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Labor Turnover Issue Faced By Serena Hotels

Thesis Submitted to Lahore School of Economics



By
M. Azam Qayyum
Section B

For

Award of Degree of Bachelors of Business Administration (Honors) in
Finance



Session: 2008 to 2012


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RESEARCH COMPLETION CERTIFICATE
It is certified that M.Azam Qayyum, ID No. 08U0340 Session 2008 to 2012 has carried out and
completed the research project entitled Labor Turnover Issue Faced by Serena Hotels under
my supervision for requirement for the award of Degree of Bachelor of business Administration
Honors (Finance) by Lahore School of Economics.
Research supervisor

(Zehra Raza)
Lahore School of Economics










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TABLE OF CONTENT
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT....................................................................................................3
ABSTRACT .........................................................................................................................4
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION.........................................................................................5
CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW.............................................................................10
CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY.......................................................................................22
CHAPTER 4: RESULTS AND ANALYSIS......................................................................33
REFERENCES....................................................................................................................45
APPENDICES.....................................................................................................................46













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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I would sincerely thank and express my gratitude to all those who provided me with any kind of
assistance and helped me in completing my thesis. I gratefully acknowledge the help of my
supervisor, Ms. Zehra Raza, who has provided me a lot of help whenever needed. In this entire
duration of this thesis, she has given most valuable advice and suggestions and has explained
each and everything to me in great detail. Without her help, instructions and analysis of the
mistakes, I would not have been able to complete this project. She made it very easy for me to
confidently carry out my research.
I would also thank my friends and family who have supported me during all times.










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ABSTRACT
The research reported in this thesis was on Labor Turnover issue faced by Serena
Hotels. The purpose of research was to study the main causes, effects and the solutions of the
Labor Turnover at Serena hotels. The secondary data was collected through the literature already
written on the topic of labor turnover. It was available on the Internet. The primary data was
gathered by designing and distributing questionnaires. Coding of the questionnaires was done
and then SPSS software was applied to analyze the data. Cross Tabulation was done of all the
variables. The results were interpreted by usual principles of statistics. The findings of the
research were that the employees leave one job mainly because of the Job dissatisfaction and
lower monetary and other rewards. The hypothesis proposed in the research were all accepted.



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Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION
OVERVIEW
Labor Turnover refers to the ratio of the number of employees that leave the organization
during a particular period to the number of employees that are already in the organization in the
same period. It is defined as the movement of the employees in and out of the business or
organization. The employees can leave due to any reason. They can leave through
attrition, dismissal, or resignation. In simple words, it is the rate at which the old employees are
leaving and the new employees are taking their place. It is an important issue for every
organization as a high turnover rate would also increase the costs for the company and would
reduce the productivity and hence, the profitability. These days the accommodation industry is
already suffering from high costs and low profitability due to the recession and fall in the tourism
rate all over the world. So, the cost of labor turnover would further worsen the situation. The
company would have to go through the selection process all over again. Also, the new
labor/employee would take some time to adjust to the new environment and to get acclimatized
to the organizational culture. Productivity would also suffer if skilled labors are leaving.
The task of keeping the turnover low requires the whole process to be effective. There
needs to be an effective management of the labors/employees so that they may not feel alienated
with the work. Also, management should make sure that the employees are motivated and
satisfied with their job. They should also be rewarded appropriately. There should be an effective
communication system. If the companys staff turnover is higher than the other companies in the
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same industry, then it is a point of concern for the management which then has to take corrective
actions.
On the other hand, turnover can be beneficial for the employees. Some scholars are of the
view that the employee turnover is an integral part of any business. It is because it increases the
skills of the employees when they move from one organization to another. They feel that it is
right for the employees to move in search of better employment opportunities.
Overall, high labor turnover is an issue for any organization and it needs to take
corrective measures to control it. It should make sure that the employees remain loyal to the
organization and do not move to other organizations.

BACKGROUND
The labor turnover problem first arose when the trend of self-employment died down and
people started to work for only one employer in the early 19
th
century. Therefore, the rate was
first calculated at that time. Later, when the importance of agriculture declined and more and
more firms started to employ people, the causes and implications of labor turnover were
measured. Labor turnover increased drastically in the early part of the 19
th
century but declined
in the 1920s. It was because of the increase in techniques used to improve relations between
Labors and management. In 1940s and 1950s, it followed a volatile trend and is following the
same trend till date. However, recently, the management of the large organizations has
introduced several techniques to keep the employees satisfied with the jobs by providing them
fringe benefits. The highly valued employees of the business are paid handsomely and they are
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also provided accommodation and other services. Moreover, they are paid bonuses as well.
Organizations have identified several measures to make sure that employees are in a healthy and
cordial relationship with the management and other employees who are on the upper or lower
levels of hierarchy.

EFNGFIFINGIS OF LABOR TURNOVER AROUND THE WORLD
This topic or issue of Staff Turnover is very important around the world. The reason is
that in the Capitalist world, labors and employees are of utmost importance. They are the
resources through which the final product is made. They are one of the key resources in
generating profits for the businesses. That is the reason why the organizations provide rigorous
training to their employees to get them equipped with the required skills so that the productivity
can be improved. An organization spends a lot on the employee for training and other benefits.
So, when he/she gets skilled and leaves the organization, it not only costs the firm in terms of
expenses but also in terms of reduced output. Its importance can be judged from the fact that
according to the studies, the cost of turnover can be up to 250 percent of the salary of the
employee leaving the organization. These days, the competition has increased a lot. Each
company is making a run for their money as companies are fighting for market share. Due to all
this, the companies can pay any amount to the employees of the competitors for their services
and expertise. Therefore, recently, the issue of labor turnover has gained much importance.


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IMPORTANCE OF LABOR TURNOVER TO SERENA HOTELS
In Pakistan, Labor Turnover follows a somewhat mixed trend. As the unemployment rate
in Pakistan is high and poverty is also increasing, so in this situation finding the job is very
difficult for the manual labor. Therefore, when they finally get a job, even if the conditions are
not beneficial they hold on to that job. That is why the turnover is low among the lower level
employees. In the IT industry and other major industries where technical knowledge and skills
are required, the demand is more. The turnover rate is 20 percent. Therefore, the employees get
attractive offers from other companies due to which turnover increases and employee retention
costs also increase. Labor turnover is important to Serena Hotel because staff turnover in the
hotel industry is driven by workers, tasks, firms and markets etc. The managers need to
understand the causes so that the policies can be devised to retain the workers. There are push
and pull motives for the employees to leave the hotel they are already working in. Push motives
for the employees of Serena Hotels are related to the dissatisfaction with the current job they are
doing. On the other hand, the pull motives are the opportunities available to them to improve
their career opportunities. There are many pull motives for the executive jobs in the hotel
industry. The importance of employee turnover to Serena Hotels can be assessed from the
various costs of turnover that are enumerated in the following lines.
Initially, there is a cost of the person who fills in the position while the job is vacant.
Secondly, there is a cost of training the employee who has left. Serena Hotel invests in internal
training, external programs and external academic education. Serena Hotel also helps its
employees to get different licenses to do the job effectively, For example, driving license. Not
only this, there is also a cost of the customers that the employee is taking to the other Hotel with
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them. For example, when the General Manager of the Pearl Continental Hotels left the job and
came to Serena Hotels, many customers who had links with the manager shifted to Serena
Hotels. Therefore, it is also a cost for the hotels. Besides all these costs, there are recruitment
costs and training costs as well.
As mentioned above, due to the high direct and indirect costs involved in turnover in the
Hotel industry, it is of utmost importance to the Serena Hotels too. Serena Hotels are one of the
Leading Hotels of Pakistan and that is why the management has to maintain the image of the
organization. It pays special emphasis on the quality of employees and how they are treated. It
pays them effectively and slightly above the market rate. It is because the management needs to
make sure that they do not leave the organization if they are offered more salary. Besides this,
there is a lot of emphasis on the training of the employees.
Research Question
What are the causes of employee turnover and how this problem is affecting Serena
Hotels?









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Chapter 2
LITERATURE REVIEW
The literature review will review the critical points of the current knowledge
including substantive findings as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to the
related topic. The main aim of this literature review is to identify the causes, effects and
solutions of labor turnover in the hotel industry.
Deery and Snaw (2000) conducted a research on the turnover culture in the hotel industry
in Australia using Organizational culture as predictor variable. The objective of this research was
to explore the concept of an organizational culture which promotes employee turnover. It drew
on the extensive literature on both organizational culture and turnover. For this analysis both
quantitative and qualitative research techniques were used. Initially, the methodological
considerations centered on the use of quantitative data. For this purpose, the questionnaire was
used. The questions were critically analyzed by the expert panel like in Delphi Method. Data
were collected from a convenience sample of 45 hotels. Using a cluster analytic approach, nine
distinct clusters of variables were produced. The implications for management practice in
controlling a turnover culture are examined. The first order and the second order analysis were
used to determine the number of dimensions underlying the constructs of turnover, culture, and
turnover culture. The findings of the research were that the exploratory research into the
existence of a turnover culture in the hotel industry has provided evidence that such a
phenomenon may exist. The research provided a positive and a negative turnover culture.

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Zatzick, C. et al. (2003) conducted a research on the effects of racial composition on
Voluntary turnover. The fundamental reason behind this research was to find out whether the
racial composition has any effect on the employee/ labor turnover. Six hypotheses were
developed. The first hypothesis stated that for minority employees, the higher the proportion of
an employees own race in their job, the lower the probability of their turnover. Second
hypothesis stated that for minority employee, the higher the proportion of an employees own
race in their job, the higher the probability of their turnover. Third one was that the higher the
proportion of other minorities in their job, the higher the probability of their turnover. Fourth
hypothesis proposed that the level of effect of the racial proportion is not linear. It is because at
lower levels, the correlation is high and at high level, the correlation between racial composition
and turnover is low. Hypothesis 5 predicted that proportion of own race in one level above the
focal employee would decrease the likelihood of turnover. Hypothesis 6 stated that the
proportion of own race in the level above the focal employee will increase the likelihood of
turnover. To study this, the methodology that was used was that the personnel data was collected
from a Fortune 500 service organization which contained detailed work histories of all full-time
employees of three years. As the focus was on a single firm, detailed structural and individual
data was accumulated on an entire population across different business units and levels of
hierarchy. Turnover was taken as a dependent variable and racial composition was also
measured. Regression analysis was carried out to test the hypotheses. It was concluded from the
results that the first hypothesis is true. If the proportion of ones own minority member increases,
the turnover falls. It was negatively and significantly related to the turnover. However, the
hypotheses 2 and 3 were not supported. Likelihood Ratio Test was also applied to determine the
improvement of the fit from the proportion variables. Hypothesis 4 proved to be true as the
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relationship plot was a U-shaped curve. Logistic Regression Model was applied to test the
hypothesis 5. This hypothesis was weakly supported. Hypothesis 6 was not supported. This topic
is important because the turnover costs are high for a company especially if there are labor
shortages. Firm suffers in terms of cost and lost productivity.

Thoms, P. et al. (2001) carried out the research regarding the relationship between
immediate employee turnover and employee theft in the restaurant industry. The main aim of the
research was to analyses whether the employees who know that they are going to leave the
organization start stealing more or not. In this regard they created 3 hypotheses. First one stated
that the correlation between turnover and employee theft would be significant. The second
hypothesis was more specific. It stated that if the workers knew that they are going to leave in
two weeks time then there would be more probability of stealing. The last hypothesis was
related to the controls in an organization. It stated that the workers are going to steal more in the
organization which have loose controls as compared to those who have tight controls. To test
these hypotheses, field study and laboratory study was carried out. Large Restaurant Chain was
selected. The total numbers of employees at each chain were 40-50. Interviews and discussions
were carried out with the employees and managers. After the data was gathered, the simple
regression analysis was used to calculate the results. The correlation between employee theft and
turnover was 0.47 with beta 10.25. Also, the correlation between annual sales and employee theft
was -0.03. A t-test result shows that the number of employees do not change the findings
calculated above. The findings of the study prove the first hypothesis true. In Study 2
(laboratory), the sample size of 152 students was selected. Methodology that was used in this
study was that the students were given different situations and they were asked that what they
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would steal if they were in that position. Demographic data was also gathered after the answers.
Means, standard deviations and correlations were measured. ANOVA table was also used for
testing the hypothesis. Finally, after conducting both the studies, it was concluded that immediate
turnover is an important factor in employee theft. Also, the employees are going to steal more if
they know that they are going.

Davidson, H. et al. (1997) did a research on the effects of health care reforms on job
satisfaction and voluntary turnover among hospital based nurses. The objective of this study was
to identify and examine the effects of the modifications in hospitals on the nurses job
satisfaction and turnover. The method that was used was the longitudinal survey of 736 hospital
nurses. This sample was used to learn about the turnover that was caused due to the changes and
also the job satisfaction levels at that stage. The major source of the data was survey. After
gathering the data, different statistical models were applied, statistical tests were conducted and
then the results were concluded. Multi-Variate analysis was also carried out which revealed that
poor communication and a lot of workload was 2 of the most important reason of low job
satisfaction. In conclusion, if the hospital administration carries out certain steps, then the job
satisfaction can be improved and so the turnover would fall.

Henry Ongori (2007) did a research regarding the employee turnover problem, its causes,
effects/costs and its remedies. The main objective of this research was to examine the sources of
employee turnover and suggest different types of strategies that the managers can adopt to make
sure that the employees continue to work in the organization and increase productivity. The
researcher mainly used secondary research to analyses the main reasons which characterize the
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labor turnover. The main factors that were analyzed were Job related factors like working
environment, voluntary and involuntary turnover, organizational factors, and effects of employee
turnover. The strategies proposed were employee participation in job design and other decision
that are going to affect them. Also, the communication and knowledge should be passed down to
the lower levels of employees so that they feel like they are an important part of the organization.
Work force optimization is another important aspect. The management should make proper
resources available for the workforce so that the work can be done and completed without any
interruption or breakdown. Besides this, employee empowerment could also help in retaining the
employees. So, the result of the research was that many firms are facing this turnover problem
and these problems can be solved by following the proposed strategies. Each employee that
leaves the job, the employer should identify the cause and should make sure that if the fault was
on the part of the employer or the organization, then it does not happen again. Also, performance
related pay should be introduced. By doing so, labor turnover can be reduced a great deal.

Lam, T. et al. (2000) researched on the issue of Job Satisfaction of the Hotels of Hong
Kong. As turnover is related to the Job satisfaction, so the main aim of the study is to examine
the demographic characteristics of hotel employees and the level of their job satisfaction.
Emphasis is also paid to the job variables. Employee morale is an important factor in turnover.
Turnover causes the firm to bear additional costs like recruitment costs and lost productivity
costs. The research measures the job satisfaction of the Hong Kong hotel employees and impact
of demographic characteristics on job satisfaction. Research methodology that has been used is
that the research design was descriptive and quantitative in nature. Samples were selected using
the stratified sampling method. The data was collected from five hotels. Samples of 200 existing
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and 200 reedsigned employees were randomly identified. All types of questions were included in
the questionnaire closed ended, open ended, rating and yes/no questions etc. One way Analysis
of variance and Independent samples t-test were also used to analyze the data. The results
concluded that more than 42.2 per cent of the employees believed that pay was one of the most
important factors contributing to Job satisfaction. The reason was that high income level enables
the workers to spend leisure time and also they want to save for any future contingency.
Promotion is another important factor. Also, 35 per cent stated that supervision was not that
much important to them. Article also concluded that the employees with low education are
dissatisfied with their promotional path. Students who graduate from good universities feel that
that should be given higher salary and rank as they have invested more in their education. So, if
they are not given higher salary they would leave the job in search of better jobs. The
management should make sure that the employees are satisfied. Management should use
different strategies to keep them motivated like job rotation and enrichment. Also, the leadership
style should be democratic.

Breukelen, W. et al. (2004) conducted a research on the voluntary employee turnover.
The research combined variables from the traditional turnover literature with the theory of
planned behavior. The main aim of the study was to find that whether the theory of planned
behavior provides any explanation and elaboration regarding the voluntary turnover of the
employees. The research was done on the factors of job satisfaction, organizational commitment,
age and tenure to find out whether these traditional variables define or explain anything about the
voluntary labor/employee turnover. If all these factors rating are high, it means that there is high
labor force motivation and fewer turnovers. Method that was used was longitudinal study. The
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sample size selected was 296. Questionnaires were given to all of them. The respondents were
serving in the Navy. After six months, the same questionnaire was again filled by the same
respondents and the results were compared. After collecting the data, appropriate statistical
models were applied and the correlation between the main variables was calculated. According
to the findings, the behavioral intentions were the best predictor of turnover. Hypothesis one
proved to be true.

Hom and Kinicki (2001) did a research on how dissatisfaction drives employee turnover.
The main aim of the research was to identify the reasons and get the insight of the turnover that
is caused by lack of job satisfaction or dissatisfaction. The methodology adopted was that the
national survey of retail store personnel was used to identify variables like inter-role conflicts
and job avoidance that lead to turnover. Five hypotheses were created regarding each variable.
Hypothesis 1 was that inter-role conflict decreases job satisfaction. Hypothesis 2 was that the
inter-role conflict increases withdrawal cognitions. Hypothesis 3 was regarding job satisfaction
i.e.-e Job satisfaction reduces job avoidance. Hypothesis 4 stated that Job avoidance increases
withdrawing cognitions. Hypothesis 5 predicted that Unemployment decreases withdrawal's
expected utility and turnover. All these hypotheses were tested one after the other and
appropriate results were obtained. Managers, salespersons and auto-mechanics were surveyed.
The discriminant validity tests showed that all factors discriminably differed from one another.
Diagrams were drawn from the results obtained through the application models. According to the
results, inter-role conflict induces dissatisfaction and withdrawal cognitions. So, Hypotheses 1
and 2 were sustained while Hypotheses 3 and 4 were upheld. Moreover, unemployment did not
cause any change impact withdrawals expected utility. So, hypothesis 5 was not true. Therefore,
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the objective of the research was achieved as various reasons of how dissatisfaction causes
turnover were obtained and tested.

Theresa S. Cho (2005) developed the theoretical framework of involuntary executive
turnover. The main objective of this research was to explore the causes of such turnover. Many
researches are available regarding the lower level employees leaving the organizations. This
research analyses the causes due to which the senior level of management or employees are
forced to leave due to the reasons other than health or age. There is a conflict of interest between
the managers own goals and the firms goals. So, in the organizations with strict controls,
managers are bound to follow the objectives of the organizations but in other firms, managers
can pursue their own goals. For analytical purposes, managerial discretion is divided into 2 parts,
latitude of actions and longitude of actions. Latitude of objectives explain the freedom the
managers have in achieving their personal objectives while Longitude of objectives is the range
of strategic options available to the managers to achieve the organizations objectives. Both these
actions interact to affect the causes and the performance consequences of involuntary executive
turnover, as well as which executives will be forced to depart. Involuntary Executive turnover in
different Scenarios of Managerial Discretion have been mentioned. Scenario I states low latitude
of objectives and low latitude of actions. Scenario II states High Latitude of Objectives and low
Latitude of Actions. Scenario III states Low latitude of Objectives and high latitude of actions.
Finally, Scenario four states High latitude of objectives and high latitude of actions. According to
the findings, involuntary turnover occurs due to poor organizational performance or
environmental change in situation of low latitude of objectives and high latitude of actions. In
situations where there is high latitude of objectives and high latitude of actions, involuntary
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executive turnover under achieved organizational performance occurs among the executives who
are on the lower level of hierarchy. It is because their values and perspectives differ from top-
management or executives. Finally, it can be concluded that the involuntary turnover is caused
by various factors which are an amalgamation of latitude of actions and objectives.

Lee, T. et al. (1999) did a research on the Voluntary turnover of the employees. The main
aim of this research was to identify and understand different psychological paths that employees
take when they are deciding on quitting the organization. Different hypotheses were created and
tested. The sample of 229 employees was selected. The BIG 6 accounting firm had listed 6000
employees who were leaving the organization and out of those, 245 employees were randomly
selected and were asked to give some information. Questionnaires and surveys were used
mainly. The results obtained were graphed and different psychological paths were identified. The
results showed that different occupational groups choose different patterns for leaving their jobs.
So, hypothesis 1 was proved. To test the second hypothesis (The time between the first thoughts
of quitting and the decision to leave is not much), logistic regression models were used to make a
comparison of the decision paths durations. The second hypothesis was upheld but the last
hypothesis was sustained and proved to be true.
Cottini, Kato and Nielsen (2011) conducted a research on adverse workplace conditions,
high-involvement work practices and labor turnover. The fundamental reason behind this
research was to identify and analyze the consequences of exposing the worker to physical
hazards. It also outlines the effect of late working hours on the voluntary turnover. Moreover, the
results of unsupportive boss have also been mentioned. The methodology used in this study is
that the researchers have relied mostly on the secondary data. The data was collected from the
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Denmark Integrated Labor Market Database and The Danish Work Environment Cohort Study.
Different statistical and economic models have been applied on the data. After the application
and analysis, the researchers reached to the conclusion that those workers who are more exposed
to the hazardous conditions are likely to leave the job more. However, if there is a strong
communication between the labor and management, then this kind of voluntary turnover can be
reduced.

Ton and Huckman (2008) did a research on Managing the impact of employee turnover
on Turnover. Their objective behind carrying out this research was to examine the impact of
employee turnover in operating performance. For this study, the data that they collected was
from the U.S retail stores. The time period of the data was 48 months. Again, the data is
secondary. But, the primary research has also been used to collect the data. Some mystery
shoppers were hired to shop in some of the stores and they marked the stores according to the
level of service and employee conformance. After collecting the primary and secondary data,
different statistical models were applied to analyze it. For example, finding the correlation
between two variables and regression analysis has also been done. Findings of the study were
that the turnover has more effect in those stores where there is less emphasis on the discipline. In
other words, settings where performance depends on the repetition of known tasks, managers can
reduce turnovers effect by imposing process discipline through standard operating procedures.

Sousa and Poza (2007) did their research work on the effects of job satisfaction on labor
turnover by gender. The objective of this research was that the whether there is any influence of
gender in job satisfaction and ultimately in labor turnover. The methodology used in this
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research is that the secondary data has been collected and different models have been run on
them. The researchers have also analyzed various longitudinal surveys. The models that have
been used include Job Satisfaction Model, Job Turnover Model and the relationship between the
labor turnover and job satisfaction has been determined. The results of the study show that the
Job Satisfaction is one of the main indicators of whether the employee is going to remain in the
organization or going to quit. Another major achievement of this research was that it was able to
conclude that there is no apparent difference between men and women in the job quitting and job
satisfaction behavior.

Goodwin, Groth and Frenkel (2010) researched the relationship between emotional labor,
job performance and turnover. The main aim of this research was to find out what are the main
factors that employees consider while leaving the job. The methodology used in this research
was that the data from the employees from the call centers of two large financial companies was
collected online. The employees filled the online surveys. The subject of the survey was the
employees use of surface and deep acting. Their responses were
Matched with supervisors' ratings of overall job performance and organizational turnover records
obtained 9 months later. Statistical models were applied to the data collected from primary and
secondary sources. Results indicate that surface acting is directly related to employee turnover
and emotional exhaustion and that the relationship between surface acting and job performance
is indirect via employee affective delivery. Deep acting was not linked to these outcomes.
Theoretical and practical implications are discussed from the perspective of emotional labor
theories.

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Davidson, Timo and Wang (2009) carried out a research on the labor turnover cost. The
purpose of this research was that the authors were of the view that the human resource
management department has to face a lot of difficulties when the labor turnover increases. This
study is aimed at providing the insights to HRM by studying extensive literature from the
Australian accommodation sector. The methodology used was that an online survey was
designed and conducted in four major five-star hotels in Australia. 64 human resource managers
participated in the research. The results of this study concluded that the majority of the costs
faced by these managers are related to the labor turnover. These costs are substantial and impact
the profitability of hotels. That is the reason that these costs should be examined and the root
cause of these costs should be resolved. Moreover, the level of service might get affected due to
the increased turnover which carries the risk of loss of customers and so puts the company and
the society as a whole, in danger.











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Chapter 3
METHODOLOGY
Research Type
The type of the research being conducted is qualitative in nature. This type of research is
about exploring various issues, understanding the phenomena and answering questions. The
objective of the study is to find out the relationship between the dependent variable and several
independent variables. The study is based on measuring the sample on research area topic which
is Labour Turnover issue faced by Serena hotels. This study would apply various statistical
models on the data and identify the major causes and the solutions of labour turnover.

Data and Research Period
Data collected is both primary and secondary. For primary data, questionnaires would be
given out and interviews of employees of Serena Hotels would be conducted. The sample size
for the Questionnaire is 100 employees. Secondary data has been collected from the literature of
the labour turnover from around the world. However, main emphasis would be put on the
primary data as it would be more accurate. It is because the secondary data collected includes the
data from around the world and not just Pakistan, but the primary data is collected from the
sample directly concerning the research. So, it is more effective and more emphasis would be put
on it. The research Period is from the year 2011 to 2012.



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Sources of Data
For the research, data was obtained from several sources. These included the literatures
from Jstor, Science Direct and the annual reports of Serena Hotels as well as the questionnaires
and interviews.

Population, Working population and Planned Sample
Population is the total number of employees working in the accommodation/ Hotel
industry in Pakistan. The working population includes only the employees of Serena Hotels.
Planned sample is 100 employees of Serena Hotels.

Research Hypothesis
1. Ho: There is significance relationship between job satisfaction and the employee/labour
turnover
H1: There is no significant relationship between job satisfaction and employee/labour
turnover.
2. Ho: There is significant relationship between job rewards and employee/labour turnover.
H1: There is no significant relationship between job rewards and employee/labour
turnover.
3. Ho: There is direct relationship between high job expectations and employee/ labour
turnover.
H1: There is indirect relationship between high job satisfaction and employee/ labour
turnover.
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4. Ho: There is positive relationship between communication deficiency and employee/
labour turnover.
H1: There is negative relationship between communication deficiency and
employee/labour turnover.
5. Ho: With the increase in workload, number of employees leaving the organization
increases
H1: With the decrease in workload, number of employees leaving the organization
increases
6. Ho: There is a significant relationship between socialization difficulties and
employee/labour turnover
H1: There is no significant relationship between socialization difficulties and employee/
labour turnover.
7. Ho: There is a positive relationship between organizational stability and employee/
labour turnover.
H1: There is a negative relationship between organizational stability and employee/
labour turnover.

Techniques
After collecting the entire data through questionnaires and other means, cross tabulation
test will be conducted to on the data. Then the results obtained by applying it would be analyzed
to find out about the dependent and independent variables and how much are they related and
whether they are significant or not.
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Data Analysis
To analyze the data, SPSS software would be used. In this, Cross-Tabulation would be
used to find out the relationship between the dependent and several independent variables.
Besides this, the various graphical methods would also be applied for the analysis purposes.
Data Interpretation
The results obtained from SSPS will be compiled. To find out the trend over a period of
time, different graphs and tables would be utilized.




























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THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK






















Unequal Racial
Distribution Organizational
Stability

Job
Satisfaction

Development of Skills

Workload
Socialisation
difficulties
Age

Profit
margins
Job Rewards

Job
Expectations

Organizational
Commitment

EMPLOYEE/
LABOR TURNOVER Employee
Theft

Resource/communication
deficiency
Tenure

Research Thesis
27

OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS

Unequal Racial Distribution
Unequal racial distribution means that the ration of employees from different races is not
the same in any measurable aspect, such as extent or quantity.
(Christopher D. Zatzick, Marta M. Elvira and Lisa E. Cohen. 2003.When Is Better? The Effects
of Racial Composition on Voluntary Turnover, Organization Science, Vol. 14, No. 5 pp. 483-
496.)

Job Satisfaction
It describes how content an individual is with his /her job. The happier people are within
their job, the more satisfied they are said to be.
(Margaret A. Deery and Robin N. Shaw .1997. An exploratory analysis of turnover culture in
the hotel industry in Australia, Int. J. Hospitality Management, Vol. 16 No. 4, pp. 375-392)





Research Thesis
28

Job Expectations
Job expectation is the prediction or hope of a new employee with the new job that he/she
has got. If the new job is according to the expectation of the employee, then he/she would be
satisfied, otherwise, problems would occur and so productivity would fall which would lead to
voluntary or involuntary turnover.
( Harriett Davidson, Patricia H. Folcarelli, Sybil Crawford, Laura J. Duprat and Joyce C.
Clifford. 1997. The Effects of Health Care Reforms on Job Satisfaction and Voluntary Turnover
among Hospital-Based Nurses, Medical Care, Vol. 35, pp. 634-645.)

Job Rewards
Job rewards are the returns that employees get in return to doing a job. Rewards can be
monetary and non-monetary. When high performers are insufficiently rewarded, they quit. If
jobs provide adequate financial incentives the more likely employees remain with organization
and vice versa.

(Henry Ongori 2007. A review of the literature on employee turnover, African Journal of
Business Management, pp. 049-054.)



Research Thesis
29


Communication Deficiency
Not enough information provided to the employees. Those Organizations where the
problems of communication exist need to take corrective steps.
Peg Thoms, Paula Wolper, Kimberly S. Scott and Dave Jones 2001. The Relationship between
Immediate Turnover and Employee Theft in the Restaurant Industry, Journal of Business and
Psychology, Vol. 15, pp. 561-577.

Workload
Amount of work that the employee is expected to complete within a given time period.
Multivariate analysis indicated that the most important determinants of low satisfaction were
poor instrumental communication within the organization and too great a workload.
(Henry Ongori 2007. A review of the literature on employee turnover, African Journal of
Business Management, pp. 049-054)

Profit Margin
It is calculated by taking the percentage of net income against sales. It is expressed in
percentage. The higher it is the better.
Research Thesis
30

(Terry Lam, Hanqin Zhang and Tom Baum 2000. An investigation of employees' job
satisfaction: the case of hotels in Hong Kong, Tourism Management, Vol. 22, pp. 157-165.)
Employee Theft
Employee theft is a common and serious problem in business and, particularly, in the
restaurant industry (Hawkins, 1984). Estimates of employee theft range as high as $200 billion
annually. Employee theft can range from petty theft, or pilfering, to grand theft, stealing items
over $250 (Smigei & Ross, 1970). Pilferage is more prevalent and its impact can be devastating
(Lipman & McGraw, 1988). Slora (1989) found that 62% of fast-food restaurant employees
admitted to cash or property theft.
( Peg Thoms, Paula Wolper, Kimberly S. Scott and Dave Jones 2001. The Relationship between
Immediate Turnover and Employee Theft in the Restaurant Industry, Journal of Business and
Psychology, Vol. 15, pp. 561-577. )

Development of Skills
Development of Skills is referred to as improvement in the skill level of employees as
they become more experienced. Bowey argues that the mobility facilitates skill acquisition for
employees. Riley (1980) argues that labor mobility is an important factor in the development of
skills and that turnover is encouraged by the presence of external labor and product markets.

Research Thesis
31

( Wim van Breukelen, Ren van der Vlist and Herman Steensma 2004. Voluntary Employee
Turnover: Combining Variables from the 'Traditional' Turnover Literature with the Theory of
Planned Behavior, Journal of Organizational Behavior, Vol. 25, No. 7 ,pp. 893-914. )

Socialization Difficulties
Socialization difficulties refer to the problems faced by the employees in an organization
to meet and become friends with the other new and existing employees. There are hurdles in the
process of inheriting and disseminating norms, customs and ideologies of an organization.
(Wei Shen and Theresa S. Cho. 2005. Exploring Involuntary Executive Turnover through a
Managerial Discretion Framework, The Academy of Management Review, Vol. 30, pp. 843-
854.)

Organizational Stability
It consists of two factors, driving forces and restraining factors. Organizational instability
has been shown to have a high degree of high turnover. Indications are that employees are more
likely to stay when there is a predictable work environment and vice versa Good local labor
market conditions improve organizational stability.

( Thomas W. Lee, Terence R. Mitchell, Brooks C. Holtom, Linda S. McDaniel and John W.
Hill 1999. The Unfolding Model of Voluntary Turnover: A Replication and Extension, The
Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 42, pp. 450-462.)
Research Thesis
32

Tenure
Tenure is the time-period that an employee holds a job.
Thomas W. Lee, Terence R. Mitchell, Brooks C. Holtom, Linda S. McDaniel and John W.
Hill 1999. The Unfolding Model of Voluntary Turnover: A Replication and Extension, The
Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 42, pp. 450-462.

Organizational Commitment
It means that how sincere and how committed an employee is to the organization.
Margaret A. Deery and Robin N. Shaw .1997. An exploratory analysis of turnover culture in the
hotel industry in Australia, Int. J. Hospitality Management, Vol. 16 No. 4, pp. 375-392



Research Thesis
33

Chapter 4
RESULTS
CROSS-TABULATIONS


Table 1: Cross Tabulation of Job Satisfaction and Employee turnover.
Do you think that lack of Job Satisfaction is the major reason of employee turnover?*Job
satisfaction is the only objective that the employees want to achieve. Do you agree?

Case Processing Summary


Cases
Valid Missing Total
N Percent N Percent N Percent
Turnover * Job
Satisfaction
50 100.0% 0 .0% 50 100.0%

Employee Turnover * Job Satisfaction Cross tabulation

Count
Job Satisfaction Total
1.00 2.00 4.00 5.00 1.00
Turnover 2.00 2 2 0 0 4
3.00 0 1 4 3 8
4.00 0 4 27 4 35
5.00 0 0 3 0 3
Total 2 7 34 7 50




Research Thesis
34

Ho: There is significant relationship between job satisfaction and the employee/labor turnover
H1: There is no significant relationship between job satisfaction and employee/labor turnover.
According to the cross tabulation results, 27 respondents agree to both the
statements/questions that lack of Job Satisfaction is the major reason of employee turnover and
Job satisfaction is the only objective that the employees want to achieve. 4 of them strongly
agree with the fact that job satisfaction is the only objective that employees want to achieve but
only agree that job satisfaction is the major reason of employee turnover. The total results are
such that 35 respondents agree that job satisfaction is the major reason of employee turnover
while 34 agree to the second statement which reflects that we accept our null hypothesis which is
that there is a significant relationship between our dependent (Employee Turnover) and
independent variable (Job Satisfaction) while we reject our alternate hypothesis.

Table 2: Jobs Rewards and Employee turnover cross-tabulation analysis
Do you think that higher job rewards lowers the employee turnover?* Job rewards should not
only be confined to monetary rewards, but these should also include non-monetary rewards. Do
you agree?

Case Processing Summary


Cases
Valid Missing Total
N Percent N Percent N Percent
Employee Turnover *
Job Rewards
50 100.0% 0 .0% 50 100.0%

Research Thesis
35



Employee Turnover * Job Rewards Cross tabulation

Count
Job Rewards Total
2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 2.00
Turnover 2.00 0 0 2 0 2
3.00 1 0 16 0 17
4.00 2 5 19 2 28
5.00 0 1 0 2 3
Total 3 6 37 4 50


1. Ho: There is significant relationship between job rewards and employee/labour turnover.
H1: There is no significant relationship between job rewards and employee/labour
turnover.
There are 13 respondents who strongly agree that higher job rewards lower employee turnover
and these same respondents also agree that Job rewards should not only be confined to monetary
rewards, but these should also include non-monetary rewards. In Total, the trend is more towards
the agreeing side; therefore, we accept the null hypothesis and reject the alternate. It reveals that
there is a significant relationship between employee/labor turnover and job rewards.





Research Thesis
36


Table 3: Job Expectations and Employee turnover cross-tabulation analysis
Employee/ Labor turnover is high because many employees expect much more from the
job and in reality, their expectations are not met. Do you agree?* Is it true that job expectations
of those individuals are high who have studied in good universities and think that it is the time to
get back the money spent on expensive education?

Case Processing Summary


Cases
Valid Missing Total
N Percent N Percent N Percent
Turnover * Job
Expectation
50 100.0% 0 .0% 50 100.0%

Employee Turnover * Job Expectation Cross tabulation

Count
Job Expectation Total
3.00 4.00 5.00 3.00
Turnover 2.00 0 4 0 4
3.00 2 9 0 11
4.00 4 20 3 27
5.00 0 4 4 8
Total 6 37 7 50


Ho: There is direct relationship between high job expectations and employee/ labor turnover.
H1: There is indirect relationship between high job satisfaction and employee/ labor turnover.
Research Thesis
37


According to the cross-tab analysis, 20 respondents agree to both the questions and 4
people strongly agree to the statements. Therefore, the trend is more towards the agreeing side.
In aggregate, 27 respondents agree that Employee/ Labor turnover is high because many employees
expect much more from the job and in reality, their expectations are not met. On the other hand, 37
people agree that job expectations of those individuals are high who have studied in good
universities and think that it is the time to get back the money spent on expensive education. The
results lead to the conclusion that we accept our null hypothesis which means that there is a direct
relationship between job expectations and employee turnover. Hence, we reject our alternate hypothesis.


Table 4: Communication Deficiency and Employee turnover cross-tabulation analysis

Do you agree that many employees leave the organization because the top management
does not communicate with them more often?* Do you feel that employers are solely responsible
for developing a good communication structure in the organization?


Case Processing Summary


Cases
Valid Missing Total
N Percent N Percent N Percent
Turnover *
Communication
Deficiency
50 100.0% 0 .0% 50 100.0%




Research Thesis
38



Employee Turnover * Communication Deficiency Cross tabulation

Count
Communication Deficiency Total
2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 2.00
Turnover 1.00 0 0 3 0 3
2.00 0 0 0 4 4
3.00 4 2 4 1 11
4.00 1 1 9 3 14
5.00 1 0 12 5 18
Total 6 3 28 13 50




Ho: There is positive relationship between communication deficiency and employee/ labor
turnover.
H1: There is negative relationship between communication deficiency and employee/labor
turnover.
The answers that respondents gave to this question varied from disagree to strongly
agree. Out of all the respondents, 12 people strongly agreed that employees leave the
organization because the top management does not communicate with them more often. These
same people only agreed to the fact that employers are solely responsible for developing a good
communication structure in the organization. On the other hand, 9 people agreed to both the
statements. In total, 18 people strongly agreed with the dependent variable statement while 28
people agreed to the independent variable (communication deficiency) statement. Therefore, we
accept our null hypothesis and reject out alternate hypothesis. It proves that there is a positive
relationship between communication deficiency and employee/ labor turnover.
Research Thesis
39


Table 5: Work Load and Employee turnover cross-tabulation analysis

Do you agree that high workload causes the employees to leave the job and find employment
somewhere else?* Less workload gives workers free time. So, it makes the workers engage in
other unproductive activities that adversely affect the whole organization. Is it true?

Case Processing Summary

Cases
Valid Missing Total
N Percent N Percent N Percent
Turnover * Work Load 50 100.0% 0 .0% 50 100.0%

Turnover * Work Load Cross tabulation

Count
Work Load Total
1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 1.00
Turnover 1.00 0 3 4 1 0 8
2.00 0 0 4 0 0 4
3.00 0 10 0 4 0 14
4.00 2 7 4 5 3 21
5.00 0 0 1 2 0 3
Total 2 20 13 12 3 50


Ho: With the increase in workload, number of employees leaving the organization increases
H1: With the decrease in workload, number of employees leaving the organization increases

According to the cross-tab analysis, the highest frequency of an answer is 10. These 10
respondents disagree that less workload gives workers free time and makes the workers engage
Research Thesis
40

in other unproductive activities that adversely affect the whole organization. While these same
10 people are neutral on the statement that high workload causes the employees to leave the job
and find employment somewhere else. Out of the total respondents, 21 agree that high workload
causes employee turnover while 20 disagree the independent variable statement. Therefore, we
accept the null hypothesis which states that when the workload increases, the number of
employees leaving the organisation also increases.


Table 6: Socialization Difficulties and Employee turnover cross-tabulation analysis

Do you feel that many employees leave the job because they are unable to make friends and their
esteem needs are not fulfilled?* Do you think that the main reason of socialization difficulties
that employees face is that different employees of different races or religions are not treated
properly?


Case Processing Summary


Cases
Valid Missing Total
N Percent N Percent N Percent
Turnover * Socialization
Difficulties
50 100.0% 0 .0% 50 100.0%





Research Thesis
41


Employee Turnover * Socialization Difficulties Cross tabulation

Count
Socialization Difficulties Total
1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 1.00
Turnover 2.00 0 0 11 0 1 12
3.00 2 2 2 10 1 17
4.00 0 0 13 0 3 16
5.00 0 0 2 3 0 5
Total 2 2 28 13 5 50


Ho: There is a significant relationship between socialization difficulties and
employee/labour turnover
H1: There is no significant relationship between socialization difficulties and employee/
labour turnover.

The results of the cross-tabulation of the two variables are such that 13 respondents agree
that many employees leave the job because they are unable to make friends and their esteem
needs are not fulfilled and these same people are neutral on the statement that the main reason of
socialization difficulties that employees face is that different employees of different races or
religions are not treated properly. In total, 16 people agree to the turnover statement while 28
people are neutral on the socialization difficulties statement. Therefore, it proves that the
employees who have filled out the questionnaires feel that socialization difficulties cause
employee turnover. Therefore, it proves that our null hypothesis is true. There is a significant
relationship between socialization difficulties and employee/labor turnover.


Research Thesis
42


Table 7: Organizational Stability and Employee turnover cross-tabulation analysis

Employees like to work in organizations which are stable. Otherwise employees/ Labor turnover
increases. Do you agree?* Do you agree that organizational stability increases Organizational
Commitment?


Case Processing Summary


Cases
Valid Missing Total
N Percent N Percent N Percent
Turnover *
Organizational
Stability
50 100.0% 0 .0% 50 100.0%


Employee Turnover * Organizational Stability Cross tabulation

Count
Organizational Stability Total
2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 2.00
Turnover 2.00 0 0 5 0 5
3.00 0 0 2 0 2
4.00 1 21 0 3 25
5.00 0 0 10 8 18
Total 1 21 17 11 50


Ho: There is a positive relationship between organizational stability and employee/ labour
turnover.
H1: There is a negative relationship between organizational stability and employee/ labour
turnover.
Research Thesis
43


The cross-tabulation analysis shows that there are 21 respondents who agree with the
statement that Employees like to work in organizations which are stable. Otherwise employees/
Labor turnover increases. These same employees are neutral on the statement that organizational
stability increases Organizational Commitment. In aggregate, 25 respondents agree that turnover
in increased when organizations suffer while 21 respondents disagree that organizational stability
increases Organizational Commitment. So, it proves that our null hypothesis is true I-e there is a
positive relationship between organizational stability and employee/ labor turnover.
CONCLUSION
The aim of the study was to find out the causes and major factors affecting the
labor/employee turnover of Serena Hotels. Labor turnover is an important issue faced by many
companies recently. Serena is also facing this problem, so this research is directed towards the
Accommodation industry on a wider scale. However, the analysis has been done only on one
hotel. The variables were selected by reviewing the literature on the similar topics. The literature
was obtained from various sources and by studying the literature, various factors were
highlighted. These factors pointed out were Development of skills, Unequal racial distribution,
Job satisfaction, Organizational stability, Organizational commitment, Socialization difficulties,
Age, Profit margins of the hotel, Workload, tenure, Communication deficiency, Job rewards,
Employee theft and Job Expectations. After the identification of the factors, these variables were
short-listed and only the most important ones were selected for further analysis.
To carry out the research, both Primary and Secondary research was carried out. The
variables that were extracted from the Secondary research were then used to design the
Research Thesis
44

questionnaires. The Questionnaire was designed such that there were three questions regarding
one variable. The rationale behind this was that three questions regarding one variable would
give a clear picture of the respondents point of view. The sample size selected was 50 and all of
the respondents were the employees of the Serena Hotel, Faisalabad.
Hence, the methodology used included questionnaires which were filled out from the
employees of Serena Hotel. After the questionnaires were filled, the coding of the questionnaires
was completed and then the answers were analyzed by using the SPSS software. The cross-
tabulations were run for all the questions that were included in the questionnaires. The
hypotheses were created for every section.
The cross-tab analysis showed that almost all the factors were important while job
rewards and job satisfaction were most important ones. The answers to other variables varied a
great deal. Therefore, the entire hypotheses were accepted. The hypotheses created were of the
factors enumerated in the following lines, Job satisfaction, Job rewards, and Job expectations,
Communication Deficiency, Work Load, Socialization Difficulties and Organizational
Difficulties. The results showed that all these factors had a significant relationship with the
employee/ labor turnover of the Serena hotels.









Research Thesis
45

BIBLIOGRAPHY


Deery, M. A & Shaw, R. N. (2000). An exploratory analysis of turnover culture in the hotel
Industry in Australia. Int. J. Hospitality Management, 16, 375-392.
Zatzick, C. D., Elvira, M. M., & Cohen L. E. (2003). When Is Better? The Effects of Racial
Composition on Voluntary Turnover. Organization Science, 14, 483-496.

Davidson, H., Folcarelli, P. H, Crawford, S., Duprat, L. J., & Clifford, J. C. (1997). The Effects
of Health Care Reforms on Job Satisfaction and Voluntary Turnover among Hospital-Based
Nurses, Medical Care, 35. 634-645.

Ongori, H. (2007). A review of the literature on employee turnover. African Journal of Business
Management, 3, 049-054.

Thoms, P., Wolper, P., Kimberly, S., & Jones, D. (2001). The Relationship between Immediate
Turnover and Employee Theft in the Restaurant Industry. Journal of Business and Psychology,
15, 561-577.

Lam, T., Zhang, H., & Baum, T. (2000). An investigation of employees' job satisfaction: the case
of hotels in Hong Kong. Tourism Management, 22, 157-165.

Breukelen, W. V., Vlist, R. V., & Steensma, H. (2004). Voluntary Employee Turnover:
Combining Variables from the 'Traditional' Turnover Literature with the Theory of Planned
Behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 25, 893-914.

Shen, W., & Cho, T. S., (2005). Exploring Involuntary Executive Turnover through a Managerial
Discretion Framework. The Academy of Management Review, 30, 843-854.

Lee, T. W., Mitchell, T. R., Holtom, B. C, McDanie, l L. S & Hill, J. W (1999). The Unfolding
Model of Voluntary Turnover: A Replication and Extension. The Academy of Management Journal, 42,
450-462.

Hom, P. W., & Kinicki, A. J. (2001). Towards a Greater Understanding of How Dissatisfaction
Drives Employee Turnover. The Academy of Management Journal, 44, 975-987.

Cottini, E., Kato, T., & Nielsen, N. W. (2011). Adverse workplace conditions, high-involvement
work practices and labor turnover: Evidence from Danish linked employeremployee data.
Canadian Journal of Economics, 29, 126S129.

Ton, Z., & Huckman, R. S. (2008). Managing the Impact of Employee Turnover on
Performance: The Role of Process Conformance. Organization Science, 19, 56-68.

Research Thesis
46

Poza, A. S., & Poza, A. A. S. (2007). The effect of job satisfaction on labor turnover
By gender: An analysis for Switzerland. Socio-Economics, 36, 895913.

Goodwin, R. E., Groth, M., & Frenkel, S. J. (2010). Relationships between emotional labor, job
performance, and turnover. Vocational Behavior, 79, 538-548.

Davidson, M. C. G., Timo, N., & Wang, Y. (2009). How much does labor turnover
Cost? International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 22, 451-466.






































Research Thesis
47

APPENDICES

Questionnaire
Name:
Age:
City:
Position in the Organisation:

Section 1: Job Satisfaction
Q1) Do you think that lack of Job Satisfaction is the major reason of employee turnover?
1 2 3 4 5
strongly disagree dis-agree neutral agree strongly agree
Q2) Job satisfaction is the only objective that the employees want to achieve. Do you agree?
1 2 3 4 5
strongly disagree dis-agree neutral agree strongly agree
Q3). If given a choice between high salary and Job Satisfaction, employees would choose high
salary.
1 2 3 4 5
strongly disagree dis-agree neutral agree strongly agree

Section 2: Job Rewards
Q4) Do you think that higher job rewards lowers the employee turnover?
1 2 3 4 5
strongly disagree dis-agree neutral agree strongly agree
Q5) Job rewards should not only be confined to monetary rewards, but these should also include
non-monetary rewards. Do you agree?
1 2 3 4 5
strongly disagree dis-agree neutral agree strongly agree
Research Thesis
48

Q6). Do you feel that job rewards structure of Serena Hotels needs improvement as many
undeserving employees are getting high salaries?
1 2 3 4 5
strongly disagree dis-agree neutral agree strongly agree

Section 3: Job Expectations
Q7). Employee/ Labour turnover is high because many employees expect much more from the
job and in reality, their expectations are not met. Do you agree?
1 2 3 4 5
strongly disagree dis-agree neutral agree strongly agree
Q8). Is it true that job expectations of those individuals are high who have studied in good
universities and think that it is the time to get back the money spent on expensive education?
1 2 3 4 5
strongly disagree dis-agree neutral agree strongly agree
Q9). Those with low Job Expectations become more successful than those with higher job
expectations. Is it true?
1 2 3 4 5
strongly disagree dis-agree neutral agree strongly agree

Section 4: Communication Deficiency
Q10). Do you agree that many employees leave the organisation because the top management
does not communicate with them more often?
1 2 3 4 5
strongly disagree dis-agree neutral agree strongly agree
Q11). Do you feel that employers are solely responsible for developing a good communication
structure in the organisation?
1 2 3 4 5
strongly disagree dis-agree neutral agree strongly agree

Research Thesis
49

Q12). Good communication increases motivation and job satisfaction, do you agree?
1 2 3 4 5
strongly disagree dis-agree neutral agree strongly agree

Section 5: Work Load
Q13). Do you agree that high workload causes the employees to leave the job and find
employment somewhere else?
1 2 3 4 5
strongly disagree dis-agree neutral agree strongly agree
Q14). Less workload gives workers free time. So, it makes the workers engage in other
unproductive activities that adversely affect the whole organisation. It is true?
1 2 3 4 5
strongly disagree dis-agree neutral agree strongly agree
Q15). Workload enables the employees to manage things more effectively and handle the
pressure. Do you agree that all employees like to learn new behaviours or they are content with
the routine tasks?
1 2 3 4 5
strongly disagree dis-agree neutral agree strongly agree

Section 6: Socialization Difficulties
Q16). Do you feel that many employees leave the job because they are unable to make friends
and their esteem needs are not fulfilled?
1 2 3 4 5
strongly disagree dis-agree neutral agree strongly agree
Q17). Do you think that the main reason of socialization difficulties that employees face is that
different employees of different races or religions are not treated properly?
1 2 3 4 5
strongly disagree dis-agree neutral agree strongly agree

Research Thesis
50

Q18). Employees with powerful references are given a special treatment which enables them to
make friends and socialize easily?
1 2 3 4 5
strongly disagree dis-agree neutral agree strongly agree

Section 7: Organizational Stability
Q19). Employees like to work in organizations which are stable. Otherwise employees/ Labour
turnover increases. Do you agree?
1 2 3 4 5
strongly disagree dis-agree neutral agree strongly agree
Q20). Do you agree that organizational stability increases Organizational Commitment?
1 2 3 4 5
strongly disagree dis-agree neutral agree strongly agree
Q21). Do you feel that employees are more likely to stay when there is a predictable work
environment?
1 2 3 4 5
strongly disagree dis-agree neutral agree strongly agree