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Heat and Moisture Transfer with Sorption and Phase Change Through

Clothing Assemblies
Part II: Theoretical Modeling, Simulation, and Comparison with Experimental Results

JINTU FAN1 AND XIAO-YIN CHENG
Institute of Textiles and Clothing, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong

ABSTRACT
Part II of this series reports on a theoretical model and simulation results of coupled
heat and moisture transfer with phase change and mobile condensates in clothing assem-
blies consisting of porous fibrous battings sandwiched by inner and outer layers of a thin
covering fabric. The model considers moisture movement induced by partial water vapor
pressure, a super saturation state in the condensing region, dynamic moisture absorption
of fibrous materials, and the movement of liquid condensates. The theoretical results of the
model are compared and agree well with the experimental ones. A numerical simulation
using the model shows that inner fibrous battings with higher fiber contents, finer fibers,
greater fiber emissivity, higher air permeability, a lower disperse coefficient of surface
free water, and a lower moisture absorption rate cause less condensation and moisture
absorption, which is beneficial to thermal comfort during and after exercising in cold
weather conditions.

Understanding coupled heat and moisture transfer mal diffusion time scale, which may, however, not be the
with phase change and mobile condensate is not only case with frost and low moisture accumulation [13].
important to clothing comfort but also to building engi- Farnworth [7] presented the first dynamic model of
neering and energy conservation. Since the 1980s, a coupled heat and moisture transfer with sorption and
number of theoretical models have been proposed in this condensation. This model was rather simplified and only
field. Ogniewicz and Tien [11] proposed a model that appropriate for multi-layered clothing, because Farn-
assumed heat is transported by conduction and convec- worth assumed that the temperature and moisture content
tion and the condensate is in a pendular state. The anal- in each clothing layer were uniform. Vafai and Sarkar
ysis was limited to a quasi-steady state, that is, temper- [15] rigorously modeled transient heat and moisture
ature and vapor concentration remain unchanged with transfer with condensation. For the first time, they found
time before the condensates become mobile. Motakef the interface of the dry and wet zones directly from the
and El-Masri [9] first considered the quasi-steady state solution of the transient governing equations. In that
corresponding to mobile condensate, where the conden- work, they numerically analyzed the effects of boundary
sates diffuse toward the wet zone’s boundaries as liquid conditions, the Peclet and Lewis number, on the conden-
and re-evaporate at these boundaries, leaving the time- sation process. Later Vafai and Tien [16] extended the
invariant temperature, vapor concentration, and liquid analysis to two-dimensional heat and mass transport ac-
content profiles. This theoretical model was later ex-
counting for phase changes, in a porous matrix. Tao et al.
tended by Shapiro and Motakef [12], who analyzed un-
[13] first analyzed the frost effect in an insulation slab by
steady heat and moisture transport processes and com-
applying Vafai and Sarker’s model to the case of tem-
pared the analytical results with experimental ones under
peratures below the triple point of water. Tao, Besant,
some very limited circumstances. This analysis is only
and Rezkallah [14] also for the first time considered the
valid when the time scale for the motion of the dry-wet
hygroscopic effects of insulation materials in their
boundary in porous media is much larger than the ther-
model. Murata [10] first considered the falling of con-
densate under gravity and built this phenomenon into his
1
tcfanjt@inet.polyu.edu.hk steady-state model.

Textile Res. J. 75(3), 187–196 (2005) 0040-5175/$15.00
187
188 TEXTILE RESEARCH JOURNAL

We (Fan and co-workers [4, 5]) first introduced the K x ⭸p
dynamic moisture absorption process and radiative heat u⫽ ⫺ , (1)
␮ ⭸x
transfer as well as the movement of liquid condensates
[5] in their transient models. We now improve our model where p is the water vapor pressure in the interfiber void,
further by considering moisture bulk flow induced by the calculated by p ⫽ psat ⫻ Rhf. Based on the conservation
vapor pressure gradients and super saturation state. In of heat energy and applying the two-flux model of radi-
this paper, we describe the improved model, compare its ative heat transfer, at position x and time t, we obtain the
results with the experimental ones, and analyze the ef- heat transfer equation:

冉 冊
fects of various material parameters on the accumulation
⭸T ⭸T ⭸ ⭸T
of water in clothing as a result of condensation or mois- C v 共 x,t兲 ⫽ ⫺ ␧uC va 共 x,t兲 ⫹ k共 x,t兲
ture absorption based on computed numerical results. ⭸t ⭸x ⭸x ⭸x
⭸F L ⭸F R
Model Formulation ⫹ ⫺ ⫹ ␭ 共 x,t兲⌫共 x,t兲 , (2)
⭸x ⭸x
The model considers a clothing assembly consisting of where
a thick porous fibrous batting (⬃10 mm) sandwiched
between one thin inner fabric (⬃0.1 mm) next to the skin ⭸F L
⫽ ␤ 共 x兲 F L ⫺ ␤ 共 x兲 ␴ T 4共 x,t兲 (3)
and the other fabric layer (⬃0.1 mm) next to the cold ⭸x
environment. The schematic diagram is shown in Figure
1. Since the fibrous batting is highly porous and the and
temperature difference between the skin and the environ- ⭸F R
ment is great, radiative heat transfer within the fibrous ⫽ ⫺ ␤ 共 x兲 F R ⫹ ␤ 共 x兲 ␴ T 4共 x,t兲 , (4)
⭸x
batting is considered very important. In forming the
mathematical model, we assume that the porous fibrous where the effective thermal conductivity k(x,t) is a volu-
batting is isotropic in fiber arrangement and material metric average calculated by k(x,t) ⫽ ␧ka ⫹ (1 ⫺ ␧)(kf
properties; volume changes of the fibers due to changing ⫹ ␳Wkw), the effective volumetric heat capacity of the
moisture and water content are neglected; local thermal fibrous batting is calculated by Cv ⫽ ␧Cva ⫹ (1 ⫺ ␧)(Cvf
equilibrium exists among all phases, and as a conse- ⫹ ␳WCvw), and the porosity of fiber plus condensates
quence, only sublimation or ablimation is considered in (liquid water or ice) is calculated by ␧ ⫽ ␧⬘ ⫺ (␳
the freezing region; and the moisture content at the fiber ⫺ ␳ice)W(1 ⫺ ␧⬘).
surface is in sorptive equilibrium with that of the sur- According to mass conservation, water vapor transfer
rounding air. in the interfiber void is controlled by the moisture trans-
fer equation:
⭸C a ⭸C a D a␧ ⭸ 2C a
␧ ⫽ ⫺ ␧u ⫹ ⫺ ⌫共 x,t兲 . (5)
⭸t ⭸x ␶ ⭸ x2
Even when there is no condensation on the surface of a
fiber in the porous batting (i.e., the relative humidity is
less than 100%), fibers absorb or desorb moisture, and
the absorption or desorption rate is of the form
⭸C f 共 x,t兲
⌫ s 共 x,t兲 ⫽ ␳ 共1 ⫺ ␧兲 , (6)
⭸t
where Cf(x,t) is the moisture content within the fiber,
which can be integrated by [4]
FIGURE 1. Schematic diagram of the porous clothing ensemble.
C f 共 x,t兲 ⫽ 兵2/共 ␳ R f2兲其 冕0
Rf
C f⬘rdr , (7)

In this work, we believe that moisture bulk flow is
induced as a result of the gradient of partial water vapor where Rf is the radius of the fiber. Cf⬘ is the volumetric
pressure, as in the case of wood drying [1]. The speed of moisture concentration in the fiber, which can be deter-
the movement of moist air is modeled by Darcy’s law: mined by the Fickian diffusion law [4]:
MARCH 2005 189

⭸C f⬘ 1 ⭸
⭸t

r ⭸r
df冉⭸C f⬘
⭸r 冊 . (8)
where W̃ ⫽ W(x,t) ⫺ Wf (x,t) is the free water content,
Wf (x,t) ⫽ Cf (x,t)/␳ is the water absorbed within the fiber,
1 t
and W共x,t兲 ⫽ 冕 ⌫共x,t兲dt is the total water content,
When the relative humidity reaches 100%, condensa- ␳ 0
tion or freezing occurs in addition to absorption. Many including that absorbed by the fibers and on the fiber
previous models [5, 9, 13, 14] assumed that extra mois- surface.
ture in the air condenses instantaneously, so that the We define dl phenomenologically, and it depends on
maximum relative humidity in the air is 100%. This was the water content, temperature, and properties of the fiber
considered less appropriate and the cause of some dis- batting; dl ⫽ 0 when the condensate is immobile, which
crepancies between the numerical results of the previous is the case when the water content is less than a critical
models and experimental results. We now believe that value Wc, or when the free water is frozen.
there is a temporary super-saturation state (or Ca ⬎ Ca* The boundary conditions to the main differential equa-
or Rhf ⱖ 1.0). In other words, the moisture concentration tions (2 and 5) are the same as those reported previously
in the air exceeds the saturated moisture concentration, [4, 5]. Since the conductive heat transfer and moisture
so time is required for condensation to take place. Given transport at the interfaces between the inner covering
sufficient time, however, the extra moisture in the air will fabric and the batting as well as between the batting and
condense until the moisture concentration in the air de- the outer covering fabric should be continuous, we have


creases to the saturated moisture concentration. On the
other hand, when the humidity of the surrounding air is
below 100%, evaporation or sublimation occurs if there
k共0,t兲
⭸T
⭸x
冏 x⫽0

1
r0
共T兩 x⫽0 兲 ⫺ T 0 , (14)
is free water or ice on the fiber surface.
Water condensation and evaporation are modeled us-
ing the Hertz-Knudsen equation [8]. The condensation or
k共L,t兲
⭸T
⭸x
冏 x⫽L

T 1 ⫺ T兩 x⫽L
r 1 ⫹ 共1/h t 兲
, (15)
evaporation rate per unit surface area of fiber covered
with condensates (liquid water or ice) is D a␧ ⭸Ca
␶ ⭸x
冏 ⫽
Ca兩 x⫽0 ⫺ Ca 0
w0
, (16)
⌫ sce 共 x,t兲 ⫽ ⫺ E 冑M/ 2 ␲ R共P sat / 冑T s ⫺ P v / 冑T v兲
x⫽0
. (9)

From Equation 9, we get [5]
D a␧ ⭸Ca
␶ ⭸x
冏 x⫽L

Ca 1 ⫺ Ca兩 x⫽L
w 1 ⫹ 共1/h c 兲
. (17)
⌫ sce 共 x,t兲 ⫽ ⫺ E 冑M/ 2 ␲ R共1 ⫺ Rhf 兲 P sat / 冑T . (10)
Considering the radiative heat transfer at the interface
Since the surface area of the fiber covered by conden- of the inner thin fabric and the fibrous batting and that of
sates in the control volume is the outer thin fabric and the fibrous batting, we have
initial conditions for Equations 3 and 4 as follows:
2 冑共1 ⫺ ␧⬘兲共1 ⫺ ␧兲
, 共1 ⫺ ␨ 1 兲 F L 共0,t兲 ⫹ ␨ 1␴ T 4共0,t兲 ⫽ F R 共0,t兲 , (18)
Rf

the condensation or evaporation rate per unit volume is 共1 ⫺ ␨ 2 兲 F R 共L,t兲 ⫹ ␨ 2␴ T 4共L,t兲 ⫽ F L 共L,t兲 . (19)

2E 冑共1 ⫺ ␧⬘兲共1 ⫺ ␧兲 These equations and boundary conditions are solved
⌫ ce 共 x,t兲 ⫽ ⫺ using the finite difference method.
Rf
⫻ 冑M/ 2 ␲ R共1 ⫺ Rhf 兲 P sat / 冑T . (11) Theoretical Results and Comparison with
Therefore, the total water accumulation rate ⌫(x,t) is Experimental Ones
⌫ ⫽ ⌫ s ⫹ ⌫ ce . (12) In the numerical computation, the initial conditions are
20°C and 65% RH when the fibrous battings are condi-
The free water, i.e., the water on the fiber surface, may tioned before testing. In addition to the standard param-
diffuse when it is in liquid form and its content exceeds eters, which can be found in the handbooks, we used
a critical value. According to mass conservation, we actually measured values of the parameters of fibrous
have battings and covering fabrics in the numerical computa-
tion except for the diffusion coefficient of moisture in the
⭸W̃ ⭸ 2W̃ fiber Df and the diffusion coefficient of free water on the
␳ 共1 ⫺ ␧兲 ⫽ ␳ 共1 ⫺ ␧兲d l ⫹ ⌫ ce 共 x,t兲 , (13)
⭸t ⭸ x2 fiber surface Dl. We found that the water content in the
190 TEXTILE RESEARCH JOURNAL

batting next to the skin is mostly determined by the
diffusion coefficient of moisture in the fiber Df. The most
appropriate diffusion coefficients of moisture in the fiber
Df can therefore be determined from experimental data.
Df ⫽ 1.512e-16 m2s for viscose batting and Df ⫽ 1.0e-16
m2/s for polyester batting. The diffusion coefficient of
free water on the fiber surface Dl and the critical water
content (Wc), where there is no liquid water diffusion,
depends on the porosity and the surface tension of the
fibers. Because no direct measurements of Dl and Wc
were possible, we determined them by fitting the exper-
imental data: Dl ⫽ 5.4e ⫺ 11 m2/s for viscose batting and
Dl ⫽ 1.35e ⫺ 13 m2/s for polyester batting, with Wc
assumed to be 20%.
Figures 2–5 compare the numerical and experimental
results of water content distribution in fibrous battings.
Here, we see generally good agreement between the
numerical results of the model and the experimentally
measured water content distributions, except for the
outer regions of the battings. The model predicts that the
greatest condensation takes place at the outermost layer
of the battings; however, in a few cases (one out of a total
of eight cases) the highest water content appeared at the FIGURE 3. Comparison of water content distribution between simu-
second or third outermost layer of the battings. One lation and experiment (fifteen plies of viscose batting sandwiched by
possible explanation is that some ice stuck to the outer two layers of a laminated fabric).
covering fabric, as we observed during the experiments.

FIGURE 2. Comparison of water content distribution between simu- FIGURE 4. Comparison of water content distribution between simu-
lation and experiment (fifteen plies of viscose batting sandwiched by lation and experiment (six plies of polyester batting sandwiched by two
two layers of a nylon fabric). layers of a nylon fabric).
MARCH 2005 191

As we see from Figure 6, most of the changes in
temperature distribution take place within 1/2 hour of
exposure to the cold environment. After the clothing
assembly is placed on the sweating, guarded hot plate,
the inner region is quickly heated up by the heat from the
warm skin, and the outer region quickly cools down due
to heat loss to the environment. After stabilization, the
temperature reduces from the inner region to the outer
region. This reduction is gradual in the inner region, but
becomes steeper toward the outer region. This is a result
of the combined heat transfer of convection, conduction,
and radiation as well as the influence of the heat of
moisture absorption and/or condensation. The trends of
temperature distribution are in good agreement with the
experimental findings reported in Part I of this series [3].

FIGURE 5. Comparison of water content distribution between simu-
lation and experiment (six plies of polyester batting sandwiched by two
layers of a laminated fabric).

It may also be possible that some of the condensates at
the outermost layer might drop to the layers underneath.
With regard to polyester battings, we can see that there is
a relatively high discrepancy between the theoretical and
experimental results for the water content distribution
after 8 hours, but not for the water content distribution
after 24 hours. This might be because the polyester
batting was non-absorbent and highly porous, the water
FIGURE 6. Distribution of temperature.
condensates were on the fiber surface, and before they
were frozen into ice within the first few hours of the
experiments, the liquid water tended to drop to the lower From Figure 7, we see that the gradient of moisture
layers, resulting in less sharp increases in water content concentration in the batting is small, especially in the
in the outer layers and higher water content in the lower
layers.

Mechanisms of Condensation in
Clothing Assemblies
From the generally good agreement between the the-
oretical and experimental results, we believe that our
model provides a good mapping of the mechanisms of
heat and moisture transfer with absorption and phase
change within clothing assemblies. In order to gain a
better understanding of the interactions of the different
mechanisms involved, we have plotted the distribution of
temperature, moisture concentration, and relative humid-
ity as well as the accumulation of water content within
the battings in Figures 6 –9. FIGURE 7. Distribution of moisture concentration.
192 TEXTILE RESEARCH JOURNAL

inner region, so moisture transfer by diffusion is rather optimizing clothing design for thermal comfort. In each
small. Much of the moisture transfer is caused by mois- simulation, we have changed one parameter, but the rest
ture bulk flow induced by the gradient of partial water are constant as listed in Tables I and II in Part I of our
vapor pressure. Because the temperature at the outer series [3].
regions is low, the saturated moisture concentration is
low, and the moisture concentration in the outer regions
EFFECT OF RADIATIVE SORPTION CONSTANT OF THE
creates a temporary super saturation state (i.e., relative
FIBERS 〉
humidity exceeds 100%), causing condensation. The dis-
tribution of relative humidity can be seen in Figure 8. The effect of the radiative sorption constant of the
fibers ␤ on the water content distribution is shown in
Figure 10. The water content reduces with the increase of
␤, but the reduction at the outermost region is less than
that in the inner and middle regions.

FIGURE 8. Distribution of relative humidity.

The water content in the batting, including moisture
absorption by the fibers and condensation, is cumulative,
as shown in Figure 9. The condensed water in liquid
form may wick to inner regions where the water content
is lower.
FIGURE 10. Effect of ␤ (beta) on water content distribution.

From the view of thermal comfort of clothing for
wearers, sweating occurs when the human body cannot
release its heat through dry heat loss alone. During
sweating, less accumulated water in clothing is desirable,
and hence a greater value of ␤ is preferred. Since ␤ is
related to the fractional fiber volume, fiber emissivity,
and fiber radius [7],

共1 ⫺ ␧兲 ␨ f
␤⫽ , (20)
Rf
FIGURE 9. Accumulation of water content within battings.
where Rf is the fiber radius, ␧ is the porosity of the
batting, and ␨f is the emissivity of the fiber. Based on this
Effects of Various Material Parameters
relationship, higher fiber content, finer fibers, and greater
Investigating the effects of various material parame- emissivity of the fibers are preferred for less condensa-
ters through numerical simulation is important in view of tion within the fibrous batting.
MARCH 2005 193

EFFECT OF DIFFUSION COEFFICIENT OF MOISTURE IN THE
FIBER df
The effect of the diffusion coefficient of moisture in the
fiber df on the water content distribution is shown in Figure
11. As we can see, the water content increases with in-
creased df , particularly in the inner regions of the batting
where water accumulation is mostly due to moisture ab-
sorption. With a higher diffusion coefficient (df), the aver-
age water content increases much quicker in the first hour,
then gradually as in the case of a low diffusion coefficient.
These results indicate that hygroscopic fibers with a high df
value may be disadvantageous for thermal comfort in cold
conditions, since when exercising and sweating, there is a
larger and quicker accumulation of water in clothing. The
accumulated water content may be a source of “after-chill”
discomfort when the wearer stops exercising.

FIGURE 12. Effect of dl on water content distribution.

bution of water content is almost even. A small dl with
less liquid movement is preferred, as water accumulating
at the outer region should create less discomfort.

EFFECT OF AIR PERMEABILITY OF FIBROUS BATTING
The effect of the air permeability of fibrous batting (i.e.,
Kx
coefficient of Darcy’s Law kx ⫽ ) on the water content

distribution is shown in Figure 13, assuming the porosity of
the batting is not changed. When kx⫽0.0 (i.e., there is no
flow of moist air within the fibrous batting, which may be
achieved by interlacing the layers of battings with air-
impermeable fabrics), the distribution of water content is
FIGURE 11. Effect of df on water content distribution.
convex. With the increase in kx, the shape of the distribution
gradually changes to concave. It is clear that a higher kx
causes a greater difference between the water content at the
EFFECT OF DISPERSE COEFFICIENT OF FREE WATER IN inner region and that at the outer region of the batting. The
THE FIBROUS BATTING dl reduction in air permeability kx, probably by interlacing the
layers of the battings with less permeable fabrics, can create
The effect of the disperse coefficient of free water in a more even distribution of water content.
the fibrous batting dl on the water content distribution is
shown in Figure 12. When dl ⫽ 0.0, there is no move-
EFFECT OF MOISTURE VAPOR RESISTANCE OF
ment of liquid water on the fiber surface, the curve of
INNER COVERING
water content distribution is concave, and the peak ap-
pears at the outermost side of the batting. With the Figure 14 shows the effect of the water content distri-
increase in dl, when the amount of liquid condensate bution within the fibrous batting for the inner covering
exceeds a certain value, the liquid water overcomes the fabric with a moisture vapor resistance ranging from 64.7
surface tension and moves to the region with a lower to 2087.0 sm⫺1, when the outer covering fabric is the
water content. When dl ⫽ 5.4 ⫻ 10⫺8m2s⫺1, the distri- woven nylon with the properties specified in Table I of
194 TEXTILE RESEARCH JOURNAL

the moisture concentration within the batting is very
close to the moisture concentration next to the skin
because of the thick batting and the outer covering fabric.

EFFECT OF MOISTURE VAPOR RESISTANCE OF
OUTER COVERING
Water content distribution within the batting is signif-
icantly affected by the moisture vapor resistance of the
outer covering fabric, as shown in Figure 15. With an
outer covering fabric of lower moisture vapor resistance,
less condensation will take place within the batting,
particularly at its outer regions. This is because more
moisture will be transmitted by convection or diffusion
into the environment through a more permeable outer
covering fabric. The vapor permeability of the outer
fabric is critical and should be minimal while also meet-
ing the requirements of protection.

FIGURE 13. Effect of kx on water content distribution.

FIGURE 15. Effect of moisture vapor resistance of outer covering
fabric on water content distribution.

FIGURE 14. Effect of moisture vapor resistance of inner
covering fabric.
Conclusions
Part I. As we can see, the effect of the moisture vapor In this paper, we have presented a theoretical model
resistance of the inner covering fabric is very small of coupled heat and moisture transfer within clothing
within the commercial range (from a permeable woven assemblies with moisture absorption, phase change,
fabric to a breathable one). The condensation within the and mobile condensates. We compare the results of
battings can only be reduced when the inner covering this model with the experimental ones and find good
fabric is almost impermeable. This is probably because agreement. Based on our theoretical analysis, we can
MARCH 2005 195

better understand the mechanism of condensation E condensation or evaporation coefficient, dimen-
within clothing. sionless
We report numerical simulation results on the effects FL total incident thermal radiation traveling to the
of various clothing parameters. Based on this analysis, left, W
we believe that for clothing consisting of fibrous battings FR total incident thermal radiation traveling to the
sandwiched by two layers of thin fabrics, inner fibrous right, W
battings with a higher fiber content, finer fibers, greater hc convective mass transfer coefficient, m s⫺1
fiber emissivity, higher air permeability, a lower disperse ht convective thermal transfer coefficient, W m⫺2
coefficient of surface free water, and a lower moisture K⫺1
absorption rate cause less condensation and moisture k effective thermal conductivity of the fibrous bat-
absorption, which is beneficial to thermal comfort during ting, W m⫺1 K⫺1
and after excising in cold weather conditions. With re- ka thermal conductivity of air, W m⫺1 K⫺1
gard to the inner and outer covering fabrics, the inner one kf thermal conductivity of fiber, W m⫺1 K⫺1
is probably less critical, but the outer one should be as kw thermal conductivity of water in the fibrous bat-
permeable as possible in order to minimize water con- ting, W m⫺1 K⫺1
densation within the battings. Kx permeability of porous batting, m2
kx coefficient of Darcy’s law, m2 (Pa.s)⫺1
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT L thickness of the fibrous batting, m
Li thickness of the inner and outer covering fabrics,
We would like to thank the Research Grant Committee m (i ⫽ 0, inner fabric; i ⫽ 1, outer fabric)
of the Hong Kong University Grant Council for funding
M molecular weight of the evaporating substance, M
this project (PolyU 5142/00E).
⫽ 18.0152, (g.mol⫺1, for water
p pressure of water vapor in the interfiber void, Pa
Appendix psat saturated water vapor pressure at temperature Ts,
Pa
NOMENCLATURE pv vapor pressure in vapor region at Tv, Pa
R the universal gas constant, R ⫽ 8.314471, J K⫺1
mol⫺1
Rf radius of fibers, m
Ca water vapor concentration in the interfiber void
r radial distance, m
space, kg m⫺3
ri resistance to heat transfer of inner or outer cover-
Cai moisture concentration at the boundaries, K (i.e., i
⫽ 0, surface next to human body; i ⫽ 1, sur- ing fabric, Km2 W⫺1 (i.e. i ⫽ 0, inner fabric; i
rounding air) ⫽ 1, outer fabric)
Ca* saturated water vapor concentration in the interfi- RHi relative humidity of the surroundings, % (i.e., i
ber void space, kg m⫺3 ⫽ 0, surface next to human body; i ⫽ 1, sur-
Cf mean water vapor concentration in the fiber, kg rounding air)
m⫺3 Rhf relative humidity of the air space within the porous
Cf⬘ volumetric moisture concentration in the fiber (it batting, %
varies over the radius of the fibers), kg m⫺3 T temperature, K
Cv effective volumetric heat capacity of the fibrous Ti temperature of the boundaries, K (i.e., i ⫽ 0,
batting, kJ m⫺3 K⫺1 surface next to human body; i ⫽ 1, surrounding
Cva volumetric heat capacity of the dry air, kJ m⫺3 air)
K⫺1 Ts temperature at the interface of condensates and
Cvf effective volumetric heat capacity of the fiber, kJ vapor, K
m⫺3 K⫺1 Tv temperature in the vapor region, K
Cvw volumetric heat capacity of water, kJ m⫺3 K⫺1 t time, seconds
Da diffusion coefficient of water vapor in the air, u speed of moisture vapor within fibrous batting, m
m2s⫺1 s⫺1
df diffusion coefficient of moisture in the fiber, m2 ui speed of moisture vapor through the covering fab-
s⫺1 ric (i.e., i ⫽ 0, through inner covering fabric; i
dl disperse coefficient of free water in the fibrous ⫽ 1, through outer covering fabric)
batting, m2 s⫺1 W water content of the fibrous batting, %
196 TEXTILE RESEARCH JOURNAL

Wc critical level of water content above which liquid 2. Croft, D. R., and Lilley, D. G., “Heat Transfer Calculations
water becomes mobile, % Using Finite Difference Equations,” Applied Science Pub-
Wf water content of the fibers in the porous batting, % lishers, London, England, 1977, pp. 47–50.
WCi water content of the ith layer of the batting, % 3. Fan, J., and Cheng, X. Y., Heat and Moisture Transfer with
Sorption and Phase Change Through Clothing Assemblies,
wi resistance to water vapor (i.e., i ⫽ 0, inner fabric;
Part I: Experimental Investigation, Textile Res. J. 75, 99 –
i ⫽ 1, outer fabric), s m⫺1 105 (2005).
x distance from the inner covering fabric, m 4. Fan, J., Luo, Z., and Li, Y., Heat and Moisture Transfer
x⬘ dimensionless distance from the inner covering with Sorption and Condensation in Porous Clothing As-
fabric, x⬘ ⫽ x/L semblies and Numerical Simulation, Int. J. Heat Mass
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