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EARTHQUAKE
BETY PRASTIWI(10308066)
DEDI WIYANTO(10308067)
MIFTAH HAZMI (10308073)
SARMAG TEKNIK SIPIL 2008
Main Menu

Earth’s Surface

Earthquake

Earthquake in Yogyakarta

Earthquake in NTB

Prevention for Earthquake

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Earth’s Surface

Anatomy of Earth

Changes to Earth’s Surface
Anatomy of Earth

Hydrosphere

Crust

Biosphere

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Hydrosphere
• The hydrosphere
consist of the
bodies of water
that cover of
Earth’s surface.

Type Percent
Ocean 97
Glacier 3,2
Ground
water 1,4
River and
Lake 0,001
Water Vapor 0,017
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Crust
• The crust consists of
the continents, other
land areas, and the
basins, or floors, of the
oceans. The dry land
of Earth’s surface is
called the continental
crust.

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Biosphere
• The biosphere
includes all the
areas of Earth
capable of
supporting life

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Changes to Earth’s Surface

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Plate Tectonics
Theory that the outer shell of
the earth is made up of thin,
rigid plates that move relative
to each other.

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Plate Tectonics
• When Plates Pull Apart
– When the plates pull apart, two
types of phenomena occur
depending on whether the
movement takes place in the
oceans or on land.

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Plate Tectonics
• When Plates Collide
– When plates collide
or push against
each other, regions
called convergent
plate margins form.

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Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2009. © 1993-2008 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Plate Tectonics
• When Plates Slide
Past Each Other
– some of Earth’s plates
neither collide nor pull
apart but instead slide
past each other. These
regions are called
transform margins. Few
volcanoes occur in
these areas because
neither plate is forced
down into Earth’s
interior and little melting
occurs.

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What are Earthquakes?
• The shaking or
trembling caused by
the sudden release
of energy
• Usually associated
with faulting or
breaking of rocks
• Continuing
adjustment of
position results in
aftershocks
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The Focus and Epicenter of an Earthquake

• The point within
Earth where
faulting begins is
the focus, or
hypocenter
• The point directly
above the focus on
the surface is the
epicenter

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Seismographs record
earthquake events

At convergent boundaries,
focal depth increases
along a dipping seismic
zone called a Benioff
zone

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Where Do Earthquakes Occur and How Often?

~80% of all earthquakes occur in the circum-Pacific belt
– most of these result from convergent margin activity
– ~15% occur in the Mediterranean-Asiatic belt
– remaining 5% occur in the interiors of plates and on
spreading ridge centers
– more than 150,000 quakes strong enough to be felt are
recorded each year

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The Economics and Societal Impacts of EQs

Damage in Oakland, CA, 1989
• Building collapse
• Fire
• Tsunami
• Ground failure

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What are Seismic Waves?

• Response of material to the
arrival of energy fronts
released by rupture
• Two types:
– Body waves
• P and S
– Surface waves
• R and L

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Body Waves: P and S waves
• Body waves
– P or primary waves
• fastest waves
• travel through solids,
liquids, or gases
• compressional wave,
material movement is
in the same direction
as wave movement
– S or secondary waves
• slower than P waves
• travel through solids
only
• shear waves - move
material
perpendicular to
wave movement

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Surface Waves: R and L waves

• Surface Waves
– Travel just below or along the ground’s surface
– Slower than body waves; rolling and side-to-side
movement
– Especially damaging to buildings

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Can Earthquakes be Predicted?
Earthquake Precursors
– changes in elevation or tilting of land surface,
fluctuations in groundwater levels, magnetic field,
electrical resistance of the ground
– seismic dilatancy model
– seismic gaps

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Can Earthquakes be Predicted?
Earthquake Prediction Programs
– include laboratory and field studies of rocks before, during,
and after earthquakes
– monitor activity along major faults
– produce risk assessments

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JOGJA’S
EARTHQUAKE
Cause of
Quake

DATE SOURCE
AND OF
TIME QUAKE

JOGJA’S
EARTHQUAKE

Distances of
Comparison Earthquake’s
Earthquake Epicenter
AFTERMATH
FROM
QUAKE

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DATE AND TIME

 Friday, May 26, 2006 at 22:54:01
(UTC) from USGS
 Friday, May 26, 2006 at 22:53:58
(UTC) from EMSC
 Saturday, May 27, 2006 at 5:54:01 AM
(local time/Jogjakarta)

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Cause of Quake

• Type of earthquake:
Tectonic by the subduction of the Indo-
Australia plate with eurasia plate.

• Type of fault :
Strike-Slip Fault

video
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Source of Quake
• BMG
 Location : 8,26°LS and 110,31°LE
 Depth : 33 km (during earthquake )
 The last update (3rd) from BMG determine if center of earthquake in 8,03°LS and
110,32°LE with depth : 11,3 Km
 Magnitude : 5,9 SR
• Badan Geologi Departemen Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral Republik
Indonesia
 Location : 8,007°LS and 110,286°LE
 Depth : 17,1 km
• USGS
 Location : 7,977°LS and 110,318°LE
 Depth : 17,1 km
 Magnitude : 6,3 SR
• EMSC
 Location : 8,04°LS and 110,39°LE
 Depth : 10 km
 Magnitude : 6,4 SR

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Distances of Earthquake’s Epicenter

USGS
• 25 km (15 miles) SSW of Yogyakarta
• 115 km (75 miles) S of Semarang
• 145 km (90 miles) SSE of Pekalongan
• 440 km (275 miles) ESE of Jakarta

EMSC
• 29 Km S of Yogyakarta
• 11 Km SE Pundong

• Vibration of quake until Solo, Semarang, Purworejo, Kebumen
and Banyumas.
• Vibration also until several cities in East Java, like : Ngawi,
Madiun, Kediri, Trenggalek, Magetan, Pacitan, Blitar and
Surabaya.
video
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Position of Quake’s Epicenter

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Continuation Quake
Continuation Quake occur in several times:
1. 06:10 AM
2. 08:15 AM
3. 11:22 AM

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Aftermath from Quake
• Victims of death : 5,782
• Victims of injured : 36,299
• 135,000 houses damaged.
(Bantul : 3,580 death and more than 1,892
injuries. Klaten : 1,668 death )
• Schools : destroyed 148 and damaged 537
• Destroyed electric installations and
communication
• Cracked of landing area in Adi Sutjipto’s
airport

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HEAVILY DAMAGED AND
DESTROYED BUILDINGS
• Mall Saphir Square
• Mall Ambarukmo Plaza
• GOR Universitas Ahmad Dahlan
• STIE Kerja Sama
• ISI (Institut Seni Indonesia) Yogyakarta

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HEAVILY DAMAGED AND DESTROYED
Ancient Sites and Tourists Area

• Prambanan temple
• Sepulcher of Imogiri
• Trajumas shed in Kraton Yogyakarta
• Borobudur temple
• Tourist area of Kasongan

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Pictures

Mall Shapire
Square

STIE Kerja
Sama

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Picture

ISI Yogyakarta

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Pictures

Sepulcher of
Imogiri

Prambanan
temple

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Pictures

Trajumas Shed

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Pictures

Tourist Area
KASONGAN

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Comparison of
Quake in Padang,
Bengkulu,
Tasikmalaya and
Jogja
Comparison of Quake in Padang,
Bengkulu, Tasikmalaya and Jogja

• Time :
 Jogja’s Earthquake : Saturday, May 27,
2006 at 5:53:58 AM
 Padang’s Earthquake : Tuesday, March 6,
2007 at 10:49:39 AM
 Tasikmalaya’s Earthquake : Wednesday,
Sept 2, 2009 at 02:55:01 PM
 Bengkulu’s Earthquake : Wednesday, Sept
12, 2007 at 06:10:26 PM

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Comparison of Earthquake in Jogja, Padang,
Bengkulu, and Tasikmalaya

• Magnitude (USGS):
 Jogja’s Earthquake : 6.3 SR
 Padang’s Earthquake : 7.6 SR
 Tasikmalaya’s Earthquake : 7.0 SR
 Bengkulu’s Earthquake : 7.9 SR
• Depth (hypocenter) :
 Jogja’s Earthquake : 17,1 km
 Padang’s Earthquake : 80 km
 Tasikmalaya’s Earthquake : 46,2 km
 Bengkulu’s Earthquake : 24,9 km
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Comparison of Earthquake in Jogja, Padang,
Bengkulu, and Tasikmalaya

• Coordinat :
 Jogya’s Earthquake : 7,977°LS and
110,318°LE
 Padang’s Earthquake :0,890°LS and
99,961°LE
 Tasikmalaya’s Earthquake :7,809 °LS and
107,259°LE
 Bengkulu’s Earthquake : 4,517°LS,
101,382°LE

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Comparison of Earthquake in Jogja,
Padang, Bengkulu, and Tasikmalaya

• Location of epicenter :
 Jogya’s Earthquake : 25 km (15 miles) SSW
of Yogyakarta
 Padang’s Earthquake : 57 Km SW of
Pariaman, Padang
 Tasikmalaya’s Earthquake :100 Km SSW of
Bandung
 Bengkulu’s Earthquake : 130 Km SW of
Bengkulu

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Location Epicenter of Earthquake

Padang Bengkulu Jogjakarta Tasikmalaya

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Comparison of Earthquake in Jogja,
Padang, Bengkulu, and Tasikmalaya
• Cause of quake :
 Jogya’s Earthquake :Tectonic by the subduction
of the Indo-Australia plate with eurasia plate.
 Padang’s Earthquake : Tectonic by the
subduction of the Indo-Australia plate (left
Sumatera) with eurasia plate(right Sumatera).
 Tasikmalaya’s Earthquake : Tectonic by the
subduction of the Indo-Australia plate with
eurasia plate.
 Bengkulu’s Earthquake : Tectonic by the
mentawai fault

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Tectonic Summary
• The November 8th,
2009 earthquake in
the Sumbawa region
of Indonesia
occurred as a result
of thrust faulting on
or near a microplate
boundary within the
Sunda plate.

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History Seismicity NTB

From
TVOne

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