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You are on page 1of 104

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL

ENGINEERNG

**ELE3101 ELECTROMAGNETIC FILEDS CLASS
**

NOTES

BY

STEPHEN S. MWANJE

1

Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1: RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FIELD AND CIRCUIT THEORY.........................3

1.1. INTRODUCTION.................................................................................................3

1.2. CIRCUIT LAWS OBTAINED USING FIELD QUANTITIES..........................................3

1.3. MAXWELL’S EQUATIONS AS GENERALISATIONS OF CIRCUIT EQUATIONS...........5

1.4. BREAK DOWN OF SIMPLE CIRCUIT THEORY IN PROBLEM ANALYSIS..................8

CHAPTER TWO: UNBOUNDED WAVE PROPAGATION............................................9

**2.1. THE WAVE EQUATION IN A PERFECT DIELECTRIC..............................................9
**

2.2. UNIFORM PLANE WAVES.................................................................................11

2.3. FREQUENCY DEPENDENCE OF THE CLASSIFICATION MATERIALS...................13

2.4. WAVE PROPAGATION IN A CONDUCTIVE MEDIUM............................................14

2.5. POWER FLOW IN ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS.................................................17

2.6. REFLECTION AND REFRACTION OF UNIFORM PLANE WAVES...........................20

2.7. POLARISATION................................................................................................23

CHAPTER 3: WAVE PROPAGATION IN TRANSMISSION LINES..................................26

3.1. INTRODUCTION...............................................................................................26

3.2. TRANSMISSION LINE EQUATIONS (DISTRIBUTED CIRCUIT ANALYSIS)...............26

3.3. STANDING WAVES ON TRANSMISSION LINES..................................................32

3.4. TRANSMISSION LINES MATCHING CONSIDERATIONS.......................................35

3.5. GRAPHICAL AIDS TO TRANSMISSION LINE CALCULATIONS..............................41

CHAPTER 4: ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE PROPAGATION IN WAVEGIDES...................49

**4.1. THE INFINITE PLANE WAVEGUIDE....................................................................49
**

4.2. THE RECTANGULAR WAVEGUIDE....................................................................60

4.3. CIRCULAR WAVEGIDES...................................................................................70

CHAPTER 5: WAVE ROPAGATION IN OTHER SYSTEMS..........................................72

6.1. PLASMAS........................................................................................................72

6.2. MICROSTRIP TRANSMISSION LINES.................................................................73

6.3. PROPAGATION IN OPTICAL FIBERS.................................................................................75

REFERENCES:............................................................................................78

APPENDICES..............................................................................................79

APPENDIX A: GRAPHICAL SOLUTION TO DOUBLE STUB MATCHING............................79

APPENDIX A: GRAPHICAL SOLUTION TO DOUBLE STUB MATCHING

2

CHAPTER 1: RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FIELD AND CIRCUIT

THEORY

1.1. INTRODUCTION

**Conventional circuit theory, where we deal with Voltage, V and Current, I, and
**

field theory, where we use the field vectors E, D, B, H, and J are inter-related.

Consideration of circuits from either point of view gives the same results.

However, there are certain inherent assumptions in the circuit theory approach,

which become invalid as circuit dimensions and the impressed signal wavelength

become comparable. This necessitates either the use of field theory, which is the

more general approach or a modification of the circuit theory approach.

In this chapter, we shall see how the two are related, and why circuit theory has

limitations. It will be shown that the normal expressions can be obtained using

field theory, and that Maxwell’s equations, the “four commandments” of

electromagnetic field propagation, can be obtained as generalizations of circuit

expressions.

1.2. CIRCUIT LAWS OBTAINED USING FIELD QUANTITIES

(1) Ohm’s law:

J,

A

q

p

3

Consider the conducting rod in figure 1.1 with parameters as shown

Figure 1.1: Conducting Rod of Uniform cross-section and current density

**If is the electric field at a point, then and
**

Ε Ε= J σ

1.1

q q

J Jl l

∫ Εgdl = ∫σ gdl

p p

=

σ

=J Α

σΑ

**Note that we have assumed a uniform rod with a uniform current density, J.
**

Since: (potential difference between p and q)

q

∫ Εgdl

p

=V

**(Current through the rod)
**

J Α= I

(Resistance of the rod)

l

=R

σΑ

Equation 1.1 states that V=IR, which is Ohm’s law derived from field theory.

**(ii) The series R-L-C circuit
**

V0

L

R

C 2

3

4

5

6

7

1

4

Figure 1.2 shows a simple series R-L-C circuit

Figure 1.2: Simple R-L-C Circuit

Recall Faraday’s law in integral form:

**[Surface not changing] 1.2
**

∂

∫ Εgdl = − ∂t∫ Β gds

Consider the RHS. Since the circuit in figure 1.2 is time invariant, the partial

derivative can be replaced by an ordinary one: furthermore, , the total

Βgds = Φ

flux (we assume it links all turns). The RHS can therefore be written as:

1.3

∂ dφ d dI

− ∫Β gds = − =− (LI =) − L

∂t dt dt dt

The right hand side can be broken into five parts:

**• The integral from 0 to 1 - V01, is the applied voltage. Note that V01=-V10;
**

• The integral from 2 to 3; 1.4

3 3

J

∫ Ε gdl

2

=

σ∫

2

gdl =IR

• The integral from 4 to 5, where = voltage drop across an element.

∫ Ε gdl

Voltage drop across the resistor is not the same as that across the

5

capacitor. Across resistor, energy is actually lost. Across the capacitor,

energy is stored as 1.5

5 5

D Q

∫ Ε gdl = ∫ε

4 4

gdl =

C

Note: D= Q/A, and the integral gives the capacitor plate spacing d

multiplied by Q/A. we then use C =

Αε / d

**With no charge on the capacitor at t = , the charge Q will be given by
**

−∞

1.6

t 5 t

1

Q= ∫

−∞

Idt, ∴ ∫ Ε

4

g dl =

c ∫ Idt

−∞

**• The integral from 6 to 7; By virtue of the fact that we assume a perfectly
**

conducting filament, which must have zero tangential electric field; this part

of the integral is identically zero.

Combining equation 1.3 to 1.7 then gives us the following result:

1.7

t

dI 1

V10 = IR + L + ∫ Idt

dt C −∞

**Equation 1.7 is the familiar expression for the series R-L-C circuit, but this time
**

derived from field theory. Several assumptions were used:

**(A) A filamentary conductor defines the closed path or circuit. This conductor
**

has zero tangential electric field (E) everywhere. For perfect conductor,

and . No voltage drop along conductor.

Εtan = 0 ∫ Εgdl =0

**(B) Maximum circuit dimensions are small compared to the wavelength.
**

(C) Circuit elements are ideal, i.e., displacement current, magnetic flux and

imperfect conductivity are confined to capacitors, inductors and resistors

respectively.

The above two examples have demonstrated that ordinary circuits, can be

analyzed using field theory.

6

1.1. MAXWELL’S EQUATIONS AS GENERALISATIONS OF CIRCUIT

EQUATIONS

**Maxwell’s equations can be obtained as generalizations of Ampere’s, Faraday’s,
**

and Gauss’s laws, which are circuit equations.

(i) Ampere’s law:

∫ Ηgdl=

Ñ I

1.8

Note: A Capacitor stores energy predominantly in the electric field while an

Inductor stores energy predominantly in the magnetic field.

**Stokes theorem coverts the line integral in equation 1.8 around a closed path to
**

an integral over the surface enclosed by the path. Consequently, a more general

relation is obtained by substituting for I using the conduction current density, J.

An even more general expression is obtained by including the displacement

current density, to give:

∂D ∂t

1.9

∂D ∂D

∫ Η gdl

Ñ = ∫J gds +

s s

∫∂t gds =∫ J + gds

s

dt

**This is the loop or mesh form of one of Maxwell’s equations derived from
**

Ampere’s law. Using Stoke’s theorem, LHS of the integral in equation 1.9 can be

converted to an open surface integral. We thus get the point form of the equation:

1.10

∂D

∇ΧΗ = J +

∂t

**(ii) Faraday’s Law (for constant flux): 1.11
**

dφ

ν =−

dt

Where; V is the induced emf in a circuit and is the total magnetic flux linking

Φ

the circuit.

7

Since voltage is the integral around the circuit of and is the integral of

Εgdl , Φ

**over the surface enclosed by the circuit, the more general form of equation
**

Βgds

1.11 is:

1.12

∂Β

∫ Ε gdl

Ñ = − ∫ gds

s

∂t

**The surface may be changing so the time derivative should be inside the integral
**

sign. This is another one of Maxwell’s equations. The point relation is obtained by

applying Stokes theorem to get:

1.13

∂Β

∇ΧΕ = −

∂t

(iii) Gauss’s law (electric field) 1.14

∫ Dgds = Q

Ñ

Generally, total charge is the integral, over the volume of interest, of the charge

density, p. Equation 1.14 becomes:

1.15

∫ Dgds = ∫ρ gdv

Ñ

The relation is obtained by applying the divergence theorem (which converts an

integral over a closed surface to a volume integral within the volume enclosed) to

the LHS of equation 1.15 to give:

1.16

∇gD = ρ

(iv) Gauss’ law (magnetic field) 1.17

∫ Βgds = 0

Ñ

The magnetic field does not have source points. Thus, there is no such things as

a magnetic charge, implying that magnetic charge = 0 as in equation 1.7.

Applying the divergence theorem gives

8

1.18

∇gΒ = 0

To summarize these results:

∇ΧΗ= +J D& ∫ Ηgdl=∫ +D

Ñ ( J gds)& I

∇ΧΕ=−Β & & II

∫ Εgdl=−∫ Β gds

Ñ

∇gD= ρ III

∇Β=

g 0 ∫ Dgds ∫= dv

Ñ ρ

IV

∫ Βgds= 0

Ñ

The above field equations have been obtained as generalizations of circuit

equations. These four equations contain the continuity equation,

or 1.19

∇gJ = − ρ

∫ J gds = − ∫ρ dv

Ñ

1.1.1. Free space relationships

**In free space, and for most practical purposes in air, the conduction current
**

density and the charge density are zero, permitting simplification of Maxwell’s

equation:

∇ΧΗ= &

D

∇ΧΕ=−Β &

∇gD= 0

∇Β

g= 0

1.1.2. Harmonic fields

**For harmonic time variation of a field, ; .In other words,
**

Α = Α Οe jwt

∂Α

= jwΑ

∂t

taking a partial derivative with respect to time for harmonic fields is equivalent to

multiplying the field by . Similarly, a double partial derivative with respect to

jω

9

time is equivalent to multiplying by - . For harmonic time variations, Maxwell’s

2

w

equations therefore are:

**I. Circulation of the magnetic field generates
**

∇ΧΗ= ( σ+ )

jwεΕ→

an orthogonal electric field.

**II. Circulation of the electric field generates an
**

∇ΧΕ = − JW µΗ →

orthogonal magnetic field.

III. Source point of an Electric

∇ gD = ρ , ∇gε Ε = ρ , ∇gΕ = ρ ε →

Field is a charge. Charge enclosed by the surface determines the flux out

of the surface.

IV. Magnetic field has no source points

∇gΒ = 0→

Note that the constitutive relations and have been

D = εΕ, Β = µΗ ; J = σΕ

used, and that a homogeneous isotropic medium has been assumed.

**1.1. BREAK DOWN OF SIMPLE CIRCUIT THEORY IN PROBLEM
**

ANALYSIS

**Simple circuit theory assumes a current (conduction or displacement) which is
**

constant throughout a circuit element, i.e., even if the current is alternating, the

same current in the same direction exists at all similarly aligned cross-sections of

the circuit element at any instant in time. This is because at low frequencies the

wavelength is much greater than the dimensions of the circuit element, so the

field strength can be assumed constant. This is illustrated in Figure 1.3A.

Component

Half a Wavelength

wavelength

A

B

10

At higher frequencies, wavelength approaches circuit dimensions so that the

assumptions of constant electric field and current are no longer valid (Figure.

1.3B). These vary from point to point in circuit element at any instant in time.

Figure .1.3: circuit component relative size at low frequencies.

**When simple circuit theory breaks down, it is necessary to use distributed circuit
**

analysis. Circuit quantities (V and I) are permitted to change incrementally along

the circuit. Defining relationships are in the form of differential equations. The

physical circuit is then described in the form of equivalent impedance, to which

simple circuit theory can be applied. This approach will be used when analyzing

transmission lines.

1.1.1. Assignment One:

1.1.2. 1.1. Starting with Maxwell’s equations derive the continuity equation

**1.2. Show that for harmonic time variation of a field , given as
**

Α Α = Α Ο e jwt

∂ 2Α

= − w2Α

∂t 2

**1.3. Show that the partial differential equation has a general
**

∂ A

2

∂ A2

= µε 2

∂x 2

∂t

solution of the form: ; with Vo appropriately defined

A = f I (×− V t0 +) f 2×+

( v t0 )

11

CHAPTER TWO: UNBOUNDED WAVE PROPAGATION

2.

2.1. THE WAVE EQUATION IN A PERFECT DIELECTRIC

Definition: Wave motion:

**A group of phenomena constitute a wave if a physical phenomenon occurring at
**

one place at a given time is reproduced at other locations later, the time delay

being proportional to the space separation from the first location.

12

Consider, e.g., at times and (Figure 2.1). At any fixed time (e.g.

f1 ( Χ−V0t ) t1 t2

**t=t1,t=t2 etc) the function only depends on X. Evidently the phenomenon travels in
**

the positive x direction with a velocity . Similarly, represents a

V0 f 2 ( X +ν0t )

phenomenon traveling in the negative x direction.

Figure 2.1: Illustration of a propagating phenomenon.

**We shall now develop the equation governing the propagation of fields in a
**

perfect dielectric (no charges, no conduction current), starting with Maxwell’s

equations.

I

∇ΧΗ= ( σ+ jwεΕ)

II

∇ΧΕ = − JW µ Η

III

∇ gD = ρ

IV

∇gΒ = 0

We differentiate I w.r.t time and since the curl operation is w.r.t space we can

reverse the order of differentiation:

LHS:

∂

( ∇×Η ) = ∇×Η&

∂t

13

RHS:

∂t

( )

∂ & ∂ & &

D = εΕ = εΕ&

∂t

**Where and have been assumed time- independent.
**

ε µ

i.e. 2.1

& = ε∂ Ε

2

∇ × Η =ε Ε 2

∂t

**Taking the curl of LHS and RHS of II, and use for time invariant :
**

& µΗ&

Β=

µ

2.2

µ

∇×∇×Ε=− ∇×Η &

Use 2.1: 2.3

Ε&

∇×∇×Ε=− µε &

Use identity:

∇×∇× Α = ∇∇ g

Α −∇ Α

2

i.e. 2.4

∇∇ g

Ε−∇ Ε=−

2

µε &

Ε &

Therefore: 2.5

∇2Ε= µεΕ&

&

Similarly, 2.6

Η&

Η= µε

∇2 g &

**Equation 2.5 and 2.6 are the wave equations in a perfect dielectric and must be
**

satisfied by and for electromagnetic wave propagation. For free space,

Ε Η

and and, assuming harmonic time dependence, we get Helmholtz

µ = µ0 ε = ε0

**equation (a similar equation can be derived for ):
**

Η

14

2.7

∇ Ε+k E = 0

2 2

Where, 2.8

Κ = w µε

2 2

And 2.9

w 2π f 2π

κ = w µε = = =

v v λ

**It can be shown that if E and H are independent of the y and z directions (a
**

common case) 2.5 and 2.6 reduce to

∂ 2Ε ∂ 2Ε

= µε

∂× 2 ∂ t2

2.10

2.11

∂Η

2

∂Η 2

= µε 2

∂x 2

∂t

**Consider equation 2.10 which is equivalent to three scalar equations in
**

It will be shown later that for a wave propagating in the x

Ε x,Ε y & Εz . Εx = 0

**direction. Taking say the y component (the z component behaves similarly) gives
**

equation 2.10 as:

2.12

∂ Εy

2

∂ Εy2

= µε

∂x 2

∂t 2

**This partial differential equation has a general solution of the form (HW 1.3):
**

2.13

( V 0t +) f ×+

Ε y = fI ×− 2 ( v 0t )

**With reference to the definition given earlier, it is evident that equation 2.13
**

describes wave motion.

2.2. UNIFORM PLANE WAVES

15

Definition:

zH

x

E

Direction of

motion

**A uniform plane wave is an electromagnetic wave in which electric and magnetic
**

fields are orthogonal, both laying in a plane transverse to the direction of

propagation, each being uniform in any such plane (Figure.2.2). Note that, the

fields in the illustration are functions of x and t only.

y

16

Figure 2.2: UPW propagating in positive x –direction

Writing the wave equation 2.10 in terms of its components;

2.14 (a)

∂ 2Ε x ∂ 2Ε x

= µε

∂x 2 ∂t2

2.14(b)

∂ 2Ε y ∂ 2Ε y

= µε

∂x 2 ∂t 2

2.14(c)

∂ E2

∂ E 2

= µε 2 Z

∂x 2

∂t

In free space, the divergence of the electric field E is zero, so that:

2.15

∂Ε x ∂E y ∂Ez

+ + = 0

∂x ∂y ∂ z

**The last two terms on the LHS are zero because E is independent of y and z.
**

Therefore even the first component must be zero. This means that either is

ΕΧ

constant or equal to zero. However, a constant cannot be part of wave motion,

therefore . A similar argument for the magnetic field shows that .

ΕΧ = 0 ΗΧ = 0

We can therefore conclude that uniform plane waves are transverse.

2.2.1. Intrinsic impedance

**For E, H independent of y and z and having no x components, the curl
**

expressions can be written as:

17

2.16(a)

∂Ε z ∂Ε y

∇ΧΕ = − a+y az

∂x ∂x

2.16(b)

∂Η z ∂Η y

∇ΧΗ = − a y+ az

∂x ∂x

**Substitute into I and II:
**

2.17(a)

∂Η z ∂Η y ∂E y ∂E

− ay + az = ε ay + z az

∂x ∂x ∂t ∂t

2.17(b)

∂Ε z ∂Ε y ∂Η y ∂Η z

− ay + a z = −µ ay + az

∂x ∂x ∂t ∂t

**Equating components in the y and z directions gives:
**

2.18(a)

∂Η z ∂Ε y

− =ε

∂x ∂t

2.18(b)

∂Η y ∂Ε z

=ε

∂x ∂t

2.19(a)

∂Ε z ∂Η y

= −µ

∂x ∂t

2.19(b)

∂Ε y ∂Η z

= −µ

∂x ∂t

**With for propagation in positive x direction. Then:
**

,

v0 = ( µε )

−1 2

Ε y = f1 ( Χ −V0t)

; where

∂Ε y ∂f1 ∂ ( x − v0 t ) ∂f1

= g = v−0 f1 ( x v−0 t) f1 =

∂ ( x − v 0t )

∂t ∂( x − v0 t) ∂t

18

Using 2.18(a), ; But

∂Η z ε ∂f1 ∂ ( x − v 0t )

= v0ε f1, ⇒ Ηz = ∫ f1 dx = f1 = f1

∂x µ ∂x ∂x

So

ε ∂f1 ε

Ηz = ∫

µ ∂x

∂x +c = f1

µ

c+

**We can ignore the constant C since it is not part of wave motion, giving:
**

2.20(a)

ε E µ

Ηz = E y; ∴ y =

µ Ηz ε

Similarly, 2.20(b)

Εz µ

=−

Ηy ε

Since,

Ε = Ε2y + Ε2z ; Η = Η2z + Η2y

2.21

Ε µ

=

Η ε

**E is volts/m, and H is in amps/m, so that E/H has dimensions of impedance. This
**

ratio, which depends only on the dielectric, is called the intrinsic impedance of

the medium. In free space the intrinsic impedance is ohm

ν ( µ 0 /ε 0 ) =377

2.3. FREQUENCY DEPENDENCE OF THE CLASSIFICATION MATERIALS

**Before obtaining the wave equation in conducting media, it is instructive to
**

establish guidelines by which dielectrics and conductors can be distinguished.

Consider equation I

∇×Η= ( σ+ jwε ) E

19

We see that the term on the RHS has two components: conduction current

( σΕ)

and a displacement current . While the conduction current is independent

( jwεΕ)

**of frequency, the displacement current increases with frequency. This means that
**

as frequency increases, a material can change from a conductor to a dielectric. It

therefore makes sense to classify materials depending on the relative

magnitudes of conduction and displacement currents:

Dielectrics

wε > σ σ 1

<

wε 100

Quasi conductors

wε ≈ σ 1 σ

< < 100

100 wε

Conductors

wε < σ σ

100 <

wε

**It is therefore possible for the same material to behave as a dielectric, a quasi
**

conductor, or conductor depending on frequency (See example in HW 2.1).

2.4. WAVE PROPAGATION IN A CONDUCTIVE MEDIUM

2.4.1. Propagation Constant for a Conductive medium

**Maxwell’s equations for a conductive medium will retain both the conduction and
**

displace current components, but there will be no stored charge. As before, we

differentiate I with respect to time; take the curl of II, and carry out the necessary

substitutions to get the wave equation for the electric field E. A similar derivation

can be used to get the wave equation for the magnetic field H (see equation

2.22)

2.22(a)

&

& µσΕ &

∇2Ε= µεΕ+

2.22(b)

&

& µσΗ &

∇ Η= µεΗ+

2

For harmonic time dependence, Helmholtz equation for a conducting medium is

20

2.23(a)

∇ 2 Ε + ( w 2µε − jw µσ ) Ε =0

2.23(b)

∇ Η + ( w µε − jw µσ ) Η =0

2 2

Rearranging

2.24(a)

∇2Ε − γ 2Ε = 0

2.24(b)

∇ Η−γ Η = 0

2 2

where, 2.25

γ = jwµ σ( + jw

2

ε )

is a complex number known as the propagation constant. For a UPW

γ = a + jβ

propagating in the x direction, 2.24 gives:

2.26

∂ E

2

= γ 2Ε

∂x 2

2.26 has a solution of the form:

Ε ( x ) = Ε0 eγ x

ξ ( x, t ) = Re Ε0 e−γ x + jwt

2.27

= e αΧ Re Ε0 e j ( wt − βΧ)

**Evidently equation 2.27 represents a wave traveling in the positive x direction,
**

attenuating (decaying) according to e- X with β as the phase shift per unit

distance. α is therefore called the attenuation constant and β the phase

constant of the medium.

Using 2.25 and considering only positive square roots, it can be shown that:

21

and 2.28

µε σ2 µε σ2

α=w 1 + −1 β =w 1+ 2 2+ 1

2 wε

2 2 2 wε

**From the definition of ,
**

β

so that v=

2π w

β= λf =

λ β

2.4.2. Good dielectric

**A good dielectric will always have some losses (as opposed to a perfect
**

dielectric). However since it can then be shown that (HW 2.3):

,

( σ / wε ) =1

2.29(a)

σ µ

a≈

2 ε

2.29(b)

σ 2

β ≈ w µε 1 + 2 2

8w ε

**The wave velocity, v, will be:
**

2.30

−1

w 1 σ2 σ2

v= = 1 + 2 2 ≈ v0 1 − 2 2

β µε 8w ε 8w ε

**is the velocity of propagation in the unbounded lossless dielectric. It
**

1

v0 = ( µε ) 2

**can be seen that the effect of small losses is a reduction in the velocity of
**

propagation of the wave.

Good conductor

For a good conductor, This gives:

( σ / wε ) ? 1

22

2.31

γ= jwµ (σ + jwε ) ≈ jwµσ w= wµσ < 45°

2.32

wµσ

a=

2

2.33

wµσ

β=

2

w 2w

v= =

β µσ

2.34

2.4.3. Skin Effect

**From 2.32 and 2.33, it is evident that and will be very large for a good
**

α β

conductor, especially at high frequencies. This has several consequences:

**(i) Velocity of propagation will be very low (see 2.34)
**

(ii) The wave attenuates very rapidly as it propagates through a conductor.

Consequently, radio frequency waves penetrate only to a small depth in a good

conductor before they become negligibly small compared to their surface

magnitude. We define the depth of penetration, or skin depth, δ , as the depth at

which the wave is 1/e (approximately 37%) of its surface value.

If the electric field strength at the surface is E, then at a depth δ , the field

strength Eδ s, is given by:

Or

1

Εδ s = Ε s e − aδ s= Ε s= e Ε−1 e − aδ s = e −1

s

e

=> 2.36

1 2

δs = =

α w µσ

Using the result of equation 2.32 for a good conductor

23

Example: Copper with

, the depth at

σ = 5.8× 10 7 mhos / m;µ = µ 0= 4π × 10 −7

**100Hz, 1 MHz, 1GHz and 100GHz are 6.6m, 6.6x10
**

-2 mm, 2.1x10

-3 mm

and 2.1x10

-4 mm respectively.

Surface Impedance:

**From the above example, we see that current is confined to a very thin sheet on
**

the surface of a good conductor at high frequencies. It is convenient to define

surface impedance,

2.37

Εtan

Ζs =

Js

**Where, is the tangential electric field at the surface and is the resulting
**

Ε tan Js

linear surface current density (total conduction current per meter width of the

surface).

**Consider a thick flat plate with a current distribution as shown in figure 2.3:
**

2.38

−ϒy

J = J 0e

The limit is justified only if the thickness, t>>δs so that

Thick conductor

ty

Thickness

24

2.39

t ∞ ∞

J0

∴ J = ∫ Jdy =∫ Jdy = J 0 ∫ e− ϒy dy =

0 0 0

γ

Figure 2.3: Conduction current distribution in a thick plate

Since, , then

σΕ tan Εtan γ

J 0 = σΕ tan , J s = Zs = =

γ Js σ

**Recall that for a good conductor, (equation 2.33)
**

γ = wµσ < 45 0

jwµ wµ

∴Zs = = (+1 j =) ( ηm )

σ 2σ

2.40

1+ j

=

σδ s

Surface resistance 2.41

1 wµ

Rs = =

σδ s 2σ

And Surface reactance 2.42

1

Xs =

σδ s

We see therefore that a conductor having a thickness >>δs with exponential

current distribution has the same resistance as a conductor of thickness δs with

the total current as before uniformly distributed throughout its thickness.

**Power loss in the conductor is thus 2.43
**

= J s2eff Rs

25

seff

With J as the effective value of the linear current density

1.1. POWER FLOW IN ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS

Consider I:

∇xH = J + D&= J + εΕ&

2.44

J = ∇xH − εΕ&

**Dimensions of 2.44 are those of current density (A/ ). Multiply through by :
**

m2 Ε

2.45(a)

ΕgJ = Εg∇xΗ − εΕgΕ&

**Dimensions of 2.44(a) are those of power per unit volume
**

(Amps/m2xVolts/mWatts/m3)

**Applying vector identity to first term on the right:
**

∇gΑxF = F g∇ xΑ − Α g∇ xF

Or

∇gΕxΗ = Η g∇ xΕ − Ε g∇ xΗ Εg∇xΗ = Η g∇ xΕ − ∇ gΕ xΗ

Substitute into 2.45(a)

Ε&

ΕgJ = Η g∇ xE − ∇ gΕ xΗ − εΕ g

From II,

&− Η

∇×Ε=−Β= µ

And Substituting:

ΕgJ = − µ g &Ε

Η Η− g & ΕgΗx

ε Ε−∇

**Since and (see below)
**

1 ∂ 1 ∂

ΗgΗ&= Ε 2

ΕgΕ&= Ε 2

2 ∂t 2 ∂t

2.45(b)

µ ∂ 2 ε ∂ 2

ΕgJ = − Η − Ε −∇ Ε

gΗx

2 ∂t 2 ∂t

**Η = Η 0 e jwt aˆ &= jwΗ e jwt aˆ
**

Η Η gΗ&= jwΗ 02e 2 jwt

0

26

Consider the integral of 2.45(b) over some volume V

2.45(c)

∂ µ 2 ε 2

∫ E gJdv = − Η + Ε dv (− ∫ ∇g xΕ)

∂t v∫2

Ηdv

v

2 v

**Apply divergence theorem to last term:
**

over S – the Surface enclosing V, gives

∫ ∇gΕxΗdv = Ñ

v

∫ ΕxΗgds ,

2.46

∂ µ ε

∫ Ε gJdv = − ∫ Η + Ε dv Ñ− ∫xΕ gΗds

2 2

v

∂t v 2 2 s

(1) (2) (3)

Evidently

**1. is power dissipation/ unit volume is the total power
**

ΕgJ ⇒ ∫ Ε gJdv

v

dissipated in a volume v.

2. is Stored electric energy/unit volume and is Stored magnetic

1 2 1

εΕ µΗ 2

2 2

energy/unit volume. Therefore, the volume integral (2) represents total

stored energy. The negative time derivative represents the rate of decrease

of stored energy.

3. From the law of conservation of energy, the rate of dissipation of energy (1)

must equal the rate at which stored energy is decreasing plus the rate at

which energy enters the volume V, i.e., (3) must represent the of flow of

energy inwards through the surface of V.

is the rate of energy flow outwards from the volume V.

∫ ΕxΗ gds

Ñ

s

is the rate of energy flow inwards through surface of V

∫ ΕΧΗ gds

−Ñ

s

Poynting’s theorem:

27

and called, Poynting’s vector, at any point is a measure of the rate of

P = ΕxΗ

flow of energy per unit area at that point. The direction of flow (direction of

Poynting’s vector) is perpendicular to both . Note that is normal to

Ε& Η Ρ Ε& Η

**Perfect Dielectric (UPW):
**

Total energy density due to electric and magnetic fields is . Given

1

2

( εΕ2 + µΗ 2 )

that wave velocity is , the rate of energy flow per unit area

v0

1

Ρ=

2

( εΕ 2+ µΗ 2

)v

0

1 µ ε

= ε ΕΗ + µ ΕΗ v0

2 ε µ

ΕΗ °

= = Ε × Η = ΕΗsin 90

v0

1.1.1. Conducting Medium

**The normal component of Poynting’s vector at the surface of a conductor
**

accounts for power loss in the conductor. Assuming a flat metal plate with

thickness The tangential components of electric and magnetic fields,

? δs

are related by

Ε tan &Η tan

2.47

Ε tan = Ζ sΗ tan

28

Where (see equation. 2.40)

wµ

Ζs = ∠ 45°

σ

**Since are no longer in time phase we use the complex Poynting’s vector.
**

Ε& Η

2.48

1

Ρ = Ε xΗ •

2

2.49

1

= Ε tan xΗ tan

g

2

Then 2.50

1

Ρ av = Re (Ε tan xΗ •

tan )

2

**Note: are in space quadrature so that the cross product maintains
**

Ε tan & Η tan

**both magnitudes. However, leads by 45 in time (see equation 2.47) so
**

Ε tan Η tan

that a factor of cos45 is introduced.

i.e, 2.51

1

Ρav = Ε tanΗ tan cos 45 0

2

2.52

1 1 Ε 2 tan

= Ζ Η

2

s tan =

2

2 2

2 Ζs

**Now is equal in magnitude to the tangential magnetic field
**

Js

∴ 1

Ρav = 2

Ζ s Js2watts / m 2

2

29

2.53

= Rs J s

2

(eff )

i.e., Poynting’s vector can be used to account for power loss in the conductor.

1.2. REFLECTION AND REFRACTION OF UNIFORM PLANE WAVES

**We shall consider only normal incidence. (see Jordan & Balmain,
**

“Electromagnetic Waves and radiating systems”, for the case of incidence at

angles )

< 90 0

1.2.1. Perfect conductor

for i.e., all energy will be reflected. Let the perfectly

2 σ →∞

δs = wµσ

=0

conducting surface be at X=0 (figure 2.4). Then;

Incident wave: 2.54(a)

− jβ x

Ε = Ε ie

Reflected wave: 2.54(b)

jβ x

Ε = Ε re

**Fig 2.4 standing waves near the surface of a perfect conductor
**

Ε& Η

**Since the transmitted field is zero, continuity of tangential E field across the
**

boundary requires that:

or 2.55

Εr + Ε i = 0, Ε r = −Ε i

At any point –x from the x=0 plane, the total field is:

ΕT

30

ΕT ( x )=Ε i e − j β+Ε

x

re

+ β

j x

= Εi ( e − j βχ −e + j βχ)

= −2 jΕi sin βχ

ΕT ( x, t ) = Re{ −2 j Εi sin β xejwt }

2.56

= 2Εi sin β x sin wt

Equation 2.56 represents a standing wave of maximum amplitude, which

2Ε i

varies sinusoidally with distance from the reflecting plane (figure 2.4)

**By considering Poynting’s vector ( ), it is evident that for a reversal of power
**

Εx Η

flow, only one of the fields can have a phase reversal (Both reversed power

⇒

flow direction unchanged). i.e.

ΗT ( X ) = Η i e − j β x+ Η r e jβ x

= 2Η i cos β x

Η T ( x, t ) = Re ( ΗT e jwt )

2.57

= 2Η i cos β x cos wt

Which is also a standing wave. The surface current density

J s = ΗT Am −1

31

Meanwhile, whereas are in time phase, and out of phase,

Εi &Η i ΗT &Ε T π

2

so that there is no average flow of power.

**1.2.2. Perfect Dielectric (Fig. 2.5)
**

1 X=0 2

ε1 , µ1,η1 ε 2 , µ 2 ,η 2

Ε i , Ηi ε 2 , µ2 , η2

Ε r , Ηr Ε t , Ηt

**incident, reflected, transmitted respectively. Recall that for a perfect
**

i, r , t , →

dielectric.

**Where is the intrinsic impedance.
**

Εi = η1Η i ,Ε r = −η 1Η r ;Ε t = η 2Η t η= µε

**Continuity requirements are that:
**

Η i + Η r = Ηt

Ε i + Ε r = Εt

Given the relationships above, derive equation 2.58- 2.61:

2.58

Ε r η 2 − η1 ε1 − ε 2

= =

Εi η2 + η1 ε1 + ε 2

2.58

Ε r η 2 − η1 ε1 − ε 2

= =

Εi η2 + η1 ε1 + ε 2

2.59

2 ε

Εt 2η2

= 1

Εi η2 + η1 ε1 + ε 2

32

2.60

Ηt Ε

=− r

Ηi Εi

2.61

Ηt η1 Ε t

=

Η i η2 Ε i

Equations 2.58- 2.61 define the reflection and transmission coefficients for the

electric and magnetic fields.

Amplitudeofreflectedwave

Re flection Coefficient =

Amplitudeofincidentwave

Amplitudeoftransmittedwave

TransmissionCoefficient =

Amplitudeofincidentwave

**The field reflection coefficient, is given by: 2.62
**

ρ Εr Ε r

ρ= = ∠δ

Εi Ε i

**In the general case, is complex, with
**

ρ ρ ≤ 1&− 180 ≤

°

δ ≤ 180°.

Assume that is in the y Direction i.e.,

Ε

{

Ε yi = Re Εi e j ( wt − β x ) }

Ε yr = Re { Ε e ( r

j wt + β x +δ )

}

phase difference between at X = 0, which we shall ignore here for

δ→ Ε yr &Ε yi

**convenience of manipulation because we are only interested in the general
**

nature of the wave.

ΕTY = Ε yi+Ε yr

{

= Re Εi e j ( wt − β x ) + Εr e j( wt + βx ) }

33

2.63

=Ε i cos ( wt− βx+Ε

) r (+ β x

cos wt )

=Ε i cos wt cos β+

x sin wt sin β+Ε

x r ( wt cosβ− x sin

cos β x )

= ( Εi + Εr ) cos wt cos β x ( Εi − Εr) sin wt sin β x

**For It can be shown that (HW 2.4)
**

Α = ( Εi + Εr ) cos β x & Β =( Εi − Εr) sin β x ,

2.64

ΕTY = {( Ε +Ε )

i r

2 2

}

cos2 β x + ( Εi − Εr ) sin2 β x sin ( wt − β x)

**is therefore a traveling wave contained in standing (stationary) envelope.
**

Ε TY

**The maximum value at each point, or the shape of the standing wave envelope is
**

obtained when and is given by :

sin ( wt − βX )= 1

2.65

ΕTY = {(Ε +Ε )

i r

2

cos 2 β x + ( Εi − Εr )

2

sin2 β x }

Note the oscillation of stored energy in both time and space over

respectively.

π π

βx = & wt =

2 2

**Fig 2.5 standing waves at a dielectric boundary
**

This envelope in figure 2.5 is a result of the incident and reflected waves

reinforcing each other at some points and canceling at other points.

34

Max value:

Ei + Er

Min Value:

Ei −Er

**The standing wave ratio is defined as the ratio of the maximum value to the
**

minimum value of the envelope (normally called VSWR or S).

2.66

ET (max) Ei + Er

VSWR = =

ET (min) Ei − Er

1.3. POLARISATION

**Polarisation refers to the time-varying behaviour of the electric field vector at a
**

fixed point in space during the duration of at least one full cycle. It refers in the

same sense to the behaviour of the electric field radiated by an antenna (e.g., a

vertical dipole is said to be vertically polarized, etc).

**Knowledge of the polarization of the received signal enables one to align or to set
**

up a suitable antenna system for reception.

(i) General case:

Assume propagation in the Z direction, i.e.,

Ε( z ) = Ε 0 e − j β z

2.27

Ε ( z , t ) = Re { Εο e− j β z e jwt }

lies in the X- Y plane .

ε ( z, t )

Assume a case where are present, with different amplitude, with

Εy &Ε x Εy

leading by , i.e.

Εx π

2

2.75

Ε=Ε x+ Εj y

35

2.76

{

ε ( 0, t ) = Re ( Εx + j Εy ) ejwt }

=Ε x cos wt−Ε sin wt

= Ε

axˆ x cos −

wt ayˆEy sin wt

i.e., &

Ε x = Ε x cos wt Ε y = Ε y sin wt

So that 2.77

2

Εx Εy

+ =1

Ε 2

x Ε2y

**Evidently the end point of traces out an ellipse and the wave is said to
**

Ε( 0, t )

be elliptically polarized (Figure 2.6).

**The ellipticity is defined as the minor to major axis ratio (normally given in dB).
**

(ii) Linear Polarisation

Let be in phase,

Εy &Ε x

⇒Ε ( 0, t )= Ε xcos wt+Ε y cos wt

2.78

= ( Εx + Ε y ) cos wt

**The resultant direction, which depends only on the relative magnitudes of the two
**

fields, is fixed, making an angle arctan with the X- axis. The wave is

(Ε y Εx )

**said to be linearly polarized (Figure 2.6b). This can be considered as elliptical
**

polarization with an ellipticity of .

−∞dB

(iii) Circular polarization

36

Let have the same amplitude with leading by . Then

Εy &Ε x Εa Εy Εx π

2

2.77 gives:

2 2

Ε x + Εy = Ε2a

2.79

**i.e., traces out a circle and the wave is said to be circularly polarized (Fig
**

Ε( 0, t )

2.6c). This can be considered as elliptical polarization with an ellipticity of 0 dB

Assignment Two:

**2.1. Investigate the behavior of ground with a relative permittivity of 14 and
**

conductivity 0.01 siemens per meter at 100Hz, 1KHZ, 10MHZ, and 100 GHz.

2.2. Using equation 2.25 and considering only positive square roots, shown that:

2.28(a)

µε σ2

α= w 1+ 2 2 −1

2 wε

and 2.28(b)

µε σ2

β =w 1+ 2 2+ 1

2 wε

**2.3. Show that for a dielectric, the attenuation, phase constants and wave
**

velocity are respectively given as

2.29(a)

σ µ

a≈

2 ε

2.29(b)

σ2

β ≈ w µε 1 + 2 2

8w ε

37

2.30

−1

w 1 σ2 σ2

v= = 1 + 2 2

≈ v0 1 − 2 2

β µε 8w ε 8w ε

2.4. Let

Α = ( Εi + Εr ) cos β x & Β =( Εi − Εr) sin βx ,

**It can be shown that (see assignment)
**

2.64

ΕTY = {( Ε +Ε )

i r

2 2

}

cos2 β x + ( Εi − Εr ) sin2 β x sin ( wt − β x)

38

CHAPTER 3: WAVE PROPAGATION IN TRANSMISSION LINES

1.

1.1. INTRODUCTION

**In all applications, electromagnetic energy must be guided either for transmission
**

from a point (telephone wires, component interconnections, etc), or for feeding

antennas before radiation and consequent unguided (unbounded) transmission

can occur.

Figure 3.1: Examples of wave guiding structures

**Wave guiding systems are classified into two broad categories:
**

(i) Transmission Lines:

These are characterized by having at least two conductors, and supporting the

TEM mode in normal operation (see examples in fig 3.1).

(ii) Wave guides:

These are guiding systems, which support the transverse electric (TE) or

transverse magnetic (TM) modes in normal operation. They are incapable of

supporting the TEM mode and are characterized by having a cut- off frequency

for each mode below which propagation cannot occur. Examples include

rectangular and circular wavegides (Figure 3.1) .

**We shall study these guiding systems in their normal mode of operation and
**

derive the important relationships and parameters pertaining to them, starting

with Transmission lines in this chapter.

**1.1. TRANSMISSION LINE EQUATIONS (DISTRIBUTED CIRCUIT
**

ANALYSIS)

Vdz

Conducto

IHomogeno

z

rs

us

Isotropic

medium

39

1.1.1. The Infinite Transmission line

**Consider a differential length, δz, taken out of an infinite uniform 2- wire
**

transmission line (fig 3.)

Fig .3.3: Infinite Uniform two – wire transmission line.

**Let R be the series resistance per m
**

L be the series inductance per m

G be the shunt conductance per m

C be the shunt capacitance per m

Notes:

**1. The above parameters are uniformly distributed over the whole length of
**

the line.

2. L and C account for the energy storage in the magnetic and electric fields

respectively, while R and G account for conductor loss and dielectric loss

respectively.

Rdz

ILdz

V

Gdz

Cdz

40

Then the differential length δz be represented by the equivalent lumped element

circuit shown in fig. 3.4

Fig. 3.4: Equivalent lumped parameter circuit of the differential length, dz.

**The input current and voltage are i(z,t) and v(z,t) respectively so that the outputs
**

are and

∂i ∂v

i+ ∂z v+ ∂z .

∂z ∂z

Apply Kirchoff’s voltage and current laws:

∂v ∂i

v − v + dz = iRdz + Ldz

∂z ∂t

3.1(a)

∂v ∂i

= iR − L

∂z ∂t

Similarly, 3.1(b)

∂i ∂v

= − vG − C

∂z ∂t

**Differentiate 3.1(a) with respect to z: and 3.2(b) with respect to time
**

3.2(a)

∂v

2

∂i ∂ i 2

= −R − L

∂z 2

∂z ∂ z∂ t

3.2(b)

∂i 2

∂v ∂ v 2

= −G − C 2

∂t∂z ∂t ∂t

**Substitute into 3.2 (a) using .3.1(b) and 3.2(b):
**

3.3(a)

∂v

2

∂v ∂ V 2

− ( RC + LG ) − LC 2 − RGv= 0

∂z 2

∂t ∂ t

41

Assignment: Obtain a similar equation for the current I:

3.3(b)

∂i2

∂i ∂ i 2

− ( RC + LG ) − LC 2− RGi= 0

∂z 2

∂t ∂t

**For sinusoidal time – variation, we can use phasor notation so that
**

3.4(a)

∂V

= − ( R+ jwL ) I = − ZI

∂z

and 3.4(b)

∂I

= − ( G+ jwC ) v= − YV

∂z

**where Z = R + jwL is the series impedance per unit length
**

Y = G + jwC is the shunt admittance per unit length.

The one dimensional wave equation 3.3 then becomes;

∂ 2V

− ( RG − w 2LC )V− jw (RC+ LG )V= 0

∂z 2

or 3.5(a)

∂V

2

− ZYV = 0

∂z 2

Similarly, 3.5(b)

∂ I

2

− ZYI = 0

∂z 2

**Equations 3.5 are the basic differential equations, or wave equations for the
**

second order with constant coefficients. Let , where is some constant,

ZY = γ 2 γ

**then we have, 3.5(a) as with a general solution,
**

∂V

2

− γ 2V = 0

∂z 2

3.6

V = V + e−γ z + V − eγ z

42

Note that , from our earlier consideration, denotes a wave traveling in the

+ −γ z

V e

positive Z- direction, while denotes a wave traveling in the negative Z-

V −e γ z

direction, i.e. both waves are present on the transmission line. In the general

case, is given by:

γ

3.7

γ = ZY = ( R + jwL ) ( G + jwC )

We also have from 3.4(a):

1 ∂V 1 ∂ + −γ z

I=−

R + jwL ∂z

=− ( Ve

R + jwL ∂z

V+− γze)

1

=−

( R + jwL )

( −γ V + e−γ z + γ V − eγ z )

γ + −γ z

( V e −V e )

− γz

=

R + jwL

3.8

−γ z − γz

V +e V e

= − = I + e−γ z −I − eγ z

zc zc

where 3.9

R + jwL R + jwL

Zc = =

γ G + jwC

is called the characteristic impedance of the line. It is evident that,

V+ V−

Zc = = −

I+ I−

Zc

43

is the impedance seen looking into a uniform infinite transmission line at any

Zc

point (figure 3.5).

Fig. 3.5: Characteristic impedence of a transmission line at different points

Lossless line (R = G = 0)

For a lossless line, 3.10

γ = jw LC = jβ

i.e., and

β = ω LC α =0

so that 3.11

Zc = L

C

**Low loss line
**

( R << wL ;G<< wC )

At very high frequencies (UHF), the condition R<<ωL and G<<ωC is obtained.

Using the binomial expansion and neglecting higher order terms for this case;

3.12

1 R G

γ == α + jβ = ( R+ jwL ) ( G+ jwC )≈ jw LC+ LC +

2 L C

**It can be seen that for a low loss line,
**

which is the same as the lossless case

β = w LC ,

and

1 R G 1

α= LC + = ( RY c + GZ c )

2 L C 2

**is the characteristic admittance
**

Yc = 1

Zc

1.1.1. The Terminated line

44

For an infinite line, we expect that we have only the incident waves, with

+ +

V &I

identically zero. For termination with some impedance different

V −andI − ZR

**from we shall have both “incident” and “reflected” waves.
**

Zc,

Length,

IDirection

Z

V s,R

R

z=0

lz

R

45

Let a section of line length I, characteristic impedance, , and propagation

Zc

**constant and be terminated in as shown in fig 3.6.
**

γ ZR

**Fig. 3.6 Terminated transmission line
**

is located at the plane Z = 0 while are sending end voltage and current

ZR Vs , I s

**respectively and are the corresponding receiving end quantities.
**

VR & I R

**In hyperbolic function form, solutions 3.6 and 3.8 are:
**

3.13(a)

V = Α1 cosh γ z + Β 1 sinh γ z

3.13(b)

I = Α 2 cosh γ z + Β 2 sinh γ z

**The Boundary conditions are:
**

and at

V = VR I = IR z =0

and at

V = Vs I = Is z = z1

So

VR = Α1 cosh 0+ Β 1 sinh 0 ⇒ Α1 = VR

From 3.13(a); and 3.4(a)

46

∂V

= γΑ1 sinhγ z+ γΒ 1 coshγ z= − (R+ jwL )I

∂Z

At Z = 0,

γΑ1 sinh 0+γΒ 1 cos0= − +( R jwL )I R

Or

Β1 = −

( R + jwL ) I= − Zc I R

γ

R

**We similarly obtain
**

Α2 = I R

and

VR

Β2 = −

Zc

Equations 3.13 become:

Vs = VR cosh γ z1 − Z c I R sinh γ z1

VR

I s = I R cosh γ z1 − sinh γ Z1

Zc

**Now where is, measured from the receiving end, so that:
**

l =−Z 1 l

3.14(a)

Vs = VR cosh γl + Z c I R sinhγ l

3.14(b)

VR

I s = I R cosh γ l + sinh γ l

Zc

**Equations 3.14 relate the voltage and currents at the two ends of the
**

transmission line. The input impedance of the line is given by

3.15

Vs V cosh γl +Z cI R sinhγl

Z in = = R

( R /Z c )sinhγ l

I s I R cos γl + V

Z R cosh γ l + Zc sinh γ l

Z in =

cosh γ l + ( Z R Zc ) sinh γ l

47

where we have set

Z R = VR / I R .

**There are three cases of special interest
**

i. Short – circuited line

( Z R = 0 ) (VR = 0 )

3.16

Z in = Z c tanh γ l = Zsc

**ii. open – circuited line
**

( Z R =>∞ )

Z in = Zc coth γ l = Zoc

3.17

iii. Line terminated in its characteristic impedance

( Z R = Zc )

3.18

Z in = Z c

Note that:

a)

Z sc Z oc = Zc2

**b) For a line terminated in its characteristic impedance, the input impedance
**

at any point looking towards the load is constant and equal to Zc.

c) For an open circuit or short- circuited line, the input impedance looking

towards the load varies from zero to infinity depending on the distance from

the load.

**Low loss lines
**

At ultra high frequencies and above, lines designed for these frequencies have

very low losses and we can use the approximations given by 3.12 for .

α&β

Generally, unless we are evaluating attenuation, we can neglect the expression

48

in in comparison to at these high frequencies. Equations

αl γ l = αl + jβ l βl

3.14 and 3.15 can therefore be written in their lossless form:

3.19 (a)

Vs = VR cos β l + jI R Z c sin β l

3.19(b)

( R Z C sin

I s = I R cos βl+ j V ) βl

cos β l + j ( Zc / Z R ) sin β l

Z s = Z R

cos β l + j ( Z R Z c ) sin β l

3.20

Z cos β l + jZc sin β l

= Zc R

Z c cos β l + jZR sin β l

**Note also that is a pure resistance.
**

Zc ≈ L C

1.1. STANDING WAVES ON TRANSMISSION LINES

**The voltage and current distributions at any point Z from the termination are
**

obtained by replacing I by Z in equations 3.19. We shall consider the case where

is real. The case where complex can be inferred from these results. We

ZR ZR

have equations 3.21, which are familiar standing wave envelopes.

3.21 (a)

Vz = VR cos2 β Ζ +( Rc R) sin2 β ]Ζ

2

3.21 (b)

I z = I R cos 2 β z + ( R Rc ) sin 2 β z

2

Z R = R, Z c = L C = Rc

**It is normally convenient to consider the standing wave in terms of the voltage
**

standing wave ratio (VSWR) or the current standing wave ratio which are easily

49

measured. These are simply the ratios of the maximum (Vmax, Imax) to the

minimum (Vmin, Imin) amplitudes.

1.1.1. Standing wave Patterns

Case 1: R<Rc

**The maximum voltage value occurs when and the minimum
**

sin β z = 1, cosβ z = 0

**voltage value occurs when
**

cos β z = 1,sin β z = 0

and

Rc Vmin = VR

Vmax =V R

R

3.22

Vmax I max

∴ =

Vmin I min

Case 2: R>Rc

It can be similarly shown that for this case

3.23

Vmax I max R

= =

Vmin I min R c

**Fig 3.7 shows standing wave patterns for R = 0, and a general
**

R → ∞, R = Rc

case R

≠ Rc

50

Fig 3.7: standing wave patterns on a lossless line for various terminations.

**Note that the voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR), S, is a measurable quantity. If
**

we know - readily calculated from line dimensions, we can measure S and

Rc

determine the value of terminating resistance, R, using 3.22 or 3.23. the

ambiguity is cleared by determining if it is voltage or current which is a maximum

at the termination:

If voltage is maximum, R>Rc

If current is maximum, R<Rc

1.1.2. Reflection Coefficient, Input Impedance and Standing Wave Ratio

**We also have, as in the case of fields, the reflection coefficient, as.
**

ρ

3.24(a)

− −

V I

ρ= +

=− +

V I

However, and

V+

= Zc ;

V−

= −Zc ; V + +V −

ZR = + = Z

(I −I )

+ −

I+ I+ I + I−

c

I+ + I−

Z R I + − I − 1 − I − / I + 1 +ρ

= = =

Z c I + + I − 1 + I − / I + 1 −ρ

51

and 3.24

ZR − Zc

ρ=

ZR + Zc

Since

V + +V − 1+ V− V+

S= + =

V −V − 1− V− /V+

it follows that 3.25

1+ ρ

S=

1− ρ

and, conversely, 3.26

S −1

ρ =

S +1

Also, the input impedance at any point is given by:

Zin

V V+ + V− (Ι −Ι )

Z in = = + − = Zc + −

+ −

Ι Ι +Ι Ι +Ι

3.27(a)

Z in 1 − Ι− Ι+ 1 + ρ

= Z in = =

Zc 1 + Ι− Ι+ 1 − ρ

3.27(b)

1 1− ρ

= Yin =

Z in 1+ ρ

At a voltage minimum, V and V+ are π out of phase making the angle of

or

V− ρ = ρ ∠π

ρ = + <180° ;

V

so that 3.27(c).

1 − ρ ∠π 1 + ρ

Yin = = =S

1 + ρ ∠π 1 − ρ

1.1. TRANSMISSION LINES MATCHING CONSIDERATIONS

**It is normally necessary to minimize standing waves on transmission lines owing
**

to the following:

52

i. To maximum power carrying capacity: standing waves produce voltage

peaks higher than those of the impressed wave form, thus leading to an

earlier possibility of dielectric break-down.

ii. To achieve a higher transfer of power to the load. Note that most high

frequency lines have a characteristic impedance which is purely resistive,

so that maximum power is transferred when load resistance RL = RC the

Characteristic impedance.

iii. In communication systems, reflections and re-reflections can cause echoes

in the system.

iv. In some systems, like those employing microwaves tubes or high power

transmitter tubes, a high level of reflections can lead to destruction of the

tube or a drastic shortening of its life – time. Isolators can be used for tube

protection but these become unacceptably expensive at high power levels.

In practical systems, steps are therefore always taken to obtain the best match

possible. The commonest methods make use of line transformers and /or stub

tuning.

1.1.1. Quarter Wave Transformer

**Consider a load connected through a line of length and
**

Z L = RL + jX L λ 4

**characteristic impedance (fig 3.8). The idea is to match the load to the
**

Z2 ZL

line with .

Z c = Z1

Z c=Z1 Zl

Zin λ/4

Fig 3.8: Quarter – Wave transformer network

53

Using equation 3.20 (lossless line) show that the impedance, presented to the

Zin

**main line, is given by:
**

l =λ 4

3.28

Ζ2

Ζ in = 2

ΖL

We require

Ζin = Ζ 1

i.e. or 3.29

Ζ 2

Ζ2 = Ζ 1Ζ L

2

= Ζ1 ,

ΖL

In other words, the load ZL is matched to the line characteristic impedance Z1 if

the intermediate quarter wave section has a characteristic impedance .

Ζ1Ζ L

**The line acts like an ideal transformer of turns ratio . The quarter
**

λ 4 Ζ1 Ζ L

**wave transformer is normally used for matching lines of different characteristic
**

impedances.

**Note that it is a narrow-band device. For broad matching, multi- section
**

λ 4

transformers are used.

For an Example see HW 3.4:

1.1.2. Single Stub-Matching

**Stub matching makes use of reactive elements connected in shut or series with
**

the load. Stubs may be open-circuited or short-circuited lengths of transmission

line. Their matching ability arises from the fact that the impedance looking into

the section as given by equations 3.16 and 3.17 varies with the stub length as

the input impedence is the function of the length of the line.

**For single stub matching, Fig 3.9 shows a line of normalized characteristic
**

admittance (Normalisation w.r.t the characteristic admittance) terminated

YC = 1

54

in a pure conductive load of normalized admittance . We want to obtain

YL = G

expressions for the length, Io, of a short circuited stub with characteristic

impedance and its distance d from the load where it is matched to the line.

YC

**In general, short-circuit stubs are preferred to open circuit stubs because of their
**

ease of adjustment and better mechanical rigidity.

lo Yc=1

Yc=1 Yl=G

d

Yin =1+jB

Fig 3.9: Single-stub matching network.

Principle:

Because of the impedance transforming properties of a transmission line, there

will be some point distance “d” from the load at which the normalized input

admittance will be . If we connect a stub with normalized input

Yin = 1 + jΒ

**susceptance at this point, the resultant is ; i.e., the load
**

− jΒ Yin = 1 + jΒ − jΒ = 1

will be matched to the line.

We shall consider two approaches to obtaining lo and d:

**Approach 1: Obtain d and lo directly
**

We have: where t=tan βd

Y + jt

Yin = 1 + j Β = L ;

1 + jYLt

**With (pure, real)
**

YL = G ( 1 + j Β) ( 1 + jGt ) = G + jt

55

To obtain d, equate real and imaginary parts and solve for t to show that:

3.30(a)

λ G

d= cos −1

2π 1 +G

or 3.30(b)

λ G −1

d= cos −1

4π G +1

where the alternative solutions 3.30(a) and (b) are obtained according as

we set or we replace 2 by

1 − cos2 β d cos β d

2

1 + cos 2 β d .

tan2 β d =

cos2 β d

**Note that if is solution to 3.30, are all solutions.
**

d1 ± d1 ± n λ

2

**To obtain lo we have the value of given by:
**

Β

3.31

1− G

Β = ( 1 −G ) t =

G

**Using equation 3.16 for the input impedance of a short circuited transmission line
**

and using for a lossless line, we have;

tanh γ l = j tan β l

or

− jΒ = − j cot β l 0 1− G

cot β l0 =

G

And 3.32

λ G

l0 = tan −1

2π 1− G

The sign of must be chosen to give the correct sign for for

G Β :Use+ G

and for

0< d <λ − G λ <d < λ .

4 4 2

56

The above analysis is easy if is real, but becomes rather involved for

YL YL

complex. In that case, the second method below is preferred.

**Approach 2: Obtain d and lo through dmin
**

First, Locate the position of a voltage minimum say at a distance from the

d min

load (fig 3.10). At this point, the reflection coefficient is a negative real quantity

and the normalized input admittance is pure real given by (see eqn 3.27(c)):

**(Standing wave ratio) 3.33
**

1+ ρ

Yin = =S

1− ρ

lo Yc=1

Yc=1 Yl=G

do dmin

d

Yin =1+jB

Fig 3.10: location of stub relative to voltage minimum.

**If is the distance from the voltage minimum to the point where the input
**

d0

**admittance is , we can solve the equation for as before with
**

Yin = 1 + jΒ do & I 0

S replacing :

G

3.34

λ S −1

d0 = cos −1

4π S +1

57

3.35

λ S

l0 = tan −1

2π ( 1− S )

**Then (distance dmin of Vmin from the load).
**

d = d0 +

For an example refer to HW 3.5

Series Stubs

**It is possible to use a series stub (fig 3.11) for matching, in which case we
**

consider solution in terms of the normalized input impedance. This has been left

as an exercise for the Student.

lo

Zc=Z1 Vmin Zl

do Zin=1/S

Figure 3.11: Series stub.

1.1.3. Double and Triple Stub Matching

b d a l d d l

Yl

jB1 b a

jB2

Figure 3.12: Double Stub Tuner (Left) and Triple Stub Tuner (Right)

**Both the tuners in fig 3.12 can be used for matching, the triple stub tuner
**

matching a wider range of loads. We shall consider only the double stub tuner. A

58

common approach to the problem is graphic, but we shall first attempt the

analytic approach for completeness.

**We can transform the admittance to plane aa to obtain .
**

YL YL = GL + jΒ L

**Just to the right of the first stub
**

Ya = GL + jΒ L+ jΒ 1,

**and just to the right of the second stub, 3.36
**

GL + jΒ L + J Β1 + jt

Yb =

1 + jt ( GL + j ΒL + j Β1 )

where .

t = tan βd

**We have now got the case of the single stub tuner for which we require
**

so that with the second stub having a susceptance the load will

Yb = 1+ jΒ − jΒ

be matched to the line. Equating the real part of the RHS of 3.36 to 1 gives:

3.37

4t ( 1 − ΒL t − Β1 t)

2

1+ t 2

GL = 2 1 ± 1 −

2t (1+ t 2 )2

From 3.37 3.38

1± ( 1+t ) G

2

L −GL2t 2

Β1 = −ΒL +

t

**By equating the imaginary part of 3.36 to and substituting for we get:
**

jΒ Β1

3.39

± G L ( 1 + t 2 ) −GL2 t 2 −GL

Β=

GL t

59

The upper and lower signs in 3.38 and 3.39 go together. For a match, we then

chose .

jΒ2 = − jΒ

General comment on stub tuners (comparative)

**With a single stub tuner, each load and frequency requires a new position of the
**

stub, which is extremely inconvenient in a practical system. This problem is

overcome by using two stubs located at fixed distance from the load. However if

we consider equation 3.37 we see that must be real, this putting limits on the

GL

expression under the square root sign. A necessary condition is that the value of

the square root term lies between zero and one, i.e., the limits on are

GL

1+ t2 1

0 ≤ GL ≤ =

t 2

sin2 βd

**This means that some load admittances cannot be matched with a double-stub
**

tuner. This problem is overcome using the triple –stub tuner. If the stubs are

spaced apart and each one can be varied in length over at least half a

3λ 8

wavelength, any admittance can be matched to the line.

Baluns (Balance to unbalance Transformers)

**Baluns are used to connect unbalance to balanced transmission line (or
**

balanced loads e.g. many antenna types. This part has been left out to be

discussed on study of antennas.

1.2. GRAPHICAL AIDS TO TRANSMISSION LINE CALCULATIONS

**The solution of a wide range of transmission line problems is simplified by the
**

use of graphical aids. Most prominent among these graphical aids is the Smith

Chart which we shall consider in detail.

1.2.1. The Smith Chart: Development

**Recall that the reflection coefficient is in general given by,
**

ρ

60

3.40(a)

ΖR − ΖC

ρ=

ΖR + ΖC

We can define the reflection coefficient, ρ(l) at a distance I from the termination:

Ζ in ( l ) − ΖC

ρ ( l) =

Ζ in ( l ) + ΖC

**where is the input impedance at the distance l.
**

Ζin ( l )

i.e. 3.40(b)

Ζ ΖC − 1

ρ=

Ζ ΖC + 1

**Where l now refer to any point on the line. Let and
**

ρ ρ = u + jv

where we have assumed that Zc is

Ζ Ζ C = ( RΖ C+ jXΖ/ C= Ζ

) =n +rn jXn ,

real ( a good approximation for most high freguency lines ). 3.40(b) becomes:

rn + jxn − 1

u + jv =

rn + jxn + 1

X- multiply and equate real and imaginary parts:

rn ( u − 1) − xnv = −( u +1) − − − − − − − − − − − − − −3.419( a)

rn v + xn ( u −1) = −v − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − −3.41( b)

Eliminate

Xn

u 2 ( rn + 1) − 2ur n+ v 2 r( n+ 1=) −1 r n

61

Divide through by and complete the square of the resulting terms

( rn +1)

containing

u2 &u :

3.42

2

rn 1

u − +v =

2

rn + 1 ( rn + 1)

2

**If we plot equation 3.42 on rectangular co-ordinates of u and v, we obtain, for any
**

value of , a circle on the - plane with centre and radius

rn ρ

rn

u = ,v = 0

rn + 1

1

rn + 1

**Note particularly that , the radius is 1, and , the radius is zero. In
**

rn = 0 rn → ∞

other words, for all values of , the loci (circles ) will lie within the unit circle for

rn

**(Fig.3.12). for the bounding circle ,
**

rn = 0 ( rn = 0 )

jxn − 1 1 + x n2

ρ = = =1

jxn + 1 1 + xn2

62

Fig. 3.12: Co-ordinate circles for constant normalized resistance

**If we now go back to equations 3.41(a) and (b) and eliminate instead of ,
**

rn xn

**the locus of any constant value of on the -plane is found to be given by:
**

xn ρ

3.43

2 2

( u − 1) + v − 1 = 1

2

xn x n

**These loci are again circles of radius and center (Fig. 3.13): only
**

1 1, 1

xn xn

the portions within the bounding circle are plotted.

(ρ = 1)

Fig. 3.13: Co-ordinate circles for constant normalized resistance

A combination of fig. 3.12 and fig.3.13 gives the Smith Chart.

Standing wave data

From a consideration of the equation,

1+ ρ

S=

1− ρ

63

it is evident that loci for constant VSWR on the p-plane are also circle with center

(0,0). The circle for S = 1 (matched case, ) corresponds to the center of the

ρ =0

chart and the bounding circle for corresponds to the bounding circle

S =∞

**. For any required value of S, the radial scaling is shown on the scale
**

(ρ = 1)

next to the Smith chart.

**It can also be shown (student to show) that if is the distance of a voltage
**

d min

minimum from the point of reflection, then

λ φ λ

d min = 1+ ± n

4 π 2

or 3.44

d min 1 φ 1

= 1+ ± n

λ 4 π 2

**where is the wavelength, is the angle of the reflection co-efficient, and n is
**

λ φ

**an integer. From equation 3.44, it can be seen that varies from 0.25 to
**

d min

λ

0.75 as varies from 0 to , so that can be plotted round the

φ 2π d min

λ

circumference of the chart (fig. 3.14).

64

Fig. 3.14: Radial line loci of constant on the -plane.

d min ρ

λ

**Note that loci of constant are radial lies as shown in fig. 3.14. since the
**

d min

λ

standing wave pattern is periodic in (lossless line), the maximum value of

λ 2

is 0.5

d min λ

1.2.2. Some application of the Smith Chart

Exercise.1: Ex. 9.1, page 189 (Chipman):

Determination of reflection co-efficient

**A transmission line with characteristic impedance is terminated in
**

ΖC = 50 + j0

an impedance 25- j100ohms. Determine the reflection co-efficient at the load end

of the line.

**Normalize load impedance:
**

Ζ n = rn + jxn = 0.5− j 2.00.

**Locate the normalized impedance on the Smith chart (intersection of constant
**

and constant .

rn ( = 0.5 ) Χn (= − 2.00 )

65

Draw a radial line through this point from the center of the chart (1,0) to meet

the angle of reflection co-efficient circle .

∠ρ = 309 0

**Note that constant loci are concentric circles whose radii relative to the
**

ρ

**bounding circle gives the reflection co-efficient. Get the radial
**

(ρ = 1)

**distance from the obtain from the radially scaled chart next to the
**

Ζn ρ

Smith chart: .

ρ = 0.82

Exercise .2: (pp 191, EX. 9.3 chipman )

Det of S and .

d min

**The value of is -0.30+ j0.55 at the load end of low-loss transmission line.
**

ρ

Determine S and .

d min

**Express in polar from:
**

ρ ρ = 0.63∠118.6 0

**Establish this point on the chart using the scale for and the constant circle,
**

φ ρ

.

ρ = 0.63

66

Determine S either using the radially scaled chart next to the Smith chart, or, by

moving along the constant circle to the axis where . Here

ρ xn = 0 rn = 4.4.

**since it follows from equation 3.23 that .
**

rn = R Z 0 S = rn = 4.4

**is directly obtained by drawing the line of constant through the point
**

d min d min λ

**of interest to the scale for .
**

d min λ

Exercise 3: Ex. 2 (pp 193, Ex. 9.4 Chipman):

**Determination of load impedance: Slotted line measurements on a coaxial line
**

operating at 800MHZ with give a VSWR of 2.5 and a voltage

Ζc = 50+ jo

minimum 8.75cm from the termination. Determine the load impedance if the

dielectric is air.

Air dielectric

⇒ v0 = C & λ = c f = 0.375m

∴ d min / λ = 0.233

ii Locate the required point on the chart using:

d min λ = 0.233 & s = 2.5 :

xn = −0.5; rn = 2.35

∴ zn = 2.35 − j 0.5

andZ L = ( 2.35 − j 0.5) ( 50 + j 0 ) = 117 − j 25Ω

Impedance Transformation

67

We again assume a lossless line (or a high frequency line which approximates a

lossless line when we are not evaluating attenuation). On such a line , the

reflection coefficient magnitude, is essentially constant everywhere on the

ρ

line so that impedance transformation simply consists of moving an appropriate

distance along a constant circle. Starting at any point, the transformed

ρ

impedance at any point can be obtained by moving the right number of

wavelengths towards the load (outer scale of the chart ) or towards the generator

(inner scale). The normalized transformed impedance is then read off the chart.

Exercise 4: (Ex. 9.6, pp 196-Chipman)

**An air dielectric slotted section is connected to an air dielectric transmission line
**

of the same characteristic impedance by a reflection less connector.

50 + j 0Ω

The transmission line is 3.75m long and is terminated in an antenna. On the

slotted section, the VSWR is measured to be 2.25. There are successive voltage

minima at 0.180 and 0.630m from the connector. Assuming negligible attenuation

on the line and the slotted section, determine the impedance of the antenna and

the frequency of he measurements.

Preliminary Information:

**Air dielectric for TEM wave
**

⇒ v = 3 × 108 m sec

Separation of minima

⇒ λ= 0.45

× 2

= 0.9 m

Frequency

= v λ= 3.33MHZ

**Line length in wavelengths
**

= 3.75 / 0.9 = 4.17wavelengths

**Normalised impedance at connector: S = 2.25, = 0.2
**

d min λ = 0.18 / 0.9

(Ref. Ex.3): .

Ζ n = 1.62 − j 0.86

68

Transform impedance by moving 0.17 wavelength towards the load. (Can

you see why?. Always subtract an integral number of half wavelengths from

).

d λ Ζant = .077 + j0.70, &Ζ ant = zant x50= 37.5+ j35Ω .

Normalised admittance co-ordinates on the Smith Chart

**Recall that a section of lossless line inverts the normalized impedance
**

λ 4

values (ref. equation. 3.28):

**where is the characteristic impedance of the quarter wave
**

Ζ 22 Ζ2

Ζ in = ,

ΖL

section.

1

∴ Ζm( in) =

Ζ n ( L)

**This implies that any normalized impedance co-ordinate on the Smith Chart
**

can be transformed to the corresponding normalized admittance co-

ordinate by transforming it through a quarter wavelength, i.e., rotating

through 180.

Exercise. 5: (Ex. 9.9, pp200-Chipman)

**A VSWR of 3.25 is observed on a slotted section with a voltage minimum 0.205
**

wavelengths from the load end of the section. Determine the value of the

normalized admittance at the terminal load end.

**Wavelengths towards the load: 0.205. Using this and the VSWR of 3.25, we
**

move 0.205 wavelengths towards the load on the constant VSWR circle to

obtain

yn = 0.33 + j 0.26.

Exercise 6: Stub Matching (problem 9.23 – Chipman)

The VSWR on a lossless transmission line is 3.0.

**Where relative to a voltage minimum on the line might stub lines be placed to
**

remove standing waves at the generator side of the stub?

69

Obtain the required short circuit stub length for matching if the characteristic

impedance of the stub is the same as that of the transmission line.

Assignment Three B

**3.1. Starting from maxwell’s equations, Obtain the one dimension current
**

wave equation in 3.3(b) (below)

3.3(b)

∂i2

∂i ∂ i 2

− ( RC + LG ) − LC 2− RGi= 0

∂z 2

∂t ∂t

3.2. Prove that for a Low loss line at very high frequencies (UHF), the condition

1 R G

γ= ( R+ jwL ) ( G + jwC ) ≈ jw LC + LC + = α + jβ

2 L C

**3.3. Using equation 3.20 (lossless line) show that the input impedance, ,
**

Zin

**presented to a transmission line of length, and characteristic
**

l =λ 4

impedance Z2 by a load of impedance ZL is given by:

Ζ 22

Ζ in =

ΖL

3.28

**3.4. Design a quarter-wave transformer to match an antenna array with an input
**

impedance of , operating at 40 MHZ to a generator of output

36 + j 0Ω

**impedance located at 30m from the antennas terminals. A
**

500 + j0Ω

**parallel wire transmission line with runs from the generator
**

ΖC = 500 + j0Ω

to the vicinity of the antenna. Assume you will use a parallel wire

transmission line on which the phase velocity is 97% of the free space

velocity of light for the .

λ 4 tx

70

Solution:

Ζa = 134 + j0Ω ; Ltx = 1.82 m

**3.5. Example: Design a network to match a load to a coaxial line
**

75Ω 50Ω

using a ingle stub. Assume an operating frequency of 100MHZ, air

dielectric and a lossless line.

Answer:

d 0=

Ι 0=

71

CHAPTER 4: WAVE PROPAGATION IN WAVEGIDES

2.

2.1. THE INFINITE PLANE WAVEGUIDE

**We shall consider an electromagnetic wave propagating between two parallel
**

perfectly conducting planes of infinite extent (fig. 3.44).

x

b

Figure 4.1: Parallel infinite

z

conducting planes

b

typically b>>a, infinite in z

**We have to solve Maxwell’s equations subject to the boundary conditions
**

at the perfectly conducting planes.

Ε tan = 0 &Η normal = 0

Recall the curl equations and the wave equations:

∇ΧΗ = ( σ + jwε )Ε

∇ΧΕ = − jwµΗ

∇ 2Ε = γ 2Ε and∇ 2Η = γ 2Η

where

γ= jwµ (σ + jwε )

**In Cartesian co-ordinates, for the non –conducting region where , the curl
**

σ =0

equations can be written as:

72

3.45

aˆ x aˆ y aˆz

∂ ∂ ∂

= jwε ( aˆ xΕ x + aˆ yΕ y + aˆzΕ z )

∂x ∂y ∂z

Η xΗ y Η z

3.46

aˆ x aˆ y aˆ z

∂ ∂ ∂

= jwµ ( aˆΗ x + aˆ yΗ y + aˆ zΗ z )

∂x ∂y ∂z

Ε xΕ yΕ z

∂ 2Ε ∂ 2Ε ∂ Ε2

+ + = − w2 µε

Ε

∂x ∂ y ∂ z

2 2 2

3.47

∂ 2Η ∂ 2Η ∂ 2Η

+ 2 + 2 = − w2 µεΗ

∂x 2

∂y ∂z

3.48

**We can reasonably assume that fields are uniform or constant in the y-direction
**

since there are no boundary conditions to be satisfied. The derivatives with

respect to y in 3.45 and 3.46 can be put to zero. Recall also that for propagation

in the z-direction, . Equations 3.45- 3.48 now become:

∂ ∂ z≡− y

γΗ y = jwεΕ x γΕ y = − jwµΗ x

3.49

∂Η z ∂Ε z

−γΗ x − = jwεΕ y −γΕ x − = − jwµΗ y

∂x ∂x

∂Η y ∂Ε y

= jwεΕ z = − jwµΗ

∂x ∂x

73

3.50

∂Ε

2

+ γ 2Ε = − w2µεΕ

∂x 2

∂ 2Η

+ γ 2Η = − w2µεΗ

∂x 2

Define h2=γ2+ω2μϵ and rewrite these equations;

Hx=-γh2∂Hz∂x

Hy=jωεEx

γHy=jωε∂Ez∂x-jωμHy-γ and -γ2Hy=jωε∂Ez∂x+ω2μεHy

-γ2-ω2μεHy=jωε∂Ez∂x

Hy=-jωεh2∂Ez∂x

-γEx-∂Ez∂x=-jμεHy=-jωμjωεExγ and -γ2-ω2μεEx=γ∂Ez∂x

Ex=-γh2∂Ez∂x

γEy=-jωμHx

γEy=-jωμ∂Hz∂x+jωεEy-γ

-γ2Ey-ω2μεEy=-jωμ∂Hz∂x

Ey=jωμh2∂Hz∂x

2.1.1. Field solutions for TE and TM waves

**Three categories of guided - wave solutions
**

i. Transverse electric (TE) waves Ez=0 , Hz≠0

ii. Transverse magnetic (TM) waves Ez≠0 , Hz=0

iii. Transverse electromagnetic (TEM) waves Ez=Hz=0

**TE Waves: There is always and every where an electric field vector that is
**

transverse to the direction of propagation and Ez=0

**We shall use the wave equation to find Ey
**

i.e. ∂2Ey∂x2+γ2Ey=-ω2μεEy

Since ∂Ey∂y=0, ∂2Ey∂x2=-(γ2+ω2με)Ey=-h2Ey

Now write Ey as a product of two functions Eyx,z= Eyox e-γz

Then ∂2Eyo e-γz∂x2=-h2Eyox e-γz

or ∂2Eyo ∂x2=-h2Eyox

The solutions are Eyox=C1sinhx + C2coshx

**The boundary conditions are Ey=0 at x=0, a
**

at x=0 Ey=0 requires that C2=0, Eyx,z=C1sinhx e-γz

at x=a Ey=0 implies ha=mπ, m=0,1,2,3, …,

74

h the “characteristics value “ or eigenvalue

Eyx,z=C1sinmπaxe-γz

To the H fields

∂Ey∂x=-jωμHz, => Hz=-1jωμ∂Ey∂x=-mπjωμcosmπaxe-γz

γEy=-jωμHx, => Hx=-1jωμEy=-γjωμC1sinmπaxe-γz

**Figure 4.2: Electric and magnetic field distributions of TE1 and TE2 modes in
**

parallel plate waveguides

**Transverse magnetic (TM) fields: There is always and every where a magnetic
**

field vector transverse to the direction of propagation and Hz=0

Using the wave equation to find Hy , ∂2Hy∂x2+γ2Hy=-ω2μεHy

**Since ∂Hy∂y=0, ∂2Hy∂x2=-(γ2+ω2με)Hy=-h2Hy
**

Writing Hy as a product of two functions Hy= Hyox e-γz

∂2Hyo e-γz∂x2=-h2Hyox e-γz

and ∂2Hyo ∂x2=-h2Hyox

The solutions are Hyox=C3sinhx + C4coshx

**The boundary conditions do not directly apply to Hy but can applied to EZ by
**

using Maxwell’s equations

75

EZ=1jωε∂Hy∂x = 1jωε∂∂xC3sinhx + C4coshxe-γz

EZ=hjωεC3coshx- C4sinxe-γz

**We now apply boundary conditions Ez=0 at x=0,a
**

at x=0 Ez=0 requires that C3=0

at x=a Ez=0 implies ha=mπ, m=0,±1, ±2 ,±3, …

**Figure 4.3: Electric and magnetic filed distributions of TM1 and TM2 modes in
**

parallel plate waveguides

1.1.1. Transverse electromagnetic (TEM) waves.

**This similar to the previous solutions EXCEPT there are no z fields, i.e
**

Ez=Hz=0

The TE mode vanishes since Hz=0. Also all but the m=0 TM mode vanish when

h=0.

We remain with only the TMO mode , which is the TEM mode.

Hy= C4 e-γz i.e. cosmπax goes to 1 if m=0

Ex=-γjωμC4e-γz

Ez=-jmπωεaC4sinmπaxe-γz=0

76

So we have Ex, Hy but Ez =0. Therefore;

**Figure 4.4: TEM mode in a parallel
**

plate waveguides. In the top mode

only electric fields are showed-

magnetic fileds are out of (or into)

the page.

1.1.2.

1.1.3. Cutoff frequency,

Phase velocity,

Wavelength.

TE and TM modes have similar characteristics

i. E and H have sinusoidal standing wave distributions is the x-direction.

ii. X-Y planes are equiphase planes, i.e. surface of constant phase.

**iii. The equiphase surface propagate along the waveguide with phase
**

velocity vp=ωβ

Consider Ey for TE waves Ey=C1sinmπaxe-γz

Assume ∝=0 so γ→j β , then write the real wave as

Eyx,z,t=C1sinmπaxcos(ωt-βz),

where sinmπax is the transverse standing wave.

By definition h2=γ2+ω2μϵ . But also h2=mπa2. Solving for γ, we have

γ=h2-ω2μϵ=mπa2-ω2μϵ .

There is the cutoff frequency fcmfor which γ=0. Solving for f we obtain

fcm=m2aμϵ=mvp2a

**Propagating Wave: For f>fcm , mπa2-ω2μϵ <0. Using the expressions for
**

fcm

77

γ = j βm = jω2μϵ-mπa2 = jω2μϵ-2fcmπvp2 = jβ2-2fcmπvp2

γ=jβm1-2fcmπvpβ2 = jβm1-fcmf2

**where β=ωvp and ω=2πf and βm emphasizes that this is for mode
**

m.

Evanescent wave: For f<fcm , mπa2-ω2μϵ >0

γ=αmmπa2-ω2μϵ = βfcmf2-1 for f<fcm

**αmmπa2-ω2μϵ is simply recognizing that the square root is negative
**

so this becomes αm. This is known as an evanescent wave where

attenuation is NOT due to energy losses but from boundary conditions.

**For Propagation, ⋋m = 2πβm*2πβm1-fcmf2 = 2πβ1-fcmf2 = ⋋1-
**

fcmf2

Similarly vpm = ωβm=vp1-fcmf2

We see that ⋋m and vpm vary as a function of the mode frequency.

**The intrinsic wave impedance of the mode is obtained by ZTM or
**

ZTE=ExHy=-EyHx

**ZTEm=-EyHx=-C1sinmπaxe-jβz-βωμC1sinmπaxe-jβz=βωμ=ωμβ1-
**

fcmf2

ZTEm=η1-fcmf2

**For TM modes ZTMm=ExHy=βωμC4cosmπaxe-
**

jβzC4cosmπaxe-jβz=βωμ

ZTMm=η1-fcmf2

78

Figure 4.5: variation of impedance ( ZTMmη and ZTEmη ) against frequency (

fcmf )

1.1.1. Dispersion

**Let us consider the “simple” case of a uniform plane wave in a medium with zero
**

conductivity. What would happen if we had two waves propagating, each at a

slightly different frequency, and a function of ?

– assume the two frequencies are ± with corresponding

phase constants ±

E1 ∝

6 447 4 48 6 4 4 E72∝4 48

j ( ω −δω ) t − ( β −δβ ) z j ( ω +δω ) t − ( β +δβ ) z

e +e =

j ωt − β z + ( −δω ) t − ( −δβ ) z j ω t − β z + ( δω ) t − ( δβ ) z

=e +e

j[ ωt − β z ] j ( −δω ) t − ( −δβ ) z j[ ωt − β z ] j ( +δω ) t −( +δβ ) z

=e e +e e

=e

j [ ωt − β z ] e − j ( δω ) t −( δβ ) z + e j ( δω ) t −( δβ ) z

If we have two waves propagating, each at a slightly different frequency, where

the two frequencies are ± with corresponding phase constants ±

then the solution is proportional to

∝e

j [ ωt − β z ] e − j ( δω ) t −( δβ ) z + e j ( δω ) t −( δβ ) z

= e j [ ωt − β z ] ⋅ 2 cos ( δω ⋅ t − δβ ⋅ z )

14 2 43 1 4 4 42 4 4 43

"normal " amplitude

wave @ modulation

frequency ω function

In words, this looks just like a wave at the frequency and associated phase

constant , with phase velocity but multiplied with an “amplitude

modulation” function

cos ( δω ⋅ t − δβ ⋅ z )

The “velocity” of a phase front for this modulation envelope is

Group velocity

If we have two waves propagating, each at a slightly different frequency, ±

, the solution behaves like a wave at the frequency with associated

phase constant , traveling at the phase velocity vp = but it is multiplied by

an “amplitude modulation” function traveling at the “velocity” . This is

called the “group velocity” vg

In the limit of infinitesimal variation we obtain the “group velocity” vg

−1

dω d β

vg = =

d β dω

79

Dispersion (β-ω) diagrams

**Consider the plot of β versus ω fro the TE1/TM1 modes in a parallel plate
**

waveguide

**• slope of tangent is the
**

Notes on omega-beta diagrams group velocity

• plot the frequency vs beta

• slope from origin to a point on

the curve is the phase velocity

2

ω

β = ω µε 1 − c

Unbounded ω

,

ω υp

υ p = υ p (ω ) = =

β

p

/V

2

ω

ω

1− c

Β=

TE1 TE2 ω

1

υp =

ω

µε

ωC1 ω C2

−1 2

dω ωc

υg = = υ p 1 −

dβ ω

**The velocity of Energy
**

Flow is the group

Velocity

υp

Evanescent

υp

Region

2

Normalized mλ

υ p υ p1 υg VE = Vg = V p 1 −

or 2a

υp υp υp

which is also the

component of each

mode’s velocity in the

f z direction.

1 2 3 4 fc

Figure 4.6: ω-β diagram

Special relativity says that the velocity of information cannot be greater than c,

the “speed of light”. Since “packets” carry information, and group velocity is

80

usually (but not always) related to “packet velocity”, vgroup is normally less than

c.

1.1.1. Attenuation in parallel plate waveguides

**Practical waveguides are made of copper or brass usually coated with silver.
**

Assuming losses very small so that they have negligible effect on the field

distribution the attenuation for different modes are (See assignment 4 for

derivation of the expression given below)

αcTEM=1ηaωμo2σ

αc,TEm=2m2π2βωηa3ωμo2σ

And

αc,TMm=2Rsηa1-fcmf2Rs

Figure 4.7: Attenuation versus frequency for the parallel plate waveguide.

Observations

**• The figure shows the attenuation as a function of frequency for a few modes.
**

Higher order modes have higher losses.

81

• TM modes have higher losses than TE modes since they have a tangential J

due to tangential Hy i.e. Hy=C4cosmπaxe-jβz

**• TE modes have lower losses at higher frequencies since as ω increases
**

surface currents decreases i.e. very strong frequency dependence.

82

1.1. THE RECTANGULAR WAVEGUIDE.

Typically b>>a,

infinite in z

Figure 4.8: A rectangular waveguide

**We assume perfectly conducting waveguide walls which require Etan=0 and
**

Htan=0

Ex, Ez=0 at y=0 and y=b

Hy=0 at y=0 and y=b

Ex, Ez=0 at x=0 and x=a

Hx=0 at y=0 and y=a

**We also want the field to vary in the z-direction as e-γz. Aside from the boundary
**

conditions this is no different than the parallel plate waveguide and must satisfy

the curl equations ∇XH=jωεE and ∇XE=-jωμH , that we have developed for the

parallel plate waveguide using ∂∂z→-γ

For ∇XH=jωεE For ∇XE=-jωμH

∂Hz∂y+γHy=jωεEx ∂Ez∂y+γEy=-jωμHx

∂Hz∂x+γHx=-jωεEy ∂Ez∂x+γEx=jωμHy

∂Hy∂x-∂Hx∂y=jωεEx ∂Ey∂x-∂Ex∂y=-jωμHx

The wave equations for Ez and Hz reduce to

∂2Ez∂x2+ ∂2Ez∂y2+γ2Ez= -ω2μϵEz

83

∂2Hz∂x2+ ∂2Hz∂y2+γ2Hz= -ω2μϵHz

The transverse field components can be written in terms of Ez and Hz.

**Hx=-γh2∂Hz∂x+jωεh2∂Ez∂y Ey=-γh2∂Ez∂y+jωμh2∂Hz∂x
**

Hy=-γh2∂Hz∂y-jωεh2∂Ez∂x

Ex=-γh2∂Ez∂x-jωμh2∂Hz∂y

Where h2=γ2+ω2μϵ

Just as for the parallel plate waveguide the field solutions can be classified as

TE where Ez=0

TM where Hz=0

**For waveguides, we write the wave equations using a transverse operator ∇tr
**

which can be written as ∇tr=x∂∂x+y∂∂y

And ∇tr2=∂2∂x2+∂2∂y2

The wave equations become ∇tr2Ez+γ2+ω2μϵEz=0

∇tr2Hz+γ2+ω2μϵHz=0

For TM modes, the component equation become

Ex=-γh2∂Ez∂x and Ey=-γh2∂Ez∂y

Etr=xEx+yEy=-xγh2∂Ez∂x-yγh2∂Ez∂y

**Similarly Hx=jωεh2∂Ez∂y and Hy=-
**

jωεh2∂Ez∂x

Htr=xHx+yHy=xjωεh2∂Ez∂y-yjωεh2∂Ez∂x

Htr=jωεh2x∂Ez∂y-y∂Ez∂x

Htr=jωεh2x-h2Eyγ-y-h2Exγ

Htr=jωεh2γh2xEx+yEy

Htr=jωεγxyzExEy0001

We can do the component equation for the TE waves in the same way

Htr=xHx+yHy=-γγ2+ω2μϵ∇trHz

Etr=xEx+yEy=jωμγHtrxz

84

Where the boundary condition is n.Htr=0 or

∂Hz∂x=0 , ∂Hz∂y=0

1.1.1. Transverse magnetic (TM) modes

**We use separation of variables similar to that which we used for parallel plate
**

waveguide.

Ez(x,y,z)=Ezo(x,y)e-γz

**Ezo is a function of two variables. So let Ezo(x,y)=f(x)g(y), the wave equation
**

becomes

∇tr2fg+γ2+ω2μϵfg=0

However, ∇tr2fg=g∂2f∂x2+f ∂2g∂y2

**Therefore, g∂2f∂x2+f ∂2g∂y2+h2fg=0 where
**

h2=γ2+ω2μϵ

Dividing by fg we obtain 1f∂2f∂x2+1g ∂2g∂y2+h2=0

Rearranging 1f∂2f∂x2+h2=1g ∂2g∂y2

**Each side must equal to a constant call it A2 which is determined by the
**

boundary conditions.

1f∂2f∂x2+h2=A2 and 1g ∂2g∂y2=A2

The two equations have similar solutions.

fx=C1cosBx+C2sin(Bx) where B=h2-A2

And gy=C3cosAy+C4sin(Ay)

The complete product solution is Ezo(x,y)=f(x)g(y)

**Ezox,y=C1C3cosBxcosAy+C1C4cosBxsinAy+C2C3sin(Bx)cos(Ay)
**

+C2C4sin(Bx)sin(Ay)

The boundary conditions are Ezo=0 at x=0,a; and y=0,b.

At x=0 , Ezo0,y=C1C3cosAy+C1C4sinAy

**For Ez o(0,y)=0 we require C1=0 since C3=C4=0 will result into a
**

trivial solution.

Ezox,y=C2C3sin(Bx)cos(Ay)+C2C4sin(Bx)sin(Ay)

For Ez ox,0=0, Ez ox,0=C2C3sinBx. This implies that C2or C3 equals zero.

85

We pick C3=0 since picking C2=0 would be a trivial solution. If we let

C2C4=C

Ezox,y=CsinBxsinAy.

At x=a, , Ezoa,y=CsinBasinAy=0

=> sinBa=0, and B=mπa where m=1, 2, 3, …

At y=b, , Ezox,b=CsinBxsinAb=0.

This requires that A=nπb where n=1, 2, 3, …

The final expression is Ezox,y=Csinmπaxsinnπby.

Therefore for the propagating modes, ( γ=jβmn), the fields expressions are

Ezx,y,z=Csinmπaxsinnπbye-jβmnz

ξzx,y,z,t=Csinmπaxsinnπbycos(ωt-βmnz)

For evanescent waves, ( γ=αmn)

Ezx,y,z=Csinmπaxsinnπbye-αmnz

And ξzx,y,z,t=Csinmπaxsinnπbycos(ωt)e-αmnz

**The other field components can also be calculated using component equations.
**

For TM modes,

Hz=0. So Hx=jωεh2∂Ez∂y , Hy=-jωεh2∂Ez∂x

Ex=-γh2∂Ez∂x , Ey=-γh2∂Ez∂y

So for propagating rectangular TMmn modes,

Ez=Csinmπaxsinnπbye-jβmnz

And Ex=-jβmnCh2mπacosmπaxsinnπbye-jβmnz

Similarly, Ey=-jβmnCh2nπbsinmπaxcosnπbye-jβmnz

Hx=jωεCh2nπbsinmπaxcosnπbye-jβmnz

Hy=-jωεh2mπacosmπaxsinnπbye-jβmnz

Where m=1, 2, 3, … and n=1, 2, 3, …

To find γ=h2-ω2μϵ we note that 1f∂2f∂x2+h2=A2 where fx=C2sin(Bx)

h2=A2+B2=mπa2+nπb2

Knowing h2 γ=mπa2+nπb2-ω2μϵ

86

1.1.2. Cut off Frequency in rectangular Waveguides:

**We see γ corresponds to a propagating wave only i.e. when γ is imaginary
**

(ω>ωcnm)

At cutoff frequency, mπa2+nπb2-ωcnm2μϵ=0

ωcnm2=1μϵmπa2+nπb2

ωcnm=1μϵmπa2+nπb2

The cutoff frequency is fcnm=ωcnm2π

We can also define the cutoff wave number Kc as

**The quantity k=w/c=w/k=ωc=ωεμ is the wave number a uniform plane wave
**

would have in the propagating medium ε, µ

For (ω>ωcnm), γ=jβmn=jω2μϵ-mπa2-nπb2

Where βmn=ω2μϵ-mπa2-nπb2

βmn=β1-fcmf2.

Where β=ωμε and fcm=ωcnm2π

Correspondingly for ⋋cm ⋋cmn=vpfcm=1με1ωcnm2π

⋋cmn=2πμε με mπa2+nπb2=2ma2+nb2

For propagating waves, vpmn=ωβmn=ωβ1-fcmf2=1με 11-fcmf2

⋋mn=2πβ=2πω2μϵ-mπa2-nπb2=⋋1-fcmf2

87

fcmn/

f c10

TE02

5 TE

22

2 ,T

2

M2

TE

1

4 TE01

,TM 2

1

T E21

3

, TM 2

1

T E1 1

2 TE20

1 TE10

a/b

1 2 3 4 5

Figure 4.9 :Cut off frequency for various waveguide dimensions

1.1.3. Wave Impedance:

We can also define a wave impedance.

**ZTMmn = ExHx = ExoHyo = -jβmnCh2mπacosmπaxsinnπbye-jβmnz-
**

jωεh2mπacosmπaxsinnπbye-jβmnz = βmnωε

ZTMmn=β1-fcmf2ωε=ωμεωε1-fcmf2

ZTMmn=η1-fcmf2

1.1.4. Transverse Electric (TE) modes

Ez=0 and Hz=Ccosmπaxcosnπbye-jβmnz

From which we can derive Hx=jβmnh2sinmπaxcosnπbye-jβmnz

Hy=jβmnCh2nπbcosmπaxsinnπbye-jβmnz

Ex=jωμCh2nπbcosmπaxsinnπbye-jβmnz

Hy=-jωμh2mπasinmπaxcosnπbye-

jβmnzHy=-jωμh2mπasinmπaxcosnπbye-jβmnz

88

The formulae for ωcnm, βmnetc are identical. One different formula is that of

impedance which is given by ZTMmn=η1-fcmf2

A very important mode is the TE10 mode (a>b)

Hz=Ccosπaxe-jβmnz and Hx=jβmnCh2πasinπaxe-jβmnz

Hy=0, and Ex=0

Hy=-jωμh2πasinπaxe-jβmnz

Figure 4.10: The TE10 mode in the rectangular waveguide.

β10=ω2μϵ-πa2=2π⋋2-πa2

⋋10=2πβ10=⋋1-⋋2a2

fc10=12aμε

**NOTE: If propagation at a specified f is not possible in the TE10 mode, then it is
**

not possible for any mode.

89

Figure 4.11: Some selected field patterns in the X-Y plane in rectangular

waveguides [2]

1.1.5. Coupling power into waveguides

**We have not talked about how to couple power for particular modes into
**

waveguides. The practice is to use a probe (source) that will produce lines of E

and H that are roughly parallel to the lines of E and H for that particular mode

and that produce the maximum electric field where the field would be maximum

for that mode. A single probe will excite the TE10 mode into the waveguide

**Figure 4.12: Coupling TE10 and TE20 modes into a rectangular waveguide
**

To excite the TE20 mode, use two vertical antenna probes while the TE11 mode

requires parallel excitation of the electric field at the wall.

90

Figure 4.12: Coupling TE11 and TM10 modes into a rectangular waveguide

In practice waveguide dimensions are chosen to allow only one mode to

propagate. Square waveguides (where a=b) are undesirable since modes differ

only by rotation. In practice pick a≈2b to separate modes and maximize power

transmission.

Final Notes on Single mode waveguides:

• Different phase velocities would give different transverse modes and make

it difficult to extract energy.

• Chose λ/2 <a< λ to ensure transmission of only the TE10 mode

• Often pick a=.07 λ since values near λ may allow the next mode to

propagate and values near λ /2 have large variation of vp and ZTEorTM with f.

1.1.1. Attenuation in Rectangular waveguides:

In rectangular waveguides attenuation occurs due to three mechanisms:

**1. Losses due to surface currents flowing in the waveguides walls
**

2. Dielectric losses due to a dielectric with sigma =/0 or ec=e’-je”

3. Evanescent wave attenuation when f<fc

91

1.1. CIRCULAR WAVEGIDES

**Detailed analysis on circular waveguides has been left to the student. The
**

following should however be noted:

Figure 4.13: Types of cylindrical waveguides

Figure 4.14: Some of the available modes in rectangular waveguides

92

Figure 4.15: Electric and Magnetic fields in Circular waveguides for selected

modes

Assignment Four

**I.1. Derive the expressions for attenuation of the TEM, TEm and TMn modes in
**

a parallel plate waveguide

**I.2. Using clear analysis, quantitatively discuss the losses in circular
**

waveguides.

93

CHAPTER 5: WAVE ROPAGATION IN OTHER SYSTEMS

1.

2.

2.1. PLASMAS

2.1.1. Simple Models of Dielectrics, Conductors, and Plasmas

**A simple model for the dielectric properties of a material is obtained by
**

considering the motion of a bound electron in the presence of an applied electric

field. As the electric field tries to separate the electron from the positively charged

nucleus, it creates an electric dipole moment. Averaging this dipole moment over

the volume of the material gives rise to a macroscopic dipole moment per unit

volume.

A simple model for the dynamics of the displacement x of the bound electron is

as follows (withx=dx/dt) mx=eE-kx-mγx 6.1

where we assumed that the electric field is acting in the x-direction and that there

is a spring-like restoring force due to the binding of the electron to the nucleus,

and a friction-type force proportional to the velocity of the electron.

The spring constant k is related to the resonance frequency of the spring via the

relationship ω0=k/m or k=mω0. Therefore, we may rewrite 6.1 as

x+γx+ω02x=emE 6.2

The limit ω0 = 0 corresponds to unbound electrons and describes the case of

good conductors. The frictional term γx arises from collisions that tend to slow

down the electron. The parameter γ is a measure of the rate of collisions per unit

time, and therefore, τ = 1/γ will represent the mean-time between collisions.

The case of a tenuous, collisionless, plasma can be obtained in the limit γ=ω0= 0.

Thus, the above simple model can describe the following cases:

a) Dielectrics, γ≠0, ω0≠ ω

b) Conductors, γ=0, ω0≠0

c) Collisionless Plasmas, γ=0, ω0=0

The basic idea of this model is that the applied electric field tends to separate

positive from negative charges, thus, creating an electric dipole moment. In this

sense, the model contains the basic features of other types of polarization in

materials, such as ionic/molecular polarization arising from the separation of

positive and negative ions by the applied field, or polar materials that have a

permanent dipole moment.

94

The applied electric field E(t) in equation 6.2 can have any time dependence. In

particular, if we assume it is sinusoidal with frequency ω, E(t)= Eejωt, then,

equation 6.2 will have the solution x(t)= xejωt, where the phasor x must satisfy

equation 6.2 re-written in harmonic form as:

-ω2x+jωγx+ω02x=emE 6.3

Its solution therefore is: x=emEω02x-ω2+jωγ

6.4

1.1.1. Electromagnetic Waves in Plasmas

**To describe a collision less plasma, such as the ionosphere, the simple model
**

above can be specialized by choosing ω0 = γ = 0. Thus, Equation 6.4 becomes:

x=-emEω2 6.5

The corresponding electron velocity will also be sinusoidal v(t)= vejωt, where

v=x=jωx. Thus, v=jωx=-jωemEω2 6.6

Assuming that there are N such elementary dipoles per unit volume, since the

individual electric dipole moment is p = ex, then the polarization per unit volume

P, will be:

P=Np=Nex=-Ne2mEω2=ε0X(ω)E

6.7

The electric flux density will then be: D=ε0E+P=ε01+XωE=ε(ω)E

6.8

where the effective permittivity ε(ω) is: ε(ω)=ε0-Ne2mEω2

or in a more convenient form, εω=ε0-ε0ωp2ω2=ε0(1-ωp2ω2)

6.9

where ωp is the so-called “Plasma Frequency” of the material defined by:

ωp2=Ne2ε0m

6.10

The plasma frequency can be calculated from equation 6.10. In the ionosphere

the electron density is typically N = 1012, which gives fp = 9 MHz

From chapter 5, we saw that the propagation wavenumber of an electromagnetic

wave propagating in an electric/conducting medium is given in terms of the

effective permittivity by:

k=ω√(με((ω))

It follows that for plasma: k=ωμ0ε01-ωp2ω2=1cμε0ω2-ωp2 6.11

where we used c=1μ0ε0

If ω > ωp, the electromagnetic wave propagates without attenuation within the

plasma. But if ω < ωp, the wavenumber k becomes imaginary and the wave gets

attenuated. At such frequencies, a wave incident (normally) on the ionosphere

from the ground cannot penetrate and gets reflected back.

1.2. MICROSTRIP TRANSMISSION LINES

As circuits have been reduced in size with integrated semiconductor electron

devices, a transmission structure was required that was compatible with circuit

construction techniques to provide guided waves over limited distances. This was

realized with a planar form of single wire transmission line over a ground plane,

95

called microstrip. Microstrip employs a flat strip conductor suspended above a

ground plane by a low-loss dielectric material. The size of the circuit can be

reduced through judicious use of a dielectric constant some 2-10 times that of

free space (or air), with a penalty that the existence of two different dielectric

constants (below and above the strip) makes the circuit difficult to analyze in

closed form (and also introduces a variability of propagation velocity with

frequency that can be a limitation on some applications). The solution is to find

an effective relative permittivity εreff for the combination.

The advantages of microstrip have been well established, and it is a convenient

form of transmission line structure for probe measurements of voltage, current

and waves. Microstrip structures are also used in integrated semiconductor form,

directly interconnected in microwave integrated circuits.

(a) (b)

Figure 6.1: (a) The Microstrip and (b) The Stripline Conductor

Waves and Impedances in Microstrip

Although the presence of two dielectric regimes in microstrip precludes the strict

propagation of TEM waves, the same type of transmission-line characteristics

are present, as can be seen from the fact that microstrip can propagate energy

down to zero frequency (direct current). Microstrip construction lends itself to

small structures that can carry semiconductor devices and surface-mount lumped

elements, which can be attached by automatic means.

This extreme usefulness of microstrip makes the lack of an elegant closed-form

solution acceptable, and accurate approximations based on the

velocity/capacitance method are used to estimate Zo and other parameters.

Unwanted modes are dealt with in part by using material with a relatively high

dielectric constant, but waveguide modes are present and represent an upper

frequency limit. The effects of unwanted waveguide modes can be restricted by

choosing dielectric thickness less than λ/4 and strip width w less than λ /2 at the

highest frequency of interest. Thus, for a maximum frequency of interest fmax, we

chose

**The velocity of propagation in microstrip is relatively constant with varying w/h,
**

and Zo can be estimated accurately using a number of methods and software

applications. Some downloadable applications include AppCad2, Txline3,

Microstrip Calculator4 and Sonnet5.

Some Microstrip Relations

96

Note that It's difficult to get more than 200W for Z0 in a microstrip. For the simple

closed form solution, the approximations below would be used in the relations

above.

Stripline Conductor

Also called shielded microstrip, it uses a different dielectric (different from air) on

the upper side of the line. The effective relative permittivity is used in calculations

above.

Assuming w≥10h,

where er1 = the relative permittivity of the dielectric of thickness h1.

er2 = the relative permittivity of the dielectric of thickness h2.

1.3. Propagation in Optical Fibers

Ray Theory in Dielectric Slab waveguides

97

Fig 6.2: (a) Unguided wave since (b) Guided wave since θi>θc gives

θi<θc and wave refracts out of guide total internal reflection. However not

any angle can propagate

Fig 6.3

φr is the phase shift from TIR at either B or C. Geometry gives

Assume parpendicular polarization (E out of plane)

98

To do it graphically, plot LHS and RHS e.g figure 6.4 for the following

parameters: f=30GHz, d=1 cm, εd=2.25ε0 (glass sorrounded by air).

Even m=2,4,6,…; Odd

m = 1,3,5,….

**Read θis from graphs
**

as

TE1 θi=75.030

TE2 θi=59.470

TE3 θi=43.860

Fig 6.4: Graphical Evaluation of propagation in Optical fibers.

Assignment

**6.1. Calculate the plasma frequency in the ionosphere where the electron
**

density is typically N = 1012

**6.2. Discuss the advantages and uses of microstrip in today’s world. What are
**

the major challenges to their use and how are they overcome

6.3. Explain why in a collision less plasma, ω0 = γ = 0.

99

REFERENCES:

[1] E.C. Jordan and K.G. Balmain, “Electromagnetic Waves And

Radiating Systems”, 2nd Edition

[2] Sophocles J. Orfanidis, “Electromagnetic Waves and Antennas”, ECE

Department, Rutgers University

[3] C.S. Lee, S. W. Lee and S. L. Chuang, Plot of modal field distribution in

rectangular and circular waveguides, IEEE trans. Microwave Theory and

Techniques, 33(3). PP 271-274, March 1985

[4] BO THIDÉ, “Electromagnetic Field Theory”, Internet Text Book

[5] Leonard M. Magid, “Electromagnetic Fields, Energy and Waves”, John

Wiley & Sons

10

0

APPENDICES

**APPENDIX A: GRAPHICAL SOLUTION TO DOUBLE STUB
**

MATCHING

**Example of Graphical Solution to
**

transmission line matching

problem using two tuning

elements:

**First step: don't worry about the
**

stub lengths, first find the tuning

susceptances:

**To get started,
**

recall that to get

no reflection at

plane B you must

be on the "g = 1"

circle in plane B'.

We can move the

"g=1" circle to

plane A so that

we can ultimately

find Y1:

10

1

10

2

Now we have to

get the load to

plane A':

Now we must

move on a circle

of constant real

part of Yload in

plane A' to get

onto the

transformed g=1

circle in plane A;

this will actually

give us Y1:

10

3

Now for each

possible choice

of Y1 we need to

move back to

plane B'; this will

gives us Y2:

10

4

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