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Pinar Çelik

,
Hüseyin Kadoğlu
A Research on the Compact Spinning
Ege University, Department
for Long Staple Yarns
of Textile Engineering
35100 Bornova, Izmir, Turkey Abstract
E-mail: pcelik@textile.ege.edu.tr Compact spinning produces a new yarn structure, as the edge fibres are incorporated into the
hkadoglu@textile.ege.edu.tr yarn due to the elimination of the spinning triangle, so that the harmful effects of the spinning
triangle on yarn characteristics are eliminated. The compact yarns possess less hairiness,
better strength, better uniformity and lower values of thick & thin places and neps compared
to the conventional ring-spun yarns. In this article, some quality parameters of long-staple
compact yarns are compared to those of long-staple conventional ring yarns.

Key words: compact spinning, conventional ring spinning, spinning triangle, worsted spin-
ning, yarn hairiness, yarn tenacity.

n Introduction yarn hairiness, especially on eliminating with lower twist coefficients, resulting in
the longer hairs which have a particularly an increase in production rate, and also
Compact spinning technology has been bad influence on the further process [4]. better handling properties of the end-
gaining much more interest since its first product.
commercial introduction at ITMA-Paris Many researchers have described the tech-
in 1999. These spinning machines have nical principles of compact spinning and Another advantage of the compact spun
been installed in several spinning facto- the more organised structure without pe- system is the fly and dust reduction as an
ries all over the world. Compact spinning ripheral fibres and with a better twist dis- effect of condensation. The cleaning re-
is a modified ring spinning process which tribution. The compact yarn shows higher quirement is reduced when compared to
has special advantages, and can be used strength, reduced hairiness, and improved conventional ring spinning frames.
in both short- and long-staple yarn spin- evenness. (Artzt, 1997 [5]; Olbrich, 2000
ning areas. [4]; Stalder, 2000 [3]). M. Nicolic et al. Compact spun worsted yarns also have
[10,11]are among those researchers who the advantages of better quality proper-
The zone between the line of contact ties and different surface specifications,
investigated the similarities and differenc-
of the pair of delivery rollers and the which will help to improve further
es in the structural, mechanical/physical
twisted end of the yarn is called the processing and increase their production
and texturing properties of ring-spun yarns
spinning triangle. In this zone, the fibre
of 20 tex, manufactured from various yarn rate [7].
assembly contains no twist. Edge fibres
splay out from this zone, and make little blends (combed cotton, PET, CV, PA)
from the same sliver, employing compact When using compact yarns, and allow-
or no contribution to the yarn strength. ing for the same level of warp breaks,
The spinning triangle is the critical spinning on the Fiomax 1000 and Fiomax
E1 ring-spinning machines from Suessen. the consumption of sizing agents can
weak spot of the spinning process [1]. be reduced. This provides considerable
According to their test results, the qualities
of compact yarns are better than those of cost savings in sizing and de-sizing. The
The spinning triangle prevents the edge
ring-spun yarns [10,11]. same is true for warp breaks in weaving.
fibres from being completely incorporat-
ed into the yarn body. However, in com- Compact yarns permit better yarn regu-
pact spinning, the drafted fibres emerging The compact spinning process produces larity and the formation of a smoother
from the nip line of the front roller of the a new yarn structure which approaches yarn surface. This reduces the number
drafting arrangement are condensed in a the ideal staple fibre yarn construction of end-breaks by 30-50%, and leads to
line [2]. even more closely. This has positive savings in the weaving department with
effects on raw material use, productiv- significant improvements in efficiency, in
Ring-spun yarn is not perfect. If the ity, downstream processing, and on the the range of 3-5% [6].
enlarged view of ring spun yarn is exam- product appearance [5].
ined, it is easy to see that the integration Industrial trials of compact yarns have
of many fibres is poor, and they therefore The end breaks in spinning are approx. revealed a fly reduction of 1/3 on the
make no contribution to yarn strength. 50% fewer, which permits the reduction
In other words, if all fibres could be of the number of fibres in the cross-sec-
completely integrated in the yarn, both tion, or to spin a finer yarn count. Reduc-
strength and elongation could in turn ing the possibility of the number of fibres
be further enhanced. It is thus obvi- in the cross-section allows for the use of
ous that even ring-spun yarns are not lower-priced tops with coarser fibres [6].
yet ideal as regards yarn structure [3].
In compact yarns, fibres are uniformly
The development of the compact spin- oriented and joined into the yarn right
ning process began with the desire to after the end of the drafting arrangement.
achieve a significant step for yarn quality Therefore, better tenacity, elongation,
by influencing the spinning triangle (Fig- and hairiness properties can be ensured.
ure 1). This work is focused on achieving The better tenacity properties of compact Figure 1. Conventional and compact ring
higher yarn strength and a reduction of spun yarn provide opportunities to work spinning yarns (Spinnovation 7/2000) [9].

FIBRES & TEXTILES in Eastern Europe October / December 2004, Vol. 12, No. 4 (48) 27
knitting machine. If one considers the compact spinning equipments (Suessen the test results, statistical results and F
number of faults due to knitted-in fly EliTe) was available. It was thus pos- values are found in Çelik [12]).
lumps as a percentage of the total fault sible to compare both the systems under
count in knitting, there is distinct cost- identical machine conditions. Table 1
Yarn evenness
reducing potential here with the use of shows the experiment plan. After the
these yarns. [5] With their increased yarn spinning trials, the physical properties of When we examined the yarn evenness of
strength and reduced formation of fluff, each yarn sample were measured, and the 100%-wool yarns, the Uster CV% and
compact yarns permit higher machine measurement results of conventional ring the thin place values of both compact and
efficiency to be achieved, and therefore yarns and compact yarns were compared conventional yarns were found to have
production on knitting machines can to each other. a statistically significant difference for a
achieve a reduced ends-down rate, fewer significance level of α=0.05 for both 19
interruptions and fewer fabric faults [8]. Yarn evenness (CV%), thick & thin tex and 25 tex yarn counts (Figure 2). On
places, nep values and yarn hairiness the other hand, the differences of the two
values were measured with an Uster spinning systems in terms of the mean
n Experimental Tester 3 (the measurement length was numbers of thick places and neps of
Materials and methods 400 m/bobbin). Yarn tenacity (cN/Tex) 100% wool yarns were found to be sta-
and elongation at break (%) were meas- tistically significant for only the fine yarn
In this study, we compared the yarn
ured with a Statimat M. In addition, yarn count, 19 tex. The Uster CV%, the thin
properties of compact yarns and the
hairiness was also measured with a Zwei- and thick place values of compact and
conventional ring spun yarns in terms of
yarn hairiness (the number of protruding gle G565 yarn hairiness tester (the meas- conventional 45% wool/55% PET yarns
fibres on the yarn’s surface), yarn even- urement length was 100 m/bobbin). were found to have a statistically signifi-
ness, tenacity and elongation (%). cant difference for 19 tex (Figure 3).

n Results and Discussion When we examined the yarn irregular-
The experimental work of this study was
conducted on a Long Staple Tester PR The compact spun yarns had better yarn ity CV%, there was a statistically sig-
135 ring spinning machine by using four property values - irregularity, thinand nificant difference between the compact
different raw materials. Compact spin- thick places, nep values, yarn hairiness, and conventional ring yarns which was
ning has some advantages for both weav- tenacity and elongation at break (%) produced with 50% wool/50% PAN for
ing and knitting. The 100% wool and - than the conventional ring spun yarns both two yarn counts, 25 tex and 36 tex,
45% wool/55% PET materials were spun for all material types. The 100% wool and all twist factor levels; but the differ-
with weaving twist factors, and the 50% yarn hairiness test results were given in ences of two systems were found to be
wool/50% PAN and 100% PAN materials Table 2 as an example. statistically significant in terms of thin
were spun with knitting twist factors. In and thick places for fine yarn count only,
the market, acrylic yarns and their blends The results obtained from the laboratory 25 tex (Table 3).
with wool are usually preferred for knit- testing of yarn samples were statistically
ting products; on the other hand, wool evaluated by using SPSS software. Vari- The differences of compact-spun and
and wool/PET worsted yarns are usually ance analysis was applied, and by using conventionally-spun yarns which were
preferred for woven products. F values we tried to find out if there was produced with 100% PAC, in terms of
any statistically significant difference the Uster CV% and I.P.I. values (thin &
On the ring spinning machine, the op- between the yarn quality data of conven- thick places and neps) were not found to
tion of spinning compact yarn by adding tional and compact yarns. (The details of be statistically significant, but the com-

Table 1. Experimental plan.

Longstapel Tester PR135 Longstapel Tester PR135 Longstapel Tester PR135 Longstapel Tester PR135
Parameter conventional ring compact ring spinning conventional ring compact ring spinning
spinning machine machine spinning machine machine
Yarn count, tex 19 19 25 25
100% wool Twist coefficient, αtex 2530, 2685, 2845, 3160 2530, 2685, 2845, 3160 2530, 2685, 2845, 3160 2530, 2685, 2845, 3160
(21.3 micron, max.
fibre length 130 mm) Roving count, tex 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3
Spindle speed, rpm 9200 9200 9200 9200
Yarn count, tex 19 19 25 25
45%wool/50% PET Twist coefficient, αtex 2530, 2685, 2845, 3160 2530, 2685, 2845, 3160 2530, 2685, 2845, 3160 2530, 2685, 2845, 3160
(wool 22 micron/PET
1.65 dtex) Roving count, tex 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1
Spindle speed, rpm 9200 9200 9200 9200
Yarn count, tex 25 25 36 36
50%wool/50% PAN Twist coefficient, αtex 1675, 1900, 2055, 2210 1675, 1900, 2055, 2210 1675, 1900, 2055, 2210 1675, 1900, 2055, 2210
(wool 23.5 micron/
PAN 3.3 dtex) Roving count, tex 2 2 2 2
Spindle speed, rpm 9200 9200 9200 9200
Yarn count, tex 25 25 36 36
Twist coefficient, αtex 1675, 1900, 2055, 2210 1675, 1900, 2055, 2210 1675, 1900, 2055, 2210 1675, 1900, 2055, 2210
100% PAN (3.3 dtex)
Roving count, tex 2.1 2.1 1.3 1.3
Spindle speed, rpm 9200 9200 9200 9200

28 FIBRES & TEXTILES in Eastern Europe October / December 2004, Vol. 12, No. 4 (48)
pact yarns’ Uster CV% values are lower Table 2. Yarn hairiness test results of 100% wool yarns.
than the conventional ones.
100% wool 25 tex yarn 100% wool 25 tex yarn
Measured yarn properties αtex αtex αtex αtex αtex αtex αtex αtex
Yarn tenacity and elongation 2530 2690 2845 3160 2530 2690 2845 3160
For all material types, the tenacity and conventional 6.38 6.14 5.99 5.54 6.97 6.61 6.38 6.06
Hairiness (H)
elongation (%) values of compact yarns Uster compact 4.71 4.52 4.34 4.02 4.82 4.64 4.49 4.29
were higher than those of the conven- Tester 3 conventional 1.85 1.75 1.73 1.60 1.86 1.76 1.71 1.62
sh
tional ring yarns. But the evaluations of compact 1.30 1.26 1.20 1.07 1.26 1.22 1.16 1.09
statistical analysis results of the differ- conventional 7828 8458 8493 8336 9149 9617 9724 9530
Class 1 mm
ence of two systems changed according compact 4723 4930 5062 5288 5773 5934 5687 5407
to the types of material. conventional 2240 2400 2420 2267 2646 2674 2662 2501
Class 2 mm
When we examined yarn tenacity, there compact 1240 1255 1276 1239 1431 1424 1356 1290
was an important difference between conventional 964 1082 1062 938 1151 1173 1085 1044
Class 3 mm
compact and conventional ring yarns compact 418 412 419 374 505 455 430 387
which were produced with 100% wool conventional 503 573 553 479 609 607 550 481
Zweigle Class 4 mm
for two yarn counts and all twist levels. G 566 compact 175 155 143 133 187 171 165 125
The compact-spun yarns’ tenacity and Hairiness conventional 162 185 180 157 189 169 139 158
Tester Class 6 mm
elongation (%) values are higher than the compact 25 30 28 19 35 27 29 19
conventional ones, but at the high twist Class 8 mm conventional 99 126 124 109 98 93 65 128
level, the elongation values of compact compact 11 12 12 10 12 12 10 9
and conventional ring yarns were very conventional 47 61 63 53 36 46 25 71
Class 10 mm
similar. compact 3 2 2 3 3 3 3 4
S3-value conventional 1814 2086 2041 1779 2110 2130 1887 1966
On the other hand, when we examined (∑≥3 mm) compact 634 613 606 540 744 670 637 545
45% wool/55% PET yarns, the differ-
ences of tenacity values were found to Table 3. Test results and statistical results of 50% Wool/50% PAN yarns (*statistically
be statistically significant only for 25 significant for α=0.05).
tex yarns (Figure 4). In addition, there
was no statistically significant difference 50% wool/50% PAN 25 tex yarn
Measured yarn properties
between the compact and conventional αtex αtex αtex αtex
1675 1900 2055 2210
ring yarns which were produced with
conventional 8.25 9.39 9.81 10.21
45% wool/50% PET for elongation (%) Yarn tenacity, cN/tex
compact 9.80 10.66 11.12 11.23
values, and those for both yarn counts.
Statistical evaluation significance 0.000* 0.000* 0.000* 0.002*

There was a statistically significant dif- conventional 17.22 16.93 16.90 16.87
Uster CV%
ference between the compact and con- compact 16.42 16.25 16.06 16.04
ventional ring yarns produced with 50% Statistical evaluation significance 0.001* 0.000* 0.000* 0.000*
wool/50% PAN in terms of yarn tenacity Thin places/1000 m
conventional 96 75 92 80
for both yarn counts, 25 tex and 36 tex. compact 60 44 48 55
However, the differences in the two spin- Statistical evaluation significance 0.002* 0.001* 0.000* 0.034*
ning systems were found to be significant conventional 31 21 22 18
Thick places/1000 m
in terms of elongation (%) values for 25 compact 13 14 9 7
tex yarns only. Statistical evaluation significance 0.009* 0.028* 0.013* 0.006*
conventional 8.18 6.89 6.62 6.14
When we examined 100% PAN yarns, Hairiness (H)
compact 5.83 5.34 4.80 4.73
there were statistically significant dif-
Statistical evaluation significance 0.001* 0.000* 0.000* 0.000*
ferences between the two spinning sys-
Zweigle hairiness S3 conventional 1897 1646 1634 1553
tems for low twist levels only in terms
compact 955 729 631 607
of tenacity and elongation at break (%)
Statistical evaluation significance 0.000* 0.000* 0.000* 0.002*
(Figure 5).

Yarn hairiness
statistical analyses, statistically sig- in all hair length classes on the compact
When we examined yarn hairiness val- nificant differences were found between yarn’s surface. This improvement was
ues, the compact yarns’ hairiness values
compact and conventional ring yarns for found to be promising for the compact
were very low, even for yarns with
all material types in terms of Uster hairi- yarn’s subsequent textile processes. For
low twist levels for all material types.
ness and Zweigle hairiness. example, knitting yarns are generally
For example in 36 tex yarns produced
with 50%wool/50% PAN, the compact spun with low twist values which pro-
yarns’ S3 values were found as 1115 for The hairiness properties of yarns were vide softer and hairier yarn. Although
αtex=2530, and 769 for αtex=3160. On measured using a Zweigle G565 hairiness high hairiness of a yarn is accepted as an
the other hand, the classic yarns’ S3 val- tester which classifies hair length on yarn advantage for some knitting yarns, it is
ues were found as 2563 for αtex=2530, surfaces. The hairiness measurementss- also a disadvantage because it is a source
and 1643 for αtex=3160. According to how that there is a significant reduction of pilling. The S3 code, which defines

FIBRES & TEXTILES in Eastern Europe October / December 2004, Vol. 12, No. 4 (48) 29
Figure 2. Thin places values of 100% wool yarns. Figure 3. Uster CV% values of 45% wool/55% PET yarns.

Figure 4. Yarn tenacity values of 45% wool/55% PET yarns. Figure 5. Yarn tenacity values of 100% PAN yarns.

the total number of hairs of 3mm length them with conventional ring yarns. In of α=0.05 between all the yarn properties
and above, exhibits a hairiness level addition, low twist level means high of 100% wool compact and conventional
that causes the pilling problem. When production. ring yarns. In terms of other yarns spun
compact and conventional yarns are with 45% wool/50% PET, 50% wool/
compared, it is seen that compact yarns 50% PAN and 100% PAN raw materi-
have lower S3 values than conventional n Summary als, these differences have not been
ring yarns (Figure 6). In addition, yarn found statistically significant for all yarn
In this experimental work, some of
hairiness is very important for the weav- parameters. 100% wool compact yarns
the yarn properties of compact spun
ing preparation and process, so compact have better tenacity, elongation at break
and conventional ring spun yarns were
weaving yarns have more advantages (%), evenness, thinand thick places, nep
than conventional ring yarns in terms of compared. We investigated the effects of
spinning technique and material type on values and hairiness values than conven-
yarn hairiness and yarn strength. tional ring yarns. But only 50% wool/
the properties of yarn.
50% PAN compact yarns have better
According to these results, although the tenacity and lower yarn evenness (Uster
compact yarns are produced with low The compact yarns covered in this study
CV%) values than conventional ring
twist levels, their yarn hairiness values showed better yarn properties than con-
yarns, and their differences were found
are lower than the conventional ring ventional ring yarns. It has been demon-
to be statistically significant for α=0.05.
yarns. So we can produce softer products strated that there are statistically signifi-
In 100% PAN yarns, the difference of
with compact yarns when we compare cant differences for the significance level Uster CV% and I.P.I. values between
two spinning systems were not found
to be statistically significant for α=0.05.
According to these results, the difference
of yarn parameters between two spinning
systems is clearer when natural fibres are
used. In addition, the difference is clearer
when a high percentage of natural fibre is
used in the blend, also.

Another comparison was made between
Figure 6. Zweigle two yarn counts, and it was seen that
hairiness S3 values
of 50% Wo/50% there was also a significant difference
PAN yarns. between the two different yarn numbers.

30 FIBRES & TEXTILES in Eastern Europe October / December 2004, Vol. 12, No. 4 (48)
In the fine yarn counts, the number of for producing different products in the § Investigations into compact yarn’s
fibres in the yarn cross-section is more future. Weaving and knitting sectors advantages in downstream processing
important than the coarser yarn counts, can profit from the compact spinning (weaving, knitting, dyeing, etc.) should
because fine yarn has fewer fibres than system. be still continued.
coarser yarn in the yarn cross-section.
In compact spinning, the drafted fibres
emerging from the nip line of the drafting
arrangement’s front roller are condensed n Conclusions References
in a line. In this way, almost all the § Fine compact yarns have more ad- 1. Hechtl R., Melliand International, 1996,
drafted fibres are incorporated into the vantages than fine conventional ring Vol.1, p.12-13.
yarn body. Thus, fine compact yarns have 2. Kadoğlu H., Melliand International, 2001,
yarns.
more advantages than fine conventional Vol. 7, p. 23-25.
§ The most important advantage of 3. Stalder H., Melliand English, 2000, Vol.3,
ring yarns.
the compact spinning technique is p. E26-E27.
a reduction in yarn hairiness, which 4. Olbrich A., Melliand English, 2000, Vol.
In addition, the compact yarns at low
brings new opportunities for the 3, p. E27-E28.
twist level have better yarn properties 5. Artzt P., International Textile Bulletin,
production of different products in
values than conventional yarns at high 1997, Vol. 2, p. 41-48.
twist level. For example, in 25 tex yarns the future. The weaving and knitting
6. Campen W., Melliand English, 2002, Vol.
produced with 50% wool/50% PAN, con- branches can profit from the compact 6, p. E82-E83.
ventional ring yarn tenacity values were spinning system. 7. Anonym, Spinnovation, 2001, September,
8.25 cN/tex for αtex=1675, and 9.81 cN/ § Although the compact spinning tech- p. 6-7.
nique brings advantages regarding 8. Anonym, Spinnovation, 2000, December,
tex for αtex=2055. On the other hand, the
quality and production, we must bear p. 18-19.
compact yarn tenacity value was 9.80 9. Anonym, Spinnovation, 2000, July, p. 8-11.
cN/tex for αtex=1675. in mind that the investment cost of
10. Nicolic M., Lesjak F, Stritof A., TEKSTIL,
the compact spinning machines are 2000, July, 49(7), p. 349-356.
However, the most important advantage higher than the conventional ring 11. Nikolic M, Stjepanovic Z, Lesjak F, Stritof
of the compact spinning technique is the spinning machines, and the cost of A., Fibres & Textiles in Eastern Europe,
reduction in yarn hairiness. When we compact yarn is higher than the con- Vol. 11, No 4 (43), 2003, p. 30-35.
ventional ones, also. Consequently, 12. Celik P., M.Sc. Thesis, The Institute of
looked at the laboratory results for all
Natural and Applied Sciences, Ege Uni-
material types, the compact spun yarns worsted compact yarns are preferred versity, Izmir-Turkey, 2002, September.
have less yarn hairiness than the conven- for high quality and expensive prod-
tional ring-spun yarns. This reduction in ucts, especially for woven fabrics in
yarn hairiness brings new opportunities the market. Received 15.03.2004 Reviewed 02.07.2004

8th International Conference
ArchTex
‘High Technologies in Textiles’
18-20 September 2005, Kraków, Poland

Organiser: Institute of Textile Architecture (IAT), Łódź, Poland.
International Scientific Committee
President - Professor Iwona Frydrych, Ph.D., D.Sc. (IAT, Łódź, Poland).
Members: Prof. Mario de Araújo, Ph.D., D.Sc. (University of Minho, Portugal); Kim Gandhi, Ph.D. (UMIST, Manchester, Great Britain); Urania
Kechagia, Ph.D. (NAGREF, Thessaloniki, Greece); Prof. Jiři Militký, Ph.D., D.Sc., Eur. Ing. (Technical University of Liberec, Czech Republic);
Prof. Edward Rybicki, Ph.D., D.Sc. (IAT, Łódź, Poland); Prof. Arvydas Vitkauskas, Ph.D., D.Sc. (Kaunas University of Technology, Lithuania).

Organising Committee
President - Andrzej Kluka, M.Sc. Secretary - Małgorzata Skrobecka, M.Sc.

Scientific and technical topics Important dates:
§ The latest worlds’ advanced technologies of: production of § Submission of abstract - 15 January 2005
man-made fabrics, spinning, finishing, knitting, clothing, § Acceptance of paper and instructions for preparing paper
and nonwovens. - 15 February 2005
§ Information technology in textiles. § Submission of full papers - 31 March 2005.
§ Nanotechnology in textiles.
§ Technical textiles. For more information please contact:
§ Medtextiles. Institute of Textile Architecture
§ Quality assurance systems in the textile industry. ul. Piotrkowska 276, 90-950 Łódź, Poland
§ Environment protection and ecology. Tel.: (48-42) 682-59-29 Fax (48-42) 684-23-00
§ Protective clothing. E-mail: iat@iat.com.pl Web: www.iat.com.pl

FIBRES & TEXTILES in Eastern Europe October / December 2004, Vol. 12, No. 4 (48) 31