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Continuous Casting Processes

by

Jessica Elfsberg

Casting of Metals

Royal Institute of Technology

SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden

**Akademisk avhandling som med tillstånd av Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan
**

framlägges till offentlig granskning för avläggande av

Teknologie Licentiatexamen, fredag 31 oktober 2003, kl. 15.00,

B2, Brinellvägen 23, Stockholm.

Några lånade ord om min syn på forskning, undervisning och – tja, livet...

Till eftertanke...

**Om jag vill lyckas med att föra en människa
**

mot ett bestämt mål måste jag finna henne

där hon är, och börja just där.

Den som inte kan detta lurar sig själv

när hon tror att hon kan hjälpa andra.

**För att hjälpa någon måste jag visserligen
**

förstå mer än vad han gör men först och främst

förstå det han förstår.

**Om jag inte kan det
**

så hjälper det inte att jag kan och vet mer.

**Vill jag ändå visa hur mycket jag kan
**

så beror det på att jag är fåfäng och högmodig

och egentligen vill bli beundrad av den andre

istället för att hjälpa honom.

**All äkta hjälpsamhet börjar med ödmjukhet
**

inför den jag vill hjälpa och därmed måste jag förstå:

Att detta med att hjälpa inte är att vilja härska utan att vilja tjäna.

Kan jag inte förstå detta kan jag inte heller hjälpa någon.

Sören Kierkegaard

Oscillation Mark Formation in

Continuous Casting Processes

by

Jessica Elfsberg

Casting of Metals

Royal Institute of Technology

S-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden

Abstract

Oscillation marks are ripples formed on the surface of continuously cast material.

They may cause cracking and decrease the yield of the process since some material

must be grinded away to avoid crack growth. A study of break-out shells, a full-

scale water model study and full-scale experiments in four different plants have

been performed to analyse the formation of oscillation marks. The hypothesis

initiating the studies was that there is an optimal oscillation frequency. Material

cast at the optimal frequency will have smaller oscillation marks and fewer cracks

and, maybe most important, all marks are of the same character and depth. The

optimal oscillation frequency is determined by its relation to casting velocity and

interfacial tension between metal and protective medium, e.g. slag:

v 2 ⋅ σ metal / surrounding

f= where a =

2 ⋅a g ⋅ (ρ metal − ρ surrounding )

**The results from the experiments indicate that there is an optimal frequency at
**

which the surface quality gets better. A theoretical analysis has been worked out.

The suggestion is that the marks form as the surface tension balance controlling

the meniscus shape collapses. The collapses occur when the meniscus grows too

high and bulges out towards the mould wall.

**Calculations were performed to analyse the influence of interfacial tension on the
**

oscillation marks. The results show that the higher the interfacial tension gets the

deeper and wider will the marks get. Instead of analysing the friction forces acting

in the meniscus region, it was assumed that the oscillation cause a variation of the

interfacial tension. In some of the calculations, the interfacial tension was changed

from one value to another at some point. The mark shape then becomes a

combination of the different cases.

Oscillationsmärkesbildning vid

kontinuerliga gjutprocesser

av

Jessica Elfsberg

Metallernas gjutning

Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan

100 44 Stockholm, Sverige

Sammanfattning

Oscillationsmärken är tvärgående ”räfflor” som bildas på ytan av kontinuerligt

gjutet material. Märkena kan orsaka sprickbildning samt minska utbytet av

processen eftersom man måste slipa ämnena för att undvika spricktillväxt. En

undersökning av genombrottsskal, en fullskalig vattenmodellstudie och fullskaliga

experiments vid fyra olika gjutningsanläggningar har genomförts för att analysera

bildningen av oscillationsmärken. Hypotesen som initierade arbetet var att det

finns en optimal oscillationsfrekvens. Material som gjuts vid den optimala

frekvensen får mindre oscillationsmärken och färre sprickor och, kanske viktigast,

alla märken kommer att vara av samma typ och vara lika djupa. Den optimala

oscillationsfrekvensen bestäms av dess relation till gjuthastighet och

gränsytspänningen mellan smälta och omgivande medium, till exempel slagg:

v 2 ⋅ σ metal / surrounding

f= där a =

2 ⋅a g ⋅ (ρ metal − ρ surrounding )

**Resultaten från experimenten indikerar att det finns en optimal frekvens vid vilken
**

ytkvaliteten blir bättre. En teoretisk analys har utarbetats och föreslår att

oscillationsmärkena bildas när ytspänningsbalansen som bestämmer meniskens

form kollapsar. Kollapsen inträffar när menisken blir för hög och bular ut mot

kokillväggen.

**Inverkan av gränsytspänningen på märkenas profil har analyserats med hjälp av
**

beräkningar. Resultaten visar att högre gränsytspänning ger djupare, och bredare

märken. Istället för att analysera de friktionskrafter som uppkommer mellan

smälta och slagg i meniskområdet, antogs det att oscillationen orsakar en variation

av gränsytspänningen. I några beräkningar ändrades gränsytspänningen från ett

värde till ett annat vid en viss tidpunkt. Märkets form förändrades till en

kombination av formerna för de olika gränsytspänningarna.

The thesis includes the following supplements:

Supplement 1

Thoughts about the Initial Solidification Process during Continuous Casting of

Steel

Fredriksson, H. and Elfsberg, J.

Scandinavian Journal of Metallurgy 2002, Vol. 31, pp. 292-297

**I prepared samples and performed microscopy studies. I also took part in writing
**

the report.

Supplement 2

Experimental Study of the Formation of Oscillation Marks in Continuous Casting

of Steel Billets

Elfsberg, J., Widell, B., Fredriksson, H.

4th European Continuous Casting Conference, Oct 14-15 2002, Birmingham,

England.

I performed the experiments, most of the evaluations and report writing.

Supplement 3

Oscillation Mark Formation on Continuously Cast Copper

Elfsberg, J., Fredriksson, H.

ISRN:KTH:MG-INR-03:02 SE

TRITA-MG-2003:02

I performed the experiments, most of the evaluations and report writing.

Supplement 4

Oscillation Mark Formation on Continuously Cast Stainless Steel and Carbon

Steel Slabs

Elfsberg J., Fredriksson H.

ISRN:KTH:MG-INR-03:03 SE

TRITA-MG-2003:03

I performed the experiments, most of the evaluations and report writing.

Supplement 5

Theoretical Study of Oscillation Mark Formation in Continuous Casting Processes

Elfsberg J., Fredriksson H.

ISRN:KTH:MG-INR-03:04 SE

TRITA-MG-2003:04

**I did the calculations and the report writing.
**

Contents

1.

Introduction…………………………………………………………………...... 1

**2. History and Principles of Continuous Casting…………………………….. 1
**

History 1

The Principles of Conventional Continuous Casting 3

Casting Powder 4

Oscillation Parameters 5

3. Review on the Formation of Oscillation marks……………………………. 6

4. Experimental work………………………………………………………….. 10

Study of break-out shells 10

DDS- Steel Slabs 11

Fundia Special Bar AB – Steel Billets 11

Fundia Armeringsstål A/S – Steel Billets 11

Outokumpu Copper AB – Copper Strips 12

Outokumpu Copper AB – Water Model 12

Why modelling liquid metal flow using water 12

Avesta Polarit AB – Stainless Steel Slabs 13

5. Experimental Results……………………………………………………….. 14

Study of break-out shells 14

DDS- Steel Slabs 16

Fundia Special Bar AB – Steel Billets 17

Fundia Armeringsstål A/S – Steel Billets 19

Outokumpu Copper AB – Copper Strips 19

Outokumpu Copper AB – Water Model 20

Avesta Polarit AB – Stainless Steel Slabs 21

6. Theoretical background……………………………………………………... 24

6.1 Heat Transfer……………………………………………………………….. 24

Conduction 24

Radiation 25

Convection 25

Heat transport in Continuous Casting 25

Heat transport in the Model for Oscillation Mark Formation 26

The Heat Transfer from the Melt to the Shell 27

The Heat Transfer from the Shell to the Mould 28

Determination of Solid Shell Growth Rate and Shell Tip Radius 28

Solidification in the z-direction 29

6.2 Surface Tension Balance and Angles between Phases…………………… 30

**6.3 Pressure balance and Meniscus Shape……………………………………. 32
**

Derivation of the Laplace Capillary Constant 33

Pressure Balance and Angles between the Phases 35

7. Theoretical analysis………………………………………………………….. 36

**7.1 The Model for the Oscillation Mark Formation…………………………... 36
**

The First Approach 37

The Second Approach 37

Optimal Oscillation Frequency 38

**7.2 Calculation of Oscillation Mark Profile…………………………………… 39
**

The First Approach 39

The Second Approach 40

8. Results of Calculations………………………………………………………. 40

The First Approach 40

The Second Approach 41

9. Discussion……………………………………………………………………. 44

10. Future Works………………………………………………………………... 46

11. Acknowledgements…………………………………………………………. 47

12. References…………………………………………………………………... 48

Supplements 1-5

1. Introduction

**All metal manufacturing includes a solidification process. The metal is either
**

atomised to a powder, or it is cast. There is several casting methods used today.

Many of the methods use the mould only once, for example sand mould casting,

the lost-wax method and precision casting. For larger quantities of liquid metal,

there are basically two methods: ingot casting and continuous casting. Ingot

casting normally uses a permanent mould made by cast iron isolated by ceramic

material. There are limitations with the ingot casting methods. The structure in the

centre of the ingot will get coarse which decreases the strength of the metal and

when casting larger quantities of metal the handling of the ingots gets very

complex. To be able to increase the manufacturing capacity without decreasing

the quality, the development of a continuous casting process started in 1856. Since

then continuous casting has grown to be the major technique for casting steel.

Copper is today continuously cast using a similar design as for steel casting.

**The heart of a continuous casting machine is the mould. The mould is an open-
**

ended tube in which the metal is poured. The liquid metal is protected by either a

gas, inert or reductive, or some melted compound. For steel the most common

protection media are casting powder, i.e. an oxide mixture, or rape-seed oil. In the

mould the liquid metal starts to solidify and during the solidification, surface

defects called oscillation marks are formed. The oscillation marks appears as

grooves perpendicular to the casting direction. They are typically 0.1-1 mm deep.

The oscillation marks may work as initiation point for cracks and beneath them

there is a zone with higher risk for inclusions, pores and segregation. There may

also be cracks on the cast surface formed in the mould. It is clear that the surface

quality of the cast material is mainly determined by the process in the mould.

**The formation of oscillation marks has been extensively examined by many
**

authors and there are several models describing the formation of oscillation marks

in continuous casting. To be able to control the formation of marks, the

mechanism of the formation must be fully known. This work suggests that there is

an optimal oscillation frequency. At the optimal oscillation frequency, it is

suggested that no, or very small, oscillation marks form.

2. History and Principles of continuous casting

History

**To be able to increase the casting capacity without decreasing the quality, the
**

development of a continuous casting process started in 1856. Henri Bessemer

suggested a model in which liquid metal was poured between to water-cooled rolls.

1

Figure 1. The twin-roll caster suggested by Bessemer [1]

**The process was by then hard to control and the cast material was of very poor
**

quality. In 1887 R M Daelen suggested a process using a vertical water-cooled

mould open in its top and bottom. In this process problems with sticking

occurred when casting steel and not until 1933, when Siegfried Junghans

introduced the concept of mould oscillation, a functional continuous casting

process for steel could be developed. In Junghans development the mould was

moved downward at a velocity equal to the casting speed for approximately three-

quarters of each cycle followed by a rapid return to the starting position. There

were therefore no relative motion between the mould and the strand shell during

the down-stroke. In 1954 there was a major break-through in continuous casting

steel processes. A new oscillation profile, suggested by Concast/Halliday,

produced a condition called negative strip. Negative strip is when the down-stroke

velocity in each cycle exceeds the casting speed. Sinusoidal oscillation was first

used on two Russian slab casters installed in 1959. Presently, sinusoidal is

essentially the standard mode of oscillation worldwide. It is relatively simple to

design and has the advantage of lower moments of inertia and smaller jerk (the

rate of change of acceleration with respect to time). If the jerk is too high,

problems related to vibration, noise and wear of moving parts and bearings can

occur. However, non-sinusoidal oscillation has received renewed attention and

with sophisticated hydraulic oscillators, a wide variety of profiles may come in use.

The benefits of continuous casting compared to ingot casting are:

● Higher yield

● Smaller number of necessary manufacturing steps

● More mechanised casting process

● More even composition

● Better surface finish.

2

A lot of development of the continuous casting processes has taken place the last

decades. For example different electromagnetic devices have been introduced.

Electromagnetic fields can be used for braking and for stirring the liquid metal in

the mould. It is also possible to press the melt away from the mould walls with a

strong electromagnetic field.

**Today conventional continuous casting, described in figure 2, is the dominant
**

casting process for steel. In the future, electromagnetic casting may get in

common use as well as the twin-roll caster suggested by Bessemer in 1856. Many

of the problems can today be handled, but the process is still very expensive [1].

The Principles of Conventional Continuous Casting

Figure 2 shows the principal design of a conventional continuous casting machine:

**Figure 2. A continuous casting machine [1]. Melt flows from a ladle to a tundish
**

and further to a mould. Between the ladle and the tundish, and from tundish to

mould, ceramic tubes protect the melt. Beneath the mould there are a secondary

cooling zone and a straightening zone.

**From a ladle, the liquid metal flows down into a tundish. The tundish acts as
**

distributor if there is more than one mould, it evens the temperature and the

composition of the melt and it makes it possible for inclusions to leave the melt.

From the tundish the melt flows to the mould/moulds. A mould for steel casting

is normally made by copper which is water-cooled; the surface towards the liquid

metal is often covered with a protective layer by for example chromium. To avoid

sticking in the mould it is oscillated. The casting process is started with the help of

a dummy bar on which the metal freezes, so when it is moved downwards a

strand can be drawn out from the mould. The velocity of the strand and the

cooling must be controlled so that the solid shell is strong enough when the

3

strand leaves the mould. Beneath the mould there is a secondary cooling zone in

which water is sprayed on the surface of the strand. Further down in the machine,

the strand is bent so it gets horizontal and then straightened. When the strand is

solid throughout the whole cross section it can be cut to proper lengths, often

with an oxy-gas torch.

**The casting can be protected or not protected. In protected casting, the melt is
**

not in contact with air at any time before it leaves the mould. In the ladle, a slag

layer on the top of the melt protects it. The melt flows through a ceramic tube

from the ladle to the tundish, the outlet of the ceramic tube is beneath the surface

in the tundish, i.e. the tube is submerged. The melt surface is covered with some

oxide mixture in the ladle and flows through one or more nozzles from the

tundish to the mould/moulds. These nozzles are submerged in the melt in the

mould. In the mould, casting powder, i.e. an oxide mixture, covers the melt

surface. The casting powder protects the metal from contact with the air and may

act as a lubricant in the meniscus region. In unprotected casting of steel rape-seed

oil is often used as protective media. The oil burns and cracks, forming a reducing

atmosphere in the mould.

**In continuous casting of thin copper strips either a salt mixture or a controlled,
**

inert or reducing, atmosphere is used as protection from oxygen.

As the melt fills the mould, the following occurs: in the upper part of the mould, a

meniscus forms. The meniscus is the melt forming a convex upper surface just at

the mould wall. The meniscus is curved because there is an interfacial tension

between liquid metal and protective media [2]. Beneath this meniscus, a solid shell

forms as the metal gets close to the wall. The solidified shell is continuously pulled

downwards, at the same time new melt is poured down into the mould. The

moving shell grows and shrinks when it is strong enough to withstand the

metallostatic pressure. Then an air gap forms between the shell and the mould.

Casting Powder

**The casting powder can either be a mechanical mixture of fine grain oxides or a
**

pre-melted and granuled mixture. Granuled powders are preferable since they do

not get packed and may thus be fed by automatic feeders. The properties

considered important are viscosity, basicity, melt temperature, melting rate and

degree of crystallisation. These properties can be connected to the composition of

the powder. Another important factor is the particle size distribution. Particles of

the same size will always have empty space in between. If there are particles of a

wide range of sizes, the particles will pack tighter and air passage gets more

difficult.

**The main ingredients of casting powders are CaO, SiO2, Al2O3, MgO, Na2O and
**

CaF2. The acidic oxide SiO2 forms SiO42- which forms a silicate network. This

network will bind up and contain the other oxides. Al2O3, which is an amphoteric

4

oxide, can replace the SiO42- in the network. The Al2O3 molecule can form two

negative ions, AlO4-, and will thus increase the viscosity strongly if there is excess

oxygen present. The following oxides are basic and decrease the viscosity since

they break the silicate network: CaO, MgO, BaO, SrO, Na2O, Li2O, K2O. Also

fluoride ions lower the viscosity [4], [5]. Graphite is also included (3-6 %) to

control the melt rate.

The casting powder has several functions [6], [7], [8], [9], [10], [11], [12]:

**● Protect the metal from oxidation
**

● Thermally isolate the upper surface to prevent meniscus solidification

● Absorb inclusions from the melt and dissolve them

● Lubricate the surface between mould and shell

● Create a homogeneous heat transport

● Determine the meniscus shape by determining the metal/slag interfacial

tension.

**The composition of the casting powder may change throughout the casting due to
**

reactions between steel and slag. As the composition changes, the essential

properties of the slag will also change. Reactions between the metal and the slag

will result in major mass transport between them. Mass transport across the

interface will decrease the surface tension of the liquid metal.

Oscillation Parameters

**The formation of the oscillation marks is regarded to be influenced by the mould
**

oscillation. There are a number of parameters describing the oscillation, for

example:

Instantaneous mould velocity

t

vm = 2π ⋅ s ⋅ f ⋅ cos 2 π ⋅ f ⋅ [m/min] Equation 1

60

**where s is the stroke length [mm], f is the oscillation frequency [1/min] and t is
**

the cycle time [s].

Average mould velocity

v average = 2 ⋅ s ⋅ f [m/min] Equation 2

5

Total cycle time

60

tc = [s] Equation 3

f

**The negative strip time, tN, is the time during which the velocity of the down-
**

going mould is higher than the casting velocity. For the sinusoidal mode of

oscillation, tN is calculated by the equation [13]:

60 V

tN = ⋅ arccos c [s] Equation 4

πf πsf

where VC is the casting velocity [m/min].

**The oscillation parameters should be chosen so that the negative strip time is large
**

enough for avoiding sticking. Typical values are 0.2-0.3 seconds [1].

**The distance between oscillation marks has been assumed to follow the
**

expression:

VG

p= [mm] Equation 5

f

[3], [6], [13], [14].

3. Review on the Formation of Oscillation Marks

**There is a lot of work done in the field of formation of oscillation marks. Some of
**

the suggestions on formation mechanisms are here reviewed.

**Sato presented in 1979 [15] the idea of the formation on a “secondary” meniscus
**

formed due to pressure variations caused by the oscillation. He suggests that the

marks are formed in two steps, first the solid meniscus shell is lifted by the

upward moving mould. This lift causes the formation of two convex surfaces, ab

and bc in figure 3b. Then, as the mould turns, the two convex surfaces are forged

together and the mark is formed. Figure 3 shows the formation of a mark during

casting operation without the use of casting powder. Figure 4 shows the

conditions for casting with the use of casting powder. The mechanisms for the

two cases are the same, but the presence of the slag will cause a different pressure

term [15].

6

Figure 3. The oscillation mark formation during continuous casting without the

use of slag. The mark forms during the upstroke. The solid meniscus us lifted by

the mould movement [15].

**Figure 4. The formation of oscillation marks in continuous casting with the use of
**

casting powder [15].

**In 1980 Saucedo et al. [16] performed work from which they deduce that the
**

oscillation marks, or ripples, form because the meniscus solidifies. They suggest

7

that no marks will form if the rate of heat extraction is lowered. In a paper from

1991 Saucedo [17] present the theory more detailed. The oscillation marks are

suggested to form when the oscillation forces the liquid metal to regain contact

with the mould wall. This can happen in two ways, either an overflow occurs, or

the shell is bent towards the mould by the metallostatic pressure. It is also possible

that the two processes combine [17]. Figure 5 shows the different ways the liquid

metal can get in contact with the mould wall above the frozen meniscus. The left

mark is usually termed folding mark, and the mark in the middle is called an

overflow mark.

**Figure 5. The mark formation starts with solidification of the meniscus. Then the
**

metal can get in contact with the mould wall in different ways: i. the rising liquid

pushes the solid shell towards the wall, ii. the liquid overflows the shell or iii. The

first two combines.

**In 1980 Tomono et al. [18] performed experiments with organic substances. They
**

could observe the formation and concluded that the two mark types, i.e. folding

marks and overflow marks, are formed of different reasons. They suggest that

oscillation marks form when the meniscus is submitted to compressive force by

particles sticking to the wall, and that folding marks form independently of the

oscillation. They used the Bikerman equation for calculating the meniscus shape

and connected the oscillation mark properties to the discrepancy between

observed meniscus shape and calculated [18].

**In 1984 Takeuchi and Brimacombe [3] described how the pressure in the liquid
**

slag channel varies and draws the meniscus back towards the mould wall during

the negative strip. The difference between marks with and without hooks is

assumed to be caused by the difference in strength of the meniscus skin. If the

skin is strong, an overflow will occur, and a hook forms. If the skin is weaker, the

8

shell is purely pressed against the wall and no overflow is needed, and no hook

forms. They describe how the meniscus follows the oscillation [3], [19], [20].

Figure 7. The fluctuation of the meniscus with mould oscillation [3]

**In 1986 Suzuki et al. [21] presented a theory for the oscillation mark formation.
**

Their model assume that an over-lap mechanism control the formation. The

meniscus in surface tension balance with the shell moves upwards as the solid

shell grows inwards, see figure 8.

**Figure 8. Suzuki et al. suggested in 1986 that the meniscus moves inwards and
**

upwards according to a surface tension balance.

**Delhalle et al. [22] described, in a work from 1989, three different formation
**

mechanisms for oscillation marks, see figure 9. The three mechanisms are based

upon meniscus solidification. The liquid metal may overflow the solid shell or first

the liquid metal overflow the shell and then the shell is remelted or the solid shell

may be bent back by metallostatic pressure. Solidification of the curved part

results in hook formation. The size and shape of the oscillation marks is said to

depend on the heat extraction, the oscillation and the interfacial properties [22].

9

Figure 9. A. Mould oscillation and product withdrawal cause liquid steel to

overflow the solid hook. The overflowing liquid freezes against the mould wall

and a new shell tip forms. B. as A, but here partial or total remelting of the solid

shell tip is assumed. C. the metallostatic pressure bends the solid shell back against

the mould [22].

**Lainez and Busturia [23] performed work to determine exactly when the
**

oscillation marks form. They suggest that solidification do not start at the

meniscus, but further down in the mould, namely at the lower part of the solid

slag rim. They connect the oscillation mark formation to this region and say that

they form at the point where the mould downward speed is at maximum [23].

4. Experimental Work

**Experiments have been performed in industrial scale at Danish Steel Works Ltd.
**

(DDS), Fundia Smedjebacken, Fundia Mo-i-Rana, Outokumpu Copper Västerås

and AvestaPolarit, Avesta. A surface profilometer was used to get information

about the surface topography of the steel slabs and the steel billets. We also

performed some metallographic analysis of the materials. In the copper casting

case, the flow pattern in the mould has been studied using a water model. We also

studied the surface appearance of the cast copper strips for different oscillation

frequencies and protective medium. In our first work we studied shell tips from

break-out-shells from continuous casting plants in Sweden. A break-out is when

the solidifying shell breaks and the liquid metal flows out from it, leaving an empty

shell in the mould.

Study of Break-Out Shells

**A number of break-outs from steel casting machines have been analysed. The
**

shape of the marks, the shape of the tip and the microstructure were analysed.

10

DDS – Steel Slabs

**A steel with 0.119%C, 0.127%Mn, 0.036%Si, 0.013%P and 0.008%S were studied.
**

During this experiment the oscillation frequency was varied, the velocity was kept

constant, but the stroke length was varied to keep the negative strip time constant.

Later the velocity was varied together with the stroke length while the oscillation

frequency was constant. 11 different oscillation frequencies between 74 and 134

min-1 and 5 different velocities, in the range of 0.7-1.1 m/min, were tested.

Casting powder was used at the casting. The surface topography was measured

with the surface profilometer and the surfaces were photographed, using a digital

camera. Some samples were studied in a light optical microscope. The numbers of

transversal cracks on the 200 mm long specimens were counted.

Fundia Special Bar AB – Steel Billets

**In Smedjebacken experiments on 5 different heats, A-E, were performed. The
**

alloys used in the four heats A-D contains about 0.16% C, 0.3% Si, 1.2% Mn. The

sulphur content were varied between 0,004 and 0,033% and as the sulphur

content varied, the Ca and Al contents also varied. The fifth heat, E, was studied

because the steel grade shows extremely shallow oscillation marks. The

composition of E is 0.55% C, 1.86% Si, 0.85% Mn and 0.017% S.

**In these castings, casting powders were used. During the experiments 5 different
**

frequencies, in the range of 90-240 min-1, were tested. The stroke length was

constant ±3 mm and the casting velocity was 1.6 m/min.

**The surface profile of one of the narrow sides of the cast strand was measured
**

using the surface profilometer and from heat A, B and E samples from the

regions of different oscillation frequency were cut out. In each region one could

find deep marks, and more shallow marks. Both types were cut out and

metallographically prepared and studied in a light optical microscope. Some of the

regions on the billets were photographed using a digital camera.

Fundia Armeringsstål A/S – Steel Billets

**In Mo-i-Rana 3 different heats, M-O, were studied. Two of them were quite
**

similar in composition while the third had considerably lower carbon content. The

compositions of M and N were 0.18% C, 0.2% Si, 0.75% Mn. Sulphur contents

were 0.023 and 0.036 respectively. The third heat, O, was a steel grade with

considerably lower carbon content. The composition was 0.08% C, 0.18% Si,

0.65% Mn and 0.034% S.

**In these trials rapeseed oil was used as lubricant. The velocity could not be varied,
**

only the oscillation frequency. The stroke length was ±5.2 mm. For the different

charges the oscillation 5 frequencies between 90 and 180 1/min were tested.

11

The surface topography was measured with the surface profilometer and the

surfaces were photographed, using a digital camera.

Outokumpu Copper AB – Copper Strips

**In the copper experiment two different protective media were used, the oscillation
**

frequency and the velocity, by varying the number of down-lets in the nozzle.

Normally the protective media is a carbon carrying gas, but we also used a salt

mixture, with the major ingredient Na2B4O7 (borax). The composition of the

copper alloy was Cu-0.03%Sn. On these samples we studied the shape of the

oscillation mark along the broad side of the strip. The waviness of the oscillation

marks was compared to the down-let arrangement. The heat transport to the

mould cooling water was registered.

Outokumpu Copper AB- Water Model

A full-scale water model was used to study how the free surface shape varied with

the nozzle arrangement. The nozzle design was not exactly equal to the one in the

casting machine, but they were similar enough to give sufficient information about

the upper surface. The number and the positions of closed nozzles were varied

and the flow pattern was photographed.

Why Modelling Liquid Metal Flow using Water?

**It is common to use water modelling of continuous casting to get information
**

about flow patterns. To compare two systems the following demands are needed:

● Dynamic similarity

● Geometrical similarity

● Kinematic similarity

● Thermally similarity

**When we use water as a model material, it is of course impossible to achieve
**

thermal similarity but for steel flow the thermal similarity is not so important since

there are small temperature differences and the natural convection can be

neglected. Geometrical similarity is reached if the model is proper scaled.

Kinematic similarity will be reached if geometrical and dynamic similarity can be

reached. For dynamic similarity the following dimensionless numbers must be

equal in the steel process and in the water model:

12

Froudes number

v2 Equation 6

Fr =

gL

Reynolds number.

vL Equation 7

Re =

ν

Webers number.

ρv 2 L Equation 8

W=

σ

**v is the velocity of the fluid and L is a characteristic length for the process, ν is the
**

kinematic viscosity for the fluid, ρ is the density of the fluid and σ is the surface

tension for the fluid. The dimensionless numbers are tools used in fluid mechanics

to compare systems. According to fluid mechanics, two systems with identical

dimensionless numbers satisfy the Navier-Stokes equation. The systems are

therefore comparable. Data for the different fluids are given in Table 1.

**Table 1. Data for water, steel and copper [24], [25].
**

Media Density [kg/m3] Viscosity [Pa·s] Surface tension [J/m2]

Water 1000 0.001 0.073

Liquid steel 7000 0.007 1.8

Liquid copper 8000 0.004 1.3

**This means that the kinematic viscosity, ν, are in the cases of water and steel
**

about 1E-6 m2/s and for copper it is 2E-6 m2/s. Reynolds number are thus easy

to get equal. Froude’s number is controlled by the scaling. Both the length and the

velocity must be chosen correctly. The choice of water to simulate steel makes it

impossible to get all the three numbers equal for the two cases. In bulk flow in the

mould it is possible to neglect the surface tension and thereby the Weber number

[26]

Avesta Polarit AB – Stainless Steel Slabs

**In this experiment the oscillation frequency was varied while the velocity and the
**

stroke length were kept constant. The steel studied was 316L with the

composition 11%Ni, 17%Cr, 4.5%Mo and 0.002%S. The sulphur is of interest

because it decreases the surface tension of the alloy. According to the literature,

the surface tension of this alloy is about 1.7 J/m2 for sulphur contents about 0.002

wt% [27]. The sulphur content of the studied charges is lower than that, so the

surface tension will be somewhat higher than 1.7 J/m2.

**Casting powder was used. 4 different oscillation frequencies between 100 and 180
**

min-1 were tested. The surface topography was measured with the surface

13

profilometer and the surfaces were photographed, using a digital camera. The

purpose of this campaign was to study the appearance of hooks beneath the

surface. Samples with a length of 300 mm´s were cut out and on these the marks

were very carefully studied. The samples cast at 120 min-1 and at 160 min-1 were

studied in a light optical microscope. The dendrite arm spacing and the content of

Mo, Ni and Cr was measured in a microprobe around marks from these samples.

5. Experimental Results

Study of Break-Out Shells

**Two different types of oscillation marks were observed on the break-out shells. In
**

the literature these marks are termed overflow marks and folding marks. It was

also observed that the top shell does not form a continuous even line around the

mould shell and that the shell growth occurs in steps, as shown in figure 10 a and

b. The white arrows indicate oscillation marks found just at the level where the

shell thickness starts to change.

**Figure 10 a. The upper surface does not Figure 10 b. The same sample as in
**

behave as an even line during the figure 10 a seen from the perpendicular

casting. The white arrow points at an direction. The growth of the shell has

oscillation mark. occurred in steps.

**We examined a number of break-out shells. The shapes of seven shell tips are shown
**

in figure 11.

14

Figure 11. Seven observed shell tips from break-outs.

**One shell tip was studied more carefully. Figure 12 shows the microstructure of
**

that tip. We can identify two different regions, one fine grained on the top and a

coarser below.

**Figure 12. The microstructure of a shell tip from a break-out. We can see two
**

different regions, a fine-grained to the left, and a coarser grained to the right.

15

DDS – Steel Slabs

**From the experiment on steel slabs at DDS, data on the oscillation mark distances
**

for different frequencies were achieved. The fraction of oscillation marks with

cracks on the wide side of the slab could be determined, see figure 13. There is a

minimum for 83 min-1. The minimum at 134 min-1 is probably not reliable since

the evaluation was harder on that sample. As the surface profiles on both the

narrow sides were measured, it is possible to observe that the oscillation marks do

not form at the same level around the slab, see figure 14. Figure 14 also shows

periods of shallow marks followed by a deep mark; see especially on the higher

curve between 6400 and 6600 mm. Figure 15 shows the oscillation mark distance

for different frequencies. The curve has a maximum for f=83 min-1.

1

Fraction of oscillation marks with cracks

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140

Oscillation frequency [1/min]

Figure 13. Diagram showing the fraction of oscillation marks with cracks as a

function of oscillation frequency.

25

Surface profile [mm]

20

15

10

5

0

68006400 70006600 7200

Distance from start [mm]

Figure 14. The oscillation marks on the both narrow sides of the slab, are not

identical. The solid line at about 6850 mm is caused by a signal disturbance.

16

Oscillation mark distance [mm]

13

12

11

10

9

8

7

70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140

Oscillation frequency [1/min]

**Figure 15. Diagram showing the oscillation mark distance at different oscillation
**

frequencies.

Fundia Special Bar AB – Steel Billets

**In these experiments it was clearly seen that the oscillation mark pattern changes
**

immediately as the oscillation frequency is changed, see figure 17. Further it was

observed that the oscillation mark distance decrease when the frequency increases.

**f=100 min-1 f=240 min-1
**

Figure 17. The oscillation marks change appearance immediately when the

oscillation frequency is changed. The frequency is changed from 100 min-1 to

240 min-1.

**The diagram in figure 18 shows the fraction of deeper marks as a function of
**

oscillation frequency for the two heats C and D. The sulphur content was lower

for C than for D. Thereby C had a higher interfacial tension. For C a minimum is

17

seen at 137 min-1 and for D a very clear minimum is present at f=150 min-1. When

the fraction of deeper marks is zero, all the marks have the same appearance.

0.35

Fraction of deeper marks 0.3

0.25

0.2

0.15

0.1

0.05 C

D

0

80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160

Oscillation frequency [1/min]

Figure 18. Diagram of the fraction of deep marks as a function of frequency for

steel cast with casting powder.

**Figure 19 shows the distances between the oscillation marks for the two heats A
**

and B who are low in sulphur and high in sulphur respectively. The higher sulphur

content reduces the interfacial tension and decreases the distance.

20

18

low sulfur

16

high sulfur

14

Distance [mm]

12

10

8

6

4

2

0

100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240

Oscillation frequency [1/min]

Figure 19. The oscillation mark distances for two heats of the same steel with

different sulphur contents.

18

Fundia Armeringsstål A/S – Steel Billets

**In this study, the oscillation marks formed during casting with rape-seed oil as
**

protection have been examined. It was deduced that oscillation marks are formed

in the same way as on materials cast with casting powder. Between the marks, a

ripple pattern can be seen, with the mark distance of about 1 mm. The ripples are

assumed to form due to vibrations in the machine and are not further analysed.

The diagram in figure 20 shows the fraction of deeper marks as a function of

frequency. There are maxima at approximately 125 min-1 and 150 min-1

respectively.

**Fraction of deeper marks
**

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

Low sulphur

0.1 High sulphur

0

0 50 100 150 200

Oscillation frequency [1/min]

**Figure 20. Diagram of the fraction of deeper oscillation marks as a function of
**

frequency for steel cast without casting powder, but with rape-seed oil.

Outokumpu Copper AB – Copper Strips

**On the cast copper strips, there are patterns of different types of oscillation marks.
**

The marks on the narrow sides are deeper than the ones on the wide sides. This

fact may be due to the deformation of the strip caused by the rolls in the machine,

or due to the difference in heat extraction between the narrow and the wide sides.

Deeper marks are also found on the strips cast with the use of salt. The salt

addition caused a decrease by approximately 10% of the heat extraction from the

mould (measured as difference in temperature of mould cooling water), see figure

21.

**The surface appearances of the copper strips were studied. Figure 22 shows a strip
**

cast with the use of salt, v=1.1m/min and f=150 min-1. A waviness of the

19

oscillation marks is clear. The waviness can be connected to the nozzle

arrangement in the down-let system. The ridges in the waves, corresponds to open

nozzles and the upwards convex bulge is formed beneath closed nozzles.

400 100

v=1,1 m/min

350 Front 90

80

300

Heat transport [kW]

70

Mould level [%]

250 Back 60

200 50

150 40

Salt addition

30

100

20

50 10

0 0

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000

Time [s]

Figure 21. The heat transported to the mould cooling water is shown as a function

of time for the two wide sides of the mould. The lowest curve shows the liquid

metal level in the mould, in % of some reference.

**Figure 22. Photo of the surface of the copper strip cast at v=1.1 m/min and
**

f=150 min-1 and salt used as protection. The marks are wavy as given by the

down-let system.

Outokumpu Copper AB – Water Model

**In the water model study it could be seen that the water forms a concave bulge
**

right beneath the closed nozzles. The streams from the nozzles on each side of

the closed one/ones will interrupt the bulging when they press the surface

downwards. When the profile of the water surface was compared with the

oscillation marks on the cast strips, it seemed clear that the same thing happens in

the mould. There is one exception, close to the narrow side of the strip there are a

recirculation bulge on the cast strip. This one is not so strong in the water model –

because there is no shell moving downwards in the water model.

20

Figure 23. Photo of half the water model. We can see how the water forms an

upwards convex bulge beneath the closed nozzles and is pressed downwards by

the streams from the open nozzles.

Avesta Polarit AB – Stainless Steel Slabs

On the sample cast with the frequency 120 min-1 marks both with and without

hooks were found. On the samples cast at the other frequencies, no hooks were

found. The marks with hooks often showed some cracks which the marks without

hook did not. The Mo, Ni and Cr content around the oscillation marks with

hooks were measured using a microprobe. Figure 24 shows the fraction of deeper

oscillation marks and the depth of the deep marks as a function of oscillation

frequency. There is a clear minima of the depth for f=160 min-1.

**Figure 25 shows the microstructure of the material around the oscillation mark. A
**

“hook” which has been flown over by another liquid can clearly be seen. There

are some cracks in the bottom of the mark. The structure close to the surface is

very fine-grained while it gets coarser further from the surface.

21

0.7 0.35

Fraction deep marks

0.6 0.3

Depth of deep marks

**Depth of deep marks [mm]
**

0.5 [mm] 0.25

**Fraction deep marks
**

0.4 0.2

0.3 0.15

Measurements from 500 mm for each frequency

0.2 0.1

0.1 0.05

0 0

0 50 100 150 200

Frequency [1/min]

**Figure 24. Diagram of the fraction of deeper marks and depth of deeper marks as
**

a function of oscillation frequency. We see that the fraction of deeper marks

decreases as the frequency increases and that the depth shows a minimum for

f=160 min-1.

**During the casting process, the temperature of the mould cooling water was
**

logged. The temperature difference between inlet and outlet water can be used for

determining the heat extraction. The differences in mould water temperatures are

between 3.25 and 4.25 K and shown in figure 25. To determine the heat extraction,

we also need the volume of water flowing through the mould per time unit. These

numbers are: for both the narrow sides, 400 l and for the wide sides 5300 and

5400 l respectively.

4.4 difftemp ÖK

difftemp ytter

4.2 difftemp inner

difftemp VK

Water temperature [°C]

4

3.8

3.6

3.4

3.2

f=180 /min f=160 /min f=100/min

f=120/min

3

50 60 70 80 90 100

Cast length [m]

**Figure 25. The mould cooling water temperature difference as a function of cast
**

length. The plus signs represent changed oscillation frequency.

22

Figure 6 shows an oscillation mark with a hook and some cracks in the overflow

material.

**Figure 26. Photo of oscillation mark with a hook and cracks (indicated by white
**

arrows). The structure close to the surface is much more fine-grained than the

structure more far from the surface. The oscillation frequency was 120 min-1.

23

6. Theoretical background

**Our model of oscillation mark formation is based on a heat balance, a surface
**

tension balance and a pressure balance. A heat balance gives us the growth rate,

the surface tension balance gives us the angles between the phases and a pressure

balance gives us the shape of the liquid metal meniscus during the process. Below

the physical principles needed are described.

6.1 Heat transfer

Heat can be transported by conduction, by radiation and by convection.

Conduction

**Conduction is when energy is transported through the material by propagation of
**

vibrations of the atoms. Conductive heat transport is described by Fourier´s first

law:

dq dT

= −k Equation 9

dt dx

**q is amount of heat per unit area, t is time, k is heat conductivity [W/mK], T is
**

temperature and x is thickness of layer heat travels through.

Heat transfer across an interface is described by the following relation:

dq

= −h ⋅ (T2 − T1 ) Equation 10

dt

**If the heat must travel through several layers, we can treat the layers as connected
**

in series and L/kA as a resistance, the total resistance is:

x x1 x2 x3

= + + ... Equation 11

k ⋅ A k 1 ⋅ A1 k 2 ⋅ A 2 k 3 ⋅ A 3

and

dQ k⋅A

=− ⋅ (T2 − T1 ) Equation 12

dt L

can be used to calculate the heat flown through the system. Q is q times A.

**A more general relation than the ones above is the general heat conduction
**

equation

24

DT D 2T

=α Equation 13

Dt Dx 2

α is the thermal diffusivity which can be determined as:

k

α= [m2/s] Equation 14

ρ ⋅ Cp

**where k is the heat conduction coefficient of the material with the unit [J/m⋅s⋅K],
**

ρ is the density of the material in [kg/m2] and Cp is the heat capacity in [J/kg⋅K].

Radiation

The heat radiation can be determined by:

( )

dW = ε ⋅ σ ⋅ A ⋅ T 4 − T04 dt Equation 15

**where W is energy [J], ε is emissivity, which is a dimensionless, material dependant
**

factor, σ is the Stefan-Boltzmann constant = 5,67 ⋅ 10−8 [W/m2⋅K4], A is the area,

T is the temperature of the body, T0 is the temperature of the surrounding and t is

the time.

Convection

**Convection is energy transport caused by movement of the surrounding matter.
**

Natural convection is when media moves because of differences in heat content.

Forced convection is when material, e.g. water or air, is forced to pass a body. If

the body is warmer it will be cooled by the flowing fluid and vice versa.

Convection can be described by the following equation:

dQ

= h kon ⋅ A ⋅ (T0 − T∞ ) Equation 16

dt

hkon is the convective heat transfer coefficient, [J/m2⋅s⋅K].

Heat Transport in Continuous Casting

**In the mould, zone 1, the dominant heat transport mechanism is conduction
**

through several layers. The layers are mushy zone, solid metal, air gap, liquid slag,

solid slag, chromium layer on mould wall, copper in mould wall and mould

25

cooling water. The conduction through several layers can be treated as heat

transfer across a boundary. The heat transported from the steel in the mould can

be calculated by using the temperature difference of the mould cooling water.

**Vwater ⋅ ρ water ⋅ C water ⋅ ∆Twater
**

Q=

p

Equation 17

A

**Here Vwater is the water flow, ρwater is the density of the water (assumed to be
**

constant and =1 kg/m3, C pwater is the heat capacity of water (=4.184 [kJ/kg⋅K]), ∆T

is monitored and A is the contact area between cast material and mould, [m2].

A = (2 ⋅ b + 2 ⋅ d ) ⋅ (length of contact in the mould) Equation 18

**Beneath the mould, in zone 2, the metal is cooled mainly by forced convection
**

when water is sprayed on the surface. In this the radiation and conduction

through support rolls dominates the process. The 3rd zone can be said to start as

the strand is solid across the entire cross-section. Here in this zone, the heat

transfers through radiation, natural convection and through conduction to the

support rolls.

Heat Transport in the Model for Oscillation Mark Formation

**In the analysis of the oscillation mark formation, we consider convective heat
**

transfer to be the controlling one in the mould. We further assume that there are

two convective steps, heat transfer from the superheated melt, across a laminar

boundary layer, to the surface of the solidifying strand and heat transfer across a

gap between strand and mould. A conductive component is also include in our

analysis but we do not consider radiation apart from the fact that the convective

heat transfer coefficient for heat flow across the gap between shell and mould wall,

may include radiative transfer.

Air gap

Mould

wall

Solid

shell

Laminar boundary layer

Figure 27. The main heat transfer mechanisms at the meniscus are convective heat

transfer from the bulk liquid to the shell and convective heat transfer from the

shell to the mould.

26

Convective heat transfer is generally described by Equation 16. The first

convective step transports the superheat from the melt to the solidified shell. The

temperature of the melt outside the boundary layer is the Tsol+∆T, and the

temperature of the shell in contact with the melt is Tsol. In this analysis we treat

the solidification front as planar.

**The other convective step transports heat from the solid shell to the mould wall.
**

The temperature of the outside surface of the solid shell is lower than Tsol but in

the meniscus region still quite close why we chose to use Tsol in our calculations.

The temperature of the mould wall is assumed to be 100°C. This value was

chosen because the mould is water cooled. The water channels are of course not

at the surface why the temperature of the surface is somewhat higher. Some

authors report 350°C.

**The equations describing the two convective processes in the continuous casting
**

mould:

dQ

= h lam ⋅ A ⋅ ∆T Equation 19

dt

dQ

= h air ⋅ A ⋅ (Tsol − Tmould ) Equation 20

dt

The heat transfer from the melt to the shell

The heat transfer coefficient, hlam, can be determined as:

k melt

h lam = Equation 21

δ lam

**where kmelt is the heat conductivity of the melt and δlam is the thickness of the
**

laminar velocity boundary layer at the meniscus. Using an appropriate

approximation for the flow, calculation of the thickness of a boundary layer can

be done. The flow in our case can be described as flow passing a straight,

horizontal, long cylinder and the thickness of the boundary layer is [26]:

L L

δ lam = = Equation 22

C ⋅ Ra n g ⋅ β ⋅ (TS − T∞ ) ⋅ L3

n

C ⋅

ν⋅α

**The constants C and n depends on the size of the Rayleigh number and are listed
**

in Table 2 [26].

27

Table 2. The constants C and n for different Rayleigh numbers.

RaL C n

10-10-10-2 0.675 0.058

10-2-102 1.02 0.148

102-104 0.85 0.188

104-107 0.48 0.25

107-1012 0.125 0.333

The heat transfer from the shell to the mould

**The heat transfer coefficient at the meniscus will determine the thickness of the
**

shell tip present before the oscillation mark starts to form. In this region, there is

only a very narrow air gap, and the heat transfer can be rather high. A slag film is

present and perhaps also a solid slag rim. The heat transfer depends on:

**● Thickness of air gap
**

● Thickness of solid slag layer on mould wall

●Thickness of liquid slag layer

●Thermal conductivity of solid and liquid slag

**One way to determine the heat transfer coefficient across the gap, filled with slag,
**

is to use Equation 21:

k gap

h=

δ gap

**The heat conductivity of the liquid slag is approximately 1 W/mK [8], [28]. In
**

their values, both the actual conduction and the radiation are included. The

thickness of the vertical liquid flux layer has been evaluated from the consumption

of casting powder. Several authors report average values of 0.2 mm [28]. With

these values, we get a heat transfer coefficient of 5000 W/m2·K. In this

approximation we assume that there is no air gap or solid slag layer. The

maximum heat transfer coefficient has by other authors been reported to be up to

6000 W/m2·K.

Determination of Solid Shell Growth Rate and Shell Tip Radius

**The radius of the initially formed solid shell tip, determines the oscillation mark
**

profile. This radius can be determined from a heat balance. The heat that must be

transported to the mould is the heat of solidification and the superheat of the melt

and, assuming that Nu<<1 (since the shell is very thin), the heat flux gets:

28

dQ dx dT

= A ⋅ ρ metal ⋅ − ∆H ⋅ + V ⋅ ρ metal ⋅ C P ⋅ Equation 23

dt dt dt

**To make the superheat easier to treat, we treat it as heat transfer across a laminar
**

boundary layer as described above:

dQ dx

= A ⋅ ρ metal ⋅ − ∆H ⋅ + A ⋅ h lam ⋅ ∆T Equation 24

dt dt

**The heat transported away is assumed to pass across the air gap between strand
**

and mould is given by Equation 20 and the heat transfer coefficient by Equation

21.

dQ

= A ⋅ h gap ⋅ (Tsol − Tmould )

dt

k gap

h gap =

δ gap

**We put the transferred heat equal to the heat formed during cooling and
**

solidification and can get an expression for the shell growth rate:

**dx h gap ⋅ (Tsol − Tmould ) − h lam ⋅ ∆T
**

= Equation 25

dt ρ ⋅ (− ∆H )

**The radius of the shell tip can be calculated from this expression assuming that it
**

forms in one time-step.

**h gap ⋅ (Tsol − Tmould ) − h lam ⋅ ∆T
**

R= ⋅ timestep Equation 26

ρ ⋅ (− ∆H )

Solidification in the z-direction

**The solidified shell may conduct heat in the z-direction, causing the shell tip to
**

grow upwards. The shapes of the shell tips indicates that this happens, since the

tips often are parabolic instead of half circular or more flat. An accurate analysis

of this mechanism would include determining the surface temperature profile and

the variation of the shell thickness. Note that with the assumption Nu<<1, no

heat transport in the z-direction is possible.

29

6.2 Surface tension balance and angles between phases

**Surface tension is the physical phenomena that make free drops spherical and
**

razor blades not to sink in water. The surface tension is due to surface atoms not

having their bindings occupied in one direction. There will be an excess energy in

the surface and as all systems try to minimize its energy, a drop will try to get

spherical shape, since a sphere has the smallest area to volume ratio. By definition,

surface tension acts between a liquid or solid surface and vapour. When treating

surfaces between liquids, or between a liquid and a solid, the property is named

interfacial tension. The unit of surface tension and interfacial tension is [J/m2] or

[N/m].

β

β

**Figure 28. Sessile drops for high and for low surface tensions. β is the wetting
**

angle.

**One common method for determining the surface tension is to measure the shape
**

of sessile drops, see figure 28, the higher surface tension, the more spherical drop.

The surface tension and the interfacial tension depend strongly on the content of

impurities. Some elements, so-called surface-active agents or surfactants, will

concentrate at the surface/interface and reduce the surface/interfacial tension.

One important example is the effect of sulphur on the surface tension of liquid

iron, see figure 29.

2

Surface/Interfacial tension [J/m^2]

1.8

1.6

1.4

1.2

1

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

Content sulphur in Fe [wt%]

Figure 29. The surface tension of the Fe-S-system decreases as the S-content

increases.

**Similar behaviours are seen for steel and copper. The adsorption process also
**

lowers the surface tension. Adsorption is when a solid or a liquid binds foreign

30

atoms to its surface. The binding may be physical or chemical. In physical

adsorption, the adsorbed atoms can easily be removed since the attraction forces

are very small. In chemical adsorption the attraction forces are large, and the

adsorbed elements are hard to remove. Adsorption can be active at continuous

casting of both steel and copper. There might be specimens in the protective

media that adsorbs at the surface and thereby reduces the surface tension.

Another possible process influencing the surface tension is when there are

reactions between metal and slag/salt/atmosphere. A mass transport across a

phase boundary will cause a decrease in surface/interfacial tension. The

surface/interfacial tension also depend on the temperature, an increasing

temperature decreases the surface tension [24], [25].

**Three phases in contact will establish a multiphase equilibrium. The Dupré
**

equation describes the equilibrium:

γ 23 γ 13 γ

= = 12 Equation 27

sin Ω1 sin Ω 2 sin Ω 3

**where γii are the surface/interfacial tensions and Ωi the angles between the phases
**

[29].

**The present phases will establish a surface/interfacial tension balance, which
**

decides the angles between the phases. The equilibrium surface/interfacial tension

balance can be calculated for the principal geometry in Figure 30:

V or slag or salt

S L

σLV

γ

σSV

β

α

σSL

β+γ-180°

Figure 30. The present phases will establish an interfacial tension balance.

For this geometry, the following equations are valid:

31

α + β + γ = 360° Equation 28

σ LV σ σ

Equation 29

= SV = SL Dupré equation

sin α sin β sin γ

σ 2 = σ 2 + σ 2 − σ ⋅ σ ⋅ cos(β + γ − 180°) Cosine theorem Equation 30

LV SV SL SV SL

This system can be solved:

σ

β = arcsin SV ⋅ sin α Equation 31

σ LV

σ σ

α + β + γ = α + arcsin SV ⋅ sin α + γ = 360° → γ = 360° − α − arcsin SV ⋅ sin α

σ LV σ LV

σ 2LV = σ SV

2

+ σ SL

2

− σ SV ⋅ σ SL ⋅ cos(β + γ − 180°) =

σ σ

= σ SV

2

+ σ SL

2

− σ SV ⋅ σ SL ⋅ cos arcsin SV ⋅ sin α + 360° − α − arcsin SV ⋅ sin α − 180° =

σ LV σ LV

= σ SV

2

+ σ SL

2

− σ SV ⋅ σ SL ⋅ cos(180° − α ) = σ SV

2

+ σ SL

2

+ σ SV ⋅ σ SL ⋅ cos α

σ 2LV − σ SV

2

− σ SL

2

→ α = arccos

Equation 32

σ SV ⋅ σ SL

and

σ σ 2 − σ SV

2

− σ SL

2

β = arcsin SV ⋅ sin arccos LV

Equation 33

σ LV σ ⋅ σ

SV SL

6.3 Pressure balance and meniscus shape

**At the upper surface of a liquid metal in any kind of tube, a meniscus is formed.
**

The shape of the meniscus has been described by Bikerman [2]:

a a 2 + 2a 2 − z 2

x − x 0 = − 2a 2 − z 2 + ln Equation 34

2 z

x is the direction perpendicular to the mould wall and z is parallel to the wall.

x0 = a −

a

2

( )

⋅ ln 2 + 1 ≈ 0.3768a Equation 35

2⋅σ

a2 = Equation 36

(ρ metal − ρ surr ) ⋅ g

32

The Laplace capillary constant, a2, is based on a pressure balance. The classical

formulation takes metallostatic pressure and surface tension into account but may

be completed with other pressure terms, such as pressure caused by movements in

the liquid metal or pressure caused by an electromagnetic field.

Derivation of Laplace capillary constant

**The derivation of the Laplace capillary constant starts with putting metallostatic
**

pressure equal to the pressure caused by the interfacial tension:

σ dϕ

g ⋅ (ρ metal − ρ surr ) ⋅ z = = σ ⋅ sin ϕ ⋅ Equation 37

R dz

If this expression is integrated, we end up with:

g ⋅ (ρ metal − ρ surr ) ⋅ z 2 = 2σ ⋅ (1 − cos ϕ) Equation 38

The conditions at the wall are that the liquid surface is vertical or:

π

ϕ=

2

which means that

g ⋅ (ρ metal − ρ surr ) ⋅ z 2 = 2σ Equation 39

The maximum height of the meniscus is z, i.e. the Laplace capillary constant:

2σ

z= Equation 40

g ⋅ (ρ metal − ρ surr )

**The density of the protective media of course changes if we change media. The
**

Bikerman profile may also be changed by changing the interfacial tension term or

the gravitational acceleration. Figure 31 shows the Bikerman profile for different

interfacial tensions and different densities of protective media.

33

0

Surface tension:

−0.01 Density of surrounding media: 0.7 J/m2 − red line

z [m]

2000 kg/m3 1.88 J/m2 − blue line

7 J/m2 − green line

−0.02

0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1

x [m]

**Figure 31 a. The meniscus profile for different interfacial tensions between metal
**

and media. The higher interfacial tension, the higher profile.

0

**−0.01 Surface tension: Density of surrounding media:
**

z [m]

1.88 J/m2 1 kg/m3 − red line

2000 kg/m3 − blue line

−0.02

0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1

x [m]

**Figure 31 b. The meniscus profiles for iron with different protective media.
**

Different media have different densities. A higher density gives a higher meniscus,

the blue curve.

**The oscillation will cause variation of the meniscus shape [3]. The effect of the
**

oscillation on the Laplace capillary constant can either be considered as a variation

of the friction force between steel and protective media of as a variation of the

gravitational acceleration. If we choose the friction force approach, we can let the

interfacial tension vary since the friction force and the surface tension will act in

the same way. As the mould moves upwards, the meniscus height will decrease

which corresponds to a low surface tension. The downward movement can in the

same way be treated as an increase of the surface tension. A proper analysis of the

friction force would include determination of the velocity gradient in the media

protecting the steel, e.g. slag. Apart from the velocity profile we need to know the

viscosity of the media. In a casting process the viscosity of a slag may change due

to reactions between slag and metal.

The variation of the gravitational acceleration may be treated in the following way:

The position of the mould moving according to a sine function is:

y = s ⋅ sin (2 ⋅ π ⋅ f ⋅ t ) Equation 41

**The velocity of the oscillating mould is described by the derivative of the sine
**

function, i.e:

34

v = 2 ⋅ π ⋅ f ⋅ s ⋅ cos(2 ⋅ π ⋅ f ⋅ t ) Equation 42

The acceleration of the mould is the derivative of the velocity, i.e. a sine function:

acc = − (2 ⋅ π ⋅ f )2 ⋅ s ⋅ sin (2 ⋅ π ⋅ f ⋅ t ) Equation 43

**The Laplace capillary constant can thus be written.
**

2⋅σ

a2 = Equation 44

(ρ L − ρ surr ) ⋅ (g + (− (2 ⋅ π ⋅ f )2 ⋅ s ⋅ sin (2 ⋅ π ⋅ f ⋅ t )))

The time, t, will vary between 0 and the maximum time, which is the period, T:

1

T= Equation 45

f

**It is possible to reformulate the Bikerman equation for other cases. We can take
**

liquid metal movement or electromagnetic pressure into account.

If we include liquid metal movements in the balance, the final expression will be:

z=−

ρm ⋅ v2

+

(ρ ⋅ v2 )

m

2

+

2 ⋅ σ L / surr

Equation 46

2 ⋅ g(ρ m − ρ surr ) (2 ⋅ g(ρ m − ρ surr )) g ⋅ (ρ m − ρ surr )

2

**A simplified approximation of the meniscus height, under the influence of an
**

electromagnetic field, was performed by Sundberg [30] and gives:

2

µ ⋅H

h≈ 0 Equation 47

2gρ

**ρ is the density of the melt and for steel with the density 7000 kg/m3 at the field
**

strength H =2 *105 A/m we get the meniscus height [30]:

h≈

(

4π ⋅ 10 −7 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 10 5 ) 2

= 0.366 m

2 ⋅ 9.81 ⋅ 7000

Pressure Balance and Angles between the Phases

**The angle between the liquid phase and the solid tip can be determined by
**

derivation of the Bikerman equation:

35

a a 2 + 2a 2 − z 2

d − 2a 2 − z 2 + ln + x0

dx 2 z

= Equation 48

dt dt

dx z a −z 1 dz

− ⋅

dt

=

2a 2 − z 2

+

2 ( 2a 2

)(

− z 2 ⋅ a 2 + 2a 2 − z 2 ) z dt

Equation 49

The chain rule for derivatives gives

dx dx dz

= ⋅ Equation 50

dt dz dt

and thus

dx

dx dt z a −z 1

−

=

dz dz

=

2a − z

2 2

+

2 ( 2a 2

)(

− z ⋅ a 2 + 2a − z

2 2 2

) z

Equation 51

dt

The angle β is

dx

β = arc cot − Equation 52

dz

7. Theoretical analysis

7.1 The model for the oscillation mark formation

**When the liquid metal level is the proper one, the withdrawal of the product starts.
**

To keep the level constant, new melt is constantly poured down into the mould.

This simultaneous filling and withdrawal, makes the meniscus height increase until

the interfacial tension balance, between the three phases solid, liquid and

protective media, collapses and an overflow occur. The overflowing melt will get

quite close to the mould wall and a solid shell will immediately form and the

process starts over again, see Figure 32. We see that the shell growth occur in

steps – this behaviour was also seen on the break-out shell, see figure 10.

36

Figure 32. The height of the meniscus increases until it collapses as the surface

tension balance gets unstable. The melt will flow over the shell tip and a mark is

formed

The first approach

**First we chose to do the calculations according to a model in which we start with a
**

planar surface and let the liquid meniscus move as determined by the solidification

inwards and the withdrawal downwards. We then assumed that a microscopic

interfacial tension balance was established between the liquid metal, one dendrite

tip and the protective media. The model is described by the figure 33. The shape

of the mark calculated according to this model gets concave in its lower part.

**Liquid Liquid Liquid
**

Liquid

Liquid

Liquid

Liquid

a. b. c. d. e. f. g.

Solid

Solid

Solid

Solid Solid

Figure 33. Our first attempt of calculating the oscillation mark profile was based

on the idea of a flat upper surface and a liquid meniscus moving inwards and

“upwards”.

The second approach

**In the second approach we chose to start with a shell with a half-circular tip. The
**

radius of the tip was determined by a heat balance using the maximum heat

37

transfer coefficient. This shell with its radius was assumed to move inwards as

described by figure 34. The withdrawal of the strand and the constant level in the

mould made the shell tip with the constant radius virtually move upwards. The

macroscopic interfacial tension balance determines where along the half circular

tip the liquid meniscus would be situated after each time step. The meniscus

grows higher for each time step and its shape will follow the Bikerman equation

why it above its critical height will move towards the mould wall. The distance

between the marks will be about the total height of the meniscus taking the

oscillation into consideration. In this assumption, a solid shell tip of the same

radius is growing upwards and inwards. The shell withdrawal continues which

makes the liquid meniscus height to increase until it “bulges” back. The bulge gets

in contact with the mould wall and immediately solidifies. A new cycle is started.

Liquid Liquid Liquid Liquid Liquid

Solid

Solid

Solid

Solid

Solid

**Figure 34. The model that we based most of our calculations on, assume a half-
**

circular shell tip.

Optimal oscillation frequency

**The main hypothesis in the work is that there is an optimal oscillation frequency
**

for which the mark formation gets very stable. At this frequency, all the marks

have the same depth and there is no pattern of different marks. The oscillation

causes a variation of the meniscus height and it may be possible to avoid the mark

formation. If the oscillation frequency is chosen so that the maximum meniscus

height is never reached, the overflows will not occur. In other words, if the mould

is turning to upward movement just as the maximum meniscus height is reached,

the overflow will be suppressed. The optimal oscillation frequency is suggested to

be:

v

f= Equation 53

2 ⋅a

and Equation 36 gives:

38

2 ⋅ σ metal / surrounding

a=

g ⋅ (ρ metal − ρ surrounding )

**Although it may be hard to totally suppress the marks, it is suggested that the
**

surface quality gets considerably improved if an oscillation frequency close to the

ideal one is chosen. It may also be advantageously to choose an oscillation

frequency that is twice the ideal one. Then every second mark will be “ideal” and

the others are deeper and more likely to cause defects.

7.2 Calculation of oscillation mark profile

The first approach

**According to the Bikerman profile, the original height of the meniscus is that
**

where the distance between the meniscus and the wall is as small as possible. A

heat balance between the heat transported across the air gap and the heat of

solidification gives the growth rate of the shell.

The heat transported across the air gap is described by Equation 20:

dQ

= h ⋅ A ⋅ (Tshell − Tmould )

dt

and the heat of solidification can, according to Equation 23, be written as:

dQ dx

= A ⋅ ρ ⋅ (− ∆H ) ⋅

dt dt

**Assuming that all heat is transported across the gap between the metal and the
**

mould, the two equations must be equal and the following expression for the

growth rate of the shell results.

**dx h ⋅ (Tshell − Tmould )
**

= Equation 54

dt ρ L ⋅ (− ∆H )

dz

The pulling rate, , of the strand is known and the assumptions above give z as

dt

a function of time in Bikerman equation. Putting z into the Bikerman equation

and derivate it, gives the angle β. Comparing the angle from the surface tension

∆air gap

balance with from the Bikerman profile makes it possible to determine

∆height

the height of the meniscus and the air gap for each step.

39

When the calculations are begun, it is assumed that the upper surface is almost flat.

The shell grows inwards and a surface tension balance is established between the

solid and the liquid. The heat flow will be perpendicular to the mould surface. The

depth of an oscillation mark was calculated by derivate the Bikerman equation and

by solving the other equations numerically for a number of time steps.

The second approach

**The calculation of the marks shape start by assuming that a shell with a half-
**

circular tip solidifies in one time step. The thickness of this shell is determined by

the maximum heat transfer coefficient and the time step length. The radius of the

tip is assumed to be half the shell thickness. On top of the shell tip, there will be a

liquid meniscus. The shape of the meniscus depends on the interfacial tension

between liquid metal and protective media. We treat the frictional forces caused

by the oscillation as a variation of the interfacial tension. As soon as the mould

changes direction, the interfacial tension changes and so does the shape of the

meniscus. The position of the meniscus along the solidified shell tip is determined

by the interfacial tension balance. This angle is put into the derivative of the

Bikerman equation to get the position along the meniscus. In the next time step,

the solid tip has moved inwards and “upwards”. A new surface tension balance is

established and since the liquid metal level in the mould is kept constant and the

growth “upwards” is slower than the withdrawal, the height of the meniscus will

increase until it “bulges” over and gets in contact with the mould wall. A new first

shell tip is solidified and the next mark starts to form.

8. Results of calculations

The first approach

**The oscillation mark profile was calculated for two cases: i, No superheat and ii, A
**

superheat of 30°C. The first approach gives concave marks as shown in Figure 35.

40

Figure 35. The oscillation mark profile calculated in our first attempt. The mark

gets concave.

The second approach

**The calculations of the oscillation mark profiles shows that the oscillation mark
**

width and depth increases as the interfacial tension increase, see Figures 36, 37

and 39. 1.88 J/m2, is the equilibrium interfacial tension between melt and metal

vapour. The lower value, 0.7 J/m2, corresponds to upward mould movement and

the higher interfacial tension, 7 J/m2, corresponds to downward mould movement.

Marks formed as the mould moves upwards should according to our model get

smaller in both width and depth, while marks formed during down strokes get

wider and deeper. The calculations show that if the mould changes direction

during the formation of the mark, the mark profile will be influenced.

41

width, hlam=600 W/m2K

7

**OSM depth and width [mm]
**

6 width, hlam=22000 W/m2K

5

4

3

2

depth, hlam=600 W/m2K

1 depth, hlam=22000 W/m2K

0

0 2 4 6 8

Interfacial tension between melt and surrounding [J/m^2]

Figure 36. The calculations show that the width and the depth of the oscillation

marks increase with increasing interfacial tension between liquid and vapour. A

lower laminar heat transfer coefficient gives wider and deeper marks.

**Figures 37 and 38 are for hlam=600 W/m2K which is a guessed value. A first
**

analysis gave hlam=22000 W/m2K and Figures 39 and 40 are for this value. A

higher hlam gives smaller width and depth of the marks. In Figures 37-40, the red

curves are for no solidification in the z-direction. The green curves are for

solidification in the z-direction of half the one in the x-direction. The blue curves

are for solidification in the z-direction of the same magnitude as the one in the x-

direction.

42

−3 −3

x 10 x 10

3.5 6

S.T. 0.7 S.T.1.88 S.T. 7 S.T. 0.7; 7 S.T. 1.88; 7

0.01 0.01 0.01

3

5 0.009 0.009 0.009

**2.5 0.008 0.008 0.008
**

4

height [m] 0.007 0.007 0.007

height [m]

height [m]

height [m]

height [m]

2

0.006 0.006 0.006

3

0.005 0.005 0.005

1.5

0.004 0.004 0.004

2

1 0.003 0.003 0.003

1 0.002

0.002 0.002

0.5

0.001

0.001 0.001

0 0 0

0 5 0 0.5 1 0 1 2 0 0

depth [m] −4 depth [m] −3 depth [m] −3 0 1 2 0 1 2

x 10 x 10 x 10 depth [m] −3 depth [m] −3

x 10 x 10

**Figure 37. The OSM-profiles for three Figure 38. OSM-profiles for
**

different interfacial tensions: 0.7, 1.88 increasing interfacial tensions and

and 7 J/m2 and hlam=600 W/m2K. hlam=600 W/m2K. σLV is suddenly

changed from lower to higher at one

point.

−3 −3 −3 −3

x 10 x 10 x 10 x 10

3 5 0.01 5 5

S.T. 0.7 S.T 1.88 S.T. 7 S.T. 7, 1.88 S.T 7, 0.7

4.5 0.009 4.5 4.5

2.5

4 0.008 4 4

3.5 0.007 3.5 3.5

2

3 0.006 3 3

height [m]

height

height

height

height

1.5 2.5 0.005 2.5 2.5

2 0.004 2 2

1

1.5 0.003 1.5 1.5

1 0.002 1 1

0.5

0.5 0.001 0.5 0.5

0 0 0 0 0

0

depth [m]−45 0 0.5 1 0 1 2 0 0.5 1 0 0.5 1

depth [m] −3 depth [m] −3 depth [m] −3 depth [m] −3

x 10 x 10 x 10 x 10 x 10

**Figure 39. The OSM-profiles for three Figure 40. OSM-profiles for
**

different interfacial tensions: 0.7, 1.88 and 7 decreasing σLV and hlam=22000

J/m2 and hlam=22000 W/m2K. W/m2K. σLV is suddenly changed

from higher to lower at one point.

43

9. Discussion

**There are two types of oscillation marks: overflow marks and folding marks. We
**

suggest that they both are caused by overflows. The difference in their appearance

depends on that they form at different places in the oscillation cycle. The overflow

marks are formed during the down strokes, and the folding marks during the

upstrokes, see Figure 41.

**Figure 41. The sinus curve indicates the mould movement and the vertical lines
**

are the overflows. The first two overflows will produce overflow marks, the next

two folding marks and the fifth, an overflow mark.

**The experiments shows that the oscillation marks may form patterns, see Figure
**

14. One deeper mark is followed by some shallow marks. Then there comes a

deep one and so on. It is believed that the deeper marks form when the interfacial

tension and the oscillation co-operates as shown in Figure 41. We further suggest

that it is possible to avoid the oscillation mark formation by avoiding the

overflows. This is because the oscillation causes a variation of the meniscus profile,

as described for example by Takeuchi et al. [3]. If the oscillation frequency is

chosen so that the maximum meniscus height is never reached, the overflows will

not occur. In other words, if the mould is turning to upward movement just as the

maximum meniscus height is reached, the overflow will be suppressed. The

optimal oscillation frequency is suggested to be:

v

f= Equation 51

2 ⋅a

and Equation 36 gives:

2 ⋅ σ metal / surrounding

a=

g ⋅ (ρ metal − ρ surrounding )

**This term may be modified taking liquid movement, electromagnetic fields and
**

even mould oscillation into account as described in Chapter 6.3.

44

Figure 42 shows the relation between casting velocity and oscillation frequency for

different interfacial tensions. The triangles represent the performed experiments at

the billet casting plant at Fundia Special Bar AB in Smedjebacken.

Interfacial tension 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.0

2

1,5

1

0,5

0

0 50 100 150 200 250

Frequency [1/min]

**Figure 42. A diagram showing the ideal relation between oscillation frequency and
**

casting speed can be constructed. The solid lines represent the relation for

different interfacial tensions. This curve is for the billet casting at Fundia Special

Bar AB in Smedjebacken. The solid triangles represent the experiments performed.

**The hooks present in some oscillation marks is assumed to be the shell present
**

when the mark forms. The break-out shell study indicates that the shell thickness

is a couple of millimetres when the marks form. Close to the ideal oscillation

frequency, the fraction of marks with cracks has a minimum (Figure 13), the

oscillation mark distance has a maximum (Figure 15), the fraction of deeper marks

has a minimum (Figure 18) and the depth of deep marks has a minimum (Figure

24). The surface quality in all gets better and more stable. It is also interesting to

see how the heat transfer increases for the optimal oscillation frequency (Figure

26). Together these factors form a strong incentive for trying to optimise the

oscillation parameters in industrial continuous casting processes.

**The calculations performed in the theoretical work shows that the mark shapes
**

changes when the interfacial tension changes. If the oscillation is assumed to cause

changes in the interfacial tension, this means that marks formed at different times

of the oscillation cycle will have different properties. The calculations is thus also

supporting the idea of an optimal oscillation frequency – i.e. by choosing an

oscillation frequency that admits the marks to form at the same time in the

oscillation cycle, the marks will get more even and less harmful.

45

10. Future works

**The formation of oscillation marks in continuous casting has been thoroughly
**

examined by us and by many other authors. More work may be needed in

electromagnetic casting methods and on the function of casting powder. One

suggestion is to study the oscillation marks on material cast under influence of an

electromagnetic field and use a modified version of the Laplace capillary constant

to optimise the oscillation frequency. Another suggestion is a work aiming to

connect optimal oscillation frequency to casting powder composition for very

crack sensitive steel grades. Casting powder selection is though still a dark field

that need some efforts. The shell growth in the mould is interesting, not only for

the oscillation mark formation, but for basically all problems concerning

continuous casting. An interesting experiment would be to, for different

oscillation frequencies, determine the actual shell growth in the mould by adding

some element that will deposit at the solidification front and be detectable at a

segregation analysis. A bigger study of break-out shells may also give valuable

information about the phenomena occurring in the continuous casting mould.

46

11. Acknowledgements

**First I wish to thank my supervisor Professor Hasse Fredriksson for the
**

cooperation, and the administrative staff at the department: Ms Lena

Magnusson, for the support throughout my rough times and Mrs Elisabeth

Lampén, for keeping everything together at the department.

**Thanks also the Swedish Iron Masters Association and the Faxén Laboratory
**

for financing and to the companies who let me perform experiments:

**The former Danish Steel Works Ltd. (DDS), Frederiksvaerk, Denmark –
**

especially Mr Bernt Lodin.

Fundia Special Bar AB, Smedjebacken, Sweden – especially Mr Gunnar Hällén.

Fundia Armeringsstål A/S, Mo-i-Rana, Norway – especially Mr Arne-Eirik

Eide.

Outokumpu Copper Partner AB, Västerås, Sweden – especially Dr Karin

Hansson, Mr Rolf Grödén, Dr Jafar Mahmoudi and Mr Stieg Andersson

AvestaPolarit AB, Avesta, Sweden – especially Mr Tommy Acimovic, Mr

Niklas Nilsson and Mr Anders Appell.

**The Swedish Institute for Metals Research let me use the surface profilometer
**

and taught me how to use it. Thank You – especially to Mr Hans Bruce and Mr

Mårten Persson.

**I would also express my gratitude to:
**

Mr Thomas Bergström for experimental assistance.

Mr Björn Widell, who helped me get started with the experiments.

Mr José Tinoco and Mr Futsum Hailom Yosef, my roommates, who have to

see my messy desk and gladly share their knowledge about their home countries.

Members of Casting of Metals, former and present, especially Ms Jenny Kron

and Mr Anders Lagerstedt for all our discussions about everything.

**Further I want to thank all my friends for the good times, particularly Annika
**

Brännström, Patrik Persson and Peter Mattesson for the invaluable friendship.

**I also wish to thank my mom and dad: Elisabeth and Mats for raising me to an
**

independent person and my brother Mattias and my sister Jenny for always

helping me keep courage.

**Finally I thank my love in life Bernt-Åke for his tolerance, patience and never-
**

ending support and our son Hugo for filling my life with extraordinary joy. I love

you both!

47

12. References

**1. Irving, W.R. ”Continuous casting of steel”, The Institute of Materials, London
**

1993

2. Bikerman J.J. ”Physical surfaces”, Academic press, New York & London 1970

**3. Takeuchi E., Brimacombe J.K., Metallurgical Transactions B, Vol. 15 B,
**

September 1984, pp. 493-509

**4. Lanyi M. D., Rosa C. J., Metallurgical Transactions B, Vol. 12B, June 1981, pp.
**

287-298

**5. Pinheiro C. A., Samarasekara I.V., Brimacombe J.K., Iron and Steelmaker,
**

November 1994, p. 62

**6. Riboud P. V., Larrecq M., Steelmaking Conference Proceedings, Vol. 74,
**

Washington D.C., USA, 1991, pp. 78-82

7. Mills K. C., Steel Technology International, 1994

**8. Abratis H., Höfer F., Jünemann M., Sardemann J., Stoffel H., Stahl und Eisen
**

116 (1996), Nr. 4, pp. 85-91

**9. Pinheiro C. A., Samarasekara I.V., Brimacombe J.K., Iron and Steelmaker,
**

October 1994, pp.55-56

**10. Branion R.V., Mold Powders for Continuous Casting and Bottom Pour
**

Teeming, Iron and Steel Society, AIME, pp. 3-14

11. Mc Cauley W. L., Apelian D., Iron and Steelmaker, August 1983

**12. Gray R., Marston H., Steelmaking Conference Proceedings, Vol. 74,
**

Washington D.C., USA, 14-17 Apr 1991, pp. 93-102

13. Szekeres E. S., Iron and steel Engineer, July 1996, pp. 29-37

**14. Wolf M. M., Mold Powders for Continuous Casting and Bottom Pour
**

Teeming, Iron and Steel Society, AIME, pp. 33-44

**15. Sato R., Steelmaking proceedings, Vol. 62, Detroit, Michigan, 25-28 Mar, 1979,
**

pp. 48-67

**16. Saucedo I.G., Beech J., Davies G. J., Conference on Solidification Technology
**

in the foundry and cast house, Warwick, Coventry, 15-17 September 1980

48

17. Saucedo I. G., Steelmaking Conference Proceedings, Vol. 74, Washington

D.C., USA, 14-17 Apr 1991, pp. 79-89

**18. Tomono H., Ackermann P., Kurz W., Heinemann W., Conf. Continuous
**

Casting of Small Cross Sections, Pittsburgh, Pa., 8 Oct 1980, pp. 524-531

**19. Takeuchi E., Brimacombe J.K., Metallurgical Transactions B, Vol. 16B,
**

September 1985, pp. 605-625

**20. Samarasekara I.V., Brimacombe J.K., Bommarju R., ISS Transactions, Vol. 5,
**

1984, pp.79-94

**21. Suzuki T., Miyata Y., Kunieda T., J. Japan Inst. Metals, Vol. 50, No.2 (1986),
**

pp.208-214

**22. Delhalle A., Larrecq M., Petegnief J., Radot J.P., La Revue de Métallurgie –
**

CIT, June 1989, pp.483-489

**23. Lainez E., Busturia J. C., 1st European Conference on Continuous Casting,
**

Florence, Italy 1991, pp. 1.621-1.631

24. Encyclopedia Britannica

**25. Iida T., Guthrie R. I. L. ”The Physical Properties of Liquid Metals”, Clarendon
**

Press, Oxford 1988

**26. Incropera F. P., DeWitt D. P. “Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th
**

Ed.”, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York 1996, ISBN 0-471-30460-3

27. Grant D. M., Wood J. V., Powder Metallurgy, Vol. 35, No. 1, 1992

**28. Yamauchi A., Sorimachi K., Sakuraya T., Fujii T., ISIJ International, Vol. 33
**

(1993), No. 1, pp. 140-147

**29. Murr L.E. “Interfacial phenomena in metals and alloys”, Addison-Wesley,
**

1975

**30. Sundberg Y., “Elektrougnar och induktiva omrörare”, ASEA, Ugnsbyrån,
**

1978

49

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