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Program Support Notes
Senior Secondary - T ertiary

33mins
Textile Colouration

Teacher Notes by The Society of Dyers &
Colourists of Australia & New Zealand

Produced by The Society of Dyers & Colourists
of Australia & New Zealand
Distributed by Video Education Australasia

© Video Education Australasia Pty. Ltd.

Suitable for:

Design & T echnology Textiles

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Colouration

ACTIVITY MASTERS
SOCIETY OF DYERS AND COLOURISTS
AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND
DYEING

D
yeing is the process whereby dye and an Auxochrome which gives a dye its
molecules, thoroughly dissolved or solubility and ability to attach itself to a fibre.
dispersed in water or some other
Dyestuffs can be grouped according to the fibres
carrier, are able to penetrate and colour
with which they can be used. Different dyes are
textile materials.
attracted to different fibres. The strength of the
Dyeing can be carried out at the polymer, fibre, dye-fibre attraction is called “Affinity”.
yarn, fabric and garment or product stage.
Each class of dye has a unique chemistry,
Dyes are substances with a special capacity structure and way of bonding to the fibre.
for reflecting light. They have a distinctive Some dyes react chemically with the fibre
structure and are made up of a colour forming strong bonds – others are held by
bearing component called a Chromophore physical forces.

CLASSES OF DYES
Direct Dyes Vat Dyes
Direct dyes are a relatively inexpensive and easy Vat dyes are used to dye cotton and viscose rayon.
way of dyeing natural cellulosic fibres like cotton Vat dyes are insoluble and so cannot penetrate the
and regenerated cellulosic fibres like viscose rayon fibres in solution. They can however be reduced to a
although they do not have good fastness to washing soluble form called the leuco form in the presence of
or other wet processes. Direct dye molecules are alkali and a reducing agent. Vat dyeing is a multi-
large and enter the cotton or viscose fibre from the stage process:
dyebath seeking a place to bind to the fibre.
Hydrogen bonding and Van der Waals forces help n the insoluble vat dye is reduced to a soluble
bind the dye to the fibre. leuco form to be applied to the textile;

Fastness properties may be improved by after n the leuco molecules are then oxidised to be
treatment – a post dyeing chemical treatment. insoluble once more and develop the colour
inside the fibre. Vat dyes have excellent
Reactive Dyes washfastness properties but the colour range is
Reactive dyes form strong covalent bonds with more limited and more expensive.
cellulosic fibres like cotton and regenerated
cellulosics like viscose rayon. The formation of the Sulphur dyes are similar to vat dyes but are cheaper,
covalent bond between dye and fibre means less environmentally friendly and are limited to flat
reactive dyes give extremely high wash and wet dull colours. They also have poor fastness to sodium
fastness properties. hypochlorite.

continued
continued

Azoic Dyes up the crystalline structure to allow disperse dye
Azoic dyes are applied to cotton and viscose rayon. molecules to enter the fibre from solution where they
The textile is impregnated with a naphthol based, have been held in suspension. The dye is trapped in the
coupling compound and immersed in a dyebath fibre upon cooling and held by physical forces to
containing a diazotised base triggering a produce good fastness properties. Disperse dyes may
precipitation reaction. The colour is manufactured be applied at elevated temperatures from pressurised
inside the fibre by the coupling of the two vessels or at the boil with the assistance of a chemical
components. called a carrier.

Since the dye molecules are large and insoluble, they Basic Dyes
have excellent wash fastness properties. Poor rub Acrylic fibres are dyed with the
fastness can be a problem due to dye formation on the brilliant and intense modified basic
textile surface. Insufficient afterwashing will give poor dyes. Basic dyes are positively
fastness to wet treatments. charged or cationic. These positively
charged cations are attracted to
Acid Dyes negatively charged anions in the
Acid dyes have a direct affinity for protein fibres and acrylic fibre. The reaction of the
are the main class of dyestuff for dyeing wool. cation and anion form salt linkages
Nylon also has an affinity for acid dyes. The and the fibre is coloured with good
attraction between dye and fibre is the result of wash and light fastness properties.
negatively charged dye particles called anions
associating with positively charged basic groups in Pigments
the fibre generally under acid conditions. Pigments are water insoluble colourants that can be
applied to most fibre types. They are coloured
Disperse Dyes particles dispersed in an aqueous paste containing
Disperse dyes are applied to polyester. Polyester has a a binder. Through various methods, the pigment
tightly packed molecular structure called a crystalline paste is then applied to the surface of the textile and
structure. It is hydrophobic or water hating. Heat opens the binder is then cured.

DEVELOPING A COLOUR RANGE
What’s involved in the dyeing process and what process is used to
select a dye for a given application. Modern dyehouses use a wide
range of equipment for formulating dye recipes and dyeing textiles.
Many dyeing processes are computerised and highly automated.

I
nformation gathering and the Once the information is gathered and assimilated,
generation of ideas are key samples can be generated. In the lab, colour
elements in the design process. At swatches either collated by designers or
the information gathering stage, supplied by customers are placed in a
market research – what the market is spectrophotometer – an instrument used to
doing and what it is seeking is measure the amount of light reflected from a
undertaken. Working with customers to sample at a number of wavelengths in the
ensure their needs are met is essential. visible spectrum in comparison to a white
standard.
Almost all product is subject to seasonal
variation and demand. Dyes used in When the sample is placed in the
Industrial textiles must rise to meet new and spectrophotometer and a reading obtained,
exacting technical requirements, whilst apparel the reflected light is specified mathematically.
must meet the ever changing and fickle fashion Different combinations of dyestuffs can be mixed to
markets. assimilate the colour of the sample.

continued
continued
The information from the spectrophotometer is A recipe sheet is printed and laboratory trials are
transferred to the computer. The computer assesses undertaken to ensure a good colour match and that
the reading and then seeks to find and name a the recipe formulated will produce properties that
combination of dyestuffs that will match the sample. meet the customer’s end use specifications. Once a
The computer gives a number of dye recipe options trial is successful, the recipe is ready for use in the
that very closely resemble the original sample. The dyehouse and production begins.
most suitable recipe is chosen but choice will be
based on such things as price, colour fastness to
washing and light, migration and exhaustion rates
and levelling properties.

PRINCIPLES OF DYEING
n Migration of dye molecule from liquor to fibre. This process is assisted by increasing
temperatures and using auxiliaries – substances that help the dyeing process.

n Diffusion of dye from the fibre surface into the fibre. This process is assisted by agitation of
the fibre, dyebath or both together with heat.

n Fixation ensures the dye molecule is attached to the fibre either by physical forces or chemical
bonding. These forces may be weak or strong.

Most dyeing processes need heat to provide the energy for the dyeing to take place. This is
commonly supplied by direct or indirect steam.

A P P LY I N G D Y E S T U F F S
– MACHINERY USED
Package Dyeing or exhausted. The perforations in the tube allow the
Dyeing may take place at the yarn stage. Yarn dye to flow through the yarn package.
dyeing is generally carried out on package dyeing
Once exhaustion is achieved, the carrier of coloured
machinery where the yarn is destined for sewing
yarn is removed from the vessel. Excess water is
threads or knitting and weaving into striped or
removed from the packages in a large centrifuge.
patterned fabrics. Yarn may also be dyed in the
The yarn is then dried in an infra – red drying oven.
hank form. This form is most commonly used in the
wool industry, particularly where the yarn is destined Winch Dyeing
for carpet manufacturing. Winch dyeing machines are a low cost design that is
Package dyeing is a method of dyeing textiles in simple to operate and maintain, yet versatile in
yarn form. The yarn is first wound onto perforated application proving invaluable for preparation,
plastic tubes or spiral springs. In this form the yarn washing or after treatments as well as the dyeing
is known as a package. The undyed yarn packages stage itself.
are loaded onto a carrier ready for dyeing in a In all winch dyeing machines a series of fabric ropes
package dyeing machine. When the carrier is full, of equal length are immersed in the dye bath but
the packages are compressed and secured. The part of each rope is taken over two reels or the
carrier holding the yarn is lowered into the dye winch itself. The rope of fabric is circulated through
vessel via an overhead crane. The vessel is closed the dye bath being hauled up and over the winch
so that it can be pressurised. Premixed dye is added throughout the course of the dyeing operation.
to a tank at the side of the machine. During the
dyeing cycle, the dye liquor will circulate constantly Dyestuff and auxiliaries may be dosed manually or
through the vessel and tank until all the dye is used automatically in accordance with the recipe method.

continued
continued

Jet Dyeing to rotate whilst migration and diffusion take place.
The jet dyeing machine moves the fabric together Fabric in tubular form is lapped onto a stillage. The
with the dye liquor. This reduces the strain on the stillage is wrapped in plastic and left for up to 24
fabric. As it is fully enclosed, the jet dyer can be hours for diffusion and fixation to take place.
pressurised and heated up to 130°C for dyeing
Once the dye is fixed, the fabric is washed to
polyester textiles and polyester blends with disperse
remove any unreacted dye molecules that may
dyes. The jet dyer uses less water – has a lower
cause poor fastness in use.
liquor ratio than the winch and is therefore more
economical of energy, water and chemicals. The The cold pad batch padding system is most suited to
more gentle treatment of fabrics is also an the dyeing of cotton goods with reactive dyes.
advantage for fine or delicate fabric constructions.
Pad thermofixation is another method of padding.
Jig Dyeing After padding, the dye is fixed by passing through a
Jig dyeing is an effective technique for dyeing woven steamer or stenter to provide heat and energy for
fabrics in open width to avoid creasing problems. the dyeing process to take place. There may be an
intermediate drying stage between padding and
A batch of fabric on one roller is gradually unwound fixation.
and passes through a dyebath of relatively low
volume. As it moves through the dyebath it is wound
onto a second roller. When the second roller is full, Printing
the direction of fabric movement is reversed. In jig There are two main methods of fabric printing –
dyeing the duration of the process is normally rotary screen printing and flat bed printing.
counted in terms of the number of “ends” or Pigments and dyestuffs are frequently applied
passages of the fabric through the dyebath from through these printing processes.
roller to roller rather than in minutes. The first requirement is a patterned screen. Flat
Atmospheric jigs operate at temperatures and and rotary screens are produced by etching a
pressures of atmospheric conditions. These design onto a metallic screen through a
machines are well suited to natural fibred photochemical process to create the desired
goods. pattern.

The high temperature jig works in much the Pigments are generally applied via a white
same way as the atmospheric jig but is a binder or printing paste. This is prepared by
pressurised vessel designed to operate at 130 mixing in a large vat. The colours to be printed
C. It is used for dyeing synthetic fibred woven are specified on a sheet for the operator. The
goods with disperse dyes. various pigments specified in the printing recipe
are added to the white binder and mixed
Beam Dyeing thoroughly to achieve the required colour.
In beam dyeing, fabric in open width is rolled onto
In rotary screen printing the printing paste is
a perforated beam. The beam is slid into a vessel
supplied through a pipe inside the screen itself. A
that can be closed and pressurised. The dye liquor
squeegee forces the paste through the holes in the
is circulated through the preformations in the beam
screen and onto the fabric passing below.
and colour thus impregnates the fabric.
In flat bed printing, the printing paste is poured into
Padding one side of the screen. The squeegee is then drawn
In cold pad batch padding fabric is passed through across the screen to force the paste through the
a dyebath in open width or tubular form and then design and onto the fabric.
through padding mangles which squeeze out the
excess dye. It is important that the fabric picks up a The printed fabric is dried in an oven at the end of the
constant amount of dye liquor otherwise the depth printing line. This process is similar for both flat bed
of shade will vary from one part of the fabric to the and rotary screen printing techniques. After drying,
other. After padding the fabric in open width form is pigments are then cured and dyestuffs are heat fixed.
taken up on an A-frame, wrapped in plastic and left

continued
continued

Garment Dyeing The dyebath auxiliary chemicals are added to the
Garment dyeing is carried out on made up garments machine. Once the auxiliaries have mixed with the
or products. These products are water, the prepared dyestuffs are introduced. The
often made from fabric which dyeing cycle begins and steam is turned on to
has been specifically provide energy for dyeing.
prepared for garment dyeing.
Once completed, the
Both dyes and pigments are
garments are unloaded from
used in garment dyeing.
the machine and placed in a
Pigments are widely used in garment
centrifuge usually called a hydro
dyeing to achieve unusual or random
extractor, to remove excess water. The
effects such as washed out or distressed
garments are then unloaded from the
looks.
centrifuge and loaded into a tumble dryer to
The machines used are related to dry.
commercial washing machines as
As the garments may become creased and
these products require similar
crushed during processing, the customer often
handling. Garments are loaded into the
requires them to be pressed, making them more
machine, the machine is filled with water
presentable for retail sale.
and the garment wet out.
A C T I V I T Y M A S T E R 1

DYE FIBRE AFFINITY
Different dyes are attracted to different
fibres but some fibres can be dyed with
more than one type of dye. Place a tick in
the appropriate box to show the affinity of
the different fibres for the different dyestuffs.
The first one has been done for you.

Wool Cotton Viscose Polyester Nylon Acrylic

Direct

Reactive

Vat

Sulphur

Azoic

Acid 4
Disperse

Modified Basic

Pigment
A C T I V I T Y M A S T E R 2

PRACTICAL EXPERIENCES FOR
TESTING COLOUR FASTNESS
Determining the Colourfastness
o f F a b r i c s t o Wa s h i n g

When fabrics have been dyed they must be
tested to ensure the colour is fast to washing.
This means that the colour won’t run or leach
out when the consumer places the fabric in
the washing machine. There are standard test
methods for checking colourfastness to
washing. The standards used by a particular
company may be international or specific to
the country in which the product is dyed. ACTIVITY
If you work in Industry, collect samples from fabrics
Most standard test procedures are designed to that have been dyed and follow the standard test
assist the colourist determine the colour fastness procedures carried out in your place of work or watch
the laboratory technician as they carry out the test.
of a fabric to moderate conditions of machine
laundering in the presence of soap and quite If you are studying colouration and don’t have
access to standards and textile laboratory
often sodium carbonate (with the exception of
conditions, then follow the simple test procedure
wool which is washed only in pure soap). detailed on the next page.

YOU WILL NEED...
n Fabric samples dyed from different n Needle and thread
dyestuffs for testing n Iron and ironing board
n Control sample of each fabric to be n A glass screw top jar
tested
n Electronic balance
n White undyed cotton fabric (enough to
cut samples for each test fabric of n Water
dimension 5cm x 5cm) n Lux flakes
n White undyed polyester fabric (enough n Sodium Carbonate
to cut samples for each test fabric of
dimension 5cm x 5cm)

continued
continued

METHOD
The aim of this test is to see how much colour 4. Add 150mls of washing solution to the glass
(dyestuff) runs from a test sample during washing jar. There should be a separate jar for each
causing staining to a white control fabric. fabric to be tested.

1. Cut a sample of fabric from each of the dyed In a commercial laboratory the test sample is
fabrics to be tested. Each sample must be 5cm added to the container of a testing machine
x 5cm. such as the “Laundrometer”. The container is
normally filled with washing solution in a
liquor to specimen ratio of 50:1.

5. Heat the washing solution to 60°C. If testing
wool heat to 50°C.

6. Add the test specimen to the solution and
2. Sandwich each of the dyed fabrics to be tested shake the jar for 15 minutes. In a commercial
between two white, undyed cloths of the same laboratory the testing equipment will be
size. Stitch the sandwich of fabrics together with programmed for a specified period of time.
the needle and thread.
7. Following the washing cycle, remove the
For different fibre types, different white samples sample and rinse in cold, running, filtered tap
are used: water for 2 minutes.
Wool 8. Dry the specimen in such a way that the 2 undyed
1 white cotton fabric and 1 white wool fabric control samples fall free from the specimen.
Polyester/Cotton blends 9. Press the sample with a warm iron to remove
1 white polyester fabric and 1 white cotton or wool fabric creases.
Polyester 10. Assess the sample for the amount of staining to
1 white polyester fabric and 1 white cotton or wool fabric the undyed control sample using a standard
“Grey Scale”.
Cotton
1 white wool or nylon fabric and 1 white cotton fabric The “Grey Scale” is a gradated scale against
which the intensity of staining may be
Nylon
1 white nylon fabric and 1 white wool or viscose fabric
compared. It ranges from zero degree of
staining, through moderate staining to very
Acrylic pronounced degrees of staining.
1 white acrylic fabric and 1 white wool or cotton fabric
Samples are assigned a colourfastness to
Viscose Rayon washing number on a scale from 1 – 5 where:
1 white viscose and 1 white wool or nylon fabric
1 = Poor Colourfastness to Washing
3. Prepare a standard washing solution to test the 5 = Excellent colourfastness to Washing
fabrics.
If grey scales are not available, then subjective
There are 2 Standard Washing Solutions. evaluations will have to be made. A suggested
Poor
Test Solution 1
Fair
A solution of water containing 5g/L standard
Moderate
soap (Lux flakes).
Good
This solution is used for wool based fabrics. Excellent

Test Solution 2 scale is recommended. Compare a range of
A solution of water containing samples.

I) 5g/L standard soap (Lux Flakes and
ii) 2g/L sodium carbonate.

This solution is used for all other fibre types.
A C T I V I T Y M A S T E R 3

DETERMINING THE COLOURFASTNESS
O F F A B R I C S TO W AT E R

When fabrics have been dyed they water. The standards used by a particular
must be tested to ensure the colour is fast to company may be international or specific to
water. This test is designed to simulate the country in which the product is dyed.
conditions in the home once fabrics have been
washed and rinsed. Sometimes, wet clothing ACTIVITY
If you work in Industry, collect samples from fabrics
or products may be left in the washing
that have been dyed and follow the standard test
machine or in a basket for a period of time procedures carried out in your place of work or watch
before hanging on the clothesline or placed in the laboratory technician as they carry out the test.

the tumble dryer. Dyes that have poor fastness If you are studying colouration and don’t have
access to standards and textile laboratory
to water may leach out of the textile and stain
conditions, then follow the simple test procedure
the textile lying next to it. There are standard detailed below.
test methods for checking colourfastness to

YOU WILL NEED

n Fabric samples dyed from different n White undyed polyester fabric (enough to
dyestuffs for testing measuring 50mm x cut samples for each test fabric of
50mm dimension 5cm x 5cm)
n Control sample of each fabric to be n Small dish or glass weight
tested n Large petri dish
n White undyed cotton fabric (enough to n Needle and thread
cut samples for each test fabric of
dimension 5cm x 5cm) n Distilled water
n Warm Oven (40°C ± 2°C)

continued
continued

METHOD
The aim of this test is to see how much colour 6. Place the petrie dish with the prepared sample
(dyestuff) runs from a test sample in contact with into a preheated oven at 40°C ± 2°C. Leave
undyed cloths when exposed to water. for 4 hours.

1. Cut a test sample for each fabric to be tested.
The sample size is 50mm x 50mm.

2. Sandwich each of the dyed fabrics to be tested
between two white, undyed cloths of the same
7. Remove the sample from the oven and pour
size. Stitch the sandwich of fabrics together with
the water off. Remove the excess water from
the needle and thread.
the sample by gently squeezing the sample
For different fibre types, different white samples between rollers. (A rolling pin or the edge of a
are used: glass jar could be used).

Wool 8. Dry the sample in such a way that the 2
1 white cotton fabric and 1 white wool fabric undyed control samples fall free from the
specimen.
Polyester/Cotton blends
1 white polyester fabric and 1 white cotton or wool fabric 9. Assess the sample for the amount of staining to
the undyed control sample using a standard
Polyester “Grey Scale”.
1 white polyester fabric and 1 white cotton or wool fabric
The “Grey Scale” is a graduated scale against
Cotton which the intensity of staining may be
1 white wool or nylon fabric and 1 white cotton fabric compared. It ranges from zero degree of
staining, through moderate staining to very
Nylon pronounced degrees of staining.
1 white nylon fabric and 1 white wool or viscose fabric
10. Assign a colourfastness to water number on a
Acrylic scale from 1 – 5 where:
1 white acrylic fabric and 1 white wool or cotton fabric
1 = Poor Colourfastness to Water
Viscose Rayon 5 = Excellent colourfastness to Water
1 white viscose and 1 white wool or nylon fabric
If grey scales are not available, then subjective
evaluations will have to be made. A suggested
3. Place the prepared
test sample in a petrie Poor
dish. Fair
4. Pour distilled water Moderate
into the petrie dish Good
until the sample is Excellent
covered. scale is recommended. Compare a range of
5. Place a glass plate or dish on top of the samples.
specimen and press lightly to remove any air
bubbles.
A C T I V I T Y M A S T E R 4

THE FACTS ABOUT DYEING
What to do ........
From the list of words in the box, complete all the sentences.

1. The ...................................... gives a dye its solubility and ability
Pa to attach to the fibre.
d ter
me 2. The ................................... is the colour bearing component of
hoto a dye.
ct rop me
Spe ro
Auxoch 3. .......................... dyes have relatively poor wash fastness unless
after treated.
CR
BEAM YST 4. Polyester is normally dyed at elevated temperatures because of
AL its ...............................................molecular arrangement.
LIN
Auxiliaries E 5. ................................... dyes are commonly used on cellulosic
fibres when good wash fastness properties are needed.

Co Acid 6. ........................................... of dye molecules is assisted by
increasing temperature and using auxiliaries.
nti Pigments
nu 7. A .............................................. is an instrument to measure
ou the amount of reflected light from a coloured sample.
s
8. ..................................................... are weak, physical forces of
valen
t Leuco attraction.
Co 9. ............................................ dyeing machines are ideal for
dyeing woven fabrics in open width.
TION
AGITA 10. Ring and open end are methods of .......................................

Reactive 11. ...................................... is the term describing the attraction
between dye and fibre.
Stapl
e ore
12. Nylon and wool fibres are commonly dyed with .....................
o p h Dyes.
om
Chr 13. Diffusion of dye into fibre is assisted by .................................
14. ........................................ dyeing techniques are the most
economical in terms of water and energy usage.
AFFINITY
15. Fibres of finite length are termed ................................ fibres.
Van der Waals Forces 16. A filament is a fibre of ............................................... length.
17. Substances that help the dyeing process are known as
.......................................................
ra tion Dire
Mig ct 18. ............................................... are water insoluble colourants
that can be applied to most fibre types.
19. Vat dyes are insoluble and so must be reduced to a soluble
SPINNING .............................................. form.
20. Reactive dyes form strong ..................................... bonds with
cellulosic fibres.
A C T I V I T Y M A S T E R 5

CROSSWORD
2

A C R O S S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

8

1. The joining of the two components 9 10 11

of an azoic dye. 12

5. Chemical term for two or more 13 14
elements joined together.
9. Dye vessel in which the fabric runs 15 16
backwards and forwards between
two rollers.
17 18 19
12. Fibre with an affinity for modified
basic dyes.
13. A positively charged particle. 20

16. Process whereby dye is anchored
to the dye site. 21 22 23

17. A negatively charged particle. 24

21. Chemical base of azoic dyes. 25 26

24. Method of colouring textile materials.
28
25. The specified method for applying 27 29

a dye.
26. Item of finishing equipment. 30 31

27. Class of dyestuff suited to dyeing
acrylic fibres. 32 33

28. A fabric or garment state following
wet finishing.
30. A post dyeing chemical treatment.
11. Azoic dyes do this and the colour is formed in the textile.
32. An additional chemical used in the dyeing
14. Textiles dyed with azoic dyes are immersed in a bath
process.
containing this base.
33. To use all the dyestuff in the dye vessel through
15. A class of dyestuff suited to dyeing cotton and viscose
fixation on the fibre.
rayon.
D O W N 17. A term used to describe the attraction between fibre and
dye.
2. Opposite of reduction.
18. An evenly dyed textile.
3. The soluble form of a vat dye.
19. A chemical that assists a dye to move into a fibre.
4. A standard scale for assessing wash and water
fastness of dyed fabrics. 20. Another term for a polymer solution.
6. The movement of dye molecules from liquor to fibre 22. A form of pad dyeing.
and back again. 23. A form of radiation used for drying – particularly
7. An instrument for measuring and specifying colour packages of yarn.
mathematically. 29. A product of substantial length and relatively small cross
8. The act of colouring a textile. section consisting of fibres. Dyeing may be carried out at
this stage.
10. A term used to describe the resistance of dye to a
change in colour. 31. To combine or blend.
6
A C T I V I T Y M A S T E R 6

VISIT THE MARKET PLACE
1. Visit the market place and see how many different products you
can find which are made from different fibres and by different
production techniques.
Collect samples of dyed fabrics and make up a swatch book of
the samples. Gather information about each sample and write a
description about it in the swatch book. You might like to record
the information in a table like that shown below. A worked
example has been given to get you started.
2. Collect samples of printed fabrics and place in your swatch book.
Compare dyed and printed fabrics. What are the differences?

Yarn Structure Fabric Structure
Fibre Content DYED OR
Sample Staple or Woven or Knitted End Use
or Blend PRINTED
Filament or Nonwoven

Stick sample 100% Nylon Filament Knitted Swim Suit PRINTED
here

Stick sample
here

Stick sample
here

Stick sample
here

Stick sample
here
VIDEO REVIEW CHECKSHEET

Listen carefully to the video
and answer the questions
in the spaces provided.

INTRODUCTION TO DYE – FIBRE AFFINITY
COLOURATION 1. Which fibres are best dyed with direct dyes?
1. Fibres of finite length are known as
.........................................................................
................................................... fibres.
2. Direct dyes are held by weak physical forces of
2. Man- made fibres are produced as continuous
attraction called .............................................
.............................................................
3. Direct dyes have poor ....................................
3. List 2 staple spinning technologies.
unless after treated.
.............................................................
4. Reactive dyes form strong ...............................
............................................................. with cotton and viscose rayon.
4. List two processes for converting yarn to fabric. 5. Reactive dyes have ........................................
............................................................. wash fastness properties.

............................................................. 6. Vat dyes are used to dye ................................
..........................................
5. Textile colouration is achieved through the
processes of ........................................... and 7. Vat dyes must be reduced to a soluble
............................................................ ......................................... form to be applied.
6. List the stages of textile production when dyeing 8. Vat dyes have excellent ................................
can be undertaken. properties but the colour range is more limited
............................................................. and expensive.

............................................................. 9. .................................... dyes are similar to vat
dyes.
.............................................................
............................................................. 10. Azoic dyes are applied to ...............................

............................................................. ...........................................

11. Azoic dyes have excellent .......................... but
7. The colour bearing component of a dye is the poor ...................... fastness.
.............................................
12. Acid dyes are used to dye ...............................
8. The ........................................ gives a dye its
solubility and ability to attach itself to the fibre. ...........................................

continued
continued
13. Disperse dyes are applied ............................... 8. What are the two main methods of pad
dyeing?
...........................................
.............................................................
14. Disperse dyes are trapped in the fibre upon
cooling and held by ........................................ .............................................................

15. Modified basic dyes are used to dye 9. How is a design developed on a printing
.................................................... screen?

16. The positively charged .............................. are .............................................................
attracted to negatively charged ....................... .............................................................
17. Pigments are water ......................................... .............................................................
colourants.
10. List two types of printing process.
18. Pigments are coloured particles dispersed in an .............................................................
aqueous paste containing a ............................
.............................................................
.............................................................
APPLICATION OF DYES
11. What does a stenter do?
1. Recipe choice is based on...............................
.............................................................
...........................................
.............................................................
2. The dyeing process involves: .............................................................
............................................................. 12. What sort of effects can be achieved with
............................................................. pigment dyed garments?
............................................................. .............................................................
3. Yarn dyeing can be carried out in a .............................................................
....................................................... machine. .............................................................
4. Winch machinery is used to dye 13. What are garment dyeing machines like?
....................................................................
.............................................................
5. List the advantages of jet dyeing.
.............................................................
............................................................. .............................................................
............................................................. 14. What is the name of the machine used to
............................................................. extract water from dyed garments?
6. What sort of fabrics are best dyed on a jig .............................................................
dyeing machine?
.............................................................
............................................................. .............................................................
............................................................. 15. List three common tests carried out on dyed
............................................................. and printed textiles.
7. What sort of fabrics are best dyed on a beam .............................................................
dyeing machine?
.............................................................
............................................................. .............................................................
.............................................................
.............................................................
ANSWERS

ANSWERS TO VIDEO REVIEW CHECKSHEET

Introduction to Colouration 16. positively charged cations
negatively charged anions
1. staple
17. insoluble
2. filaments
18. binder
3. open end rotor spinning
ring spinning
Application of Dyes
4. knitting
1. price
weaving
migration and exhaustion rates
5. dyeing levelling properties
printing colour fastness to meet and use requirements

6. dope, fibre, yarn, fabric, garment or product 2. migration, diffusion, fixation

7. chromophore 3. package dyeing machine

8. auxochrome 4. knitted
loosely woven fabrics
Dye-Fibre Affinity 5. more economical
1. cotton, viscose rayon uses less water, dyes, chemicals and energy
more gentle on the fabric
2. van der waals forces
6. heavy or tightly woven fabrics in open width
3. washfastness form to avoid creasing

4. covalent bonds 7. woven fabrics or warp knitted fabrics made
from synthetic fibres and their blends
5. extremely high
8. pad batch, pad heat fix
6. cotton, viscose rayon
9. The screen is etched with a design through a
7. leuco photochemical process.
8. washfastness 10. flat bed, rotary screen
9. sulphur 11. The stenter finishes a fabric to the correct
weight, width and pulls the fabric on grain.
10. cotton, viscose, rayon
12. washed out
11. excellent washfastness
distressed looks
poor rub fastness
13. commercial washing machines
12. wool, nylon
14. centrifuge or hydro-extractor
13. polyester
15. colour fastness to washing
14. physical forces
colour fastness to water
15. acrylic colour fastness to light
ACTIVITY M A S T E R 4

THE FACTS ABOUT
DYEING
1. Auxochrome 11. Affinity
2. Chromophore 12. Acid
3. Direct 13. Agitation
4. Crystalline 14. Pad
5. Reactive 15. Staple
6. Migration 16. Continuous
7. Spectrophotometer 17. Auxiliaries
8. Van der Waals Forces 18. Pigments
9. Beam 19. Leuco
10. Spinning 20. Covalent

ACTIVITY M A S T E R 5

CROSSWORD SOLUTION
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
C O U P L I N G C O M P O U N D S
X E R I
8
C P
9
J I G U E G
10
F
11
P O E
D C Y R
12
A C R Y L I C
13 14
C A T I O N D A S E O T
T I T T C U R
I A
15 16
F I X A T I O N I R O
O Z Z O E P A P
17 18 19
A N I O N L O N S I T H C
F I E T S T I O A
20
F C V I D A O T R
I E S O T N O R
21
N A P H T
22
O L E P
23
I E M I
I H 24
D Y E I N G E E
T 25
R E C I P E F 26
S T E N T E R
Y R R E
27 28 29
M O D I F I E D B A S I C D R Y
O A
30
A F T E R T R E A T M E N T
31
R
I I N
32 33
A U X I L I A R Y E X H A U S T

© Edtex Australia Pty Limited, 1997
Written and produced by Edtex Australia Pty Limited for the Society of Dyers and Colourists
Australia and New Zealand.
© Character animination reproduced with kind permission from Mantis Design Pty Limited.
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