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APPENDIX

COGNITIVE MEASURES
ADAS-cog (/11; /13; MCI): Alzheimers disease assessment scale-cognitive subscale (11 and 13
subitems; Mild Cognitive Impairment; the original A!A"-cog is a ps#chometric scale consisting
o$ 11 items that evaluate selected aspects o$ memor#% orientation% attention% language%
reasoning and carr#ing out instructions% it ranges $rom & to '& and $or all its variants higher
scores indicate poorer $unction
BNT: (oston )aming *est; that assesses the abilit# to name pictures o$ ob+ects through spontaneous
responses and need $or various t#pes o$ cueing
Busch! R!"#$%#$g: a test to measure verbal learning and memor# during a multiple-trial list-
learning tas,
CANTAB: Cambridge Automated )europs#chiatric *est Assessment (atter#; including: Cambridge
-ambling *as,% A$$ective -o.)o-go% /erbal 0ecognition Memor#% -raded )aming *est% "imple
0eaction *ime and Choice 0eaction *ime $or a total o$ nineteen computer-based tests grouped
in broad $unctional categories
C&'!go() *+u!$c) '!s': 1uic,l# producing 2ords in a speci$ied categor# (e3g3 animals% $ruits%
vegetables is the ma+or abilit# re1uired b# this test
C+oc D(&,#$g '!s': a test $or visuospatial s,ills
CV-T: Cali$ornia /erbal 4earning *est; a immediate $ree recall 2hich e5amines several aspects o$
verbal learning% organization% and memor#
D!+&)!% ,o(% +#s' (!c&++. a test o$ memor#
D#g#'-B&c,&(% '!s'. a test to test e5ecutive $unction
D#g#' C&$c!++&'#o$ T&s. this tas, is essentiall# a measure o$ short-term memor# and reaction time
DSST: !igit "#mbol "ubstitution *est; an attention per$ormances measure
-!''!( Nu"/!(#$g s!0u!$c!. a subtest o$ the 6echsler Adult Intelligence "cale that assess the
per$ormance to read a se1uence o$ numbers and letters and to recall the numbers in ascending
order and the letters in alphabetical order
M&1! '!s' : a nonverbal test o$ per$ormance intelligence consisting in a graded set o$ paper $orms on
2hich the sub+ect traces the 2a# $rom a starting point to an e5it
Nu"/!( C&$c!++&'#o$ '!s': a test 2hich mainl# assess attention and reasoning
N2U PR: )e2 7or, 8niversit# 9aragraph 0ecall; a test o$ memor#
S)"/o+ D#g#' Mo%&+#'#!s T&s: a test to test e5ecutive $unction
V!(/&+ *+u!$c) c&'!go(): a test designed to measure the speed and $le5ibilit# o$ verbal thought
processes
3&((#$g'o$ *&c!s T!s'. a 2idel# used instrument $or detecting impairment in visual memor#
3MS-R: 6echsler Memor# "cale-0evised; a test that #ield in$ormation about various ,inds o$ memor#
and learning processes and provide a comprehensive assessment o$ memor#
G-OBA- AND C-INICA- MEASURES
ADCS CGIC: Alzheimers disease Cooperative "tud#s Clinical global impression o$ change ($or MCI;
a clinical global impression o$ change scale $or use 2ith patients 2ith aMCI based on
semistructured intervie2s $rom both the sub+ect and the in$ormant
CDR: Clinical !ementia 0ating (scale; *he Clinical !ementia 0ating "cale (C!0% a comprehensive
structured intervie2s based on 2or,sheets3 C!0 assesses dementia severit# b# staging% and
includes cognitive% $unctional and social domains in the overall staging
CDR-SB: Clinical !ementia 0ating:"um o$ the (o5es; Its variant% the C!0 sum o$ the bo5es (C!0-
"(% is a more 1uantitative numerical rating (it merel# sums up the scores o$ the si5 individual
domains o$ the C!0
CGIC-MCI. a clinical global impression o$ change scale $or use 2ith patients 2ith aMCI based on
semistructured intervie2s $rom both the sub+ect and the in$ormant
GDS: -lobal !eterioration "cale; the -lobal !eterioration "cale (-!" 2hich rates seven stages o$
dementia% 2ith higher scores rating poorer cognition% assessing the phenomenologic global
progression o$ A! cognitivel#% $unctionall# and behaviourall# 2ithout structured intervie2
MMSE: Mini Mental "tate ;5amination; *he MM"; is a brie$% 1uantitative measure o$ cognitive status
in adults
PGA: 9atient -lobal Assessment; a measure o$ global $unction
4O--AD: <ualit# o$ 4i$e Alzheimers !isease; an 1uestionnaire on perceived 1ualit# o$ li$e in A!
patients as rated b# patients and caregivers
ACTIVITIES O* DAI-2 -IVING
ADCS-AD-: Alzheimers disease Cooperative "tud# Activities 4iving
ADCS-AD--MCI: Alzheimers disease Cooperative "tud# Activities 4iving adapted to MCI
*A4: =unctional Activities <uestionnaire3 *he =A< is an in$ormant-based measure o$ $unctional
abilities3 In$ormants (i3e3% $amil# members% caregivers rate the patient>s per$ormance o$ 1&
comple5% higher order activities3 *he higher the score (ma5 3&% the poorer the $unction
NEUROPS2C5IATRIC S2MPTOMS
B!c D!6(!ss#o$ I$7!$'o(): a test to assess the depression
5AM-D: ?amilton 0ating "cale $or !epression
NPI: )europs#chiatric Inventor#; a batter# including a standardised assessment o$ neurops#chiatric
s#mptoms
B!$'o$ 8u%g"!$' o9 +#$!: a test to assess the characteristics and the anomalies o$ the perception
NEUROIMAGING MEASURES
MRI: Magnetic 0esonance Imaging