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JANUARY 2005 19

Objective Evaluation of Durable Press Treatments
and Fabric Smoothness Ratings
NOUREDDINE ABIDI AND ERIC HEQUET
International Textile Center, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409, U.S.A.

CHRIS TURNER AND HAMED SARI-SARRAF
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409, U.S.A.

Abstract
In this research, we validate an imaging system for automatic grading of fabric
smoothness, developed at Texas Tech University. This system consists of a sheet-of-light,
laser-line projector; a smart CMOS camera; a moving platform; and a PC. Its purpose is to
provide the textile industry with a tool for rapid, objective evaluation of fabric smoothness
after home laundering. The validation study involves two cotton fabrics treated with
increasing amounts of a textile-finishing agent to impart durable press properties. The
UATR-FTIR is used as a rapid and nondestructive technique to determine the amount of the
crosslinking agent linked to the cellulose after the required laundering cycles. To dem-
onstrate the potential of our newly developed imaging system, we extract five features
from the acquired images and relate them to AATCC grading and to the amount of finish as
evaluated by FTIR. Our results demonstrate that this new wrinkle measurement technology
has the potential to discriminate between different levels of fabric treatments and different
fabrics.

Durable press—referred to as smoothness—is a term priate chemical treatment, which establishes covalent
used for apparel that requires little or no ironing after links between the cellulosic chains in the amorphous
home laundering and has wrinkle resistance properties regions of the cellulosic fibers. For many years, the
during daily wear. Such garments have become promi- textile industry has been using N-methylol based prod-
nent consumer items. The protocol for ascertaining the ucts with very low formaldehyde release as the crosslink-
smoothness grade of a fabric is outlined in the American ing agent. The most common method for finishing the
Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists (AATCC) cotton fabric is the pad-dry-cure process, which consists
test method (TM) 124 [1]. This standard test is designed of impregnating the sample in an aqueous solution con-
to evaluate the smoothness of fabric specimens after five taining the crosslinking agent and the appropriate cata-
cycles of home laundering. Once three specimens per lyst, padding the impregnated fabric to 90 –100% wet
fabric have been through five standard washing-drying pick-up, drying, and then curing.
cycles, three technicians visually evaluate their appear- Infrared spectroscopy has been used to confirm the
ance. For these evaluations, each specimen is laid on a effectiveness of durable press treatments. Morris et al.
solid surface that stands at an incline of 5 degrees from used near infrared for quantitative determination of poly-
the vertical under specified lighting conditions. The spec- carboxylic acids on cotton fabrics [8]. This method ne-
imen is then compared to six standard replicas, which are cessitates grinding cotton fabric in a Wiley mill to pass a
3D plastic models, showing varying degrees of smooth- 20-mesh screen and pressing about 1.8 mg of the fabric
ness and having grades 1 (very wrinkly), 2, 3, 3.5, 4, and with 350 mg KBr (potassium bromide). The carbonyl
5 (very smooth). The specimen is assigned the grade of absorbance around 1700 –1750 cm⫺1 is used to quantify
the replica it most closely resembles (Figure 1). the amount of polycarboxylic acids on the cotton. Wei et
Cotton is made up of cellulose with repeating anhy- al. used infrared spectroscopy as a tool for predicting the
droglucose units, and on each unit are three available performance of durable press finished cotton fabric [13].
hydroxyl groups. The basic idea behind the resistance of The method for preparing the sample for infrared mea-
cotton to wrinkles is to restrict the slippage of cellulose surements required first grinding the cotton fabric into
chains [9]. Chain slippage can be restricted by an appro- powder with a Wiley mill to improve sample uniformity.

Textile Res. J. 75(1), 19 –29 (2005) 0040-5175/$15.00
20 TEXTILE RESEARCH JOURNAL

FIGURE 1. Images of the six AATCC replicas with their respective grades.

All these methods are destructive, labor intensive, and takes pictures of the specimen at 41 different positions as
require a skilled operator for satisfactory results. it moves thus creating 41 profiles of the image. A surface
As indicated earlier, the current smoothness grading of is interpolated to fit these 41 profiles, and several features
a fabric is outlined in the AATCCTM 124 [1]. Beside are extracted including the standard deviation of height
exhibiting inter- and intrasubject variability and being an values, the increasing rate of the surface area, and the
expensive process, this system is very inadequate for fractal dimension.
providing a true surface description of fabric. Therefore, While some of these approaches use data acquisition
a system is needed that can accurately quantify surface techniques similar to our own, there are some major
smoothness in a practical and repeatable manner. Previ- differences. First, the works that do not use some kind of
ous research efforts have focused on this goal with lim- structured lighting technique (i.e., all except references
ited success [2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, 14, 15, 16]. Of special 6, 14, 10, and 4) to construct a true 3D representation of
interest are previous efforts that are similar to this work. the specimen are extremely sensitive to fabric color and
Xu et al. [14] and Su et al. [10] described an automatic color patterns. In fact, we have used shallow angle illu-
wrinkle evaluation system with laser triangulation. In mination and the facet model in an earlier attempt at
reference [14], laser profiles were acquired from the automatic smoothness evaluation [2]. While the prelim-
fabric with a laser line projector and a CCD video camera. inary results looked promising for the replicas, the sys-
These profiles were processed individually, and several tem did not perform well on actual fabric samples. Stereo
features were extracted from each profile, such as rough- imaging techniques, e.g., references 5 and 16, can recon-
ness, average wrinkle height and sharpness, and bearing struct a 3D representation of the sensed area, but are also
length ratio. Based on the idea that wrinkles occur pre- susceptible to fabric color and color patterns and suffer
dominantly in the same direction, Su et al. [10] incorpo- from complex calibration and registration procedures.
rated a rotating stage and used a neural network classifier Only two of the references listed above— 6 and 4 —at-
on the features they described [14]. Han et al. [4] also tempt a 3D reconstruction process similar to the one we
acquired profiles of the surface of a fabric. In their propose in this paper. In each of these cases, however,
approach, a slit beam of light is projected onto a fabric the final 3D representation is inferior to ours in both
specimen placed on a translation stage. A CCD camera resolution and speed of generation.
JANUARY 2005 21

The differences between our system and those men- ratory padder (BTM 6-20-190) at a speed of 4 yards/
tioned above are not limited to the data acquisition step. minute and an air pressure of 2.76 ⫻ 105 Pa. The weight
Unlike any of those techniques, we pose the smoothness pick-up was in the range of 90 –106% for C1 and 96 –
evaluation problem as a segmentation problem. By using 119% for C2. The sample was then dried in a Benz
high-resolution range images, our algorithm [11, 12] dry-cure thermosol oven (IT500 with a 45.72 cm or
employs a topographical analysis technique to locate 18-in. working width) at 100°C for 190 seconds. Finally,
wrinkles. Furthermore, we measure localized features of the fabric was cured in the same oven at 150°C for 90
small cross-sectional profiles of those wrinkles, whereas seconds. For both fabrics and for each % DMUG, three
the aforementioned methods attempt to extract global specimens were treated, with two replications totaling
features that provide a very general description of the 180 fabric specimens (2 fabrics ⫻ 2 replications ⫻ 3
surface. With these individual wrinkle measurements, we specimens ⫻ 15 treatments).
can obtain a highly detailed quantitative description of
the fabric and relate it to the quality measurement of STANDARD TEST METHOD FOR SMOOTHNESS
fabric smoothness. APPEARANCE
In this work, we validate an imaging system for auto-
The treated fabrics were stitched to prevent unraveling
matic grading of fabric smoothness. The validation study
and washed according to AATCCTM 124 [1], consisting of
involves two cotton fabrics treated with increasing
five subsequent laundering and tumble-drying cycles.
amounts of a textile finishing agent. We use the Univer-
Laundering involved a wash temperature of 41 ⫾ 1°C for
sal attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared
10 minutes, with 66 ⫾ 0.1g AATCC standard detergent
(UATR-FTIR) to assess the chemical finishing of the cotton
without optical brighteners. Tumble-drying was set for
fabrics after the required five washing-tumble drying
durable press conditions (30 minutes). At the end of the
cycles.
washing cycles, the individual samples were placed on a
perforated screen for conditioning at 65 ⫾ 2%RH and 21
Experimental ⫾ 1°C for 24 hours, as directed by ASTM D1776 (Standard
Practice for Conditioning and Testing Textiles). Three
MATERIALS AND TREATMENT trained observers, using AATCC standard replicas, per-
formed the smoothness appearance grading (referred also
The two desized, scoured, and bleached 100% cotton
as durable press rating). All AATCC grading and laser-
fabrics used throughout this study were manufactured at
camera image acquisitions occurred before the FTIR mea-
the International Textile Center, Texas Tech University,
surements and textile performance testing.
and they are identified as C1 and C2. The characteristics
of fabric C1 were 100 ends, 85 picks, a yarn count of
LASER-CAMERA IMAGE ACQUISITION SYSTEM FOR
16.4⫻14.8 tex (36 ⫻ 40 English count), and a weight of
FABRIC SMOOTHNESS EVALUATION
118.7 g.m⫺2 (3.5 oz.yd⫺2). The characteristics of fabric
C2 were 40 ends, 56 picks, a yarn count of 59 ⫻ 59 tex Recently [11, 12], we introduced a system based on a
(10 ⫻ 10 English count), and a weight of 230.56 g.m⫺2 smart CMOS camera combined with a laser-line projector
(6.8 oz.yd⫺2). to obtain range images of fabric samples. Because these
The crosslinking agent was dimethylureaglyoxal range images provide an excellent depiction of the sur-
(DMUG), commercially known as Permafresh ULF. It is a face topography of fabric specimens, by using the algo-
glycoxal-based textile finishing resin (C5H10N2O3) with rithm described in references [11, 12], we can locate and
an ultra-low formaldehyde content. A magnesium chlo- quantitatively describe various kinds of wrinkles using
ride solution (trade name Catalyst 531) was used to crosssectional wrinkle profiles.
catalyze the crosslinking reaction. Both Permafresh and The image acquisition system (Figure 2a) consists of a
Catalyst 531 were purchased from Omnova Solutions sheet-of-light, laser-line projector; a smart CMOS camera;
(Chester, SC) and used as received. a moving platform; and a PC. The laser is a 600 –700 nm,
Each fabric specimen (52 ⫻ 52 cm) was immersed in 5 mW solid-state device with line generation optics. The
an aqueous bath treatment containing x% DMUG, x/4% laser line is projected at a low angle (around 5 degrees)
catalyst 531, and 1% wet aid (Tergitol). All the concen- onto the moving platform where a fabric sample is
trations are expressed as a percent weight of the bath. placed. The camera is positioned directly above the plat-
The concentration x of the crosslinking agent varied form so that its line-of-sight is perpendicular to the plane
between 1 and 20% on the weight of the bath with 1% of motion. As the fabric sample moves across the laser
increments from 0 to 12%, then 15 and 20%. The im- line, the camera records the location of the line on the
pregnated fabric then passed through a two-roller labo- sample. Bumps, wrinkles, and creases in the fabric dis-
22 TEXTILE RESEARCH JOURNAL

FIGURE 2. (a) Overall view of the laser-camera image acquisition system. (b) Laser line being projected onto a sample fabric.

tort the laser line, Figure 2b. Obviously, tall wrinkles example of these two measurements. Figure 3a shows an
may occlude the laser line (i.e., the beam of light will be adaptively smoothed [11, 12] gray-scale range image of
stopped by the wrinkle). During each time step, the a fabric swatch with the detected edge map overlaid.
camera records these distortions by sensing the row Figure 3b is a close-up of the area indicated in Figure 3a,
location of the center of the laser line in each column. showing the location of a profile (black line) with respect
These values are combined to produce a range image of to the edge (white line) at one particular edge point.
the fabric sample. Using this system, we image a 20.32 From this profile (Figure 3c), the maximum amplitude is
⫻ 20.32cm (8 ⫻ 8in.) section from the center of a 38.1 calculated to be 34 gray levels (rounded to the nearest
⫻ 38.1cm (15 ⫻ 15in.) swatch at approximately 40 ␮m integer), and the corresponding maximum amplitude of
per gray level range resolution and 400 ␮m per pixel the derivative, shown in Figure 3e, to be 0.68 (rounded to
resolution in the x and y directions. the nearest hundredth). Figures 3d and 3f show the
Thus far, we have examined two aspects of the wrinkle profile amplitude and its derivative for a smoother wrin-
profiles that are found as the perpendicular cross sections kle than that in Figure 3c.
of the wrinkle edges, as detected by the algorithm de- After acquiring profiles at every edge point and cal-
scribed in references 11 and 12. The first is a profile’s culating the two measurements for each profile, the re-
maximum amplitude, which is calculated as the differ- sults are examined using histograms. Figures 4a and b
ence of the maximum and the minimum gray values of show these histograms for fabrics with AATCC grades of
the profile. This is an obvious choice for a feature, since 1 and 3. Examination of these histograms shows a drastic
it shows the height differences among the wrinkles. The difference between an AATCC grade of 1 and an AATCC
second feature is a measurement of the shape or transi- grade of 3 for both features (profile amplitude and de-
tion of the profile. First, to remove any height informa- rivative of the normalized profile amplitude). The peak
tion, the profile is normalized so that the minimum value located after 100 in Figure 4b for the AATCC grade of 1 is
is zero and the maximum value is one. Next a derivative, characteristic of an occlusion phenomenon, which occurs
or discrete difference, operator is applied to this normal- in the presence of large wrinkles.
ized profile. Wrinkles with sharp transitions will produce
high responses or spikes, while smooth wrinkles will FTIR MEASUREMENTS
produce a relatively “flat” response. The measurement is
then taken as the difference between the maximum and A Perkin-Elmer Spectrum-One spectrometer equipped
the minimum values of this derivative. Figure 3 shows an with a Universal attenuated total reflectance Fourier
JANUARY 2005 23

FIGURE 3. (a) Adaptively smoothed gray-scale range image with edge map overlaid. (b) Close-up of area indicated in a showing the location
of a profile (black line) with respect to the edge (white line) at one particular edge point. (c) Plot of a profile from a tall wrinkle with an abrupt
transition. (d) Plot of a profile from an average wrinkle with a smooth transition. (e) Plot of the derivative of the normalized profile in c. (f) Plot
of the derivative of the normalized profile in d.

transform infrared (UATR-FTIR) was used to record the ation. The IR spectra were collected at a spectrum reso-
FTIR spectra of the control and the treated fabrics. The lution of 4 cm⫺1, 32 scans, over the range of 4000-650
UATR-FTIR consists of a ZnSe crystal that allows collec- cm⫺1. The FTIR measurements were performed on each
tion of the FTIR spectra directly on the sample without specimen after five successive washing and tumble-dry-
any special preparation. The cotton fabric samples were ing cycles (9 readings per specimen ⫻ 3 specimens for
placed on top of the ZnSe crystal. Pressure was applied each concentration ⫽ 27 FTIR spectra for each concen-
to the sample to ensure a good contact between it and the tration). The objective was to evaluate the quantity of
incident IR beam, preventing loss of the IR incident radi- DMUG effectively crosslinked to the cellulose chains.
24 TEXTILE RESEARCH JOURNAL

FIGURE 4. Histograms of (A) the profile amplitude measurement, and (B) the derivative of the normalized profile amplitude measurement.

Results and Discussion DMUG on the treated fabric. Similar spectra were recorded
for the treated fabric C2. Note that the FTIR spectra were
FTIR INTEGRATED INTENSITY VERSUS %DMUG
recorded without any sample preparation.
Figure 5 shows representative FTIR spectra of untreated The vibration located around 1710 cm⫺1 was inte-
and treated cotton fabric C1. A comparison of the spectra grated from 1750 to 1670 cm⫺1 to obtain the integrated
shows the presence of an additional peak around 1710 cm⫺1 intensity (I1710) for each DMUG concentration and for
for treated fabrics. This band is attributed to —CAO each fabric. Figure 6 shows the plot of the integrated
stretching vibrations and is indicative of the presence of absorption versus the percent DMUG initially in the

FIGURE 5. FTIR spectra of the control
and the treated cotton fabric C1.
JANUARY 2005 25

FIGURE 7. AAT cc grade versus FTIR integrated intensity I1710
FIGURE 6. FTIR integrated intensity I1710 versus %DMUG for fabrics C1 and C2.
for fabrics C1 and C2.

increasing DMUG concentrations. The range of AATCC
crosslinking solution. The nonlinear relationships show grades obtained on these fabrics is large enough so that
high degrees of correlation between the concentration of they can be evaluated with the laser-camera image ac-
the crosslinking agent DMUG in the solution and the quisition system.
concentration of the DMUG, effectively establishing a
crosslink between cellulose chains (Table I). The de-
creasing slopes of the curves may be due to the unavail- LASER-CAMERA IMAGE ACQUISITION SYSTEM
ability of cellulosic OH groups for crosslinking with the FORFABRIC SMOOTHNESS EVALUATION
OH groups of the DMUG (saturation phenomenon). Fur-
After acquiring profiles at every detected edge point
thermore, the FTIR results show a higher DMUG concen-
and calculating the two measurements described above
tration on fabric C2 than on C1. This is attributed to the
for each profile, we examined the results using either 2D
lighter weight of fabric C1 associated with finer yarns
or 1D histograms of the two features separately. In this
resulting in lower weight pick-up. On average, the
work, to illustrate the potential of this system for fabric
weight pick-up was 93.4% for C1 and 108.1% for C2.
smoothness evaluation, we chose to extract five primary
FTIR measurements of the quantity of crosslinking agent
attributes from the histograms shown in Figures 4a and
were performed after the required five laundering and
4b. The first attribute is the average profile height (APH),
tumble-drying cycles. Therefore, the effect of the chem-
which is a simple arithmetic average of the profile
ical treatment on both fabric appearance and properties
heights.
will be correlated with these measurements and not with
The second attribute is the profile amplitude maximum
the percentage of the crosslinking agent in the formula-
location (PAML), which is the point at which the profile
tion.
amplitude has the maximum frequency. Larger PAML
values imply more wrinkled fabrics.
TABLE I. Nonlinear regression of FTIR integrated intensity I1710
The third attribute is called the derivative amplitude
versus % DMUG for fabrics C1 and C2. maximum location (DAML), which is the point at which
the derivative of the normalized profile amplitude has
Fabric ID Prediction equation Adjusted R2
the maximum frequency. Higher DAML values imply
C1 I1710 ⫽ 458.2(%DMUG)2 ⫹ 0.73 0.96 smoother fabrics. This concept may not be intuitive and
C2 I1710 ⫽ 294.5(%DMUG)2 ⫹ 0.77 0.95 thus needs some explanation (Figure 3). In general, tall
wrinkles are wide and the slope between the top and the
bottom of a wrinkle is not abrupt (grade 1 fabrics), so the
derivative is relatively small. On the other hand, creases,
AATCC GRADES
found in grade 3 fabrics have a small amplitude and are
Figure 7 and Table II show the relationships between narrow. For these wrinkles, the slope between the top
the integrated intensity I1710 as measured with FTIR and and the bottom of the crease is quite abrupt; thus, its
the AATCC grades of the two fabrics. As expected, there derivative is relatively large. This is the reason higher
is an increase of AATCC grades, i.e., smoother fabrics with values of DAML correspond to smoother fabrics.
26 TEXTILE RESEARCH JOURNAL

TABLE II. Prediction equations: APH (average profile height), PAML (profile amplitude maximum location), DAML (derivative amplitude maximum
location), DAFO (derivative amplitude fall-off), DAOLS (derivative amplitude occlusion line sum) and CE (cross entropy
against the control) versus AATCC grade and FTIR integrated intensity I1710 for fabrics C1 and C2.

Fabric ID Prediction equation Adjusted R2

C1 AATCC grade versus FTIR
AATCC ⫽ 0.0922 ⫻ I1710 ⫺ 0.1231 0.96
C1 Image analysis versus AATCC grade
APH ⫽ ⫺2.937 ⫻ AATCC ⫹ 13.629 0.93
PAML ⫽ 1.102 ⫻ AATCC ⫺ 6.042 ⫻ AATCC ⫹ 9.196
2
0.94
DAML ⫽ ⫺ 0.912 ⫻ AATCC ⫹ 5.579 ⫻ AATCC ⫹ 4.766
2
0.93
DAFO ⫽ 5.968 ⫹ 0.079 ⫻ AATCC if DAFO ⱕ 7.0 0.93
DAFO ⫽ 13.337 ⫺ 1.483 ⫻ AATCC if DAFO ⬎ 7.0
DAOLS ⫽ 36.667 ⫻ AATCC ⫺ 243.67 ⫻ AATCC ⫹ 405.53
2
0.93
CE ⫽ 508.57 ⫻ AATCC ⫺ 1487.04 ⫻ AATCC ⫹ 1796.4
2
0.89
C1 Image analysis versus FTIR
APH ⫽ ⫺31.081 ⫻ I1710 ⫹ 9.628 0.92
PAML ⫽ 135.24 ⫻ I1710 ⫺ 34.07 ⫻ I1710 ⫹ 3.04
2
0.91
DAML ⫽ ⫺110.31 ⫻ I1710 ⫹ 34.01 ⫻ I1710 ⫹ 10.66
2
0.91
DAFO ⫽ 5.969 ⫹ 1.448 ⫻ I1710 if DAFO ⱕ 7.0 0.96
DAFO ⫽ 11.368 ⫺ 16.144 ⫻ I1710 if DAFO ⬎ 7.0
DAOLS ⫽ 4292.6 ⫻ I1710 ⫺ 1548.5 ⫻ I1710 ⫹ 141.9
2
0.92
CE ⫽ 53842.0 ⫻ I1710 ⫹ 648.2
2
0.91
C2 AATCC grade versus FTIR
AATCC ⫽ 0.1382 ⫻ I1710 ⫺ 0.2294 0.89
C2 Image analysis versus AATCC grade
APH ⫽ ⫺4.573 ⫻ AATCC ⫹ 19.187 0.85
PAML ⫽ 0.930 ⫻ AATCC ⫺ 6.201 ⫻ AATCC ⫹ 11.453
2
0.62
DAML ⫽ 2.515 ⫻ AATCC ⫹ 5.593 0.77
DAFO ⫽ ⫺ 2.305 ⫻ AATCC ⫹ 14.504 0.86
DAOLS ⫽ 73.83 ⫻ AATCC ⫺ 478.11 ⫻ AATCC ⫹ 777.07
2
0.78
CE ⫽ 314.22 ⫻ AATCC ⫺ 526.36 AATCC ⫹ 659.89
2
0.92
C2 Image analysis versus FTIR
APH ⫽ ⫺32.116 ⫻ I1710 ⫹ 11.464 0.90
PAML ⫽ 44.63 ⫻ I1710 ⫺ 21.25 ⫻ I1710 ⫹ 3.62
2
0.86
DAML ⫽ 18.248 ⫻ I1710 ⫹ 9.763 0.88
DAFO ⫽ ⫺16.384 ⫻ I1710 ⫹ 10.636 0.94
DAOLS ⫽ 2789.2 ⫻ I1710 ⫺ 1379.3 ⫻ I1710 ⫹ 168.3
2
0.97
CE ⫽ 30227.7 ⫻ I1710 ⫹ 830.5
2
0.93

The fourth attribute is the derivative amplitude fall-off sures how well a distribution approximates another dis-
(DAFO), which is the “speed” at which the curve falls tribution. It is used in reconstructability analysis as a
after the maximum amplitude is reached. First, an expo- distance measure between reconstructed hypotheses and
nential distribution is fitted to the observed distribution the original distribution. Thus, it is necessary to mini-
of the derivative of the normalized profile amplitude, mize the following function:
then the fall-off is derived from the fitted distribution.
Lower DAFO values imply smoother fabrics. This feature H avg共p,q兲

冘冋p共x,y兲 log 冉q共x,y兲冊 ⫹ q共x,y兲 log 冉p共x,y兲冊册
allows us to discriminate between levels of wrinkling, p共x,y兲 q共x,y兲
but it cannot be used for grade 5 fabrics, because the
histogram of the derivative of the normalized profile x,y

amplitude will be nearly flat. ⫽ ,
2
The fifth attribute is the derivative amplitude occlu-
sion line sum (DAOLS), which represents the area under where q(x,y) is the 2D frequency distribution of fabric A
the curve of the occlusion peak (peak situated after 100 and p(x,y) is the 2D frequency distribution of fabric B.
on Figure 4b). This feature should be very effective for When comparing two exactly identical distributions,
discriminating very wrinkly fabrics (grades 1 and 2) the CE should be 0. Higher CE values imply greater
from smoother fabrics, since fabrics with grades 3 or differences between the distributions. CE calculation is
above should not have many wrinkles that are tall simple and easy to use. In this study, we chose to
enough to occlude the laser line. calculate CE against the control, but we could also cal-
In addition, we computed the cross entropy against the culate CE against the AATCC replicas or any other internal
control from the 2D histograms. Cross entropy (CE) mea- company standard. The objective is to match an un-
JANUARY 2005 27

known sample to the replica or the internal company of DAML is linear and the plateau is not reached even for
standard it most closely resembles. very high resin percentages (15% or more).
We correlated these five parameters to the correspond- Figure 8d and Table II show that for both fabric types,
ing standard AATCC smoothness grades and the FTIR mea- the derivative of the profile amplitude fall-off (DAFO)
surements of the fabrics (Table II). All coefficients of relates quite well to the FTIR measurement and the AATCC
determination are very highly significant. Note that there grades. As we explained earlier, a lower DAFO implies a
are excellent relationships between fabric strength loss, higher AATCC grade (i.e., a smoother fabric). Note that
as measured with both the strip and Elmendorf tests and the intrafabric coefficient of variation (CV%) of DAFO is
the features extracted from the range images. For exam- the lowest of all the fabric smoothness parameters mea-
ple, for both the C1 and the C2 fabrics, the correlation sured. To evaluate the intrafabric CV%, fifty swatches of
between the Elmendorf test (fill direction) and DAOLS is both untreated fabrics C1 and C2 were cut, washed
0.97 (for C1, Elmendorf fill direction ⫽ 0.35 ⫹ 0.0061 following the AATCC procedure, then evaluated for fabric
DAOLS; for C2, Elmendorf fill direction ⫽ 1.84 ⫹ 0.0212 smoothness using both AATCC and our system. The CV%
DAOLS). Thus, a lower DAOLS, indicating a smoother values of the AATCC grade for the 50 swatches were
fabric, implies a higher resin content and lower fabric 23.6% and 14.5% for C1 and C2, respectively, while
strength. Also, the effect of the resin treatment is much they were only 6.7% and 8.9% for DAFO. For C1 the
more drastic on the C2 fabric (more strength loss, since decrease of DAFO is linear between 0 and 0.17, which
the slope is 3.5 times higher than on C1). Thus, it is corresponds to 12% resin, and then there is a sudden drop
possible to use DAOLS, or one of the other features ex- for 15 and 20% resin. For this reason, we decided to use
tracted from the range images of the fabric swatches, to a piecewise linear regression to describe the relationship
predict strength loss related to the DMUG treatment for a between DAFO and FTIR as well as DAFO and AATCC grade.
given fabric type. The model for such a regression is
Figure 8a to 8f show the relationships between the
features extracted from the range images of the fabric y ⫽ 共b 01 ⫹ b 11 x 1 ⫹ . . . ⫹ b m1 x m 兲共 y ⱕ b n 兲
swatches and the FTIR measurements of fabrics C1 and ⫹ 共b 02 ⫹ b 12 x 1 ⫹ . . . ⫹ b m2 x m 兲共 y ⬎ b n 兲 .
C2 for each treatment. Figure 8a and Table II show that
for both fabric types, there is a linear relationship be- Thus, we estimated two separate linear regression equa-
tween the average profile height (APH) and the FTIR tions: one for the y values that are less than or equal to
measurement. Obviously, a high profile amplitude im- the breakpoint (bn ⫽ 7) and one for the y values that are
plies more wrinkled fabrics. C2 fabric has on average greater than the breakpoint. Again, the behavior of the
taller wrinkles than C1 fabric (6.6% taller), while the C2 fabric is different. The decrease of DAFO is linear, and
average wrinkle heights with the 20% resin treatment are there is no sudden drop for the highest resin percentages.
nearly identical. Figure 8e and Table II show that for both fabric types,
Figure 8b and Table II show that for both fabric types, the surface under the curve of the occlusion peak (DAOLS)
the profile amplitude maximum location (PAML) relates relates very well to the FTIR measurement and the AATCC
very well to the FTIR measurement and the AATCC grade. grades. As we explained earlier, a smaller DAOLS means
High PAML implies taller wrinkles and lower AATCC a smoother fabric, since very smooth fabrics (AATCC
grades, i.e., more wrinkled fabrics. For C1 the decrease grade of 4 or 5) will not produce any occlusion of the
of PAML is large between 0 and 0.09, which corresponds laser beam. For both C1 and C2, the DAOLS decrease is
to 4% resin, and there is no further improvement with almost the same. First there is a steep decrease between
higher resin percentages. The behavior of the C2 fabric is 0 and 0.11, which corresponds to 7% resin, and then the
quite different; the decrease of PAML is more gradual and occlusion phenomenon nearly disappears.
the plateau is reached only for high resin percentages Figure 8f and Table II show that for both fabric types,
(15% or more). the cross entropy against the control increases with
Figure 8c and Table II show that for both fabric types, higher resin percentages and does not reach a plateau
the derivative of the profile amplitude maximum location even for high resin percentages (15% and above). Cross
(DAML) relates quite well to the FTIR measurement and entropy could be a strong candidate for fabric classifica-
the AATCC grades. As we explained earlier, a higher DAML tion, whereby an unknown fabric is matched to the
implies a higher AATCC grade (i.e., a smoother fabric). AATCC grade or an internal company standard it most
For C1 the increase of DAML is large between 0 and 0.13, closely resembles.
which corresponds to 7% resin, and there is no further These preliminary results demonstrate that our new
improvement with higher resin percentages. The behav- wrinkle measurement technology has the potential to
ior of the C2 fabric is quite different, in that the increase discriminate between different levels of fabric treatments
28
TEXTILE RESEARCH JOURNAL
FIGURE 8. (A) APH (average profile height) versus FTIR integrated intensity I1710 for fabrics C1 and C2. (B) PAML (profile amplitude maximum location) versus FTIR integrated intensity I1710 for fabrics
C1 and C2. (C) DAML (derivative amplitude maximum location) versus FTIR integrated intensity I1710 for fabrics C1 and C2. (D) DAFO (derivative amplitude fall-off) versus FTIR integrated intensity I1710
for fabrics C1 and C2. (E) DAOLS (derivative amplitude occlusion line sum) versus FTIR integrated intensity I1710 for fabrics C1 and C2. (F) CE (cross entropy versus the control) versus FTIR integrated
intensity I1710 for fabrics C1 and C2.
JANUARY 2005 29

and different fabrics. Obviously the features extracted cessing and Slit Beam Projecting Technique, J. Textile
from the histograms could be refined; we are currently Eng. 49(1), 1– 6 (2003).
working on improving the repeatability of the current 5. Kang, T.J., Cho, D.H., and Kim, S.M., New Objective
features as well as evaluating new features. Evaluation of Fabric Smoothness Appearance, Textile Res.
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Conclusions Method of Measuring Fabric Wrinkles Using a 3D Pro-
jecting Grid Technique, Textile Res. J. 69(4), 261–268
We have developed and validated an imaging system (1999).
for automatic grading of fabric smoothness. The valida- 7. Mori, T., and Komiyama, J., Evaluating Wrinkled Fabrics
tion study involves two cotton fabrics treated with in- with Image Analysis and Neural Networks, Textile Res. J.
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fast technique to determine the amount of crosslinking
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ment System, in “Proc. of 6th Quality Control by Artificial
Vision,” Gatlinburg, TN, May 2003.
We would like to thank Cotton Incorporated and the
12. Turner, C., Sari-Sarraf, H., Zhu, A., Hequet, E., and Lee,
Texas Food and Fibers Commission for providing the
S., Automatic Assessment of Fabric Smoothness, 45th
financial support for this project. IEEE Midwest Conf. on Circ. and Syst., Tulsa, OK, 2002.
13. Wei, W., and Yang, C.Q., Predicting the Performance of
Durable Press Finished Cotton Fabric with Infrared Spec-
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