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Clothing Assemblies

Part II: Theoretical Modeling, Simulation, and Comparison with Experimental Results

**JINTU FAN1 AND XIAO-YIN CHENG
**

Institute of Textiles and Clothing, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong

ABSTRACT

Part II of this series reports on a theoretical model and simulation results of coupled

heat and moisture transfer with phase change and mobile condensates in clothing assem-

blies consisting of porous fibrous battings sandwiched by inner and outer layers of a thin

covering fabric. The model considers moisture movement induced by partial water vapor

pressure, a super saturation state in the condensing region, dynamic moisture absorption

of fibrous materials, and the movement of liquid condensates. The theoretical results of the

model are compared and agree well with the experimental ones. A numerical simulation

using the model shows that inner fibrous battings with higher fiber contents, finer fibers,

greater fiber emissivity, higher air permeability, a lower disperse coefficient of surface

free water, and a lower moisture absorption rate cause less condensation and moisture

absorption, which is beneficial to thermal comfort during and after exercising in cold

weather conditions.

Understanding coupled heat and moisture transfer mal diffusion time scale, which may, however, not be the

with phase change and mobile condensate is not only case with frost and low moisture accumulation [13].

important to clothing comfort but also to building engi- Farnworth [7] presented the first dynamic model of

neering and energy conservation. Since the 1980s, a coupled heat and moisture transfer with sorption and

number of theoretical models have been proposed in this condensation. This model was rather simplified and only

field. Ogniewicz and Tien [11] proposed a model that appropriate for multi-layered clothing, because Farn-

assumed heat is transported by conduction and convec- worth assumed that the temperature and moisture content

tion and the condensate is in a pendular state. The anal- in each clothing layer were uniform. Vafai and Sarkar

ysis was limited to a quasi-steady state, that is, temper- [15] rigorously modeled transient heat and moisture

ature and vapor concentration remain unchanged with transfer with condensation. For the first time, they found

time before the condensates become mobile. Motakef the interface of the dry and wet zones directly from the

and El-Masri [9] first considered the quasi-steady state solution of the transient governing equations. In that

corresponding to mobile condensate, where the conden- work, they numerically analyzed the effects of boundary

sates diffuse toward the wet zone’s boundaries as liquid conditions, the Peclet and Lewis number, on the conden-

and re-evaporate at these boundaries, leaving the time- sation process. Later Vafai and Tien [16] extended the

invariant temperature, vapor concentration, and liquid analysis to two-dimensional heat and mass transport ac-

content profiles. This theoretical model was later ex-

counting for phase changes, in a porous matrix. Tao et al.

tended by Shapiro and Motakef [12], who analyzed un-

[13] first analyzed the frost effect in an insulation slab by

steady heat and moisture transport processes and com-

applying Vafai and Sarker’s model to the case of tem-

pared the analytical results with experimental ones under

peratures below the triple point of water. Tao, Besant,

some very limited circumstances. This analysis is only

and Rezkallah [14] also for the first time considered the

valid when the time scale for the motion of the dry-wet

hygroscopic effects of insulation materials in their

boundary in porous media is much larger than the ther-

model. Murata [10] first considered the falling of con-

densate under gravity and built this phenomenon into his

1

tcfanjt@inet.polyu.edu.hk steady-state model.

**Textile Res. J. 75(3), 187–196 (2005) 0040-5175/$15.00
**

187

188 TEXTILE RESEARCH JOURNAL

**We (Fan and co-workers [4, 5]) first introduced the K x ⭸p
**

dynamic moisture absorption process and radiative heat u⫽ ⫺ , (1)

⭸x

transfer as well as the movement of liquid condensates

[5] in their transient models. We now improve our model where p is the water vapor pressure in the interfiber void,

further by considering moisture bulk flow induced by the calculated by p ⫽ psat ⫻ Rhf. Based on the conservation

vapor pressure gradients and super saturation state. In of heat energy and applying the two-flux model of radi-

this paper, we describe the improved model, compare its ative heat transfer, at position x and time t, we obtain the

results with the experimental ones, and analyze the ef- heat transfer equation:

冉 冊

fects of various material parameters on the accumulation

⭸T ⭸T ⭸ ⭸T

of water in clothing as a result of condensation or mois- C v 共 x,t兲 ⫽ ⫺ uC va 共 x,t兲 ⫹ k共 x,t兲

ture absorption based on computed numerical results. ⭸t ⭸x ⭸x ⭸x

⭸F L ⭸F R

Model Formulation ⫹ ⫺ ⫹ 共 x,t兲⌫共 x,t兲 , (2)

⭸x ⭸x

The model considers a clothing assembly consisting of where

a thick porous fibrous batting (⬃10 mm) sandwiched

between one thin inner fabric (⬃0.1 mm) next to the skin ⭸F L

⫽  共 x兲 F L ⫺  共 x兲 T 4共 x,t兲 (3)

and the other fabric layer (⬃0.1 mm) next to the cold ⭸x

environment. The schematic diagram is shown in Figure

1. Since the fibrous batting is highly porous and the and

temperature difference between the skin and the environ- ⭸F R

ment is great, radiative heat transfer within the fibrous ⫽ ⫺  共 x兲 F R ⫹  共 x兲 T 4共 x,t兲 , (4)

⭸x

batting is considered very important. In forming the

mathematical model, we assume that the porous fibrous where the effective thermal conductivity k(x,t) is a volu-

batting is isotropic in fiber arrangement and material metric average calculated by k(x,t) ⫽ ka ⫹ (1 ⫺ )(kf

properties; volume changes of the fibers due to changing ⫹ Wkw), the effective volumetric heat capacity of the

moisture and water content are neglected; local thermal fibrous batting is calculated by Cv ⫽ Cva ⫹ (1 ⫺ )(Cvf

equilibrium exists among all phases, and as a conse- ⫹ WCvw), and the porosity of fiber plus condensates

quence, only sublimation or ablimation is considered in (liquid water or ice) is calculated by ⫽ ⬘ ⫺ (

the freezing region; and the moisture content at the fiber ⫺ ice)W(1 ⫺ ⬘).

surface is in sorptive equilibrium with that of the sur- According to mass conservation, water vapor transfer

rounding air. in the interfiber void is controlled by the moisture trans-

fer equation:

⭸C a ⭸C a D a ⭸ 2C a

⫽ ⫺ u ⫹ ⫺ ⌫共 x,t兲 . (5)

⭸t ⭸x ⭸ x2

Even when there is no condensation on the surface of a

fiber in the porous batting (i.e., the relative humidity is

less than 100%), fibers absorb or desorb moisture, and

the absorption or desorption rate is of the form

⭸C f 共 x,t兲

⌫ s 共 x,t兲 ⫽ 共1 ⫺ 兲 , (6)

⭸t

where Cf(x,t) is the moisture content within the fiber,

which can be integrated by [4]

FIGURE 1. Schematic diagram of the porous clothing ensemble.

C f 共 x,t兲 ⫽ 兵2/共 R f2兲其 冕0

Rf

C f⬘rdr , (7)

**In this work, we believe that moisture bulk flow is
**

induced as a result of the gradient of partial water vapor where Rf is the radius of the fiber. Cf⬘ is the volumetric

pressure, as in the case of wood drying [1]. The speed of moisture concentration in the fiber, which can be deter-

the movement of moist air is modeled by Darcy’s law: mined by the Fickian diffusion law [4]:

MARCH 2005 189

⭸C f⬘ 1 ⭸

⭸t

⫽

r ⭸r

df冉⭸C f⬘

⭸r 冊 . (8)

where W̃ ⫽ W(x,t) ⫺ Wf (x,t) is the free water content,

Wf (x,t) ⫽ Cf (x,t)/ is the water absorbed within the fiber,

1 t

and W共x,t兲 ⫽ 冕 ⌫共x,t兲dt is the total water content,

When the relative humidity reaches 100%, condensa- 0

tion or freezing occurs in addition to absorption. Many including that absorbed by the fibers and on the fiber

previous models [5, 9, 13, 14] assumed that extra mois- surface.

ture in the air condenses instantaneously, so that the We define dl phenomenologically, and it depends on

maximum relative humidity in the air is 100%. This was the water content, temperature, and properties of the fiber

considered less appropriate and the cause of some dis- batting; dl ⫽ 0 when the condensate is immobile, which

crepancies between the numerical results of the previous is the case when the water content is less than a critical

models and experimental results. We now believe that value Wc, or when the free water is frozen.

there is a temporary super-saturation state (or Ca ⬎ Ca* The boundary conditions to the main differential equa-

or Rhf ⱖ 1.0). In other words, the moisture concentration tions (2 and 5) are the same as those reported previously

in the air exceeds the saturated moisture concentration, [4, 5]. Since the conductive heat transfer and moisture

so time is required for condensation to take place. Given transport at the interfaces between the inner covering

sufficient time, however, the extra moisture in the air will fabric and the batting as well as between the batting and

condense until the moisture concentration in the air de- the outer covering fabric should be continuous, we have

冊

creases to the saturated moisture concentration. On the

other hand, when the humidity of the surrounding air is

below 100%, evaporation or sublimation occurs if there

k共0,t兲

⭸T

⭸x

冏 x⫽0

⫽

1

r0

共T兩 x⫽0 兲 ⫺ T 0 , (14)

is free water or ice on the fiber surface.

Water condensation and evaporation are modeled us-

ing the Hertz-Knudsen equation [8]. The condensation or

k共L,t兲

⭸T

⭸x

冏 x⫽L

⫽

T 1 ⫺ T兩 x⫽L

r 1 ⫹ 共1/h t 兲

, (15)

evaporation rate per unit surface area of fiber covered

with condensates (liquid water or ice) is D a ⭸Ca

⭸x

冏 ⫽

Ca兩 x⫽0 ⫺ Ca 0

w0

, (16)

⌫ sce 共 x,t兲 ⫽ ⫺ E 冑M/ 2 R共P sat / 冑T s ⫺ P v / 冑T v兲

x⫽0

. (9)

**From Equation 9, we get [5]
**

D a ⭸Ca

⭸x

冏 x⫽L

⫽

Ca 1 ⫺ Ca兩 x⫽L

w 1 ⫹ 共1/h c 兲

. (17)

⌫ sce 共 x,t兲 ⫽ ⫺ E 冑M/ 2 R共1 ⫺ Rhf 兲 P sat / 冑T . (10)

Considering the radiative heat transfer at the interface

Since the surface area of the fiber covered by conden- of the inner thin fabric and the fibrous batting and that of

sates in the control volume is the outer thin fabric and the fibrous batting, we have

initial conditions for Equations 3 and 4 as follows:

2 冑共1 ⫺ ⬘兲共1 ⫺ 兲

, 共1 ⫺ 1 兲 F L 共0,t兲 ⫹ 1 T 4共0,t兲 ⫽ F R 共0,t兲 , (18)

Rf

the condensation or evaporation rate per unit volume is 共1 ⫺ 2 兲 F R 共L,t兲 ⫹ 2 T 4共L,t兲 ⫽ F L 共L,t兲 . (19)

**2E 冑共1 ⫺ ⬘兲共1 ⫺ 兲 These equations and boundary conditions are solved
**

⌫ ce 共 x,t兲 ⫽ ⫺ using the finite difference method.

Rf

⫻ 冑M/ 2 R共1 ⫺ Rhf 兲 P sat / 冑T . (11) Theoretical Results and Comparison with

Therefore, the total water accumulation rate ⌫(x,t) is Experimental Ones

⌫ ⫽ ⌫ s ⫹ ⌫ ce . (12) In the numerical computation, the initial conditions are

20°C and 65% RH when the fibrous battings are condi-

The free water, i.e., the water on the fiber surface, may tioned before testing. In addition to the standard param-

diffuse when it is in liquid form and its content exceeds eters, which can be found in the handbooks, we used

a critical value. According to mass conservation, we actually measured values of the parameters of fibrous

have battings and covering fabrics in the numerical computa-

tion except for the diffusion coefficient of moisture in the

⭸W̃ ⭸ 2W̃ fiber Df and the diffusion coefficient of free water on the

共1 ⫺ 兲 ⫽ 共1 ⫺ 兲d l ⫹ ⌫ ce 共 x,t兲 , (13)

⭸t ⭸ x2 fiber surface Dl. We found that the water content in the

190 TEXTILE RESEARCH JOURNAL

**batting next to the skin is mostly determined by the
**

diffusion coefficient of moisture in the fiber Df. The most

appropriate diffusion coefficients of moisture in the fiber

Df can therefore be determined from experimental data.

Df ⫽ 1.512e-16 m2s for viscose batting and Df ⫽ 1.0e-16

m2/s for polyester batting. The diffusion coefficient of

free water on the fiber surface Dl and the critical water

content (Wc), where there is no liquid water diffusion,

depends on the porosity and the surface tension of the

fibers. Because no direct measurements of Dl and Wc

were possible, we determined them by fitting the exper-

imental data: Dl ⫽ 5.4e ⫺ 11 m2/s for viscose batting and

Dl ⫽ 1.35e ⫺ 13 m2/s for polyester batting, with Wc

assumed to be 20%.

Figures 2–5 compare the numerical and experimental

results of water content distribution in fibrous battings.

Here, we see generally good agreement between the

numerical results of the model and the experimentally

measured water content distributions, except for the

outer regions of the battings. The model predicts that the

greatest condensation takes place at the outermost layer

of the battings; however, in a few cases (one out of a total

of eight cases) the highest water content appeared at the FIGURE 3. Comparison of water content distribution between simu-

second or third outermost layer of the battings. One lation and experiment (fifteen plies of viscose batting sandwiched by

possible explanation is that some ice stuck to the outer two layers of a laminated fabric).

covering fabric, as we observed during the experiments.

FIGURE 2. Comparison of water content distribution between simu- FIGURE 4. Comparison of water content distribution between simu-

lation and experiment (fifteen plies of viscose batting sandwiched by lation and experiment (six plies of polyester batting sandwiched by two

two layers of a nylon fabric). layers of a nylon fabric).

MARCH 2005 191

**As we see from Figure 6, most of the changes in
**

temperature distribution take place within 1/2 hour of

exposure to the cold environment. After the clothing

assembly is placed on the sweating, guarded hot plate,

the inner region is quickly heated up by the heat from the

warm skin, and the outer region quickly cools down due

to heat loss to the environment. After stabilization, the

temperature reduces from the inner region to the outer

region. This reduction is gradual in the inner region, but

becomes steeper toward the outer region. This is a result

of the combined heat transfer of convection, conduction,

and radiation as well as the influence of the heat of

moisture absorption and/or condensation. The trends of

temperature distribution are in good agreement with the

experimental findings reported in Part I of this series [3].

**FIGURE 5. Comparison of water content distribution between simu-
**

lation and experiment (six plies of polyester batting sandwiched by two

layers of a laminated fabric).

**It may also be possible that some of the condensates at
**

the outermost layer might drop to the layers underneath.

With regard to polyester battings, we can see that there is

a relatively high discrepancy between the theoretical and

experimental results for the water content distribution

after 8 hours, but not for the water content distribution

after 24 hours. This might be because the polyester

batting was non-absorbent and highly porous, the water

FIGURE 6. Distribution of temperature.

condensates were on the fiber surface, and before they

were frozen into ice within the first few hours of the

experiments, the liquid water tended to drop to the lower From Figure 7, we see that the gradient of moisture

layers, resulting in less sharp increases in water content concentration in the batting is small, especially in the

in the outer layers and higher water content in the lower

layers.

Mechanisms of Condensation in

Clothing Assemblies

From the generally good agreement between the the-

oretical and experimental results, we believe that our

model provides a good mapping of the mechanisms of

heat and moisture transfer with absorption and phase

change within clothing assemblies. In order to gain a

better understanding of the interactions of the different

mechanisms involved, we have plotted the distribution of

temperature, moisture concentration, and relative humid-

ity as well as the accumulation of water content within

the battings in Figures 6 –9. FIGURE 7. Distribution of moisture concentration.

192 TEXTILE RESEARCH JOURNAL

**inner region, so moisture transfer by diffusion is rather optimizing clothing design for thermal comfort. In each
**

small. Much of the moisture transfer is caused by mois- simulation, we have changed one parameter, but the rest

ture bulk flow induced by the gradient of partial water are constant as listed in Tables I and II in Part I of our

vapor pressure. Because the temperature at the outer series [3].

regions is low, the saturated moisture concentration is

low, and the moisture concentration in the outer regions

EFFECT OF RADIATIVE SORPTION CONSTANT OF THE

creates a temporary super saturation state (i.e., relative

FIBERS 〉

humidity exceeds 100%), causing condensation. The dis-

tribution of relative humidity can be seen in Figure 8. The effect of the radiative sorption constant of the

fibers  on the water content distribution is shown in

Figure 10. The water content reduces with the increase of

, but the reduction at the outermost region is less than

that in the inner and middle regions.

FIGURE 8. Distribution of relative humidity.

**The water content in the batting, including moisture
**

absorption by the fibers and condensation, is cumulative,

as shown in Figure 9. The condensed water in liquid

form may wick to inner regions where the water content

is lower.

FIGURE 10. Effect of  (beta) on water content distribution.

**From the view of thermal comfort of clothing for
**

wearers, sweating occurs when the human body cannot

release its heat through dry heat loss alone. During

sweating, less accumulated water in clothing is desirable,

and hence a greater value of  is preferred. Since  is

related to the fractional fiber volume, fiber emissivity,

and fiber radius [7],

共1 ⫺ 兲 f

⫽ , (20)

Rf

FIGURE 9. Accumulation of water content within battings.

where Rf is the fiber radius, is the porosity of the

batting, and f is the emissivity of the fiber. Based on this

Effects of Various Material Parameters

relationship, higher fiber content, finer fibers, and greater

Investigating the effects of various material parame- emissivity of the fibers are preferred for less condensa-

ters through numerical simulation is important in view of tion within the fibrous batting.

MARCH 2005 193

**EFFECT OF DIFFUSION COEFFICIENT OF MOISTURE IN THE
**

FIBER df

The effect of the diffusion coefficient of moisture in the

fiber df on the water content distribution is shown in Figure

11. As we can see, the water content increases with in-

creased df , particularly in the inner regions of the batting

where water accumulation is mostly due to moisture ab-

sorption. With a higher diffusion coefficient (df), the aver-

age water content increases much quicker in the first hour,

then gradually as in the case of a low diffusion coefficient.

These results indicate that hygroscopic fibers with a high df

value may be disadvantageous for thermal comfort in cold

conditions, since when exercising and sweating, there is a

larger and quicker accumulation of water in clothing. The

accumulated water content may be a source of “after-chill”

discomfort when the wearer stops exercising.

FIGURE 12. Effect of dl on water content distribution.

**bution of water content is almost even. A small dl with
**

less liquid movement is preferred, as water accumulating

at the outer region should create less discomfort.

**EFFECT OF AIR PERMEABILITY OF FIBROUS BATTING
**

The effect of the air permeability of fibrous batting (i.e.,

Kx

coefficient of Darcy’s Law kx ⫽ ) on the water content

distribution is shown in Figure 13, assuming the porosity of

the batting is not changed. When kx⫽0.0 (i.e., there is no

flow of moist air within the fibrous batting, which may be

achieved by interlacing the layers of battings with air-

impermeable fabrics), the distribution of water content is

FIGURE 11. Effect of df on water content distribution.

convex. With the increase in kx, the shape of the distribution

gradually changes to concave. It is clear that a higher kx

causes a greater difference between the water content at the

EFFECT OF DISPERSE COEFFICIENT OF FREE WATER IN inner region and that at the outer region of the batting. The

THE FIBROUS BATTING dl reduction in air permeability kx, probably by interlacing the

layers of the battings with less permeable fabrics, can create

The effect of the disperse coefficient of free water in a more even distribution of water content.

the fibrous batting dl on the water content distribution is

shown in Figure 12. When dl ⫽ 0.0, there is no move-

EFFECT OF MOISTURE VAPOR RESISTANCE OF

ment of liquid water on the fiber surface, the curve of

INNER COVERING

water content distribution is concave, and the peak ap-

pears at the outermost side of the batting. With the Figure 14 shows the effect of the water content distri-

increase in dl, when the amount of liquid condensate bution within the fibrous batting for the inner covering

exceeds a certain value, the liquid water overcomes the fabric with a moisture vapor resistance ranging from 64.7

surface tension and moves to the region with a lower to 2087.0 sm⫺1, when the outer covering fabric is the

water content. When dl ⫽ 5.4 ⫻ 10⫺8m2s⫺1, the distri- woven nylon with the properties specified in Table I of

194 TEXTILE RESEARCH JOURNAL

**the moisture concentration within the batting is very
**

close to the moisture concentration next to the skin

because of the thick batting and the outer covering fabric.

**EFFECT OF MOISTURE VAPOR RESISTANCE OF
**

OUTER COVERING

Water content distribution within the batting is signif-

icantly affected by the moisture vapor resistance of the

outer covering fabric, as shown in Figure 15. With an

outer covering fabric of lower moisture vapor resistance,

less condensation will take place within the batting,

particularly at its outer regions. This is because more

moisture will be transmitted by convection or diffusion

into the environment through a more permeable outer

covering fabric. The vapor permeability of the outer

fabric is critical and should be minimal while also meet-

ing the requirements of protection.

FIGURE 13. Effect of kx on water content distribution.

**FIGURE 15. Effect of moisture vapor resistance of outer covering
**

fabric on water content distribution.

**FIGURE 14. Effect of moisture vapor resistance of inner
**

covering fabric.

Conclusions

Part I. As we can see, the effect of the moisture vapor In this paper, we have presented a theoretical model

resistance of the inner covering fabric is very small of coupled heat and moisture transfer within clothing

within the commercial range (from a permeable woven assemblies with moisture absorption, phase change,

fabric to a breathable one). The condensation within the and mobile condensates. We compare the results of

battings can only be reduced when the inner covering this model with the experimental ones and find good

fabric is almost impermeable. This is probably because agreement. Based on our theoretical analysis, we can

MARCH 2005 195

**better understand the mechanism of condensation E condensation or evaporation coefficient, dimen-
**

within clothing. sionless

We report numerical simulation results on the effects FL total incident thermal radiation traveling to the

of various clothing parameters. Based on this analysis, left, W

we believe that for clothing consisting of fibrous battings FR total incident thermal radiation traveling to the

sandwiched by two layers of thin fabrics, inner fibrous right, W

battings with a higher fiber content, finer fibers, greater hc convective mass transfer coefficient, m s⫺1

fiber emissivity, higher air permeability, a lower disperse ht convective thermal transfer coefficient, W m⫺2

coefficient of surface free water, and a lower moisture K⫺1

absorption rate cause less condensation and moisture k effective thermal conductivity of the fibrous bat-

absorption, which is beneficial to thermal comfort during ting, W m⫺1 K⫺1

and after excising in cold weather conditions. With re- ka thermal conductivity of air, W m⫺1 K⫺1

gard to the inner and outer covering fabrics, the inner one kf thermal conductivity of fiber, W m⫺1 K⫺1

is probably less critical, but the outer one should be as kw thermal conductivity of water in the fibrous bat-

permeable as possible in order to minimize water con- ting, W m⫺1 K⫺1

densation within the battings. Kx permeability of porous batting, m2

kx coefficient of Darcy’s law, m2 (Pa.s)⫺1

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT L thickness of the fibrous batting, m

Li thickness of the inner and outer covering fabrics,

We would like to thank the Research Grant Committee m (i ⫽ 0, inner fabric; i ⫽ 1, outer fabric)

of the Hong Kong University Grant Council for funding

M molecular weight of the evaporating substance, M

this project (PolyU 5142/00E).

⫽ 18.0152, (g.mol⫺1, for water

p pressure of water vapor in the interfiber void, Pa

Appendix psat saturated water vapor pressure at temperature Ts,

Pa

NOMENCLATURE pv vapor pressure in vapor region at Tv, Pa

R the universal gas constant, R ⫽ 8.314471, J K⫺1

mol⫺1

Rf radius of fibers, m

Ca water vapor concentration in the interfiber void

r radial distance, m

space, kg m⫺3

ri resistance to heat transfer of inner or outer cover-

Cai moisture concentration at the boundaries, K (i.e., i

⫽ 0, surface next to human body; i ⫽ 1, sur- ing fabric, Km2 W⫺1 (i.e. i ⫽ 0, inner fabric; i

rounding air) ⫽ 1, outer fabric)

Ca* saturated water vapor concentration in the interfi- RHi relative humidity of the surroundings, % (i.e., i

ber void space, kg m⫺3 ⫽ 0, surface next to human body; i ⫽ 1, sur-

Cf mean water vapor concentration in the fiber, kg rounding air)

m⫺3 Rhf relative humidity of the air space within the porous

Cf⬘ volumetric moisture concentration in the fiber (it batting, %

varies over the radius of the fibers), kg m⫺3 T temperature, K

Cv effective volumetric heat capacity of the fibrous Ti temperature of the boundaries, K (i.e., i ⫽ 0,

batting, kJ m⫺3 K⫺1 surface next to human body; i ⫽ 1, surrounding

Cva volumetric heat capacity of the dry air, kJ m⫺3 air)

K⫺1 Ts temperature at the interface of condensates and

Cvf effective volumetric heat capacity of the fiber, kJ vapor, K

m⫺3 K⫺1 Tv temperature in the vapor region, K

Cvw volumetric heat capacity of water, kJ m⫺3 K⫺1 t time, seconds

Da diffusion coefficient of water vapor in the air, u speed of moisture vapor within fibrous batting, m

m2s⫺1 s⫺1

df diffusion coefficient of moisture in the fiber, m2 ui speed of moisture vapor through the covering fab-

s⫺1 ric (i.e., i ⫽ 0, through inner covering fabric; i

dl disperse coefficient of free water in the fibrous ⫽ 1, through outer covering fabric)

batting, m2 s⫺1 W water content of the fibrous batting, %

196 TEXTILE RESEARCH JOURNAL

Wc critical level of water content above which liquid 2. Croft, D. R., and Lilley, D. G., “Heat Transfer Calculations

water becomes mobile, % Using Finite Difference Equations,” Applied Science Pub-

Wf water content of the fibers in the porous batting, % lishers, London, England, 1977, pp. 47–50.

WCi water content of the ith layer of the batting, % 3. Fan, J., and Cheng, X. Y., Heat and Moisture Transfer with

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 radiative sorption constant of the fibers, m⫺1 Trans. 43, 2989 –3000 (2000).

porosity of fiber plus condensates (liquid water or 5. Fan, J., and Wen, X., Modelling Heat and Moisture Trans-

ices) fer, Int. J. Heat Mass Trans. 45, 4045– 4055 (2002).

⬘ porosity of the fibrous batting, ⫽ cubic volume 6. Farnworth, B., Mechanics of Heat Flow through Clothing

of interfiber space/total cubic volume of batting Insulation, Textile Res. J. 53, 717–725 (1983).

space 7. Farnworth, B., A Numerical Model of the Combined Dif-

fusion of Heat and Water Vapor Through Clothing, Textile

latent heat of (de)sorption of fibers or condensa-

Res. J. 56, 653– 665 (1986).

tion of water vapor, kJ kg⫺1 8. Jones, Frank E., Evaporation of Water—With Emphasis on

dynamic viscosity of dry water vapor, kg m⫺1 s⫺1 Application and Measurements,” Lewis Publishers, MI,

density of the fibers, kg m⫺3 1992, pp. 25– 43.

ice density of ice, kg m⫺3 9. Motakef, S., and El-Masri, M. A., Simultaneous Heat and

Boltzmann constant ⫽ 5.6705 ⫻ 10⫺8, WK⫺4 Mass Transfer with Phase Change in a Porous Slab, J. Heat

m⫺2 Mass Trans. 29, 1503–1512 (1986).

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gree of bending or twist of the passage of mois- a Fibrous Insulation Slab Bounded on One Side by a Cold

ture diffusion due to the bending or twist of Surface, Int. J. Heat Mass Trans. 38, 3253–3262 (1995).

fibers in the fibrous insulation, which normally 11. Ogniewicz, Y., and Tien, C. L., Analysis of Condensation

in Porous Insulation, J. Heat Mass Trans. 24, 421– 429

changes between 1.0 and 1.2, depending on the

(1981).

fiber arrangements 12. Shapiro, A. P., and Motakef, S., Unsteady Heat and Mass

f fiber emissivity Transfer with Phase Change in Porous Slab: Analytical

i surface emissivity of the inner and outer covering Solutions and Experimental Results, J. Heat Mass Trans.

fabrics (i ⫽ 1, inner fabric; i ⫽ 2, outer fabric) 33, 163–173 (1990).

⌫ total rate of (de)sorption, condensation, freezing, 13. Tao, Y. X., Besant, R. W., and Rezkallah, K. S., Unsteady

and/or evaporation, kg s⫺1 m⫺3 Heat and Mass Transfer with Phase Changes in an Insula-

⌫ce rate of condensation, freezing, and/or evaporation, tion Slab: Frosting Effects, Int. J. Heat Mass Trans. 34,

kg s⫺1 m⫺3 1593–1603 (1991).

⌫sce condensation or evaporation rate per unit surface 14. Tao, Y. X., Besant, R. W., and Rezkallah, K. S., The

area of fiber covered with condensates, kg s⫺1 Transient Thermal Response of a Glass-fiber Insulation

Slab with Hygroscopic Effects, Int. J. Heat Mass Trans.

m⫺2

35, 1155–1167 (1992).

⌫s rate of (de)sorption, kg s⫺1 m⫺3 15. Vafai, K., and Sarkar, S., Condensation Effects in a Fi-

brous Insulation Slab, J. Heat Trans. 108, 667– 675 (1986).

Literature Cited 16. Vafai, K., and Tien, H. C., A Numerical Investigation of

1. Chen, Z., Primary Driving Force in Wood Vacuum Drying, Phase Change Effects in Porous Materials, Int. J. Heat

Doctoral thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Mass Trans. 32, 1261–1277 (1989).

University, 1997. Manuscript received June 6, 2003; accepted February 19, 2004.

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