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Title : Artificial Intelligence & Expert Systems

1. INTRODUCTION
2. ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE PROBLEMS
3. AI TECHNIQUES
4. EXPERT SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE
5. KNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION FOR AI & EXPERT SYSTEM
6. LANGUAGES FOR AI & EXPERT SYSTEMS
7. FEATURES OF AI & EXPERT SYSTEMS
8. STAGES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF EXPERT SYSTEM USING AI
UPCOMING TECHNIQUES
9. TECHNOLOGIES IN FUTURE
10. CONCLUSION

Introduction:
Right from the evolution of computers, man is trying to lessen his burden
and started inculcating all his abilities and the natural possession. He was
gifted with into this Magic machine – The Computer in 1950’s the beautiful
thought of making the machine Intelligent emerged out of the supreme
computer – The Human Brain, the resulted in the development of Artificial
Intelligence Systems.
Intelligence:
Intelligence defines the ability to acquire, understand and apply
knowledge, or the abilities to exercise thought and region. Intelligence is the
integrated sum of those feats which gives us the ability to remember a face
not seen for more years.

Artificial Intelligence:
Artificial Intelligence broadly defined as concerned with the study of how
to make computers do things with ways of representing knowledge using
symbols and with heuristics methods for processing information.

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Artificial Intelligence has always been surrounded by controversy
question of interest raised here is,

“Can Machines think”

Some what supporting and hope raising answer is that, “A Virus can be
called as a Machine made of proteins.” Finally it is got modified to, “The study of
how to make computers do things which at the moment , people do better”.

Expert Sytems:
An expert system is a computer program using expert knowledge to attain
high levels of performance in a narrow problem area. They are the capable
programs that contained the knowledge requirements to mimic expert human
performance at several tasks, including diagnosis, design and analysis.

Artificial Intelligence
As A.I. research progressed and techniques for handling larger amounts
of world knowledge were developed and new tasks were attempted. The
research has been done in the standard order, first perceptual, linguistic and
common sense skills. Later, expert skills such as in engineering, medicine or
finance as shown below:

Techniques involved in AI
• Search: Provides a way of solving problem for which no more
direct approach is available as well as a framework into which any
direct techniques that are available can be embedded.
• Use of Knowledge: Provides a way of solving complex problems,
by exploiting the structure of the objects that are involved.
• Abstraction: Provides a way of separating important features and
variations from the many unimportant ones that would otherwise
overwhelm any process.

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For the solution of hard problems, programs that exploit these
techniques have several advantages over those that do not. They are
much less fragile; they will not be thrown off completely by a small
perturbation in their input. In addition, these techniques can work for
large problems where methods that are more direct break down.

An AI technique is a method that exploits knowledge that should be
represented in such a way that:
• The knowledge captures generalizations.
• It can be understood by people who must provide it.
• It can be easily modified to correct errors and to reflect changes
in the world and in our worldview.
• It can be used in a great many situations even if it is not totally
accurate or complete.
• It can be used to help overcome its own sheer bulk by helping to
narrow the range of possibilities that must usually be
considered.

In this article, I am mainly concentrating on a particular AI application
called Expert System, which is having its own importance in the field of AI.

Players in Expert System
The main players in the expert system are that:
• Expert System: An expert system is a computer program using
expert knowledge to attain high levels performance in a narrow
problem area.
• Domain Expert: He is an articulate, knowledge person with a
reputation for producing good solutions to problems in a particular
field.
• Knowledge Engineer: He is a human, usually with a background in
computer science and AI who knows how to build expert systems.

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• Expert System Building Tool: It is the programming language used
by the knowledge engineer or programmer to build the expert
system.
• The user: He is the human who uses the expert system once it is
developed.

Knowledge Representation for AI & Expert System

Framework – The Organization:
Knowledge, mean the information a computer program needs
before it can behave intelligently. This knowledge should undergo two
phases. They are

Organising Knowledge: Many of the rules in expert systems are
heuristics – rules of thumb or simplifications that effectively limit the
search for solutions. Expert systems use heuristics because the tasks
these systems undertake, such as finding new mineral deposits or
settling a lawsuit are typically difficult and poorly understood. An
algorithmic method guarantees to produce the correct or optimal
solution to a problem, while a heuristic method produces an acceptable
solution to most of them. The knowledge base in an expert system
contain facts and rules. The inference engine contains an interpreter
that decides how to apply the rules to infer new knowledge.

Representing Knowledge: The three most widely used representations
used in current expert systems are rules, frames and semantic nets.

Rule: A formal way of specifying a recommendation, directive,
expressed as
IF premise THEN conclusion

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Rule based knowledge representation centres on the use of IF
condition THEN action statements. This sort of matching is what is
called “Inference Chains”.

Frame: A knowledge representation method associated features with
nodes representing concepts or objects. Frame based knowledge
representation uses a network of nodes connected by relations and
organized into a hierarchy. Each node represents a concept that may
be described attributes and values associated with the node. Nodes
low in the hierarchy inherit the properties of higher level nodes.

Semantic Net: The part of the representation method consisting of a
network of nodes standing for concepts and objects, connected by arcs
describing the relations between the nodes.

Languages for AI & Expert Systems: The programming languages
used for AI system are either generally problem oriented languages
such as FORTRAN and PASCAL or symbolic manipulation languages
such as LISP and PROLOG. Other programming languages recently
used in AI is “C” language.

Knowledge Engineering Languages: A knowledge engineering
languages is a sophisticated tool for developing expert systems.
Knowledge engineering languages can be categorizes as either
skeletal systems or general purpose systems.

Support Facilities: The support facilities consist of tools for helping
with programming, such as debugging aids and knowledge base
editors and tools that enhance the capabilities of the finished system.

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Debugging Aids: Most programming languages contain tracing
facilities and break packages.

Features of AI
1. Intelligent system can help experts to solve difficult problems.
2. Intelligent system can help experts to design new devices.
3. AI has focused on the individual min as the sole of source of
intelligence.
4. Characterizing the nature of interpretation.
5. Representational indeterminacy.

Features of Expert Systems
1. Corpus of Knowledge
2. High Level Expertise
3. Predictive Modelling
4. Training Facility.

Conclusion:
Human brain is on an everlasting search for something innovative and so
is the case. Artificial Intelligence is the invention that was fuelled by the
idea of making machine intelligent. The AI related to Expert Systems is
the area which is expanding rapidly. Both government and industry are
beginning to invest in this area and with in a few years a very large
number of Indian companies in collaboration with U.S. companies will be
involved in AI research and development.

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