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COMMUNICATION SKILLS

COMMUNICATION SKILLS

Prof(Dr) .K. P. Mohandas
Professor  Electrical Engg
N i
National Institute of Technology  
lI i fT h l
Calicut, India 

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Hard Skills

Analytical
Programming Skills Design Skills
Skills

Mathematical Analysis
y System Analysis
Algorithm Design

Logical Design

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SOFT SKILLS
SOFT SKILLS

Communication Skills

Verbal Interpersonal

Written

Presentation Skills

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SOFT SKILLS ‐ CATEGORIES
• Corporate skills:
Required at executive levels but awareness of these helps in 
q p
helping your organization and assist your bosses.

• Employability
Employability skills:
skills:
To be mastered by every one who seeks employment, but can 
be mastered only by constant practice and effort: Mastering 
every new skill lead to another 
kill l d h

• Life
Life Skills:
Skills:
Related to head, heart, hands and health, they are highly 
personal and behavioural skills

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Corporate Skills
Corporate Skills
• Political sensitivity
• Business and commercial awareness
• Strategic awareness
• Understanding funding schemes
Understanding funding schemes
• Information Management
• Organization and Control
• Team b ilding
Team building
• Communication and persuasion
• Networking and public  relations
• Leading change

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Employability skills
Employability skills
• Leadership qualities
Leadership qualities
• Cooperation with others
• Planning and organizing
Planning and organizing
• Making decisions 
• Communication skills
Communication skills
• Verbal skills
• Writing skills
Writing skills
• Presentation skills

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Life Skills
Life Skills
• Head related
keeping records, making use of resources, planning
organizing, goal setting, service learning, problem 
so g, ea
solving, learning to learn
g to ea
Heart related
Related to people and caring, how do we relate to
people, relate people by accepting differences, conflict
l l t l b ti diff fli t
resolutions, social skills, cooperation and 
communication  caring through nurturing relations, 
sharing, empathy and concern for others 

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Life Skills (continued)
Life Skills (continued)
Hands related: 
Community service, volunteering, leadership, 
responsible citizenship, contribution to group
Health related
Healthy life styles, stress management, disease 
prevention and personal safety for better living :
ti d l f t f b tt li i
self esteem, self responsibility, character, managing 
emotions and self discipline
emotions and self discipline
share well, care well, and fare well

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THINGS TO DO DAILY
THINGS TO DO DAILY
• Greet your family members everyday
• Greet your peers, subordinates and colleagues when you 
Greet your peers subordinates and colleagues when you
enter the office
• Greet your friends on the way, don’t ignore them
• Continuously reciprocate to breed communication
C ti l i t t b d i ti
• Say ‘thanks’ when you get some help even if is trivial, make it 
a habit even to subordinates
• Be a proactive listener – don’t simply ‘pretend’ to hear
• While talking to others your voice should be audible, clear and 
soothing, never be aggressive or shout
• Dress well to suit the profession and occasion
• Avoid political comments at work place
• Do not talk ill of others 
Do not talk ill of others
• Respect others, if you expect  to be respected by others
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HOW TO IMPROVE YOUR 
LANGUAGE SKILLS?

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To MASTER A LANGUAGE
To MASTER A LANGUAGE
• READ :
Not just for time pass, but to understand, learn new words, 
use them when you get a chance, summarize and make notes 
for later use
for later use
• WRITE :
• Short and simple sentences, style makes a man or woman. 
U
Use apt language for personal and official write ups, not same 
tl f l d ffi i l it t
• SPEAK:
• Try speaking the language you want to be proficient in, even if 
y spea g t e a guage you a t to be p o c e t , e e
you make mistakes initially, correct it when some one points 
out it to you, be ever willing to learn

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COMMON ENGLISH BLOOMERS
COMMON ENGLISH BLOOMERS 

• I could not able to do it • He has eaten a mango 
• I am going to give an  yesterday
examination • He is loving Sangitha
• I will revert back to you shortly • I am standing on the bus stop
• Use of anyways, datas, criterias • Return my book back
etc • Could you repeat that again
• H
He said me to go
id t • Fish aquarium is very small
• Please on the fan • It was a blunder mistake
• He is my cousin brother • It would have been more better
• Why don’tt he
Why don he get married?
get married? • Step upping Step downing
Step upping  Step downing
• Loose and lose in writing • Head of Departments

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PRESENTATION SKILLS
PRESENTATION SKILLS

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PRESENTATIONS

O l
Oral Vi l
Visual Written
i

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Effectiveness of different methods
Effectiveness of different methods
• Only  30
Only 30‐40%
40% of what is heard
of what is heard is remembered
is remembered
• Only 40‐50  % of what is read is remembered
• But 70‐80% of what is seen is remembered
But 70‐80% of what is seen is remembered
• Visual communication is the best
• U
Use visuals in your presentations whenever 
i l i t ti h
possible

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Only 30-40% of what is HEARD is
remembered

Just over 50%of what is READ is
remembered

More than 70% of what is SEEN is
remembered

VISUAL PRESENTATION IS
MOST EFFECTIVE
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REMEMBER
• Tell me    I will forget
Tell me I will forget
• Show me I will remember 
• Involve me,  I will learn
l ill l

• This applies to teaching and even for 
p
presentations

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Why Presentations
Why Presentations
• Presentations
Presentations and reports are ways of 
and reports are ways of
communicating ideas and information to a 
group
• Presentation carries the speakers personality 
better and
better and
• Allows immediate interaction between the 
audience and speaker (presenter)
di d k ( )

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A good presentation has 
g p
• Content : contains information  that can be 
absorbed by the audience in one sitting
b b d b th di i itti
• Structure: It has a logical beginning, middle and 
end Should be sequenced such that the audience
end. Should be sequenced such that the audience 
can understand
• Packaging: It must be well prepared. A report can 
: It must be well prepared A report can
be read later, but  the audience haring a presentation 
is at the mercy of the presenter.
• Human element: a god presentation will be 
remembered because a person is attached to it 

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PREPARATION OF SLIDES
PREPARATION OF SLIDES 

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Check Availability of equipment
Check Availability of equipment

• Only Over head projectors(OHP) : prepare 
transparencies on OHP films using OHP pens
• LCD Projectors and PC/Laptop available.
Use Power point slides No need for hard copy 
p py
slides – can give handouts
How many slides ? 
y
Difficult to say, as many as required : approx 2 
g
minutes for  each slide on the average
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How Many slides?
How Many slides?
• Difficult
Difficult to say, as many as required 
to say as many as required
• But one slide on the average  2 minutes  to 2.5 
minutes.
minutes
• Figures and charts  can take less time

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OHP slides (manually made)
OHP slides (manually made)
• Use big enough letters
g g
• Use colour pens with deep colours
p p p p g
• Never use photocopies of printed pages as  slides 
directly
• Never overcrowd the slides with too much of 
material –
t i l not more 7‐8 lines per slide
t 7 8 li lid
• Use minimum number of equations – give qualitative 
interpretations
• Never give complete derivations

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DO THESE
• Write neatly and legibly
• Use big enough letters
• Use dark colours not light
• Use a pointer to indicate
• Never read directly from the slides
• Number the films in the sequence order
• Do not be totally be dependent on the slides
• Use presentation software like Power point wherever 
possible
ibl

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VOICE
• Four
Four main items that define the voice quality
main items that define the voice quality
• Volume: How loud ? Enough to be heard by  all  
members in the audience
• Tone : A voice that carries fear can frighten the 
audience and one that carries laughter can get the 
g g
audience into smile
• Pitch : How high or low a note is
• Pace: How long a sound lasts

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How to improve your voice?
How to improve your voice?
• Listen
ste to it!t Practice
act ce listening
ste g to your
you
voice while at home, driving,
walking,working to see if you are using it
how you want to
• To really listen to your voice, cup your
right hand around your right ear and
gently pull the ear forward. Next, cup your
left hand around your mouth and direct
th
the sound
d straight
t i ht into
i t your ear.Now
N
practice moderating your voice.

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Body Language
Body Language
• The
The posture and your movements
posture and your movements can greatly 
can greatly
help in your presentation
• displaying good posture tells your
audience that you know what you
are doing and you care deeply about
it. Also, a good posture helps you to
speak more clearly and effective.
effective

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Throughout your display
Throughout your display 
o Eye
ye cocontact:Speakers
tact Spea e s who o makea e eye
contact open the flow of communication
and convey interest, concern, warmth,
and credibility.
credibility
o Facial Expressions: Smiling is a
powerful cue that transmits happiness,
friendliness, warmth, and liking favorably.
The listeners will be more comfortable
aroundd you and d will
ill wantt to
t listen
li t t you
to
more.

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Body Language – continued 
Body Language  continued
o Gestures: If you fail to gesture
while speaking, you may be
perceived
pe ce ed as bo
boring
gaand
d st
stiff.
• Posture and body orientation: You
communicate numerous messages by the way
you talk and move.
move Standing erect and leaning
forward communicates that you are
approachable, receptive, and friendly.
Speaking with your back turned or looking at
the floor or ceiling should be avoided as it
communicates disinterest

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Body Language (continued)
Body Language (continued)
o .
o Proximity: Cultural norms dictate a comfortable
distance for interaction with others. Increasing
th proximity
the i it enables
bl you to
t make k better
b tt eye
contact and increases the opportunities for others
to speak.
• Voice. One of the major criticisms of speakers is
that they speak in a monotone voice. Listeners
perceive this type
p yp of speaker
p as boring
g and dull.
People report that they learn less and lose
interest more quickly when listening to those who
have
a e not
ot learned
ea ed to modulate
odu ate their
t e voices.
o ces

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Active Listening
Listening
g can be one of our most p
powerful tools,, Be

sure to use it
o Spend more time listening than talking (but of course, as a
presenter,
t you will
ill be
b doing
d i mostt off the
th talking).
t lki )
o Do not finish the sentence of others.
o Do not answer questions with questions.
o Aware of biases. We all have them. We need to control
them.
o Never daydream or become preoccupied with their own
thoughts when others talk.
talk
o Let the other speaker talk. Do not dominate the
conversation.
• Plan responses after others have finished speaking...NOT
speaking NOT
while they are speaking. Their full concentration is on what
others are saying, not on what they are going to respond
with.

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GETTING FEED BACK
GETTING FEED BACK 
1. Evaluative: Makes a judgment about the worth,
goodness, or appropriateness of the other
person's statement.
2. Interpretive: Paraphrasing - attempt to explain
what the other ppersons statement mean.
3. Supportive: Attempt to assist or bolster the
other communicator
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4. Probing: Attempt to gain additional information,
information
continue the discussion, or clarify a point.
5. Understanding: Attempt to discover completely
what the other communicator means by her
statements.

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Feedback (continued)
Feedback (continued)
o Provide feedback but do not interrupt
incessantly.
o Analyze
a y e by looking
oo g at a all tthe
e relevant
ee a t
factors and asking open-ended questions.
Walk the person through analysis
(summarize).
o Keep the conversation on what the
speaker
k says...NOT
NOT on what
h t interest
i t t them.
th

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Are you nervous?
Are you nervous?
• Tension can be reduced by performing
some relaxation exercises.
o Before the presentation: Lie on the floor. Your back should be flat
on the floor.
floor Pull your feet towards you so that your knees are up
in the air. Relax. Close your eyes. Fell your back spreading out and
supporting your weight. Feel your neck lengthening. Work your
wayy throughg yyour body,
y, relaxing
g one section at a time - y
your toes,,
feet, legs, torso, etc. When finished, stand up slowly and try to
maintain the relaxed feeling in a standing position.
o clockwise, and then counter
counter-clockwise.
clockwise.

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Technique to reduce tension ‐
Technique to reduce tension 
• If y
you cannot lie down: Stand with you
y feet about
6 inches apart, arms hanging by your sides, and
fingers unclenched. Gently shake each part of
your body,
body starting with your hands,
hands then arms,
arms
shoulders, torso, and legs. Concentrate on
shaking out the tension. Then slowly rotate your
shoulders
h ld fforwards
d and
d the
h backwards.
b k d Move on
to your head. Rotate it slowly

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Are you nervous?
y
o Mental Visualization: Before the presentation,
visualize the room,
room audience,
audience and you giving the
presentation. Mentally go over what you are
going to do from the moment you start to the
end off the presentation.
o During the presentation: Take a moment to
yourself by getting a drink of water,
water take a deep
breath, concentrate on relaxing the most tense
part of your body, and then return to the
presentation
t ti saying
i t your self,
to lf "I can do
d it!"

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At least pretend not to be nervous
At least pretend not to be nervous
o You do NOT need to g get rid of anxiety y and
tension! Channel the energy into concentration
and expressiveness.
o Know
K th t anxiety
that i t and
d tension
t i i
is nott as
noticeable to the audience as it is to you.
o Know that even the best presenters make
mistakes. The key is to continue on after the
mistake. If you pick up and continue, so will the
audience Winners continue! Losers stop!
audience.

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Questions
• Keep cool if a questioner disagrees with you. You are
a professional! No matter how hard you try, not
everyone in the world will agree with you!
• Although some people get a perverse pleasure from putting
others on the spot, and some try to look good in front of
the boss, most people ask questions from a genuine
interest. Questions do not mean you did not explain the
topic good enough, but that their interest is deeper than
g audience.
the average

• .

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Questions – troubles??
Questions 
• Always allow time at the end of the presentation for
questions. After inviting questions, do not rush ahead if no
one asks a question. Pause for about 6 seconds to allow the
audience
aud e ce to
o gather
ga e their e thoughts.
oug s When e a question
ques o iss
asked, repeat the question to ensure that everyone heard it
(and that you heard it correctly). When answering, direct
your remarks to the entire audience. That way, you keep
everyone focused, not just the questioner. To reinforce your
presentation, try to relate the question back to the main
points.
p

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Listen carefully to Questions 
• M
Make
k sure you listen
li t t the
to th question
ti b i
being asked.
k d
If you do not understand it, ask them to clarify.
Pause to think about the question as the answer
you give
i may beb correct,t but
b t ignore
i th main
the i
issue. If you do not know the answer, be honest,
do not waffle. Tell them you will get back to
them...and make sure you do!
• Answers that last 10 to 40 seconds work best. If
they are too short,
short they seem abrupt; while
longer answers appear too elaborate. Also, be
sure to keep on track. Do not let off-the-wall
questions sidetrack you into areas that are not
relevant to the presentation.
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Diplomacy helps some times
Diplomacy helps some times
• If someone takes issue with something g yyou said,,
try to find a way to agree with part of their
argument. For example, "Yes, I understand your
position " or "I'm
position... I m glad you raised that point,
point
but..." The idea is to praise their point and agree
with them. Audiences sometimes tend to think of
"us verses you." You do not want to risk
alienating them

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