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Effect of Some Variables on Properties of 100% Cotton Vortex Spun Yarn
University of Erciyes, Department of Textile Engineering Kayseri, Turkey

University of Uludag, Department of Textile Engineering, Bursa, Turkey

This paper examines the influence of various parameters such as delivery speed, nozzle
pressures, and yarn count on the properties of vortex yarns produced using a Murata
vortex spinning system. The results indicated that the delivery speed, nozzle pressure, and
yarn count are all significant parameters for yarn evenness, imperfections, hairiness and
tensile properties. Our findings show that increasing the delivery speed increases the
hairiness and decreases the number of neps, and the tensile properties of vortex yarns.
When the nozzle pressure increases, yarn unevenness, the number of thick places, the neps
values, and the tensile properties of vortex yarns increases but the hairiness values of
vortex yarns decreases. In general, the physical, the hairiness, and the tensile properties of
coarser vortex yarns are better than finer yarns.

Vortex spinning is the new spinning method which is reveals that air-vortex yarn structure is quite different
accepted as one of the most promising technologies. This from air-jet spun yarn structure in respect of the propor-
system can also be viewed as a development in fasciated tion of wrapper fibers and a definite two-part structure. In
yarn technology [1]. vortex spinning, since the fiber separation from the bun-
The Murata vortex spinning (MVS) method takes drawn dle occurs everywhere in the entire outer periphery of the
cotton sliver and drafts it to the desired yarn count by a four fiber bundle, a higher number of wrapper fibres are
roller/apron drafting system [3]. As the fibers come out of obtained compared to airjet spun yarns [1].
the front rollers, they are sucked into the spiral orifice at the Basal and Oxenham investigated the differences be-
entrance of the air jet nozzle, and they are then held together tween the properties of vortex and the air-jet spun yarns
more firmly as they move towards the tip of the needle using different blend ratios from polyester-cotton fibers.
protruding from the orifice. At this stage, the fibers are They concluded that yarns made by MVS had superior
twisted from the force of the air jet stream. This twist evenness, fewer thick places and lower hairiness values
motion tends to flow upwards. The needle protruding from compared with those made by MJS (Murata Jet Spinner).
the orifice prevents this upward propagation. Therefore, the They also showed that vortex yarns exhibited higher
upper portions of some fibers are separated from the nip tenacity values except for the case of 100% polyester and
point between the front rollers, but they are kept “open”. lower elongation values compared to air-jet yarns [1].
After the fibers have passed through the orifice, the upper However, there are limited studies about the fundamental
portions of the fibers begin to expand due to the whirling parameters that affect vortex spun yarns. Thus, the purpose
force of the air jet stream and twine over the hollow sta- of our study was to determine the role of delivery speed,
tionary spindle. The fibers twined over the spindle are whirled nozzle pressures, and yarn count on the properties of vortex
around the fiber core and made into MVS yarn as they are yarns produced on the MVS 851 machine.
drawn into the hollow spindle. The finished yarn is wound
onto a package after its defects have been removed [4]. Experimental
As in all other fasciated yarns, vortex spun yarns
consist of a core of parallel fibers held together by In order to examine the effect of nozzle pressure, deliv-
wrapper fibers [1, 2, 5]. Analysis of the yarn structure ery speed and yarn count on the properties of vortex yarns,
27 different types of cotton carded sample yarns were
produced on the MVS 851 spinning machine. The Ege St1
To whom correspondence should be addressed: e-mail: cotton we used had the following properties: 4.45 micron- aire reading, 29.89 mm 2.5% span length, 28.37 mm

Textile Res. J. 75(6), 458 – 461 (2005) DOI: 10.1177/0040517505053835 © 2005 Sage Publications
JUNE 2005 459

UHML, uniformity ratio of 46.6, uniformity index of 82.6, tion, and work-of-break values. Yarns were tested for
5.2% breaking elongation, and 28.81 g/tex strength. irregularity and hairiness on an Uster Tester 4 SX, and
For good MVS spinning efficiency and top quality for tenacity, elongation and B-work on an Uster Tensor-
yarns, special emphasis must be placed on the sliver apid. Yarn hairiness tests were also performed on a
preparation. We used three passages of drawing process Zweigle G566 Hairiness Tester. We analyzed test results
for the MVS spinning, in order to improve fiber align- for significance in differences, using three-way repeated
ment and sliver evenness. In this study, Rieter SB851, measures analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Student–
Rieter RSB 851, and Rieter RSB D35 type draw ma- Newman–Keuls (SNK) tests at the 0.05 level in the
chines were used, respectively, for breaker, second and Costat statistical package.
finisher draw. After three passages of drawing, the sliv-
ers with a linear density of 2.48 ktex, were transferred to Results and Discussion
the MVS 851 machine. The list of the yarn samples and
the corresponding test conditions are given in Table I.
Table II, shows the evenness and imperfection test
results of MVS yarns produced with different nozzle
TABLE I. Nominal yarns and process parameters.
pressures, delivery speeds and yarn counts. According to
Yarn ANOVA results, both the delivery speed and yarn count
Lot count Nozzle pres. Delivery speed
no. (Ne) (kgf/cm2) (m/min) Total draft./main D.
were significant factors for yarn evenness and imperfec-
tion properties. Figure 1 shows the results of yarn even-
1 20 4 300 81/25 ness measurements. From the SNK test results (Table II),
2 20 4 350 81/25
3 20 4 400 81/25 an increase in delivery speed from 350 to 400 m/min
4 20 5 300 81/25
5 20 5 350 81/25
6 20 5 400 81/25
TABLE II. Effects of delivery speed, nozzle pressure, and yarn count
7 20 6 300 81/25
on MVS yarn evenness and imperfections properties, Student–New-
8 20 6 350 81/25
man–Keuls test.
9 20 6 400 81/25
10 30 4 300 122/38
Thin Thick
11 30 4 350 122/38
CVm places places Neps
12 30 4 400 122/38
(%) (⫺50%) (⫹50%) (⫹200%)
13 30 5 300 122/38
14 30 5 350 122/38 Delivery speed
15 30 5 400 122/38 300 m/min 16.66 a 179.94 ab 260.22 b 458.14 a
16 30 6 300 122/38 350 m/min 16.52 b 159.25 b 265.92 b 333.38 b
17 30 6 350 122/38 400 m/min 16.74 a 195.22 a 323.64 a 268.05 c
18 30 6 400 122/38 Nozzle pressure
19 40 4 300 153/48 4 kgf/cm2 16.43 c 168.72 a 271.17 b 285.69 c
20 40 4 350 153/48 5 kgf/cm2 16.64 b 175.75 a 274.80 b 347.58 b
21 40 4 400 153/48 6 kgf/cm2 16.85 a 189.94 a 303.80 a 426.31 a
22 40 5 300 153/48 Yarn count
23 40 5 350 153/48 Ne 20 13.88 c 4.31 c 45.53 c 99.55 c
24 40 5 400 153/48 Ne 30 16.85 b 108.78 b 247.19 b 357.92 b
25 40 6 300 153/48 Ne 40 19.19 a 421.33 a 557.06 a 602.06 a
26 40 6 350 153/48
27 40 6 400 153/48

In order to determine the role of nozzle pressure, delivery
speed, and yarn count in obtaining optimum yarn charac-
teristics, three levels of nozzle pressure, 4, 5, 6 kgf/cm2,
three levels of delivery speed, 300, 350, 400 m/min, and
also three different yarn counts, Ne 20, Ne30, and Ne 40
were selected. All the sample yarns were produced with the
following spinning conditions: 70° nozzle discharge angle,
2P130d L7-9,3 type needle holder, 1.2 mm spindle inner
diameter, 36-36-49 mm top roller gauges, and 36-36-44.5
bottom roller gauges, on the MVS-851 vortex spinner.
We compared the vortex yarn samples, on the basis of FIGURE 1. Yarn evenness versus yarn count for comparable 4, 5, and 6
yarn evenness, imperfections, hairiness, tenacity, elonga- kg/cm2 nozzle pressure with 300, 350, and 400 m/min delivery speed.

resulted in a deterioration in yarn evenness, and the
number of thin and thick places. This may be the result
of decreasing the efficiency of the air jet stream at higher
delivery speeds. However, the number of neps performed
an decreasing role as the delivery speed increased. As a
result there is an optimum point of delivery speed be-
tween 300 and 400 m/min in terms of yarn evenness and
imperfection values.
Finer yarn counts had higher unevenness values and
higher numbers of thin places, thick places and neps than
the coarser yarn counts (Table II).
Although by statistical analysis the nozzle pressure was FIGURE 3. Yarn hairiness (S3–Zweigle) versus yarn count for com-
parable 4, 5, and 6 kg/cm2 nozzle pressure with 300, 350, and 400
not a significant factor for the number of thin places, it was m/min delivery speed.
a highly significant factor for yarn evenness, number of
thick places and neps. The evenness and neps values of
vortex yarns produced with lower nozzle pressure were TABLE III. Effects of delivery speed, nozzle pressure, and yarn count
on MVS yarn hairiness properties, Student–Newman–Keuls test.
better than that of yarns produced with higher nozzle pres-
sure. Increasing the nozzle pressure from 5 to 6 kgf/cm2 H (Uster Num. of hairs Num. of hairs
significantly affected the thick place values but a former index) (1 mm class) (2 mm class) S3
increase of pressure from 4 to 5 kgf/cm2 proved insignifi- Delivery speed
cant at the 95% level of confidence. Higher pressures might 300 m/min 3.86 c 4992.80 c 145.56 c 8.94 c
increase the number of lost fibers, resulting in an increasing 350 m/min 4.16 b 7245.14 b 309.25 b 28.28 b
400 m/min 4.66 a 10158.83 a 670.25 a 100.36 a
trend in the irregularity of the vortex yarns. Nozzle pressure
4 kgf/cm2 4.34 a 9065.69 a 597.72 a 84.08 a
YARN HAIRINESS PROPERTIES 5 kgf/cm2 4.25 b 7246.17 b 324.31 b 35.81 b
6 kgf/cm2 3.99 c 6084.92 c 203.03 c 17.69 c
With regard to yarn hairiness, sample MVS yarns were Yarn count
Ne 20 3.90 c 7074.5 b 189.97 c 11.08 c
tested on both the Uster Tester 4 SX and the Zweigle G 566 Ne 30 4.54 a 7654.61 a 367.69 b 38.75 b
hairiness tester. We determined yarn hairiness characteris- Ne 40 4.24 b 7667.67 a 567.39 a 87.75 a
tics in terms of number of hairs in the 1 mm class, 2 mm
class, S3 values, which represent the total number of hairy
ends that rise 3 to 25 mm from the yarn surface and the the 1 and 2 mm classes, S3 values and the Uster hairiness
Uster Hairiness Index. Figures 2 and 3 show the test results index. Higher hairiness values with increased delivery
of yarn hairiness as the Uster hairiness index and the S3 speeds can be attributed to the increased frictional forces
values, respectively. According to ANOVA results, deliv- acting on the yarn and to the decreased efficiency of the air
ery speed, nozzle pressure and yarn count are all significant jet stream due to the reduced time for which the fibers were
factors affecting yarn hairiness. The SNK test results from whirling over the hollow spindle.
Table III reveal that increased delivery speed resulted in Contrary to delivery speed effects, yarn hairiness de-
higher yarn hairiness values in terms of number of hairs for creased with increased nozzle pressure. The decreased
hairiness at higher nozzle pressures can be attributed to
the fact that the whirling force of the nozzle air stream
increases with the pressure. The hairiness values drop as
a result of better wrapping.
With regard to yarn count, hairiness values in terms of the
number of hairs for the 2 mm class and S3 increased with finer
yarn counts, but this trend was not clear for the Uster hairiness
index and the number of hairs for the 1 mm class.

Figures 4 and 5 show the tenacity and the elongation
results of MVS yarns versus yarn count for comparable
FIGURE 2. Yarn hairiness index (Uster) versus yarn count for com-
parable 4, 5, and 6 kg/cm2 nozzle pressure with 300, 350, and 400 4, 5, and 6 kgf/cm2 nozzle pressures with 300, 350 and
m/min delivery speed. 400/m/min delivery speeds. Based on the ANOVA re-
JUNE 2005 461

According to ANOVA results, yarn count was also a
highly significant factor for the tenacity, elongation and
B-work values. These yarn properties decreased with
finer yarn counts. However the breaking elongation and
B-work values of vortex yarns were not affected by the
interaction of the nozzle pressure and the yarn count.

This study demonstrates that various properties of
vortex yarns are significantly affected by delivery speed,
FIGURE 4. The tenacity values versus yarn count for comparable 4, 5, and
6 kg/cm2 nozzle pressure with 300, 350, and 400 m/min delivery speed. nozzle pressure and yarn count. The number of neps
decreased with increased delivery speed. The results also
showed that as the delivery speed increased, the tensile
properties of the yarn decreased. Yarn hairiness was
increased with increasing delivery speed.
Nozzle pressure was a highly significant factor for the vor-
tex yarn properties. Decreases in the nozzle pressure resulted in
improved evenness and imperfection values except for the
number of thin places. Nozzle pressure was found to be an
insignificant factor for the number of thin places. From the
results it was concluded that increases in the nozzle pressure
resulted in significantly improved hairiness and tensile prop-
erties of MVS yarns due to the better wrapping.
FIGURE 5. Yarn elongation versus yarn count for comparable 4, 5, and 6 Yarn count was also highly correlated with the vortex
kg/cm2 nozzle pressure with 300, 350, and 400 m/min delivery speed. yarn properties. Generally coarser yarns yielded better
yarn properties in terms of yarn evenness, imperfection
sults the tenacity, breaking elongation and B-work values values, hairiness and tensile properties.
were significantly affected by delivery speed, nozzle As a result it can be concluded that, the choice of
pressure and yarn count changes. All the tensile values delivery speed, nozzle pressure and yarn count signifi-
decreased with increased delivery speed but increased cantly affects the resulting properties of vortex yarns.
with increased nozzle pressure (Table IV). The higher Improved yarn properties can be achieved by optimizing
tenacity values of yarns produced with 6 kgf/cm2 nozzle the machine parameters. In other words, like ring and
pressure in comparison with those produced with 5 and 4 rotor spinning technology, the MVS spinning conditions
kgf/cm2 can be attributed to the better wrapping effect of can be optimized for end uses.
the wrapping fibers which hold the fiber bundle tightly
together and also to the greater wrapping lengths. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
We wish to express our appreciation to Mr Mehmet
TABLE IV. Effects of delivery speed, nozzle pressure, and yarn count Yilmaz Selbincek, and to many colleagues of Beyteks
on MVS yarn mechanical properties, Student–Newman–Keuls test.
Textile Company, Corlu, Turkey for their contributions
Rkm Elongation B-work to the experimental part of this study.
(kgf*Nm) (%) (

Delivery speed Literature Cited
300 m/min 13.15 a 5.77 a 416.17 a
350 m/min 13.00 b 5.42 b 399.54 b 1. Basal, G., and Oxenham, W., Vortex Spun Yarn vs. Air-Jet
400 m/min 12.12 c 4.93 c 353.54 c Spun Yarn, AUTEX Res. J. 3(3), 96 –101, (2003).
Nozzle pressure 2. Basu, A., Progress in Air-jet Spinning, Textile Progress,
4 kgf/cm2 12.31 c 5.07 c 361.45 c 29(3), Textile Institute, Manchester, p. 1., 1999.
5 kgf/cm2 12.85 b 5.43 b 393.65 b
6 kgf/cm2 13.10 a 5.62 a 414.14 a 3. Murata Vortex Spinner, General Catalog, Murata Machinery.
Yarn count 4. Murata Vortex Spinner No.851 Instruction Manuel, Mu-
Ne 20 13.00 a 6.07 a 584.19 a ratec, Murata Machinery Ltd. 2000.
Ne 30 12.96 a 5.50 b 361.78 b 5. Oxenham, W., Fasciated Yarns-A Revolutionary Development?
Ne 40 12.30 b 4.55 c 223.28 c
J. Textile Apparel, Technol. Management 1(2), 1–7, (2001).