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AUTEX Research Journal, Vol.

4, No2, June 2004 © AUTEX

INFLUENCE OF LOOP POSITION IN WARP-KNITTED PLAIN
STITCHES ON STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES OF KNITTED FABRICS

Kazimierz Kopias*, Anna Pinar**

* Technical University of Łódź, Poland
Faculty of Textile Engineering and Marketing
Department of Knitting and Structure of Knitted Products
ul. Żeromskiego 116, 90-543, Łódź, Poland

** TRICOTEXTILE Institute of Knitting Techniques and Technologies
ul. Piotrkowska 270, 90-361 Łódź, Poland

Abstract
This paper presents the structure of a new group of warp-knitted interlock stitches. The
difference between them and generally-known warp-knitted stitches is emphasised. We
describe an alternative method of manufacturing knitted fabrics with the above-mentioned
stitchesusing a warp-knitting machine equipped with a tuck pressure. This paper
describes an estimation of the structural properties of the warp-knitted fabrics
manufactured by means of interlock and traditional stitches.

Introduction
In warp knitted stitches so far, the loops are positioned in two perpendicular systems consisting of
courses and wales. As results from the traditional technology of warp-knitted fabrics, the succeeding
loop courses are manufactured along the wales, which gives the effect of a loop arrangement with one
loop over the other, and one beside the other.
A different structural loop group is the group of warp-knitted double plain stitches, also known as
interlock stitches. The nomenclature of this new group of stitches arises from a certain analogy to the
weft-knitted interlock stitches, characterised by formation of the succeeding loops in the course on
every second needle. A characteristic structural feature of this new group of loops is the mutual
location of loops in adjoining courses. Every second loop in the course is displaced along the wale
axis at half of the lop height. The new stitches can be manufactured from one or many yarn systems,
similar to other warp-knitted stitches.
At present, the warp-knitted interlock stitches are not manufactured, as no knitting machines exist
which could realise such structures. However, a concept of the construction of a double needle-bar
warp-knitting machine which can perform the technology described above has recently been
developed, a patent application registered, and a patent applied for [1, 2]. Furthermore, an analysis of
the existing technological possibilities connected with already existing warp-knitting machines was
carried out, and allowed us to state that, at the experimental stage, an attempt to manufacture a
knitted fabric with the new stitches can be successful. Tests were carried out with the use of the K2
MPS warp-knitting machine from Karl Mayer, equipped with spring-bearded needles and a tuck
pressure of tuck repeat 1×1. The stitches were designed in order to prevent the formation (in the
knitting) of tuck loops, which are characteristic of knitted fabrics manufactured with the use of warp-
knitting machines equipped with a tuck pressure. The pressure is displaced by one needle pitch in
alternating directions along the needle bar. The change of the pressure’s direction of movement
succeeded after formation of the following loop course of the stitch. This means that the loops were
formed on every second needle.
The structural properties of the interlock stitches were compared with the properties of traditional
stitches [3]. With the goal of achieving an objective result, the knitted fabric variants with traditional
stitches were designed and manufactured in a similar way to the interlock knitting variants.

Comparative analysis of structural properties of knitted fabrics manufactured
by means of warp-knitted interlock and traditional stitches
Figure 1 and 2 present examples of interlock and traditional stitches manufactured with the use of two
needle bars performing laps characteristic of the tricot stitch with closed loops.

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Figure 1. Photograph of an Figure 2. Photograph of a
interlock stitch traditional stitch

Twenty variants of both interlock and traditional stitches were tested within the scope of our
investigation. All knitted fabric variants were manufactured by two-needle-bar stitches within four stitch
groups (Table 1).

Table 1. Stitch systems of the knitted fabrics devoted for the comparative analysis’ tests
new stitch variants traditional stitch variants
st nd st nd
stitch 1 needle bar 2 needle bar stitch 1 needle bar 2 needle bar
designation (upper warp) (lower warp) designation (upper warp) (lower warp)
Wn aa velvet velvet Wt ss cloth cloth
Wn tt tricot tricot Wt tt tricot tricot
Wn ta tricot velvet Wt ts tricot cloth
Wn at velvet tricot Wt st cloth tricot

Diagrams of the new traditional stitches related to them which we analysed are presented in Figure 1,
in which the above-mentioned equivalents are arranged in pairs located at the same level.

Interlock stitches Traditional stitches Interlock stitches Traditional stitches
I stitch group II stitch group
Wn vv Wt cc Wn tt Wt tt

II II
I I

III stitch group IV stitch group
Wn tv Wt tc Wn vt Wt ct

II II
I I

Figure 1. Stitch variants of knitted fabrics’ test samples provided for comparative analysis

Descriptions:
I – the first guide bar (upper warp),
II – the second guide bar (bottom warp),
Wn − variant of the new interlock stitches,
Wt − variant of the traditional stitches,
v − velvet, t − tricot, c − cloth.

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The first letter in the stitch designations concerns the stitch obtained by the first guide bar, and the
second letter concerns that obtained by the second guide bar.

The stitch variants were additionally differentiated by the length of the warp yarn taken up in the loop.
At the same time, efforts were made to maintain the length of the warp take-up on a similar level for
the given warp, within the range of the compared variants for both stitches (Table 2). The aim of this
treatment was to demonstrate the influence of the kind of partial stitches and the length of the warp
take-up on the properties of the warp knitted interlock stitches, and to compare the properties of
knitted fabrics manufactured by means of traditional stitches.

Table 2. Warp take-up variants of the individual stitch systems
number of warp take-up number of warp take-up warp take-up level
variant of the new stitch variant of the traditional stitch st
1 needle bar 2
nd
needle bar
1 1’ mean mean
2 2’ maximum maximum
3 3’ minimum minimum
4 4’ maximum minimum
5 5’ minimum maximum

0,9
G, mm

5' 1 5
5' 3
0,8 4 3
0,7
2 4' 3'5 4 1
2' 3' 1'5'5'1' 2 5
5
0,6 1'4' 3'
2 1' 3 3
0,5
2' 4' 2' 3' 1 1
4' 4 4
2' 2
0,4
0,3
0,2
0,1
0
0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 18000 20000
2
Wn aa Wn tt Wn ta Wn at Wt ss Wt tt Wt ts Wt st Pa ,number of loops per dm

Figure 2. Knitted fabric’s thickness G in dependence on the area density Pa for raw knitted fabrics

Zl 0,07
0,07 3
0,06 4 5 1
0,06 3' 2
0,05 1' 3
2' 4' 5' 5 1 3
0,05 4 2
5' 4'3' 3' 1
0,04 4'2'1' 5' 4
1 5 3
0,04 2' 4' 1' 4
3' 2
0,03 5
0,03 2' 1' 5' 2
0,02
0,02
0,01
0,01
0,00
0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 18000 20000
2
Wn aa Wn tt Wn ta Wn at Wt ss Wt tt Wt ts Wt stPa ,number of loops per dm

Figure 3. Linear cover factor Zl in dependence on the area density Pa for raw knitted fabrics

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The comparative analysis of the knitting structures manufactured by the new and traditional stitch
types was carried out on the basis of the characteristics of the knitted fabrics’ structural parameters
(presented for the variants tested) within the range of the particular stitch groups. The following
parameters were analysed: course density Pc, wale density Pw, area density Pa, and knitted fabric
thickness G. The knitted fabric filling with yarn was determined by assessment of the following cover
factor values; the linear Zl, the area Za and the volumetric cover factor Zv, using relations which are in
opposition to those generally accepted by literature publications. The aim of this procedure was to
achieve relations characterised by an increase in the factors’ values with the increase in the filling with
yarn of the knitted fabric. The values of the above-mentioned structural parameters of the knitted
fabrics tested were analysed in dependence of the area density of the fabric (Figures 2, 3, 4 and 5).

Za 1,80
1,65 3
5 4 3
1,50 4
1 3
1,35 2 1 2 5 3
1,20 5 5 1
4' 5'2 5'3' 3'1 4 4
1,05 2' 3' 1' 2
0,90 1' 2' 5' 4' 4' 3'
2' 1' 5'
0,75 4'
0,60 2' 1'
0,45
0,30
0,15
0,00
0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 18000 20000
2
Wn aa Wn tt Wn ta Wn at Wt ss Wt tt Wt ts Wt st Pa ,number of loops per dm

Figure 4. Area cover factor Za in dependence on the area density Pa for raw knitted fabrics

Zv 0,50
0,45 3
4 3 1
4
0,40 2
41 5 1 3
0,35 5
2' 1'4' 2 1' 5 2 3
0,30 5' 3' 1 4
2'3' 2 5
4' 2' 1' 4' 3'
0,25
2' 1' 4' 3'
0,20 5' 5'
5'
0,15
0,10
0,05
0,00
0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 18000 20000
2
Wn aa Wn tt Wn ta Wn at Wt ss Wt tt Wt ts Wt st Pa ,numer of loops per dm

Figure 5. Volume factor Zv in dependence on the area density Pa for raw knitted fabrics

Conclusions
On the basis of the comparative analysis carried out for structural parameters of knitted fabrics
diversified by loop location in the stitches, we have concluded that the knitted fabrics manufactured by
means of interlock stitches differ from the knitted fabrics with traditional stitches in the following ways:
• higher values of wale density Pw,
• generally higher values of course density Pc,
• higher values of area density Pa,

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• higher values of linear cover factors Zl and area cover factors Za, at higher values of area density
Pa,
• generally higher values of volumetric cover factors Zv, at higher area densities Pa,
• greater or smaller thickness G, at higher area densities Pa, depending on the systems of partial
stitches applied, and
• similar direction of the changes of analogical parameters depending on the partial stitches applied
and the warp’s working-in; it should be emphasised that the value changes of the parameters
discussed mostly take place in a greater range for interlock stitches.

Acknowledgement
The investigation discussed are carried out as a part of a doctoral thesis at the Department of
Technology and Structure of Knitted Products of the Faculty of Textile Engineering and Marketing,
Technical University of Łódź, as part of the supervisor’s research project entitled ‘The structure and
properties of a new group of warp knitted fabrics manufactured with the use of warp-knitting
machines’.

References
1. Kopias K., ‘Warp-knitted stitch and double needle bar warp-knitting machine for manufacturing
knitted fabrics of plain warp knitted stitch’ (in Polish), Patent Application P-329223, 14.10.1998;
patent applied for 08.12.2003.
2. Kopias K., Pinar A., ‘Warp-Knitted Interlock Stitches. A New Group of Stitches. Conception of
Formation and Structure’, Fibres & Textiles in Eastern Europe, vol. 12, No 1, 2004.
3. Kopias K., Pinar A., ‘Comparative Analysis of Structural Parameters of Warp-Knitted Fabrics with
Interlock and Traditional Stitches’, Fibres & Textiles in Eastern Europe, vol. 12, No 2, 2004
(prepared for print).

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