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ABSTRACT

THE AIM OF THIS THESIS IS TO THROW LIGHT ON THE
OVERVIEW OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND EXPERT SYSTEMS. IT
FOCUSES ON SCOPE ,TYPES AND PURPOSE OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE.
THIS GIVES DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ATRIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE ANE REAL
INTELLIGENCE
IMPLEMENTATION OF EXPERT SYSTEMS IN VARIOUS FIELDS
AND BRIEF INTRODUCTION OF ROBOTS IS DISCUSSED.

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CONTENTS

I . INTRODUCTION 1

II . SCOPE OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE 1

III . TYPES OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCES 2
A . SYMBOLIC AI
B . CONNECTIONIST AI
C . EVOLUTIONARY AI

IV . PURPOSES OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE 5

V . ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND REAL INTELLIGENCE 6

VI . EXPERT SYSTEM 7
A . ROBOT

VII . CONCLUSION 13

VIII . BIBILOGRAPHY 14

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Artificial Intelligence & Expert System

I INTRODUCTION

Artificial Intelligence (AI), the study of how to make computers do
things that minds can do. These include many things not normally thought of as intelligent, such
as moving without bumping into obstacles, or gaining information about an environment through
vision. Humans share these capacities, and also the ability to learn from experience, with many
other animals. Only humans, however, have language. The intellectual aspects of intelligence
depend on language. Much work in AI models intellectual tasks, as opposed to the sensory,
motor, and adaptive abilities possessed by all mammals. Most AI systems are programs, existing
only inside the computer. Others are robots, controlled either by a program or (in “situated”
robots) by engineered reflexes.
Expert System, a type of computer application program that makes
decisions or solves problems in a particular field, such as finance or medicine, by using
knowledge and analytical rules defined by experts in the field.
II SCOPE OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

AI programs can do many different things. They can play games,
predict share values, interpret photographs, diagnose diseases, plan travel itineraries, translate
languages, take dictation, draw analogies, help design complex machinery, teach logic, make
jokes, compose music, do drawings, and learn to do tasks better. Some of these things they do
well. Expert systems can make medical diagnoses as well as, or better than, most human
doctors. The world chess champion Garry Kasparov was beaten by a program in 1997,
computers often predict share prices better than humans, and some AI-generated music sounds
like compositions by famous composers. Other things, they do rather badly. Their translations
are imperfect, but good enough to be understood. Their dictation is reliable only if the
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vocabulary is predictable and the speech unusually clear. And their jokes are poor, although
some are found funny by children. To match everything that people can do, they would need to
model the richness and subtlety of human memory and common sense. Moreover, programs do
only one thing, whereas people do many things.
AI robots, although more flexible than industrial robots, are similarly limited. Very few can
avoid obstacles smoothly, or move across uneven surfaces without falling over. Robots that plan
their actions beforehand are vulnerable to unexpected environmental changes. Even if a robot
performs successfully, it cannot undertake a wide variety of tasks. And its success often requires
simplification of the environment: floor-cleaning robots are useful only if the floor is uncluttered.
Nevertheless, AI-robots can do boring, dirty, or dangerous jobs, sometimes in places that
humans cannot reach.

III TYPES OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

There are three types of AI: symbolic, connectionist, and
evolutionary. Each has characteristic strengths and weaknesses.

A Symbolic AI

Symbolic AI is based in logic. It uses sequences of rules to tell the
computer what to do next. Expert systems consist of many so-called IF-THEN rules: IF this is
the case, THEN do that. Since both sides of the rule can be defined in complex ways, rule-based
programs can be very powerful. The performance of a logic-based program need not appear
“logical”, since some rules may cause it to take apparently irrational actions. “Illogical” AI
programs are not used for practical problem-solving, but are useful in modelling how humans
think. Symbolic programs are good at dealing with set problems, and at representing hierarchies
(in grammar, for example, or planning). But they are brittle: if part of the expected input data is
missing or mistaken, they may give a bad answer, or no answer at all.

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B Connectionist AI

Connectionism is inspired by the brain. Brain, that part of the
central nervous system within the cranium that is the organ of thought, memory, and emotion. It
contains all the higher centres for various sensory impulses and it initiates, controls, and
coordinates muscular movements in humans and other vertebrates. It is closely related to
computational neuroscience, which models actual brain cells and neural circuits. Connectionist
AI uses artificial neural networks made of many units working in parallel. Each unit is connected
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to its neighbours by links that can raise or lower the likelihood that the neighbour unit will fire
(excitatory and inhibitory connections respectively). Neural networks that are able to learn do
so by changing the strengths of these links, depending on past experience. These simple units are
much less complex than real neurons. Each can do only one thing: for instance, report a tiny
vertical line at a particular place in an image. What matters is not what any individual unit is
doing, but the overall activity-pattern of the whole network.
Consequently, connectionist systems are less brittle than symbolic AI programs: even if the input
data is faulty, the network may give the right answer. They are therefore good at pattern
recognition, where the input-patterns within a certain class need not be identical. But
connectionism is weak at doing logic, following action sequences, or representing hierarchies of
goals. What symbolic AI does well, connectionism does badly, and vice versa. “Hybrid” systems
combine the two, switching between them as appropriate. And work on recurrent neural
networks, where the output of one layer of units is fed back as input to some previous layer, aims
to enable connectionist systems to deal with sequential action and hierarchy.

C Evolutionary AI

Evolutionary AI draws on biology. Its programs make random
changes in their own rules, and select the best daughter programs to breed the next generation.
This method develops problem-solving programs, and can evolve the “brains” and “eyes” of
robots. It is often used in modelling artificial life (A-Life). A-Life studies self-organization: how
order arises from something that is ordered to a lesser degree. Biological examples include the
flocking patterns of birds and the development of embryos. Technological examples include the
A-Life flocking algorithms used for computer animation.
In computational devices with a built-in microcomputer logic, this logic is a form of algorithm.
As computers increase in complexity, more and more software algorithms are taking the form of
what is called hard software. That is, they are increasingly becoming part of the basic circuitry of
computers or are easily attached adjuncts, as well as standing alone in special devices such as

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payroll machines. Many different applications algorithms are now available, and highly
advanced systems such as artificial intelligence algorithms may become common in the future.

Computer Animation, the simulation of movement produced by displaying a series of
successive images on the screen. In computer graphics, animation can be accomplished in
several ways, depending on the tools provided by the programmer's choice of programming
language and on the working environment. One approach to animation involves drawing an
image and then erasing it and redrawing it in a slightly different place on the screen. Another
approach makes use of the creation of entire screen frames (pages), which are drawn in memory
and displayed in sequence on the screen. Yet another uses built-in screen-management tools that
enable the programmer to specify an object, a starting point, and a destination, leaving the
process of movement to the underlying software. Animation can be generated either in real time,
in which each frame is created as the viewer watches, or in simulated time. In the latter, the
computer generates still frames, which are then printed and photographed or are sent to a film or
video animation camera. In this way, a computer can spend seconds, minutes, or hours
generating each frame, but on replay the tape or film displays each frame in a fraction of a
second.

IV PURPOSES OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

AI developers have one or both of two motivations: technological and
psychological. Some want to make their computers do a useful task, without caring just how they
do it. These may include methods that people cannot match, such as sensitivity to ultraviolet
light, or an exhaustive search ahead through all the legal chess moves for several steps. Others
want to learn about human minds (or brains). They see their programs as psychological theories,
and avoid methods that humans cannot use.
Psychologists can be helped by AI because they must state their theories very clearly to express
them as programs. If the program fails to produce the intended results, then the theory must be
mistaken, but the computer run may indicate where the mistake is. If the program succeeds, it

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does not follow that people think in the same way: only psychological (or neurophysiological)
evidence can confirm that.
AI is used by financial institutions, scientists and medical practitioners, design engineers, public
transport schedulers, planning authorities, government departments, and security services, among
many others. AI techniques are also applied in systems used to browse the Internet and online
news and wire services. In the home, AI systems can provide guidance on gardening, travel, car
maintenance, and many other matters; and AI robots are being developed to assist the disabled.

V ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND REAL INTELLIGENCE

The question, “Is artificial intelligence possible?” is ambiguous. It
may mean “Can AI programs actually produce results that resemble human behaviour?” This is a
scientific question. The answer at present is yes, at least in some cases. Whether it would also be
true to say that this is so in all cases is not yet known. Some things that most people assume
computers could never do are already possible. AI programs can compose aesthetically
appealing music, draw attractive pictures, and even play the piano “expressively”. Other things
are more elusive: producing perfect translations of a wide range of texts; making fundamental,
yet aesthetically acceptable, transformations of musical style; producing robots that move nimbly
over rough ground, swim across rivers, or climb mountains. It is controversial whether these
things are merely very difficult in practice, or impossible in principle.
Alternatively, “Is artificial intelligence possible?” may mean “Could any program (or robot), no
matter how humanlike its performance, really be intelligent?” This question involves highly
controversial issues in the philosophy of mind, including the importance of embodiment and the
nature of intentionality and consciousness. Some philosophers and AI researchers argue that
intelligence can arise only in bodily creatures sensing and acting in the real world. If this is
correct, then robotics is essential to the attempt to construct truly intelligent artefacts. If not, then
a mere AI program might be intelligent.
The celebrated mathematician and computer scientist Alan Turing proposed what is now called
the Turing Test as a way of deciding whether a machine is intelligent. He imagined a person and
a computer hidden behind a screen, communicating by electronic means. If we cannot tell which

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one is the human, we have no reason to deny that the machine is thinking. That is, a purely
behavioural test is adequate for identifying intelligence (and consciousness). The philosopher
John Searle has expressed a different view. He admits that a program might produce replies
identical to those of a person, and that a programmed robot might behave exactly like a human.
But he argues that a program cannot understand anything it “says”. It is not actually saying
(asserting) anything at all, merely outputting meaningless symbols that it has manipulated
according to purely formal rules. Lacking understanding (intentionality), it is all syntax and no
semantics. But human beings can ascribe meaning to its empty symbols, because our brains can
somehow (Searle does not say how) cause intentionality, whereas metal and silicon cannot.
There is no consensus, in either AI or philosophy, as to which theory, that of Turing or that of
Searle, is right.
Whether an AI system could be conscious is an especially controversial topic. The concept of
consciousness itself is ill-understood, both scientifically and philosophically. Some people think
it obvious that any robot, no matter how superficially humanlike, must be zombie-like. But
others think it obvious that a robot whose functions matched the relevant functions of the brain
(whatever those may be) would inevitably be conscious. The answer has moral implications: if
an AI system were conscious, it would arguably be wrong to “kill” it, or even to use it as a
“slave”.

VI Expert System
Expert System, a type of computer application program that
makes decisions or solves problems in a particular field, such as finance or medicine, by using
knowledge and analytical rules defined by experts in the field. Human experts solve problems by
using a combination of factual knowledge and reasoning ability. In an expert system, these two
essentials are contained in two separate but related components, a knowledge base and an
inference engine. The knowledge base provides specific facts and rules about the subject, and the
inference engine provides the reasoning ability that enables the expert system to form
conclusions. Expert systems also provide additional tools in the form of user interfaces and
explanation facilities. User interfaces, as with any application, enable people to form queries,
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provide information, and otherwise interact with the system. Explanation facilities, an intriguing
part of expert systems, enable the systems to explain or justify their conclusions, and they also
enable developers to check on the operation of the systems themselves. Expert systems
originated in the 1960s; fields in which they are used include chemistry, geology, medicine,
banking and investments, and insurance.

A. Robot
Robot, self-governing, programmable electromechanical device used in
industry and in scientific research to perform a task or a limited repertoire of tasks. Robots are a
subcategory of automated devices (see Automation). Although no generally recognized criteria
exists that distinguishes them from other automated systems, robots tend to be more versatile and
adaptable (or reprogrammable) than less sophisticated devices. They offer the advantages of
being able to perform more quickly, cheaply, and accurately than humans in conducting set
routines. They are capable of operating in locations or under conditions hazardous to human
health, ranging from areas of the factory floor to the ocean depths and outer space.

The concept of robots dates back to ancient times, when some myths
told of mechanical beings brought to life. Such automata also appeared in the clockwork figures
of medieval churches, and in the 18th century some clockmakers gained fame for the intricately
clever mechanical figures that they constructed. Today the term automaton is usually applied to
these handcrafted, mechanical (rather than electromechanical) devices that are restricted merely
to imitating the motions of living creatures. Some of the “robots” used in advertising and
entertainment are actually automata, even with the addition of remote radio control.

The term robot itself is derived from the Czech word robota, meaning
“compulsory labour”. It was first used in the 1921 play R.U.R. (which stands for “Rossum's
Universal Robots”) by the Czech novelist and playwright Karel Čapek, to describe a mechanical

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device that looks like a human but, lacking human sensibility, can perform only automatic,
mechanical operations. In the play, however, the robots proved much more capable than that,
eventually conquering and destroying their makers—a recurrent theme in science fiction since
that time. The term androids is now generally reserved for human-like figures of this sort,
ranging from electromechanical robots in human form to human-like creatures made entirely of
biological materials.

Robots as they are known today are not really imitative of human or other
living forms except in the limited aspect of digital dexterity. The roots of their development lie in
the effort to automate some or all of the operations required on the factory floor. This effort
began in the 18th century in the textile industry, when some looms were designed to perform
under the control of punched paper tapes. With the burgeoning of the Industrial Revolution,
factories sought to bring a greater degree of automation to the repeated processes of the assembly
line. True robots did not become possible, however, until the invention of the computer in the
1940s and the progressive miniaturization of computer parts. One of the first true robots was an
experimental model called SHAKEY, designed by researchers at the Stanford Research Institute
in the late 1960s. It was capable of arranging blocks into stacks through the use of a television
camera as a visual sensor, processing this information in a small computer.
Thereafter engineers tried to adapt robot-like devices to useful tasks. In the mid-1970s, General
Motors financed a development programme in which Massachusetts Institute of Technology
researcher Victor Scheinman improved upon a motor-driven “arm” he had invented to produce a
so-called “programmable universal manipulator for assembly”, or PUMA. The PUMAs that
resulted mark the beginning of the age of robots.

Computers today are equipped with a small microprocessor or
microprocessors that can handle the data being fed to them by various sensors of the surrounding
environment. Making use of the principle of feedback (see Cybernetics), robots can then change
their operations to some degree in response to changes in that environment. The commercial use
of robots is spreading, with the increasing automation of factories, and they have long since
become essential to many laboratory procedures. Japan is in the forefront of nations exploring
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robot technology. Whether the androids of science fiction will ever become a reality is not yet
possible to predict, because duplication of even such seemingly simple acts as bipedal walking
has proved enormously difficult. The question of “intelligent” androids must similarly be left to
the future of artificial intelligence as a whole. In the meantime, however, robots should continue
to expand their applications; the home-made-robot kits available today may be one sign of the
future.

CONCLUSION:

The entire documentation gives clear idea of Artificial Intelligence and
Expert system . Overview of AI and Exert system at a level appropriate to non-specialists
is presented. Its main emphasis is that the computer programs or computer applications
can function much similar to a human minds. This made the life of human much comport
and easy.

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BIBILOGRAPHY

“ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCES AND EXPERT SYSTEMS”
--------------------MARGARET BODEN

“INTRODUCTION TO EXPERT SYSTEMS”
--------------------------IGNIZIO , JAMES.P

“ROBOTICS AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE”
-----------------------PHAM.D.T

“PRINCIPLES OF EXPERT SYSTEM”
---------------------------LUCAS , PETER.

“http://tqd.advanced.org/2705/

“http://www.artificialbrains.com”

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