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01. ABSTRACT
In this paper, an attempt has been made to study in depth about Artificial Intelligence and Expert systems.
In the first phase, the introduction to this science has been dealt. The historical details of AI and the classification of
these systems are done. Next, the basic anatomy of a robot i.e., the software and hardware details are provided. The
use of robots in different fields of science and technology has been dealt in brief. The possible developments in the
field of artificial intelligence and the development of expert systems, which can perform multiple tasks with a lot of
precision and accuracy is dealt. Also a brief discussion regarding the other side of the face is dealt. Finally, a
conclusion on the acceptable face of these expert systems in the future is made.
02. WHAT IS AI?
AI is a branch of computer science concerned with the study and creation of computer systems that exhibit
some form of intelligence, i.e., systems that learn new concepts and tasks, systems that can reason and draw useful
conclusions about the world around us and learn from EXPERIENCE.
03. THE HISTORY OF AI
In the first half of the 20th century, Bertrand Russell and Alfred North Whitehead published PRINCIPIA
MATHEMATICA, which revolutionized formal logic. Russell, Ludwig Wittgenstein, and Rudolf canapé led
philosophy into the logical analysis of knowledge.
In 1923 , KAREL KAPEK’S play ‘R.U.R’ (Rossum’s Universal Robots) in London became the first to
use the word ‘robot’ in English. In 1956, John McCarthy coined the term ‘artificial intelligence’ as the topic of the
Dartmouth Conference, the first conference devoted to the subject. The same year saw the demonstration of the first
running AI program , the Logic Theorist (LT) written by Allen Newell, J.C.Shaw and Herbert Simon (Carnegie
Institute of Technology , now Carnegie Mellon University ).
04. UNDERSTANDING OF AI
To gain better understanding, it is also useful to know WHAT AI IS NOT. AI is not the study and creation
of conventional computer systems as AI programs will go beyond the other in demonstrating a high level of
intelligence to a degree that equals or even exceeds the intelligence required of a human in performing some task. AI
is not the study of the mind, or of the body, or of languages, as customarily found in the fields of psychology,
physiology, cognitive science, or linguistics. To be sure, there is some overlap between these fields and AI. All seek
a better understanding of the human’s intelligence and sensing process. But in AI the goal is to develop working
computer systems that are truly capable of performing tasks that require high levels of intelligence.
The programs are not necessarily meant to imitate human senses and thought processes .Indeed , in performing
some tasks differently , they may even exceed human abilities.

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YEAR SIGNIFICANT DEVELOPMENTS
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1952-62 Arthur Samuel (IBM) wrote the first game-playing program for checkers to
achieve sufficient skill to challenge a world champion .Samuel’s machine
learning programs were responsible for the high performance of the checkers
player. three years later , Joseph Weizenbaum (MIT) built ELIZA , an
interactive program that carried on a dialogue in English on any topic.

1965 J. A. Robinson introduced resolution as an inference method in logic. Work
on DENDRAL was begun at Stanford university by J .Lederberg , Edward
Feigenbaum , and Carl Djerassi . DENDRAL is an expert system which
discovers molecular structures given only information of the constituents of
the compound and mass spectra data. DENDRAL was the first knowledge-
based expert system to be developed.

1968 Work on MACSYMA was initiated at MIT by Carl Engleman , William
Martin , and Joel Moses . MACMYMA is a large interactive program which
solves numerous types of mathematical problems . Written in LISP ,
MACSYMA was a continuation of earlier work on SIN , an indefinite
integration solving program.

1997 Deep blue , a chess program , beat the current world chess champion , Garry
Kasparov , in a widely followed match .Also , the first official robo-cup
soccer match was held , featuring tabletop matches with 40 teams of
interacting robots and over 5000 spectators.

05. EARLY WORK AT AI
Within few years after AI was introduced, tremendous development took place in this field. Various
programs were framed. Indeed AI began to emerge as a separate field of study during the 1940s and 1950s when
the computer became a commercial reality. The important developments during this early period which helped to
launch AI include the introduction of information theory due largely to the work of Claude Shannon , Neurological
theories and models of the brain which were originated by psychologists, as well as the introduction of Boolean
algebra , switching theory, and even statistical decision theory.
06. KNOWLEDGE-BASED SYSTEMS
One of the important lessons learned in AI during the 1960s was that general purpose problem solvers
which used a limited number of laws or axioms were too weak to be effective in solving problems of any
complexity. This realization eventually led to the design of what is known as KNOWLEDGE-BASED SYSTEMS,
systems that depend on a rich base of knowledge to perform difficult tasks.
EDWARD FEIGENBAUM summarized this new thinking in a paper at the International Joint Conference
on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI) in 1977. He emphasized the fact that the real power of an expert system comes

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from the knowledge it possesses rather than the particular inference schemes and formalisms it employs. This new
view of AI systems marked the turning point in the development of more powerful problem solvers. It formed the
basis for some of the new emerging expert systems being developed during the 1970s including MYCIN, an expert
system developed to diagnose infectious blood diseases.
Since this realization, much of the work done in AI has been related to so call knowledge based systems,
including work in vision, learning, general problem solving, and natural language understanding. This in turn has led
to more emphasis being placed on research related to knowledge representation, memory organization, and the use
and manipulation of knowledge.
07. INTRODUCTION TO EXPERT SYSTEMS
An expert system is a set of programs that manipulate encoded knowledge to solve problems in a
specialized domain that normally requires human expertise. An expert system’s knowledge is obtained from expert
sources and coded in a form suitable for the system to use in its inference or reasoning processes. Once a sufficient
body of expert knowledge has been acquired, it must be encoded in some form, loaded into a knowledge base, then
tested, and refined continually throughout the life of the system.
08. BACK GROUND HISTORY
Expert systems first emerged from the research laboratories of a few leading U.S universities during the
1960s and 1970s. They were developed as specialized problem solvers which emphasized the use of knowledge
rather than algorithms and general search methods. This approach marked a significant departure from conventional
AI systems architectures at the time. The accepted direction of researchers then was to use AI systems that employed
general problem solving techniques such as hill-climbing or means-end analysis rather than specialized domain
knowledge and heuristics. This departure from the norm proved to be a wise choice. It led to the development of a
new class of successful systems and special systems design.
The first expert system to be completed was DENDRAL, developed at Stanford university in the late 1960s.
This system was capable of determining the structure of chemical compounds given a specification of the
compound’s constituent elements and mass spectrometry data obtained from samples of the compound. DENDRAL
used heuristic knowledge obtained from experienced chemists to help constrain the problem and thereby reduce the
search space. During tests, DENDRAL discovered a number of structures previously unknown to expert chemists.
As researchers gained more experience with DENDRAL, they found how difficult it was to elicit expert
systems from experts. This led the development of meta-DENDRAL, a learning component for DENDRAL which
was able to learn rules from positive examples. Shortly after DENDRAL was completed, the development of
MYCIN began at Stanford university.
MYCIN is an expert system which diagnoses infectious blood diseases and determines a recommended list
of therapies for the patient. As part of the heuristic programming project at Stanford , several projects directly
related to MYCIN were also completed including a knowledge acquisition component called THEIRESIUS, a tutorial
component GUIDON, and a shell component called EMYCIN (for Essential MYCIN). EMYCIN was used to build
other diagnostic systems including PUFF, a diagnostic expert for pulmonary diseases. EMYCIN also became the
design model for several commercial expert system building tools.

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Other early expert system projects included PROSPECTOR, a system that assists geologists in the
discovery of mineral deposits, and RI ( aka XCON ), a system used by the Digital Equipment Corporation to select
and configure components of complex computer systems. Since the introduction of these early expert systems,
numerous commercial and military versions have been completed with a high degree of success. Some of these
application areas are itemized below.
09.BLOCK DIAGRAM OF AN EXPERT SYSTEM
The following diagram gives a clean chit of requirements for a typical expert system.

USER EXPERT SYSTEM

Explanation Module
Inferance Case History
Input Engine File
I/O Interfaces

Knowledge
Output Working
Base
Memory
Editor

Learning
Module

Components of a typical Expert System
10. IMPORTANCE OF EXPERT SYSTEMS
The value of expert systems was well established by the early 1980s. A number of successful applications
had completed by then and they proved to be cost effective. An example which illustrates this point well is the
diagnostic system developed by Campbell Soup Company.
Campbell Soup uses large sterilizers or cookers to cook soups and other canned products at eight plans
located throughout the country. Some of the large cookers hold up to 68,000 cans of food for short periods of
cooking time. When difficult maintenance problems occur with the cookers, the fault must be found and corrected
quickly or the batch of foods being prepared will spoil. Until recently, the company had been depending on a single
expert to diagnose and cure the more difficult problems, flying him to the site when necessary. Since this individual
will retire in a few years taking his expertise with him, the company decided to develop an expert system to diagnose
these difficult problems.
After some months of development with assistance form Texas Instruments, the company developed an
expert system which ran on a PC. The system has about 150 rules in its knowledge base with which to diagnose the
more complex cooker problems. The system has also been used to provide training to new maintenance personnel.

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Cloning multiple copies for each of the eight locations cost the company only a few pennies per copy. Furthermore,
the system cannot retire, and its performance can continue to be improved with the addition of more rules. It has
already proven to be real asset to the company. Similar cases now abound in many divorce organizations.
11. CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF EXPERT SYSTEMS
Expert systems differ from conventional computer systems in several ways, as follows:
 Expert systems use knowledge rather than data to control the solution process. “IN
KNOWLEDGE LIES THE POWER .” Much of the knowledge used is heuristic in nature rather
than algorithmic.
 The knowledge is encoded and maintained as an entity separate from the control program. As
such, it is not compiled together with the control program itself. This permits the incremental
addition and modification (refinement) of the knowledge base without recompilation of the control
programs. Furthermore, it is possible in some cases to use different knowledge bases with the
same control programs to produce different types of expert systems. Such systems are known as
expert system shells since they may be loaded with different knowledge bases.
 Expert systems capable of explaining how a particular conclusion was reached, and why requested
information is needed during a consultation. This is important as it gives the user a chance to
access and understand the system’s reasoning ability, thereby improving the user’s confidence in
the system.
 Expert systems use symbolic representation for knowledge (rules, networks, or frames) and
perform their inference through symbolic computations that closely resemble manipulations of
natural language. ( An exception to this is the expert system based on neural network
architectures. )
 Expert systems often reason with metaknowledge ;that is, they reason with knowledge about
themselves, and their own knowledge limits and capabilities.
12. APPLICATIONS OF EXPERT SYSTEMS
Since the introduction of these early expert systems, the range and depth of applications has broadened dramatically.
Applications can now be found in almost all areas of business, IT and government. They include such areas as
I. Different types of medical diagnoses (internal medicine, pulmonary diseases, infectious,
blood diseases, and so on ).
II. Diagnosis of complex electronic and electromechanical systems.
III. Diagnosis of diesel electric locomotion systems.
IV. Diagnosis of software development projects.
V. Planning experiments in biology, chemistry, and molecular genetics.
VI. Forecasting crop damage.
VII. Identification of chemical compound structures and chemical compounds.
VIII. Location of faults in computer and communications systems.

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IX. Scheduling of customer orders, job shop production operations, computer resources for
operating systems, and various manufacturing tasks.
X. Evaluation of loan applicants for lending institutions.
XI. Assessment of geologic structures from dip meter logs.
XII. Analysis of structural systems for design or as a result of earthquake damage.
XIII. The optimal configuration of components to meet given specifications for a complex
system (like computers or manufacturing facilities ).
XIV. Estate planning for minimal taxation and other specified goals.
XV. Stock and bond portfolio selection and management.
XVI. The design of Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) systems.
XVII. Numerous military applications related to space planning and exploration.
XVIII. Numerous areas of law including civil case evaluation, product liability, assault and
battery, and general assistance in locating different law precedents.
XIX. Planning curricula for students.
XX. Teaching students specialized tasks (like trouble shooting equipment faults )
13. PRESENT DAY TRENDS IN THE FIELD
Freely moving robots with built-in intellectual capacity similar to humans will be developed by 2040. they
will be able to perform medical diagnosis, route plans, make financial decisions, configure computer systems,
analyze seismic data to locate deposits, and much more!
With their computational and agile skills robots perform tasks that are difficult or hazardous to humans.
Advances in microchips, micro processors, sensors, control systems, mechanical engineering, transducers, and
telecommunications have resulted in widespread growth of robotic processes applications.
Today’s robots are mechanical arms controlled by computers that are programmed to perform a range of
handling activities. They are establishing themselves in manufacturing automation systems to produce a range of
goods with great precision.
The emerging era of robots calls for different types of skills. Entering non-industrial areas, the first
fledgling robots for domestic use are coming off the production lines. Robots are being used in hazardous places,
such as outer space or under the sea. Technical advances are gradually endowing robots with properties that actually
increase their similarities to humans.
Engineers are attempting to add sensors to the correct breed of industrial robots, so that they can see, touch,
and even hear. Machines with this extra power will obtain information about events in the outside world-what
engineers call feedback-and the hardware will be able to react according to the changes in the circumstances, instead
of simply repeating a fixed routine of instructions.
Computers that control robots are becoming faster and more sophisticated, imbibed with reasoning powers
that may match those of humans. This will endow robots with greater versatility. They will have capacity, at least to
some degree, to workout modes of action entirely for themselves.
14. INCORPATING INTELLIGENCE

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Artificial intelligence (AI) to give computers the power to make deductions and logical inferences is
starting to evolve out of its infancy, and we may soon see robots applying principles of AI. Such robots would pick
up information from the surroundings by using sensors ( such as TV cameras and miniature radar) and be able to
move around. They would make decisions: for instance, adjusting their pattern of operations in a work cell
depending on whether or not the components have been correctly delivered at the right time, rather than blindly
following a pre-ordained sequence of movements irrespective of outside events.
15. SCIENCE TODAY-INDUSTRIAL ROBOTS
The emerging era of technology calls for different types of skills. Entering the industrial areas, the first
fledging systems for domestic use are coming off production lines. Robots are being used in hazardous places like
space. Under the sea and nuclear power plants where there is risk of life for humans.
So as to understand the developments in the designing of robots, I hope the following illustration will help you.

ASPECT FIRST GENERATION SECOND GENERATION THIRD GENERATION
ROBOTS ROBOTS ROBOTS
Features Computer controlled Use of sensors made them more
These are still under research.
Mechanical arms; their sophisticated. Feedback They would contain their
Tasks vary from putting was used enabling them to adjust
central brain working on the
Welds on to the bodies of the operating instructions ofprinciples of AI. They
Cars to insertion of tiny events. would be able to perform
components into the every work starting from
electronic hardware items. a housemaid to a soldier.

Limitations Purely industrial and were very
Working fields were limitedVirtually these have no
much complex to operate. though they were better limitations at all.
than first generation
robots and jobs were also
erroneous.

16. HARDWARE DETAILS
The most visible part of the robot used in the industry is the arm itself with its gripper or ‘end effectors’.
The arm has several jobs, corresponding to those on the human limb. In sophisticated robots, each joint is controlled
by its own motor that acts independently of others. The power supply produces a set of forces that move the parts of
the robot at its various joints. Controlled by instructions from the program in robot’s computer and producing forces,
the actuators are responsible for the way the machine conducts a specific operation.
Electrical systems use AC or DC motors. Each joint of the robot is controlled by individual motor, actuated
by signals sent along the robot’s skeleton through cable. In the control system, the computer is the most important
element. It contains programs that instruct each motor of the robot on how to move, to bring above a specific
maneuvers. The instructions also contain commands to operate ancillary equipment used with the robot. For

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instance, the program for welding robot would instruct the welding gun held by the robot’s hand on how much
electricity it should use at specific times to fuse together the metallic pieces of varying thickness.
Second generation robots use sensors, such as force meters and TV cameras , to obtain information on
events around them. The information is passed to the computers that control the machines, enabling them to adjust
the operating instructions of the events. This is an example of engineering feedback.
17. SENSORS
Generating artificial equivalents of human senses is one of the greatest challenges facing the robotics
fraternity. The ultimate aim is to produce robots with a perception of their surroundings comparable to that enjoyed
by human beings; robots that would be able to see, feel, hear, and perhaps even smell things and capable of
communicating with their human collaborates in ordinary language. We are, at the moment, a long way away from
such an ideal situation.
It is imperative to understand difficulties involved in the development of robot senses and find out where
the problem lies. Technology has found ways of matching, and in many cases surpassing, the abilities of natural
sense organs such as eyes and ears; radar, sonar, directional microphones, body scanners, etc enable to see, hear, or
detect things far beyond the range of our own sensory equipment. The real problem is not the gathering of
information but understanding what it means.
For example, devising a robot that can go to the surface of the north sea, or the surface of mars, or the
inside of a nuclear reactor is quite different form equipping that robot with intelligence to enable it to detect leaking
point in the pipeline from an image of the undersea oil route. The image of pipeline merely shows a bit of seaweed
wrapped around the joint. It requires even greater intelligence if the robot is to be capable of deciding for itself that,
say it will be able to resolve this ambiguous image if it moves to the right to get a better view or zooms in to take a
closer look.
Robots should provide both the information we require to understand the real world and the information
needed to deal with or respond to the real world. There is little point in providing robots with sensors unless we also
enable them to understand their surrounding events to get a control over them.
18. FEEDBACK
It is not enough for robots simply to perceive and understand the world as passive observers. Their senses
should provide them with feedback on how their actions influence or change the world. If the controlling computer
in a robot is to perform effectively, it must not only generate and transmit instructions in the shape of signals to an
electric motor but also receive and interpret information to judge the effect its instructions are having, and make sure
that these have been obeyed.
The vision of robots roaming freely in the world, ready to tackle dangerous tasks, is an exciting one, but
many research hurdles remain to be crossed before this becomes a reality. A major stimulus to emancipation of the
robot from the factory floor is its ability to work in a hostile environment, be it ocean bed, nuclear power plant, or
even battlefield.
19. AN UNMANNED FACTORY !

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Machinery operations are left to unfenced tools, which obtain commands fro data sent along transmission
grids from computers in another part of the factory. Robotic machines play a vital role in such crucial operations
such as parts transfer, welding, painting, and delicate assembly operations. They introduce a different set of
operating procedures and provide an example of self-automation. The machines can be programmed to do different
jobs, and it is simple to switch them between tasks when making different kinds of products.
Robots can be programmed so that they pick items of different sizes and shapes off a conveyer. These are
therefore particularly useful in those factories that make products in small batches, with items changing between
different batches.
Soft automation robots offer small-to medium batch production manufacturers the advantage of off-the-
shelf automation. Much of the design work in putting these into applications in a factory is already completed in the
engineering departments of the robot suppliers. So for a manufacturer, the lead time in installing a new production
line is considerably reduced. This can be an advantage in introducing a new product as soon as possible after it has
been designed.
Debugging of manufacturing hardware is reduced. Once a manufacturer has decided to install a robot, he
has to ensure it integrates with other production hardware in the factory. All such equipment must be debugged to
remove errors I, for example, software programs. For the robot, much of the debugging is already done in the
laboratories of the company that produced it.
Robots can be reused after their initial application comes to an end. A production line in which a robot
performs a specific job may last only six months or a year. After this, the factory may need to scrap the line because
the product changes. But because the robot can be programmed for different tasks, it can be taken off the line and
put to different uses elsewhere.
20. ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS
Insertion of components into PCBs is a major area of manufacture suitable for application of assembly
robots. Special purpose assembly machines can handle such tasks, but these are sets of manipulators built for
specific purposes that can perform only one task and cannot be programmed to do other jobs or handle non-standard
components.
In these machines, sets of identical components of standard shapes are loaded into storage trays in
bandoliers, which travel past a mechanical gripper that takes each component in turn and inserts it in the desired
place on the board. The components are later joined with electrical connection.
But such machines are not able to handle components of non-standard shapes, for instance, certain kinds of
microprocessor or memory packages. These items, in conventional factories, would have to be assembled in the time
honored way by hand.
Programmable robots, however, can manipulate components of non-standard shapes. For instance, in a
factory operation by Motorola in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, USA, two robots together assemble electronic items for
radio sets. These robots share 12 fundamental tasks, such as insertion of specific electronic components into circuit
boards. Working in tandem, just as a pair of hands in a manual assembly job, they avoid collision as a result of
computer-generated signals sent between them.

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21. ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE FOR SPEECH RECOGNITION
When you dial the telephone number of a big company, you are likely to hear the sonorous voice of a
cultured lady who responds to your call with great courtesy saying “welcome to company X. please give me the
extension number you want”. you pronounce the extension number, your name, and the name of the person you
want to contact. If the called person accepts the call, the connection is given quickly. This is Artificial Intelligence
where an automatic call-handling system is used without employing any telephone operator.
The process of speech recognition is better understood by the following block diagram.

DISPLAY

APPLICATIONS
DICTATING

Voice sound SPEECH
RECOGNITION
COMMANDS TO
DEVICE
COMPUTERS
USER

INPUT TO OTHER
CBISs, ROBOTS,
EXPERT SYSTEMS

NLP UNDERSTANDING
Dialogue with the user

Speech recognition process
The user speaks to the computer through a microphone, which, in turn, identifies the meaning of the words and
sends it to NLP device for further processing. Once recognized, the words can be used in a variety of applications
like display, robotics, commands to computers, and dictation.
22. THOUGHTS LINK DEEDS
John Chapin of the new York health science entre and mignel nicolelis of duke university medical center
have conducted innovative research projects utilizing electrical activities of brain cells to control movements of the
robot’s arm.
In an experiment performed over two monkeys, they placed 96 electrodes, each thinner than a human hair,
in their brain cells taking active part in arm movement. A mathematical model studied brain impulses of monkeys to
predict the movement of their arms as they picked up pieces of food. Subsequently, a computer was used to send
similar commands based on these predictions to move a robotic arm. After a slight time lag, the robotic arm mimics
the monkey’s arm with 70-80 percent accuracy. the researchers selected a region called ‘motor cortex’ in the

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monkey’s brain that controls movements of the limbs. They took readings of the electrical activity of the brain cells
as the monkeys performed various arm movements in search for food. Once they found that they could predict arm
movements by looking at the pattern of signals in the brain, they linked the monkeys to a robotic arm that could
move in three dimensions to reach the food. The Internet liked monkeys to another robot’s arm at the Massachusetts
Institute of Technology (MIT).
M.Srinivasan of the MIT laboratory exclaimed, “it was a thrilling sight to see the robot in my lab move,
driven by signals from the brain of a monkey 900 km away.” Science fiction writers have termed this concept
‘telekinesis’- the moving power of thought. In the near future it may be used to help paralyzed persons control
prosthetic limbs. Related experiments have conducted with humans in the application of brain waves to computer
connections. At Tabingen in Germany, two patients suffering with ‘ locked-in syndrome’- a kind of paralysis barely
distinguishable from coma-wore electrodes and learned to manipulate letters on a computer.
Researches are planning to implant up to 1,000 electrodes to develop a ‘neurochip’ to link humans to
machines. Future generations might become adept at this electrical link between thought and deed.
23. SURGICAL ROBOTS
Institute surgical inc. of Mountain View, USA, has developed a robotic surgical instrument ‘da Vinci’.
Priced at $1 million, da Vinci has been authorized by the American Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for
abdominal procedures from July 11,2000. surgeons in Europe and Asia have already used this device in numerous
applications. It enables them to perform surgical movements without using their hands, while seated at a console far
away from the operating table. The robot’s hands, are placed, replicate any movement the surgeon’s hands make.
A major advantage of robotic tools is that these do not tremble like human hands. Doctors can program
precise configurations to use at different points in the surgery. They can conduct operations on patients in far-flung
space stations and battlefields.
24. BEYOND HUMAN CAPABILITES
The robotics and process system division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), USA, is engaged in
solving challenging problems through research and development of advanced robotics systems. Robots are needed to
clean up hazardous waste sites and handle wastes to help in restoration of the environment.
At times, equipment used in nuclear operations becomes sufficiently radioactive. In such situations,
maintenance or repairs cannot be performed by humans. ORNL has developed methods to perform these tasks
remotely using servo manipulators mounted on mobile platforms. Mimicking the motion of human arms and hands,
these servo manipulators can carry out the necessary repairs and maintenance of failed equipment, in a variety of
hazardous environments.
25. LIVE ROBOTS ?
Researches at northwestern university, USA, have designed a half-living, half-robot species ‘cyborg’. It
consists of a brain stem from the larva of ‘lamprey’ blood sucking fish. Electrodes on this stem connect to a robot.
The living brain floats in a container of cool, oxygenated salt fluid. The robot detects switching of lights when
placed at the center of a ring of lights. This causes the sensors to send signals to the lamprey’s brain. Now the brain

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returns impulses, which, in turn, instruct the robot to move on its whole towards the lights. The robot stays when the
lights are switched on.
The uniqueness of this innovation depends on the creation of a closed loop system, enabling the lamprey
brain and the robot to exchange information. Researchers exploited the immature lamprey’s instincts to keep itself
oriented the right way in the water. In the cyber architecture, this mode translates into a ‘light-seeking’ one.
Scientists propose to create an advanced, brain-controlled prosthesis for humans who have lost their ability
to control their limbs. The focus of this experiment is to create a tool for studying the functioning of brain. Research
work is in progress to develop microelectronics-based practical applications to help the disabled.
In Atlanta, USA, engineers have implanted a minute glass electrode in the cerebral cortex of a quadriplegic
patient and coaxed to grow inside. A transmitter was attached to enable the patient to move a cursor on the computer
screen, using his thought process.
26. THE FUTURE
Human-sized robots that can program for any simple chore will introduce in the market by 2010. these
intelligent robots will free humans from much of the drudgery-based work we do today.
However, these advanced concepts will rely on human-like artificial intelligence that has not yet been
developed. Though technology for producing mechanical body parts for sophisticated robots already exists, the lack
of sufficient brain for robots has prevented the science-fiction writers’ predictions from materializing. Computers
are becoming more capable of understanding speech and text, and can be taught to recognize objects and textures.
Automated driving systems have been tested successfully in the USA and Germany. A test vehicle from carnagie
melon university drove from Washington to San Diego, covering 95 percent of the trip without human assistance.
The new P3 robot developed by Honda motors of Japan car, walk on flat or sloped floors as well as stair ways.
Mass-produced consumer robots, priced at $1000 , will be capable of vacuuming rooms by searching out
dirty areas. These driods will operate on wire less from a docking station where they can recharge and dispose the
dirt. The vacuuming robot DC06, created by the British firm Dyson, costs about $4000. it uses over 50 sensors and a
computer to perform basic vacuuming drudgery.
Third-generation robots would have their central brain working on the principles of AI. They would play a
big role in every day aspects of the life, from helping out in the home to cleaning the streets, or even assisting a
fighter pilot to accomplish increasingly complex missions.
27. THE OTHER SIDE
Every coin has two sides. Similarly, the consequences of implementing INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS cannot be
relayed upon completely. This is the idea of the critics and they have their own reasons.
 This leads to over dependence of man on machine.
 This may result in loss of individuality of the humans.
 Even one may question the factor of reliability on machines.
 One more thing that prickles my mind is To what extent we need these sophisticated
machines?

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 Moreover, over reliability may even result in lack of thinking capability of our future
generations people.
So, one cannot come to a conclusion unless he ponders over the outcomes. Thus what we get depends upon how we
see. A reasonable use of AI will be beneficial but, over reliability results in ruin of the basics. You can understand it
better if you read the next passage.
28. THE FINAL WORD
All these views may not be far fetched. Japanese toy giant Takara has created waves by controlling the
Dream force 01 robot using JAVASCRIPT through mobile phones, at the annual Tokyo Toy Show. A 1.2m,43kg
humanoid robot ‘asimo’, produced by Japan’s auto giant Honda, performed a dance at the company’s showroom. A
250,000 pound robot, created by a team of engineers at Novi systems, Kent, the UK, possesses amazing mechanical
dexterity. It is revolutionizing the production and testing of drug inhalers.
It is known that “ Science is a good servant but a bad master.” The same is applicable to the present
subject. As long as these systems are under our control, it will be like a boon, if not , it will change into a curse on
the whole community. Last but not the least, I believe that how so ever powerful might be the genie, the controlling
lamp should be in our hands. in the similar lines, what so ever might be the knowledge imported to the computer,
there should be a facility to halt it at any instant of time.

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