clearly remember ________ (post) it.
15. She admitted _________(murder) her husband.
16. You are not allowed ________(talk) during the test.
17. You are not doing it right. Let me ________(show) you.
18. He tried _________________(stop, drink) but he coulnt.
19. She stopped _________(read) to ask me a question.
20. He forgot ________ (send) that parcel.
21. She advised me _______ (tell) the police about the accident.
22. Thomas doesnt let anyone ______ (smoke) in his house.
23. The thief got into the house because I forgot _______ (close) the window.
24. Our neighbour threatened ________ (call) the police if we didnt stop ______ (make)
the noise.
25. Why dont you put off _______ (go away) until tomorrow?
26. The driver admitted _______ (not, have) a driving licence.
27. The fridge is empty. I need _______ (do) the shopping today.
28. Tom helped his mother _______ (get) the dinner ready.
29. He promised _______ (come) on time.
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30. I have arranged ________ (meet) him at the airport.


31. Every Sunday we like ______ (go) for a walk.
32. I regret _______ (break) the window.
33. Will you give up ______ (smoke)?
34. She encouraged him ______ (take) Cambridge exams.
35. She persuaded him ______ (take) Cambridge exams.
36. They cant risk _______ (catch) a bird flu.
37. I tried ______ (move) the table but it was too heavy.
38. As we couldnt go out, he suggested ______ (watch) the film.
39. We expected them _______ (put on) smart clothes.
40. It is a good idea to practise _______ (use) different verb patterns.
41. They wouldnt let me _______ (pay) for anything.
42. I met Susan in front of the bank and we stopped _______ (talk) for a while.

3. Rewrite the text and put the verbs in brackets into the right form
( http://users.cybernet.be/philippe.burniat/5e1/verb%20patterns.pdf)

Dear Dennis,

We just wanted to (say) thank you for putting us up before we caught


the plane last week. it was a lovely evening and we enjoyed (meet)
your friends, Pete and Sarah. We managed (get) to the airport with
plenty of time to spare. We even tried (get) on an earlier plane but it
wasnt possible.
We had a wonderful holiday in Spain. We just loved (drive) through the
countryside, and we often stopped (walk) round a mountain village. We
met our friends, Bill and Sue, and they invited us (have) a meal with
them. The wanted (we stay) with them, but we couldnt, as we had
already booked a hotel.
The weather was fantastic, the sun never stopped (shine) all the time
we were there. Leaving Spain was very sad, it made me (want) (cry).
Anyway, were looking forward to (hear) from you, and hope (see) you
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soon. Let us (know) if youre ever in the area. You must call in.
Best wishes,
Sandra

Passives

The passive of an active tense is formed by putting the verb to be into the same tense
as the active verb and adding the past participle of the active verb. The subject of the
active verb becomes the agent of the passive verb. The agent is very often not
mentioned. When it is mentioned it is preceded by by and placed at the end of the
clause.
Active: My grandfather planted this tree.
Passive: This tree was planted by my grandfather.

http://macprizren.net/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/the-passive-voice1.pdf

1. Complete the sentences with the correct passive form of the verbs in brackets. Use the
Present Simple.
a. English ____________________ (speak) in many countries.
b. The post ______________________ (deliver) at about 7 oclock every morning.
c. ______________________________ (the building/use) anymore?
d. How often ______________________________ (the Olympic Games(hold)?
e. How _______________________ (your name/spell)?

f. My salary _____________________ (pay) every month.


g. These cars _________________________ (not make) in Japan.
h. The name of the people who committed the crime _____________________ (not know).
i. His travel expenses ________________________ (not pay) by his company.

2. Complete the sentences with the correct passive form of the verbs in brackets. Use the
Past Simple.
a. My car ______________________ (repair) last week.
b. This song ________________________ (not write) by John Lennon.
c. ________________________________ (the phone/answer) by a young girl?
d. The film ________________________ (make) ten years ago.
e. When ______________________________ (tennis/invent)?
f. The car ________________________ (not damaged) in the accident.
g. The original building _________________________ (pull) down in 1965.
h. Where ______________________________ (this pot/make)?
i. When _______________________________ (this bridge/build)?

3. Choose the correct form of the verbs in brackets.


FIAT
Fiat 0was started (started/was started) by a group of Italian businessmen in 1899. In 1903, Fiat,
1_________________ (produced/was produced) 132 cars. Some of these cars 2____________
(exported/were exported) by the company to the United States and Britain.In 1920, Fiat
3_________________ (started/was started) making cars at a new factory at Lingotto, near Turin.
There was a track on the roof where the cars 4____________________ (tested/were tested) by
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technicians. In 1936, Fiat launched the Fiat 500. This car 5____________________ (called/was
called) the Topolino the Italian name for Mickey Mouse. The company grew, and in 1963 Fiat
6_____________________ (exported/was exported) more than 300,000 vehicles. Today, Fiat is
based in Turin, and its cars 7_________________ (sold/are sold) all over the world.

4. Turn from Active to Passive.


a. Someone is helping her with the housework.
_____________________________________________________________________________
b. The mail-order company sent Mrs Green a parcel.
_____________________________________________________________________________
c. My friend sent me an invitation.
_____________________________________________________________________________
d. The secretary has given Mrs Jones some letters.
_____________________________________________________________________________
e. The traffic warden had already given him a ticket for illegal parking.
_____________________________________________________________________________
f. John gave Elizabeth that beautiful ring.
_____________________________________________________________________________
g. Her students have sent her flowers.
_____________________________________________________________________________
h. He must give the message to the right person.
_____________________________________________________________________________

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i. We teach our students English and French.


_____________________________________________________________________________
j. Someone bought flowers for the bride.
_____________________________________________________________________________
k. They showed the tourists the sights of Athens.
_____________________________________________________________________________
l. They pay her an excellent salary.
_____________________________________________________________________________
m. Archaeologists have discovered an ancient temple.
_____________________________________________________________________________
n. We will put all these things into boxes.
_____________________________________________________________________________
o. The firefighters rescued the teenagers from the burning building.
_____________________________________________________________________________
p. The youngest student in the class has written the best composition.
_____________________________________________________________________________
q. The children send me messages every day.
_____________________________________________________________________________
r. The villagers gave the travellers food and water.
_____________________________________________________________________________
s. A very talented young girl wrote the story.
_____________________________________________________________________________

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t. They are going to finish the new road in a few days.


_____________________________________________________________________________
u. They cancelled the match because of the rain.
_____________________________________________________________________________
v. You must not cross this line.
_____________________________________________________________________________
x. They had picked the oranges before the storm.

Modals of deduction

MUST- We use must when we feel sure that something is true because theres very strong
evidence.
He must live near here because he comes to work on foot.

Youre a zookeeper? That must be very interesting.


MIGHT, MAY and COULD - say that we think something is possible but were not sure.

Well try to get there early but we may arrive late if theres a lot of traffic.
Dont put it up there. It could fall off and hit someone.
CANT - we feel sure something is not true.

It cant be far away now. Weve been driving for hours. Wheresthemap?
Really? He has to work on Christmas Day? He cant feel very happy about that.

1. Complete the sentences below with modals of deduction.


a) They _____________ be away for the weekend but Im not sure.
b) He _____________ be French, judging by his accent.
c) They _____________ still be out! Its too late!

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d)
e)
f)
g)
h)
i)
j)

With luck, tomorrow _____________ a sunny day.


The exam _____________ be easy. You never know.
I _____________ go to the party but Im not sure yet.
This _____________ be the right answer, but we have to check.
He _____________ be at school. He didnt give a ride today.
She _____________ buy this things! Shes broke.
Nobody answers the door. They _____________ be out.

2. Rewrite these sentences using a modal verb of deduction. Add a reason to support your
deduction. ( adapted from : ww.almablasco.es/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/Modal-verbs-ofdeduction.pdf)
E.g. Im sure Amy likes animals very much
Amy must like animals very much. Shes always had them around her.

a) - Im sure she doesnt like children very much.


___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
b)

Im sure James is a famous actor.


___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________

c)

Perhaps she has a farm.


___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________

d) - Im sure she didnt work very hard at school.


___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
e) - Perhaps James has won an Oscar.
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________

f)

- Im sure she had a lot of friends when she was young.


___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________

g) - He probably didnt want her to marry Gerald.

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___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
h) - He probably wanted her to marry someone famous.
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
i)

- Im sure they are not very close to each other.


___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________

j)

- Perhaps she gets on better with her mother


___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________

k) He has very bad grades. He used to be a student.


___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
3. Complete the sentences below with the correct modal verb.
http://www.fdteacher.it/2A/LOGICAL%20DEDUCTIONS.pdf
1 He goes to the swimming pool every day. He _______ love swimming.
2 Barbara wont speak to Robin. She _________ like him very much.
3 Wheres John? Im not sure, he ___________ be at the bar.
4 I wonder where my umbrella is, it __________ be in the car.
5 He hasnt got a uniform on, he __________ be a fireman.
6 Billy __________ have guests, I think some people arrived earlier.
7 Her light is off, she _____________ be asleep.
8 I dont know what those people are doing, they ____________ be queuing for tickets.
9 This T-shirt ______________ be mine, its got someone elses name in it.
10 Johnny bought Susie a diamond ring. He ______________ have a lot of money!

4. Take a look at the pictures and come up with sentences using modals of deduction. Write
about 3 or 4 sentences for each picture. Add reasons to support your deduction.

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a)
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________

b)
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________

c)
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________

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d)
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________

e)
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________

f)
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________

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g)
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________

Past Perfect

Past Perfect

You use the past perfect when you are talking about the past and you want to refer to
an earlier past time. The past perfect clearly shows that a past event happened earlier
than other past events.

Conjunctions such as after, because, by the time, and when are often used to
combine a simple past clause with a past perfect one.

1.

Put the verbs into the correct form (Past Perfect simple). ( Exercises from 1- 4 from:

http://www.ispilledthebeans.com/exercises/PDF/exercisespastperfect.pdf)

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a. My little brother ate all of the cake that I _____________________ (make).


b. The waitress brought a dish that we _____________________ (not / order) .
c. Last night I couldn't get in because I _____________________ (forget) my keys.
d. When we arrived at the station, the train _____________________ (go).
e. They didn't have any money because they _____________________ (pay) all the bills.
f. We had a big party because we _____________________ (pass) all our exams.
g. I got to the cinema at 6.30 but fortunately the film ____________________ (not start) .
h. I was exhausted because I _____________________ (study) too much.
2. Fill the gaps with the verb in brackets using the Past Perfect.

1. By the time we got to the cinema the film _________________ (start), so we missed
the first five minutes.
2. When I rang the bell there was no answer. The neighbour told me that they
__________________ (go) about half an hour ago.
3. I saw New York for the first time last night. I __________________ (not see) it before.
4. There was so much to see in London. I ___________________ (plan) to see a lot of
things but there wasn't enough time. I'll have to come back.
5. If she _______________________ (take) my advice, it wouldn't have happened.
6. We wouldn't have had an argument, if they _______________ (not mention) politics.
7. If you _______________ (not park) there, you wouldn't have got a parking fine.
8. John told me he _______________ (buy) a new car.
9. When we arrived in Ireland, the airline company _______________ (lose) our luggage,
so we had to wait two days to get it back. Fortunately they delivered it to the hotel.
3. Circle the correct answers:
1. I didn't recognise / hadn't recognised Sue, because she cut / had cut her hair.
2. I arrived / had arrived at the shop at 6.45, but it already closed / had already closed.
3. David didn't play / hadn't played the match because he hurt / had hurt his leg.
4. When I looked / had looked everywhere for my car keys, I started / had started to panic.
5. When he had finished / finished his dinner he sat down / had sat down to watch TV.
6. It was / had been a film I didn't see / hadn't seen before.

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4. Complete the sentences with the correct verb tense. ( Simple Past or Past Perfect)
1. When their mum _______________ (come) home last night, the children
_______________ (eat) their dinner.
2. Yesterday I _______________ (see) a woman who _______________ (be) at school
with my grandfather. Isn't it strange?
3. It started to rain and I _______________ (remember) that I _______________ (forget)
to close my bedroom window.
4. I _______________ (find) a book that I ______ never _______________ (read)
5. We _______________ (try) to change the plane tickets but it was too late they ______
already ___________ (edit) the boarding pass.
5.

I _______________ (think) I _______________ (met) this girl before.

6.

Past or Past Perfect Tense Simple: Fill in the correct form.

1. Mary ___________________ (give) me Tony's address before she left.


2. When the boys arrived at the cinema, the film ___________________ (already, start).
3. Before we reached the station we saw that we ___________________ (lose) our way.
4. All the tickets ___________________ (be) sold before the concert began.
5. They took a shower after they ___________________ (finish) the game.
6. I asked Mr Green how many books he ___________________ (read)
7. Mum asked me why I ___________________ (not tidy) up my room.
8. Bob was sorry that he ___________________ (told) me the story.
9. Alan watched TV after he ___________________ (have) lunch.
10. The sun ___________________ (shine) yesterday after it ___________________ (be) cold for
many weeks.
11. Uncle David ___________________ (go) to the doctor after he ___________________ (be) ill
for a month.
12. Before the police ___________________ (catch) the thief, he ___________________ (steal)
two more watches.

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13. Mum once ___________________ (paint) a picture although she ___________________


(never, learn) it.
14. I ___________________ (not tell) my teacher that my mum ___________________ (help) me
with my homework.
15. I ___________________ (be) very angry when I ___________________ (see) that my brother
___________________ (eat) my apple.
16. The bike ___________________ (be) much more expensive than he ___________________
(think) at first.
17. Dad ___________________ (drive) me home after I ___________________ (fall) into the water.
18. Marion ___________________ (ask) me what ___________________ (happen) to me last
week.
19. We ___________________ (eat) two Big Macs before we ___________________ (go) home.
20. Paul ___________________ (not say) that he ___________________ (take) Albert's watch.

Reported Speech / Reported Questions

Reporting speech means using your own words to report what somedody has said or (
thought).
There is usually a logical back-shift of tense. This is because what the person said is
now in the past. . Present becomes past; can becomes could, etc.

Pronouns and expressions of time or place may change.

The most common reporting verbs are SAY ( that) and TELL SOMEBODY (THAT).
In reported questions, the word order changes to subject + verb. You dont use do/ does/
did. For YES/ NO questions you use IF or WHETHER.

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1. Change to reported speech.


1. Mary said:I will play cards the day after tomorrow.
2. Sophie said:I went to bed early last night.
3. The teacher said to Jenny: You have to learn your grammar.
4. Monique to the immigration officer: This is my first trip to England.
5. He told me:You are the most beautiful girl I have ever seen.
6. Nick said:Im going to visit my parents next month.
7. Lilly: My parents are fine and I really get on with them.
8. Gloria: I am sorry but I cant come to your birthday party because I am going away for the
weekend.

9. Mark:My friend Gary has found a new job in the music business.

10. Judy: I have already written this essay four times.

2. Complete the second sentence. Use Reported Speech .


1. Peter:"Laura is going to school."
Peter said that ________________________________________________________
2. James:"Kate often surfs the net at night."
James told me that _____________________________________________________
3. Pat:"I'm buying a new laptop."
Pat said to me that ______________________________________________________
4. Daniel:"Mike is going to watch the Simpsons tonight."

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Daniel said that __________________________________________________________


5. Jane:"I like living here now."
Jane told me that _________________________________________________________
6. Mary:"Yesterday I felt fine."
Mary said to me that ______________________________________________________
7. William and Ann:"We have seen this film."
William and Ann told me that ________________________________________________
8.Thomas:"Ill be right back."
Thomas told me that _______________________________________________________
9. George:"Ive been reading since six oclock."
George told me that ________________________________________________________
10. Henry:"Im going home now."
Henry said that _____________________________________________________________

3.Reported speech: questions


1.Jane: Do you want to dance?"
Jane asked me ____________________________________________________________
2.Jack:"May I go out?"
Jack wanted to know ________________________________________________________
3.Robert:"Can I close the window?"
Robert asked me ___________________________________________________________
4.Martha: Must I finish the drawing at home?"
Martha asked me ___________________________________________________________
5.Anne:"May I have a word with you?"
Anne asked me _____________________________________________________________
6.Deborah:"Has she been to the supermarket?"
Deborah wanted to know ______________________________________________________
7.James:"Are you going to book for the concert?"
James asked me _____________________________________________________________
8.George:"Need I take my ID card with me?"
George asked me ____________________________________________________________
9.Tom:"How are you?"

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Tom wanted to know ________________________________________________________


10.I :"Does he know Mary?"
I asked whether ____________________________________________________________

4. Two old friends, Carol and Alex met in the street one morning. Report what they said
to each other, using the correct reported speech verb forms.

ALEX Hi Carol. How are you?


CAROL Im really happy. Ive started a new job and Im having a great time there. The work is
interesting and the people are very friendly.
ALEX Whats the job?
CAROL Im doing market research. I love it.
ALEX Im pleased for you. Listen, I have to go, but we can meet soon. Itll be nice to have a
long chat about things.
CAROL Yes, I havent seen you for ages. How about next week?
ALEX We cant meet next week because Im going to be away. I wont be back until Friday.
CAROL Well, Ill give you a ring on Saturday.
ALEX Great. Ill wait for you to call me

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5.Turn the following into reported speech.

Do you enjoy being a writer?


What was your first book about?
How many books have you written?
Have any of your books been
bestsellers?
5) Do you do a lot of research for your
books?
1)
2)
3)
4)

6) Have you travelled to many exotic

places?
7) Who is your favourite author?
8) Which actors would you like to star in

a film based on one of your books?


9) What is your latest book called?

1. ________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
2. ________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
3. ________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
4. ________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
5. ________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
6. ________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
7. ________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
8. ________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________

7. First think about your life and complete the speech bubbles below with different statements
about you.

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Now imagine a friend has completed the bubbles and report the ideas.
1. ________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
2. ________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
3. ________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
4. ________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
5. ________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
6. ________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
7. ________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________

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8. ________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________

8. Can you report these questions?


a) Whats the title of your favorite movie?
b) When and where did you see it?
c) Whos in it?
d) What type of movies is it?
e) What was the soundtrack like?
f)

Would you recommend the movie?

g) Who did you watch it with?


h) What was the best part of it?
i)

Can you tell me the end of the story?

j)

What do you particularly like about it?

a. ________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
b. ________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
c. ________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
d. ________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
e. ________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
f.

________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________

g. ________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
h. ________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
i.

________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________

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j.

________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________

Defining Relative Clauses

Defining Relative Clauses

A relative clause can define the thing or person introduced in the main clause. It comes
immediately after the person or thing it is describing. You use THAT or WHO for people
and THAT or WHICH for things.

That man who/ that lives next to me is called Brain.


People who come from Rio are called Cariocas.
The work that you do is very interesting.

When the relative pronoun is the object of the verb, it can be omitted.
The work that you do is very interesting.
The man who I met yesterday is a famous painter.

1. Complete the sentences with who, whichor nothing (i.e. leave it blank)
1. Alexander Fleming was the man _____________ discovered penicillin.
2. I like meeting people _____________ have travelled widely.
3. The school _____________ I was educated has been demolished.
4. The man _____________ I was talking to last week gave me another version of the
events.
5. I am working for a construction company _____________ the head office is in Leeds.
6. The book _____________ we read in the course was written by Roald Dahl.
7. For years he lived a life _____________ was very pleasurable.

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2. Make one sentence from the two short ones. The sentence in italics should become the
relative clause. The relative pronoun is the subject of the relative clause.

1. She worked for a man. The man used to be an athlete.


_______________________________________________________________
2. They called a lawyer. The lawyer lived nearby.
_______________________________________________________________
3. I sent an email to my brother. My brother lives in Australia.
_______________________________________________________________
4. The customer liked the waitress. The waitress was very friendly.
_______________________________________________________________
5. We broke the computer. The computer belonged to my father.
_______________________________________________________________
6. I dropped a glass. The glass was new.
_______________________________________________________________
7. She loves books. The books have happy endings.
_______________________________________________________________
8. They live in a city. The city is in the north of England.
_______________________________________________________________
9. The man is in the garden. The man is wearing a blue jumper.
_______________________________________________________________
10. The girl works in a bank. The girl is from India.
_______________________________________________________________
11. My sister has three children. My sister lives in Australia.
_______________________________________________________________
12. The waiter was rude. The waiter was wearing a blue shirt.
_______________________________________________________________
13. The money is in the kitchen. The money belongs to John.

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_______________________________________________________________
14. The table got broken. The table was my grandmothers.
_______________________________________________________________
15. The television was stolen. The television was bought 20 years ago.
_______________________________________________________________

3. Insert a relative pronoun WHO/THAT/WHICH where necessary.

a) The school I went to was in another city.


b) My dad is the only person really knows me.
c) The subject worries me more is math.
d) The best party Ive had was for my 15th birthday.
e) Ive got a big part of the family lives in Ecuador.
f) The people I work with is very nice.

4.

Combine the sentences.

a)

Thats the girl. She spoke to me in the morning.

b)

Whats the name of the TV show? You want me to read.

c)

The hotel we stayed in. The hotel was very cheap.

d)

I sold an apartment. It was very small.

e)

The car was stolen. It was a FUSCA.

f)

Thats the city. I told you about.

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g)

The book on the table. Its my favourite novel.

h)

Thats the boy. His dad works for the police.

i)

Thats the boy. Hes dad id from Spain.

5. Come up with relative sentences using the words given.


architect

summer

a vet

baby bottle

instructor

dessert

yellow bus

well-paid job

dinosaur

pacifier

___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________

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___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________

Real Conditionals
Real conditional sentences are also called First Conditional sentences are used to talk about
present or future situations that are real or possible. These include promises, warning or
threats.
If you do the homework, your mom will be very happy.
If you forget you friends birthday, he wont be happy with you.
Ill help you if you need to work late.

1. Rewrite these sentences using UNLESS. ( Exercises from 1- 5 from


http://inglescarmelitaslb.files.wordpress.com/2011/05/conditional-sentences.pdf)

1) We wont buy any fish today if it isnt cheaper than yesterday.


We wont buy any fish today unless it is cheaper than yesterday.
2) If you dont go to the party, theyll be disappointed.
___________________________________________________________________________
3) I cant help her if she doesnt want to talk to me.
___________________________________________________________________________
4) If it doesnt stop raining, well stay at home.
___________________________________________________________________________
5) If he doesnt go to the post office, he wont buy the stamps.
___________________________________________________________________________

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6) George wont come out of hospital if he doesnt feel better.


___________________________________________________________________________
2. Complete the following sentences.
1) If we dont hurry, we ___will be____________ (be) late.
2) If I see her, I _____________________ (give) her your message.
3) If youre hungry, I _____________________ (make) you a sandwich.
4) If he _____________________ (not/come) to the party, I will be very upset.
5) If she ____________________ (go) to Paris, shell send me a postcard.
6) If we _____________________ (not/be) busy, well come with you.
7) If he does that again, dad ____________________ (be) very angry.
8) If he ______________________ (not/finish) his homework, he wont go out.
9) If he ______________________ (come), Ill talk to him.
10) If she _______________________ (hurry), she wont be late.
11) If it rains, we ___________________ (not/go) out.
12) If they are late, they ______________________ (miss) the bus.

3. Complete with the First Conditional.


1) If I ___am not_________ (not/be) busy, I __will come____ (come) with you.
2) If it __________________ (rain), we __________________ (stay) at home.
3) I ____________________ (call) you if I ___________________ (have) time.

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4) If she ___________________ (not/study) hard, she ____________________ (not/pass) the


test.
5) If the weather ___________________ (be) nice, we ___________________ (go) to the
beach.
6) You ______________________ (get) fat if you ___________________ (not/stop) eating so
much.
7) If I ______________________ (see) John, I ______________________ (tell) him about the
party.
8) Mum _______________________ (be) very angry if I ____________________ (not/tidy) my
room.
9) If we _______________________ (not/leave) now, we _____________________ (miss) the
bus.
10) You ________________________ (not/go) to the party if you _________________
(not/do) your homework.
4. Complete the First Conditional sentences.
1) You ____will feel_____________ (feel) better if you ____take_____________ (take) an
aspirin.
2) If they ______________________ (come) with us, we _______________________ (have) a
great time.
3) If it _______________________ (rain), I _______________________ (might / stay) at
home.

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4) ________________________ (you / post) this letter for me if you ____________________


(not / be ) too busy?
5) You __________________________ (should / apologise) if it _________________ (be)
your fault.
6) If David ________________________ (invite) Janice, I _____________________ (not / go)
to his party.
7) If you _________________________ (not / know) the answer, __________________ (ask)
Mr Walters.
8) Jack _________________________ (move) to Scotland if he ____________________
(find) a good job there.
9) If the pain ________________________ (not / stop), I _____________________ (see) a
doctor.

5. Rewrite the sentences using the word given.


1) You wont finish on time if you dont start now. (unless)
You wont finish on time unless you start now.
2) Unless you read the instructions, you wont know what to do. (if)
___________________________________________________________________________
3) Well go to the cinema tonight if Im not too tired. (unless)
___________________________________________________________________________
4) Unless you study harder, youll fail the test. (if)

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___________________________________________________________________________
5) If the neighbours dont stop making that awful noise, Ill call the police. (unless)
___________________________________________________________________________
6) Mum wont let him go out if he doesnt finish his homework first. (unless)
___________________________________________________________________________
7) The headache wont go away unless you do something about it. (if)
___________________________________________________________________________
8) She wont hear you if you dont speak louder. (unless)
___________________________________________________________________________
9) Ill be back at six unless I have to work late. (if)
___________________________________________________________________________
10) He will never find a job unless he starts looking for one now. (if)

6. Complete the sentences below. Be sure to use the correct structure.


a) If I have free time, ____________________________________________________
b) If I dont have money, _________________________________________________
c) I wont go to the beach, ________________________________________________
d) My parents will come to Brazil ___________________________________________
e) If I have enough food, _________________________________________________
f)

I will buy a new car ___________________________________________________

g) I wont go to the beach ________________________________________________

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h) I wont get a good grade ___________________________________________________


i)

I will eat before ten _______________________________________________________

j)

I will finish reading my book ________________________________________________

k) If I dont cook dinner, ______________________________________________________


l)

I wont buy a new computer if _______________________________________________

m) I wont change channels __________________________________________________


n) I will move to a new house if _______________________________________________
o) I will get a new job _______________________________________________________

Indirect Questions

I wonder
why ......
I wo
Id like to know.....
Can you tell me ....?
Do you know.....?
Would you mind telling me ..?
Do you have any idea .?

1. Choose the correct indirect question to be used as a more polite way to form the
original question.

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1. When was the building constructed?


a. I wonder when the building was constructed.
b. Could you tell me when was the building constructed?
c. Do you know if the building was constructed?
2. Is there a bank near here?
a. Could you tell me where the bank is near here?
b. I wonder where is the bank.
c. Excuse me, do you know if there is a bank near here?
3. How often does he arrive late for work?
a. I was wondering how often he arrives late for work
b. Do you happen to know how often he does arrive late for work?
c. I don't know if he arrives late for work.
4. What type of car have you got?
a. I wonder what type of car have you got.
b. Can you tell me what type of car you've got?
c. Would you mind telling me if you've got a car?
5. How much time do you spend watching TV?
a. Could you tell me how much time are you watching TV?
b. Do you know how much time you do spend watching TV?
c. I wonder how much time you spend watching TV.
6. What time is it?
a. Pardon me, what time it is?
b. Pardon me, could you tell me what time it is?
c. Would you mind telling me what the time it is?
7. How old is John?
a. I have no idea how old is John.
b. Do you know when was John born?
c. I wonder how old John is.
8. Whom should I speak to about this problem?
a. I have no idea whom should I speak to about this problem.
b. Can you tell me where I should speak to about this problem?
c. Do you know whom I should speak to about this problem?
9. What will he need?
a. Do you know what will he need?
b. I've no idea what he will need.
c. Could you tell me what he needs?

2. Change the direct questions to indirect wh- questions.


1. What is the student's name?

2. What class did she miss?

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3. Why did she break the rules?

4. When did she and her friend leave the school?

5. What did they do at the mall?

6. What was her punishment?

3. Change the direct questions to indirect yes/no questions.


1. Did you finish your homework?

2. Do they have a test tomorrow?

3. Did Benjamin Franklin write Poor Richard's Almanac?

4. Should people be allowed to smoke in public places?

5. Have you flown a plane before?

6. Have you seen my dog?

( Exercises 1 -3 from : (from the Ventures 4 series)


4.Imagine you need to know as much as possible from a teacher at the school you study. You
also dont know the teacher very well, so you need to be very polite. Come up with 10 indirect
questions to ask him/her.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________

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________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________

Unreal Conditionals

Unreal conditional sentences consist of an if-clause and a main clause.

( if-clause) to show that present ( or future) situation is imaginary, you use a


past tense + would/wouldnt ( in the main clause).
If I had a map, I wouldnt get lost.

( if-clause) to show that a past situation is imaginary, you use the past perfect
+ would/ wouldnt have + the past participle.
If I had had a map, I wouldnt have gotten lost.

1. Complete with the Second Conditional.


1) If he __________________________ (exercise), he would be healthier.

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2) If I __________________________ (be) you, I would call the police.


3) I _________________________ (buy) a new jacket if I had some money.
4) I _________________________ (help) him if I were you.
5) I would travel round the world if I ___________________________ (win) the lottery.
6) If she had time, she __________________________ (go) to the gym.
7) If I __________________________ (meet) an alien, I wouldnt be scared.
8) If I __________________________ (go) to New York, I would visit the Empire State building.

2. Look at the questions and answer them. Then form sentences. Use the Second Conditional.
What would you do if?
1. What would you do if you won 1000?
a. spend it b. save it
2. What would you do if you met your favourite actor?
a. faint b. ask for an autograph
3. What would you do if you found a bag full of money on a bus?
a. give it to the police b. keep it
4. What would you do if you saw an alien?
a. take a picture of it b. start running
5. What would you do if you were alone on a desert island?
a. go fishing every day b. start crying
6. What would you do if you saw a ghost?
a. scream b. say hello
7. What would you do if you saw a tiger in your garden?
a. keep it as a pet b. not touch it

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1) ____If I won 1000, I would spend it.


2) _________________________________________________________________________________
3) _________________________________________________________________________________
4) _________________________________________________________________________________
5) _________________________________________________________________________________
6) _________________________________________________________________________________
7) _________________________________________________________________________________

3. Peter is ill in bed. Give him some advice. Begin with If I were you.
1. make a cup of tea
2. stay in bed all day
3. call the doctor
4. take an aspirin
5. not go to school tomorrow
6. stay in bed for two days
7. eat some soup
8. drink some orange juice
1) ____If I were you, I would make a cup of tea.
2) _________________________________________________________________________________
3) _________________________________________________________________________________
4) _________________________________________________________________________________
5) _________________________________________________________________________________
6) _________________________________________________________________________________
7) _________________________________________________________________________________
8) _________________________________________________________________________________

Now read the situation below and come with 3 ideas to answer each of them.

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What would you do if ...


a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

you lost your wallet on the street?


you forgot about a test?
you didnt have enough money to get in the movies with your friends?
you felt sick after eating lunch?
you didnt play tennis really well?

4.Rewrite the sentences. Use the Second Conditional.


1) I havent got any money, so I wont buy that CD.
____If I had some money, I would buy that CD.___________________________________________
2) Pigs havent got wings, so they dont fly.
_________________________________________________________________________________
3) His marks arent good because he doesnt work hard.
_________________________________________________________________________________

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4) Im busy, so I wont come with you.


_________________________________________________________________________________
5) They dont know her, so they wont invite her to their party.
_________________________________________________________________________________
6) I wont call him because I havent got his phone number.
_________________________________________________________________________________
7) She walks to school because she hasnt got a bike.
_________________________________________________________________________________
8) Its cold, so we wont go to the beach.
_________________________________________________________________________________
9) I wont join you because I have to stay at home.
_________________________________________________________________________________
10) He wont lend you his camera because he needs it.
_________________________________________________________________________________

5. Complete the sentences.


1) If she had followed____ (follow) my advice, she would have arrived earlier.
2) If I had checked the bill, I _____________________________ (see) the mistake.
3) If we ___________________________ (not / meet) him in the street, we would have got lost.
4) If I had been one hour late, ________________________________ (she / wait) for me?
5) You would have got the job if you ________________________________ (not / behave) so
foolishly.
6) If they had invited you to the party, __________________________________ (you / go)?
7) We would have stayed longer if we __________________________________ (have) time.
8) If he hadnt panicked, the dog ___________________________________ (not / bite) him.
9) She ________________________________ (have) better results if she had trained harder.
10) If he ________________________________ (be) in my place, would he have done the same thing?

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6. Complete the Third Conditional sentences.


1) If I __________________________ (hear) the weather forecast, I ____________________________
(take) an umbrella with me.
2) If you ___________________________ (come) to the party last night, you ____________________
(meet) James.
3) If I __________________________ (listen) to her, this ________________________ (not / happen).
4) If I ____________________________ (know) you were at home, I ___________________________
(call) you.
5) What ________________________ (you / do) if he ____________________________ (not / lend)
you his car?
6) If you _____________________ (not / be) so rude, she __________________________ ( not / get)
so upset.
7) If Raymond _________________________ (not / miss) the bus, he ___________________________
( not / be) late for work.
8) If someone ___________________________ (tell) me that there was no milk in the house, I
______________________ (go) to the supermarket.
9) She _____________________________ (not / refuse) if you _______________________________
(ask) her nicely.
10) ___________________________ (you / come) with us if we ____________________________ (tell)
you about the concert?

7. Rewrite the sentences. Use the Third Conditional.


1) I didnt say hello because I didnt see her.
If I had seen her, I would have said hello.________________________________________________
2) We didnt go out to dinner because Dad finished work late.
_________________________________________________________________________________
3) She was angry because you didnt call her.

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_________________________________________________________________________________
4) We didnt hear about the accident because we didnt watch the news.
_________________________________________________________________________________
5) You dropped the vase because you werent careful.
_________________________________________________________________________________
6) He didnt pass the exam because he was nervous.
_________________________________________________________________________________
7) We didnt go to the beach because it rained.
_________________________________________________________________________________
8) I had a good time because you were there with me.
_________________________________________________________________________________
9) They didnt get a taxi because they didnt have enough money.
_________________________________________________________________________________
10) We were late because our car broke down.
_________________________________________________________________________________
11) She didnt follow my advice, so she didnt make a profit.
_________________________________________________________________________________
12) You didnt put the milk in the fridge, so it went bad.
_________________________________________________________________________________
8. Match and write sentences.
1) If you had gone to bed earlier, a) we would eat at a restaurant.
2) If Mum hadnt cooked dinner, b) she would not be unemployed today.
3) If you had been honest, c) if I hadnt already promised to go with Yvonne.
4) I would buy this book d) if I hadnt spent all my money on CDs.
5) You would know what to do e) if we had followed his advice.
6) If Mary had taken that job six months ago, f) I would be rich today.

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7) Id be in London right now g) you wouldnt be so tired.


8) We wouldnt be in trouble h) Dad wouldnt be so angry now.
9) If I had bought that lottery ticket, i) if I hadnt missed the bus.
10) I would go to the party with Rita j) if you had listened to her instructions.

1) If you had gone to bed earlier, you wouldnt be so tired.


2) _________________________________________________________________________________
3) _________________________________________________________________________________
4) _________________________________________________________________________________
5) _________________________________________________________________________________
6) _________________________________________________________________________________
7) _________________________________________________________________________________
8) _________________________________________________________________________________
9) _________________________________________________________________________________
10) ________________________________________________________________________________

( Most exercises from : http://inglescarmelitaslb.files.wordpress.com/2011/05/conditional-sentences.pdf)

9. Complete the sentences with you own ideas. Check if it is second or third conditional.

a) If I had enough money, __________________________________________________________________


b) I would have done a better test____________________________________________________________
c) I wouldnt have lost my keys ______________________________________________________________
d) If I had bought a new car, _________________________________________________________________
e) I would have gone to the beach ____________________________________________________________
f)

If I were you, ___________________________________________________________________________

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g) If I didnt have a headache, ________________________________________________________________


h) If my mom had forgotten my birthday, ______________________________________________________
i)

If I hadnt spent all my money, ____________________________________________________________

j)

I would be able to go with you if __________________________________________________________

k) I wouldnt be so hungry _________________________________________________________________


l)

I would have cooked ____________________________________________________________________

m) I would call him if ______________________________________________________________________


n) She wouldnt be so mad _________________________________________________________________
Wishes and Regrets

If only and wish are ways of talking about unreal situations. You can use them to
express wishes or regrets about the present or the past.
Im teacher- I wish/if only I wasnt a teacher.
I havent studied any other language. If only/ I wish I had studied another language.
I left school early If only/ I wish I hadnt left school early.
I dont have enough/much time If only/ I wish I had more time.
Im not very good at math - If only/ I wish I was/ were better at math.

1. Complete these sentences with the correct form of the verb in brackets. Some sentences require
a negation and use the contractions in the negative form.
1. Bruce wishes he ___________(have) more money so he could buy a new sweater.

had

Bruce w ishes he

2. I wish I ___________( (be) taller so that I could be in the

basketball team.

w ere

I w ish I * (be) talle

3. I wish you ___________( (stop) watching television while I

am talking to you.

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w ould stop

I w ish you * (stop

w ouldn't do

I w ish you * (do)

4. I wish you ___________( (do) that. It annoys me.

5. I wish the holidays ___________( (come) so we could go

off to the seaside.

w ould come

I w ish the holiday

6. Of course Tom wishes he ___________( (come) with us to

Paris, but he has to stay here.

could come

Of course Tom w

7. I wish we ___________( (go) to the match on Saturday but

we're visiting my uncle.

could go

I w ish w e * (go) t

8. I wish you ___________( (keep) your mouth shut

yesterday. Now Mary knows.

had kept

I w ish you * (keep

hadn't lost

If only I * (lose) al

9. If only I ___________( (lose) all my money. Now I'm broke.

10. Peter is always late. If only he ___________( (turn up) on

time for a change!

2. Complete the sentences in such a way that it means the same as the sentence before it.
Example: I havent a job at the moment ---- If only/I wish I had a job
Im not going to the party --------- If only/I wish I were going to the party
I married Myrtle instead of Francis -------- If only/I wish I had married Francis
You wont ever wait for me -----------If only/I wish you would wait for me
Weve run out of petrol -------- If only/I wish...............................................................
Im taking a test tomorrow -------- If only/I wish..........................................................
This holiday has been a disaster -------- If only/I wish...................................................
Its snowing outside -------- If only/I wish....................................................................
People at work always shout at me ----- If only/I wish...................................................

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I acted very rudely in front of the headmaster -------- If only/I wish................................


I dont know how to ride a bicycle -------- If only/I wish.................................................
She never listens to me ---------- If only/I wish............................................................
I cant speak Russian -------- If only/I wish...................................................................
Im not tall, dark and handsome -------- If only/I wish...................................................
I was caught robbing a bank -------- If only/I wish.........................................................
I crashed the car when I was drunk -------- If only/I wish................................................
Shes making beans again -------- If only/I wish.............................................................
Stop behaving like that!-------------- If only/I wish.........................................................
I failed my exam because I didnt study -------- If only/I wish............................................
I dont want to go to school, but I have to -------- If only/I wish........................................
My girlfriend left me after we argued -------- If only/I wish..............................................
I lost a lot of money at cards -------- If only/I wish..........................................................
Why dont you ever look at me?--------- If only/I wish......................................................
I want to go to the Bahamas for a holiday -------- If only/I wish........................................
Im sorry I havent got more friends -------- If only/I wish................................................
(http://www.tolearnenglish.com/exercises/exercise-english-2/exercise-english-5529.php)

3. Rewrite the sentences using the words given.


1.- Unfortunately, the teacher wont cancel the English test.
I wish . .
2.- Joe is sorry that he ate all the chocolates.
Joe wishes .. .
3.- I dont know the answer.
I wish .. .
4.- Im sad that we dont have a dog.
I wish ... .
5.- Our team didnt practise enough so we lost.
We wish ..... .
6.- She told them a lie.
She wishes ... .

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7.- I dont have any water with me. Im really thirsty!


I wish .... .
8.- My parents think Mark is impolite.
I wish ... .
9.- The shoes I bought were uncomfortable.
I wish .... .
10.- Paul wants Kate to notice him.
Paul wishes .
11.- All her friends ski so well.
She wishes . .
12.- Daniel spent all his pocket money, and he has got none left.
He wishes ... .
13.- Their neighbours car makes a terrible noise.
They wish ... .
(http://www.edu.xunta.es/centros/iesallariz/system/files/Conditional-Wish+clauses.pdf)
4. Choose the most suitable tense.
1. I wish Peter doesnt live / didnt live / wouldnt live so far away from the town center. Well have to
take a taxi.
2. I feel rather cold. I wish I brought / had brought my pullover with me.
3. What a pity! I wish we dont have to / didnt have to / wouldnt have to leave. Ive just started to
enjoy myself.
4. I wish you tell / told / had told me about the test. I havent done any revision.
5. I wish the people next door hadnt made / wouldnt make / couldnt make so much noise. I cant hear

50

myself think.
6. Im sorry I missed your birthday party. I really wish I come / came / had come / would come.
7. Having a wonderful time in Paris. I wish you are / were / had been here. Love, Helen.
8. This car is a complete waste of money. I wish I didnt buy it / hadnt bought it.
9. If only I have / had / would have a screwdriver with me.
10. Jason thinks everyone likes him. If only he knows / knew what people say behind his back!
11. I really like my new boss but I wish he gave / would give / could give me some more responsibility.
12. I have no idea where we are. If only we have / had / would have a map!
5. Use the words in brackets and rewrite the sentences using I wish.
1. I didn't have much time to spend with my family when I was younger.
______________________________________________________ when I was younger.
2. I hate the way my friend chews gum.
_______________________________________________________ in such an ugly way.
3. I'd love to be able to speak confidently in public.
________________________________________________________________ in public.
4. It wasn't very sensible for me to resign from my job.
_________________________________________________________________ my job.
5. I don't believe it. We're having a party in one hour and you haven't helped at all.
__________________________________________________________________ a little.
6. Unfortunately, I have to leave very early in the morning.
_____________________________________________________ so early in the morning.

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7. In my opinion, they shouldnt have given the award to that author.


I wish that author _________________________________________________________.
I wish the award __________________________________________________________.
( exercises 4 and 5 from: http://www.dbe.metu.edu.tr/student/groups/pin/Grammar%20Handout%2010.pdf)

HAVE/ GET SOMETHING DONE

You can use have/ get something done when someone does something for you- often because you
have paid them to do it.
GET is a bit more informal than HAVE.
Compare the sentences:
I will cut my hair.
I will have my hair cut.

52