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Book of Abstracts –

Project Management
2001 – 2005+

October 2005

Compiled by Mohamed N. Nazir, Ph.D.
Department of Civil Engineering, Schulich School of Engineering, University of Calgary
Preamble

This “book of abstracts” contains all the abstracts, under the following
categories, written by the faculty, staff and students of the Project
Management Specialization at the University of Calgary between 2001
and 2005;

1. Published in the Refereed journals
2. Published in the Refereed conference proceedings presented at
the various national and international conferences
3. Published Non-refereed conference proceedings presented at the
various national and international conferences
4. Refereed journal papers accepted for publication
5. Refereed journal papers currently under review

The abstracts of the papers published under above categories prior to
2001 have already been published in the “Project Management
Specialization Selected Research Publications 1992-2001” in 2001 by the
Project Management Specialization, Department of Civil Engineering,
University of Calgary.

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Table of Contents

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS…………………………………………… IV

AUTHORS AND AFFILIATIONS…………………………………… VI

YEAR 2005+…………………………………………………….... 1

YEAR 2005……………………………………………………….. 5

YEAR 2004 ………………………………………………………. 15

YEAR 2003 ………………………………………………………. 26

YEAR 2002 ………………………………………………………. 36

YEAR 2001 ………………………………………………………. 48

PAPERS UNDER REVIEW ………………………………………... 57

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Acknowledgements
The Project Management Specialization at the University of Calgary wishes to acknowledge the work
achieved by the authors herein and their permission to re-print abstracts of their work.

The Project Management Specialization benefits from the hands-on direction of leaders in industry. It
would not have been possible for the Specialization to attain its current level of research and teaching had it
not been for the generous support of NSERC, SSHRC, OPAL, the industry and the academic community.
This compilation of book of abstracts is a direct result of that generous support. The Project Management
Specialization gratefully acknowledges the support of the following programme friends, sponsors and
collaborators:

• Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC)
• Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council (SSHRC)
• University of Calgary Project Management Endowment
• Organization for Project Advancement and Leadership (OPAL)
• Agra Monenco Inc.
• Alberta Building Trades
• Association for the Advancement of Cost Engineering, International (AACEI)
• Aristos Corp.
• ATCO
• Bantrel Inc.
• Bantrel Constructors Ltd.
• Bird Construction Ltd.
• Calgary Construction Association.
• Canadian Construction Research Board
• Canadian Occidental Petroleum Ltd.
• Canron Inc.
• Cargill Ltd.
• CH2M Hill Engineering
• Christian Labour Association
• City of Calgary
• City of Edmonton
• Colin Lawson Projects Ltd.
• Construction Labour Relations
• Construction Owner’s Association of Alberta
• Construction Research Institute of Canada.
• Con-Force Structures Ltd.
• Conrad Loban Consulting
• CS Resources Ltd.
• Delta Hudson Engineering Ltd.
• Earth Tech Ltd. (formerly Reid Crowther & Partners Ltd.)
• EllisDon Construction Services Ltd.
• Flint Engineering and Construction Ltd.
• Fluor Daniel Canada Ltd.
• General Dynamics Canada Ltd.

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Acknowledgements (Cont.)
• General Electric Canada Ltd.
• Graham Construction and Engineering Inc.
• Gulf Canada Resources Ltd.
• Harris Canada Inc.
• Imperial Oil Resources Canada
• International Colin Energy
• John M. Fisher & Associates
• KPMG Consulting Inc.
• Ledcor Construction Ltd.
• Ledcor Industrial Ltd.
• M.J. Lyzaniwski
• Majestic Pipelines
• Mitsubishi Oil America Ltd.
• Morrison Hershfield Ltd.
• Mr. J.R. Booker
• Mutual Life of Canada
• Natco Canada Ltd.
• Nortel Networks
• Nova Gas Transmission
• Optima Engineering and Constructors Ltd.
• PanCanadian Petroleum Ltd.
• Parkland Oilfield Ltd.
• PCL Constructors Management Inc.
• Petro-Canada Oil and Gas
• Praxair Canada Inc.
• Progas Ltd.
• Project Management Institute, Southern Alberta Chapter (PMI SAC)
• VECO Engineering Ltd.
• Read Jones Christoffersen Ltd.
• Reid Crowther & Partners Ltd.
• SC Resources
• Shaw Industries Ltd.
• Shell Canada Ltd.
• SNC Lavalin Inc.
• Spartan Controls Ltd.
• Suncor Energy Inc
• Syncrude Canada Ltd.
• T.F. Scott Consultants Ltd.
• The Cohos Evamy & Partners
• Tiger Resources Ltd.
• TransCanada Pipelines Ltd.
• Tri Ocean Engineering

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Authors and Affiliations
Current PM Faculty, University of Calgary

Francis Hartman, Ph.D., P.Eng.
Professor, Project Management Specialization, Department of Civil Engineering,
Schulich School of Engineering, University of Calgary

George Jergeas, Ph.D., P.Eng
Associate Professor, Project Management Specialization, Department of Civil
Engineering, Schulich School of Engineering, University of Calgary

Kam Jugdev, Ph.D., PMP
Adjunct Professor, Project Management Specialization, Department of Civil Engineering,
Schulich School of Engineering, University of Calgary (and Assistant Professor, Project
Management & Strategy, Centre for Innovative Management, Athabasca University)

Janaka Y. Ruwanpura, Ph.D., PQS
Director and Assistant Professor, Project Management Specialization, Department of
Civil Engineering, Schulich School of Engineering, University of Calgary

Faculty Members and Research Associates - University of Calgary

Gopal Achari, Ph.D., P.Eng.
Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Calgary

Jaydeep Balakrishnan, Ph.D.
Associate Professor, Haskayne School of Business, University of Calgary

Thomas Brown, Ph.D, PEng.
Professor and Head, Department of Civil Engineering, Schulich School of Engineering,
University of Calgary

Robert L. Day, Ph.D., P.Eng.
Vice-Dean and Professor in Civil Engineering,
Schulich School of Engineering, University of Calgary

J. Patrick A. Hettiaratchi, Ph.D., P.Eng.
Associate Professor, Engineering for the Environment Program, Department of Civil
Engineering, Schulich School of Engineering, University of Calgary

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Andrew MacIver Ph.D., P.Eng.
Former Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering,
Schulich School of Engineering, University of Calgary

Mohamed N. Nazir, Ph.D.
Research Associate, Department of Civil Engineering Schulich School of Engineering,
University of Calgary

Janice Thomas, Ph.D.
Former Adjunct Professor, Project Management Specialization, Department of Civil
Engineering, Schulich School of Engineering, University of Calgary (and Associate
Professor, Centre for Innovative Management, Athabasca University)

Binod K. Rajbhandari, D.Eng.
Research Associate, Department of Civil Engineering Schulich School of Engineering,
University of Calgary

Collaborating Faculty and Research Associates – Other Universities

Simaan M. AbouRizk, Ph.D., P.Eng
NSERC/Alberta Construction Industry Research Chair in Construction Engineering and
Management, University of Alberta

Samuel T. Ariaratnam, Ph.D., P.Eng.
Associate Professor, Del E. Webb School of Construction, Ira R Fulton School of
Engineering, Arizona State University

Michael Allouche, Ph.D.
Research Associate, Construction Engineering and Management, University of Alberta

Rafi Ashrafi, Ph.D., PMP
Assistant Professor, College of Commerce, Sultan Qaboos University, Oman

Patricia Carrillo, Ph.D., C.Eng.
Postgraduate Programme Director/Professor of Strategic Management in Construction,
Department of Civil and Building Engineering, Loughborough University, UK

R. Müller, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor, Umea University, Sweden

Herbert Robinson, Ph.D., C.Eng.
Post-Doctoral Fellow, Department of Civil and Building Engineering, Loughborough
University, UK.

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Heather Kanuka, Ph.D.
Associate Professor and Canada Research Chair, Athabasca University, Alberta

Former Graduate Students – University of Calgary

Mala Chandrakanthi (Ph.D. Graduate in 2005)
Department of Civil Engineering

Eldon Choy (M.Sc. Graduate in 2004)
Project Management Specialization

Martin Chu (M.Eng. Graduate in 2004)
Department of Civil Engineering

C. Delisle (Ph.D Graduate in 2002)
Project Management Specialization

Roch DeMaere (M.Sc. Graduate in 2004)
Project Management Specialization

Scott Dione (M.Eng. Graduate in 2003)
Department of Civil Engineering

Ebrahim Eghbal (M.Eng. Graduate in 2003)
Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

Sami Fahmy (Ph.D. Graduate in 2005)
Project Management Specialization

Jassim Hassan (Ph.D. Graduate in 2005)
Project Management Specialization

Adrian Ilincuta (M.Sc. Graduate in 1996)
Department of Civil Engineering

Jennifer Krahn (Ph.D. Graduate in 2005)
Project Management Specialization

Markus Liberda (Exchange Student Graduated in 2004)
Project Management Specialization

Bolívar Prado (M.Sc. Graduate in 2004)
Department of Civil Engineering

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P. Buckle (Ph.D. Graduate in 2001)
Haskayne School of Business

Varoujan K. Minassian (M.Sc. Graduate in 2004)
Project Management Specialization

Klas Ohman (Ph.D. Graduate in 2005)
Department of Civil Engineering

Liwen Ren (M.Sc. Graduate in 2003)
Project Management Specialization

Mona Sennara (M.Sc. Graduate in 2003)
Project Management Specialization

Greg Skulmoski (Ph.D. Graduate in 2005)
Project Management Specialization

Ramy Zaghloul (Ph.D. Graduate in 2005)
Project Management Specialization

Current Graduate Students – University of Calgary

Asela Seneviratne, M.Sc. Student
Department of Civil Engineering

David Blakeney, M.Sc. Student
Project Management Specialization

Ed Condon, Ph.D. Candidate
Project Management Specialization

Tanveer Ahmed, M.Sc. Student
Project Management Specialization

Martin Gough, M.Sc. Student
Project Management Specialization

Thomas Howe, M.Sc. Student
Project Management Specialization

Kasun N. Hewage, Ph.D. Candidate
Project Management Specialization

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Jim Lozon, Ph.D. Candidate
Project Management Specialization

Mohamed Moussa, Ph.D. Candidate
Project Management Specialization

Gary Powers, M.Eng. student
Project Management Specialization

Lloyd Rankin, Ph.D. Candidate
Project Management Specialization

Industry Collaborators

Ashraf El-Assaly, Ph.D., P.Eng.
Infrastructure Management Specialist/Project Manager, Alberta Infrastructure,
Edmonton, Alberta

Ross Clark
Manager – Project Controls, Bantrel Co., Calgary, Alberta

Garry Dolhan
Formerly at EVANS Consoles Inc., Calgary, Alberta

K.C. Er, P.Eng.
Director, Gold Bar Wastewater Treatment Plant, Drainage Services, Asset Management
and Public Works, City of Edmonton, Edmonton, Alberta.

Siri Fernando, P.Eng.
Design and Construction and Drainage Services, Asset Management and Public Works,
City of Edmonton, Edmonton, Alberta

Don Greaves, P.Eng.
Colt Engineering Ltd., Calgary, Alberta

Jack Hamlin, P.Eng.
Suncor Energy Inc., Calgary, Alberta

G.A. Hirst, P.Eng.
Consulting Ltd. Calgary, Alberta

Charles Lendzion
Former Director, Construction Research Institute of Canada, Alberta

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Jason Lueke, Ph.D., P.Eng.
Associated Engineering Alberta Ltd, Edmonton, Alberta

Dan Meek
Suncor Energy, Calgary, Alberta

Herman Ng, P.Eng.
Senior Municipal Engineer, ISL Consultants, Edmonton, Alberta

Tony Nutting, P.Eng.
Colt Engineering Corporation, Edmonton, Alberta

Z.G. Shlah
Chief Operating Officer, WNS Emergent Inc.

Robert McTague, P.Eng.
Optima Engineers and Constructors Inc., Calgary, Alberta

Mark Timler, P.Eng.
Bantrel Co., Calgary, Alberta

John Van der Put, P.Eng.
General Manager, Chilean Pipeline Operations, TransCanada International,
Calgary, Alberta

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Year 2005+

1 1
Contents

Journal Articles Accepted in 2005

Hirst, G. and Ruwanpura, J.Y. “Simulation Based Pipeline Route Selection 3
Model”, Accepted for publication by Cost Engineering Journal in September
2005.

Kanuka, H., & Jugdev, K. (2005). Distance education MBA students: An 3
investigation into the use of an orientation course to address academic and
social integration issues. Open Learning.

Ruwanpura, J.Y., and Brown, T.B. "Innovative Final Year Undergraduate 4
Design Project Course using an International Project" Accepted by Journal
of Professional Issues in Engineering Education and Practice, American
Society of Civil Engineers on June 23-2005.

2 2
Journal Articles Accepted in 2005 for future Publication

Simulation Based Pipeline Route Selection Model

Gary Hirst and Janaka Ruwanpura

Abstract: The decisions that are made during the process of selecting the route of a pipeline are very
critical to a project. Unfortunately, the decision is often complicated by the numerous variables that must
be considered and the uncertainty of estimated costs. When choosing a pipeline route, a project manager
must balance the likely capital cost of the pipeline with the risks inherent in the chosen route. Ideally, a
project manager would investigate numerous alternatives to fully explore the merits of various pipeline
routes (including the level of risk) before making his or her final decision. This paper presents a simulation
tool that a project manager can use to model the costs associated with various pipeline routes effectively
and efficiently. The model is designed to be user friendly by replicating the usual decision-making process
as much as possible. The model uses a graphical interface that promotes the rapid analysis of numerous
alternatives and provides opportunities to investigate in detail the various aspects of a pipeline route. The
model output includes a calculation of the costs of the alternative, a statistical analysis of the risks of the
project, and information that the project manager can use with confidence to establish the pipeline target
price.

Distance education MBA students: An investigation into the use of an
orientation course to address academic and social integration
issues 1

H. Kanuka and K. Jugdev

Abstract: Distance education programs warrant the use of innovative intervention practices to enhance
student learning experiences. Academic and social empathy by faculty has been shown to enhance student
retention in programs along with their critical thinking abilities. Using Holmberg’s (2001) theory of
teaching-learning conversations as the guiding theoretical framework, the purpose of this study was to
assess whether an intervention activity (a week-long orientation course) increases academic and social
empathy for students entering a distance-delivered MBA programme. Empathy was measured through
seven academic and social integration indicators. Using pre and post surveys (n=102), the results reveal that
an orientation intervention can be effective for facilitating social and academic empathy.

1
Work undertaken at Athabasca University, Alberta.

3 3
Innovative Final Year Undergraduate Design Project Course using an
International Project

Janaka Ruwanpura and Thomas Brown

Abstract: The paper describes the organization and conduct of a 4th year capstone project for Civil
Engineering students at the University of Calgary that embodied a very significant international component
and the difficulties inherent to that component. The project design education process results in numerous
contributions to university, industry, and society by permitting students to develop innovative design
solutions that reflect multicultural influences, while also recognising that Civil Engineering design is
universal. This paper explains the novel approach adopted for the final year civil engineering design course
in 2002/3 using the largest urban renewal project currently underway in Europe, for which the students had
the opportunity to develop designs. The concept, structure, challenges, and contributions as well as the
successful outcome of the civil engineering design course are also explained in the paper. Overall, this
design project provided the students with valuable experience in communication, design, professional
practice, and organizational skills that will be useful in their future careers, in addition to the challenges
dealing with a real and international client of a complex project.

4 4
Year 2005

5 5
Contents

Journal Articles

Dionne, S., Ruwanpura, J.Y., and Hettiaratchi, J.P.A. "Assessing and 8
Managing the Potential Environmental Risks of Construction Projects."
Journal of Practice Periodical of Structural Design and Construction,
American Society of Civil Engineers, 10(4), 1-7.

Ruwanpura, J.Y., MacIver, A., and Brown, T. (2005) "Innovative Final 8
Year Design project-International Experience Makes a World of Difference",
Journal of Engineering Design and Innovation (e-journal), Vol. 1E, 01E7.

Ruwanpura, J.Y., Abourizk, S., and Allouche. (2005) "An analytical 9
method to predict soil types for underground construction operations",
Journal of Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems, 22 (1), 49-69.

Jugdev, K., & Müller, R. (2005). “A retrospective look at our evolving 9
understanding of project success”. Project Management Journal, 36 (4).

Refereed Conference Proceedings

Seneviratne, A., Ruwanpura, J.Y., and Lueke, J. (2005). "Planning 10
Horizontal Directional Drilling Projects using Simulation", Proceedings of
the NO-DIG 2005 Conference, Orlando, FL, April 2005.

Gough, M. and Jergeas, G., "Case Study: A Methodology for Improving -
Organizational and Project Team Effectiveness on an Infrastructure
Development Program", Proceeding of the CEIS 2005, Beirut, Lebanon, June
6-8, 2005.

Jergeas, G., "Measuring and Monitoring Project Performance and Success", 10
Proceeding of the ISEC-03 3rd International Structural Engineering and
Construction Conference, Japan, September 2005.

Lozon, J.P., Rankin, L.K. and Jergeas, G.F., "Detailed Execution Planning 10
for large Oil and Gas Construction Projects", Proceeding of CSCE 6th
Construction Specialty Conference, Toronto, ON, June, 2005.

Ahmed, T., Ruwanpura, J.Y. and Clark, R. (2005), "Predicting Schedule 11
and Cost Elements' Variation for EPC Projects in Alberta", Proceedings of
the Construction Research Congress 2005, American Society of Civil
Engineers, San Diego, CA, March 2005.

6 6
Choy, E. and Ruwanpura, J.Y., (2005) "Situation Based Modeling for 11
Construction Productivity" Proceedings of the Construction Research
Congress 2005, American Society of Civil Engineers, San Diego, CA, March
2005.

Hewage, K.N., and Ruwanpura, J.Y. (2005). "Most important worker 12
motivational factors that impact the productivity of Alberta Construction
Projects," Proceedings Of CSCE 6th Construction Specialty Conference,
Toronto, June, 2005.

Moussa, M., Ruwanpura, J.Y., and Jergeas, G.F. (2005). "Multi Level 12
Integrated Stochastic Networks for Cost and Time Risk Assessment,"
Proceedings Of CSCE 6th Construction Specialty Conference, Toronto, June,
2005.

Nazir, M.N., Ruwanpura, J.Y., and Day, R.L. (2005). "Comprehensive and 12
Robust Quality Assurance System for Concrete Construction" Proceedings.
of CSCE 6th Construction Specialty Conference, Toronto, June, 2005.

Jugdev, K. (2005). “The VRIO Framework of Competitive Advantage: 13
Preliminary research implications for innovation management”. Proceedings
of the Portland International Conference on Technology Management: A
unifying discipline for melting the boundaries, Portland, Oregon, July-
August 2005.

Jugdev, K. (2005). “Project Management as a Strategic Asset: An Empirical 13
Investigation of the Relationships between Tangible and Intangible Assets in
Project Management and the Project Management Process as a Source of
Competitive Advantage”. Proceedings of the Western Academy of
Management, Las Vegas, Nevada, March - April 2005.

Non Refereed Conference Proceedings

Jergeas, George and Fahmi, Sami, "Ten Critical Principles for Successful -
Design-Build Project", Proceeding of the 49th Annual Meeting of AACE
International, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, June 26-29, 2005.

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Journal Articles

Assessing and Managing the Potential Environmental Risks of
Construction Projects

S. Dione, Janaka Y. Ruwanpura and J. P. A. Hettiaratchi

Abstract: Policy makers make key decisions regarding economic development, but engineers are central to
the implementation of these policies. With the realization that economic development and environment are
interlinked, engineers are well advised to ensure avoidance of adverse impacts on society and environment
by adopting better practices during the design and implementation of construction projects. The objective
of this paper is to present a project’s proponents and construction contractors with a framework to identify
the environmental risks early in a project’s life so that a proper plan could be developed to mitigate the
impact of them. The paper also discusses options currently available in Canada for environmental-type
insurance and contractual liability indemnity clauses. A survey conducted among construction companies
to assess current risk-management practices in the construction industry show that although many
companies are concerned about the possible implications of environmental risks to their project, there still
needs to be more emphasis on identification and mitigation of these risks and the need to have a
comprehensive framework to properly identify and develop an action plan for environmental related risk
issues. The current research trends to achieve these objectives are also outlined in the paper.

Innovative Final-year Design Project-International Experience Makes
a World of Difference

Janaka Y. Ruwanpura, Andrew MacIver and Thomas Brown

Abstract: The Department of Civil Engineering at the University of Calgary is proud to be a leader in
multi-disciplinary design education in Canada by bringing many facets to design education including
internationalization. This design education makes significant contributions to university, industry, and
society by developing innovative design solutions. This paper explains the novel approach adopted for the
final-year civil engineering design course in 2002/3 using the largest urban renewal project currently
underway in Europe, for which the students had the opportunity to develop designs. The concept, structure,
challenges, contributions, and the successful outcome of the civil engineering design course are also
explained in the paper.

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An analytical method to predict soil types for underground
construction operations 2

Janaka Y. Ruwanpura, Simaan M. AbouRizk and Michael Allouche

Abstract: Modeling uncertainty is generally considered to be a challenging task due to the nature and
occurrence of unforeseen events. The prediction of soil types between the boreholes of a tunnel
construction project is very uncertain in the current practice. The successful implementation of a special
purpose tunneling simulation template for project planning and decision making for tunnel construction
projects identified that the modeling of uncertainties such as soil conditions could provide better results.
The prediction of soil types along the tunnel trajectory is discussed in this paper using an analytical method
for construction purposes. The prediction of soil types and the combinations of soils from the surficial soil
layer to the bottommost soil layer along the tunnel path has been successfully validated by applying the
modeling concepts during geological exploration of an actual tunnel construction project in Edmonton. The
modeling concept also assists in reducing the uncertainty between boreholes, thereby allowing prediction of
the transitions of soils in the tunnel trajectory that are then implemented within a special purpose
simulation template for tunnel construction operations to improve construction productivity assessment
accuracy.

A Retrospective Look at Our Evolving Understanding of Project
Success 3

K. Jugdev and R. Müller

Our views on project success have changed over the years from definitions that were limited to the
implementation phase of the project lifecycle to definitions that reflect an appreciation of success over the
entire project and product lifecycle. This paper assesses our evolving understanding of project success over
the past forty years and discusses conditions for success, critical success factors and success frameworks.
The paper concludes with a holistic view of project success and its implications for practice. This is an
important topic because projects are an increasingly common way of work, and the lines between project
and process work are harder to discern. Increasingly, more project managers work in companies using
program and portfolio management as a means to organize project related work. The success of individual
projects, therefore, impacts the wider organization in several dimensions and makes the concept of project
and project management success that much more relevant. The topic is also important because it has a
bearing on the future directions of project management in the strategic context.

2
Work undertaken at the University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta.
3
Work undertaken at Athabasca University, Alberta.

9 9
Refereed Conference Proceedings

Planning Horizontal Directional Drilling Projects Using Simulation

Asela Seneviratne, Janaka Y. Ruwanpura and Jason Lueke

Abstract: Use of trenchless construction methods to install underground utilities has become popular in
the construction field. Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD), in particular, is a very practical method
under constrained situations. Because there are many risks involved in the HDD process, proper project
planning will help project managers successfully deliver projects without additional cost or unnecessary
delays. Simulation modeling is an effective tool for planning repetitive construction projects that involve
uncertainties. This paper describes a special purpose simulation tool that was developed based on the HDD
processes. This tool, which is an ongoing development, considers the construction processes involved in
pilot borehole, reaming, and product installation. A great feature of this prototype tool is its ability to model
different soil compositions and up to 48” diameter pipes. Project duration, amount of drilling fluid required
for the project, drilling rate (minutes/pipe), and reaming rate (minutes/pipe) are sample outputs of the tool.
Future embellishments of the tool include modeling of various uncertainties or constraints, such as lack of
fluids, unexpected soil conditions, unforeseen geological fractures, instrument failures, weather conditions,
and mud-recycling.

Measuring and Monitoring Project Performance and Success

George F. Jergeas

Abstract: Project success parameters need to be set at the outset of a project. Success parameters, such as
delivery on time, within budget, and at the highest quality, give some direction to the project team. But
how do stakeholders’ expectations, communication, or issue resolution affect a project’s success? Even a
project that has met its cost, schedule, and quality targets can still be considered a failure. The purpose of
this paper is to report the results of on-site testing of tools for measuring project performance or success on
construction and engineering projects. The paper presents a tool that divides success into objective and
subjective measures. Objective success measures are common to all projects and are hard measurements.
Subjective success measures can vary from project to project and from phase to phase within a project. The
paper also presents a mechanism for issue resolution that helps project teams avoid an adversarial
approach.

Detailed Execution Planning Model for Large Oil and Gas
Construction Projects

L.K. Rankin, J.P. Lozon and George F. Jergeas

Abstract: Recent large capital oil and gas construction projects in Alberta have experienced cost overruns.
There are a number of reasons for this problem including: scope creep, insufficient pre-planning,

10 10
inadequate project controls and lack of detailed execution planning. While no single solution will address
all of these issues, this study focuses on the impact of detailed execution planning. The current industry
practice for planning for large oil and gas construction projects is to develop construction work packages
based on areas that can include up to 20% of the total project. It is believed that more comprehensive
planning will increase the probability these projects will be completed on budget. It is normal industry
practice in maintenance shutdowns to plan up to 2 years in advance for a 3 week shutdown. These
shutdowns are required for safety and regulatory reasons and involve operating production facilities being
taken offline for inspection and repair. This type of detailed execution planning must be adapted if it is to
be applied to large oil and gas construction projects. A practitioner’s model has been developed to assist in
implementing detailed execution planning for large oil and gas construction projects to be released to
members of the Construction Owners Association of Alberta (COAA) in May 2005.

Predicting Schedule and Cost Elements’ Variation for EPC Projects in
Alberta

Tanveer N. Ahmed, Janaka Y. Ruwanpura, and Ross Clark

Abstract: Planning and making advance decisions for an Engineering Procurement Construction (EPC)
project is very critical because of the complexity of the project and the equal importance of major areas
within engineering, procurement and construction. However, EPC projects, particularly in Alberta, have
suffered from variances (or overruns) in cost and schedule in the last decade. Therefore, predicting an EPC
project’s outcome to a certain degree of accuracy in terms of cost and schedule, based on historic data,
could add value to EPC business. The research presented in this paper has two objectives. First, it identifies
areas of major influence to the final project cost by ranking the generic EPC schedule elements that have
been developed by the Construction Industry Institute (CII). Second, it analyzes historical project
information and shows the relationships between variances that may occur during the project’s life cycle to
predict the cost outcome of an EPC project.

Situation Based Modeling for Construction Productivity

Eldon Choy and Janaka Y. Ruwanpura

Abstract: Both published and unpublished reports show that, in construction projects, site productivity
losses range from 40% - 60%. Productivity is an important issue in construction because of the interaction
among labor, capital, materials, and equipment. Construction site operations are also very complex, and
they involve complicated relationships among numerous tasks. During construction, various factors,
obstacles, uncertainties, and triggering situations affect a site’s productivity within these relationships or
tasks. Understanding the impact of various triggering situations on productivity could definitely improve
the performance of and create value for the construction industry. The tool explained in this paper directly
investigates and models these triggering situations to predict productivity using a modeling technique
called situation-based simulation modeling. This tool and methodology could also model the cause-and-
effect relationships among various triggering situations that previous construction models have ignored.
The simulation results not only are able to predict productivity very closely to the actual productivity
observed at construction sites, but also provide recommendations to mitigate problematic situations to
improve productivity.

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Most Important Worker Motivational Issues that Impact Productivity
of Alberta Construction Project

K.N. Hewage and J.Y. Ruwanpura

Abstract: Productivity is a complex issue in construction because of the interaction among labor, capital,
materials, and equipment. Construction productivity depends heavily on the construction labour force. The
purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the current research directions at the University of Calgary to
improve construction productivity by investigating worker motivation and other human related issues. The
research has identified 23 motives for the construction workers and developed a theoretical framework by
modifying expectancy motivational theory. These motivational factors were prioritized using
questionnaires, interviews, and site observations. During the research investigation period, workers were
allowed to write or express their views using questionnaires. Each research participant was interviewed and
continuously observed to strengthen the findings. The research evolved to investigate construction site
communication and the use of information technology to improve productivity.

Multilevel Integrated Stochastic Networks for Cost and Time Risk
Assessment

Mohamed Moussa, Janaka Y. Ruwanpura and George F. Jergeas

Abstract: This paper presents the outcome of a recent study for developing a simulation tool that integrates
time and cost for assessing project risks using multilevel stochastic networks. A Decision Support
Simulation System (DSSS) tool was developed to achieve the time-cost integration using the Special
Purpose Simulation platform. The DSSS consists of three modules: Trees Analysis Networks (TAN),
shortest and longest path Dynamic Programming Analysis Networks (DPAN),and Cost and Time Analysis
Networks (CTAN). This paper’s objective is to demonstrate the network modeling concept embedded in
CTAN and to show the benefits of the tool characteristics in incorporating risks associated with cost and
time. The CTAN uses the Activity-on-Node networks concept with uncertainties in the realization of nodes;
in the values of the network parameters (e.g. cost, durations, and scope); in the network logic; and in the
realization and magnitude of risk events affecting the network. The CTAN integrates with other two DSSS
modules; it treats cost, time, and scope as equally important and provides complete integration among
them. The tool has been tested and used in the teaching environment.

Comprehensive and Robust Quality Assurance System for Concrete
Construction

M. N. Nazir, J.Y. Ruwanpura and R. L. Day

Abstract: The quality of infrastructure built with concrete depends not only on the materials used but also
on the construction process. It is often observed that poor construction leads to durability problems in many
types of concrete structures before the end of their service life. Continued problems in concrete durability
indicate a need for an effective quality assurance system. Quality of concrete needs to be controlled as a
whole, from selecting materials, mix proportioning, mixing, transporting, placing, to curing, as opposed to
the current fragmented approach. The paper presents current research that attempts to minimise these
quality related issues through the design of a comprehensive and robust quality assurance system

12 12
implemented using modern information technologies. The system integrates disperse quality-related data
for a project from engineers, contractors, ready-mix suppliers, delivery and quality control staff; and
provides a unified information source for all its users. The system further provides data analysis for QC,
documents concreting processes and assures compliance with applicable standards. It is expected that this
system will minimise the potential for human error in concreting practices and reduce wastage of fresh
concrete resulting from QC/QA concerns. Overall, the system is expected to improve the quality of
construction by increasing efficiency of communication between the stakeholders.

The VRIO Framework of Competitive Advantage: Preliminary
research implications for innovation management 4

K. Jugdev

Abstract: Inventions, innovations, and creativity are cornerstones of technology-based industries.
Organizations working in technology-intensive industries must constantly balance creativity with order and
innovation with efficiency. In this paper, I focus on organizational innovations as potential sources of
competitive advantage. Strategic assets can be assessed with the VRIO framework. Strategic assets are
“Valuable” (important), “Rare” (unique), “Inimitable” (hard to copy), and involve an “Organizational
Focus” (VRIO). I am currently using the VRIO framework to assess project management as a source of
competitive advantage. The approach I am using to assess project management can be applied to research
on organizational innovations. The paper discusses the appropriate use of innovation dimensions, the use of
innovation process performance as the dependent variable, and the selection of independent variables. The
paper is relevant to innovation researchers interested in using the Resource Based View lens to study
organizational innovations as a source of competitive advantage.

Project Management as a Strategic Asset: An Empirical Investigation
of the Relationships between Tangible and Intangible Assets in
Project Management and the Project Management Process as a
Source of Competitive Advantage

K. Jugdev

Abstract: Increasingly, companies are turning to project management because successful project
management practices contribute to improved performance. A firm’s strategic assets contribute to its
competitive position when the resources are “Valuable” (important), “Rare” (unique), “Inimitable” (hard to
copy), and “Organizational” (involve management support, processes, and systems) (VRIO). We know that
strategic assets tend to be knowledge-based and that project management involves a mix of practices based
on tangible and intangible assets. Examples of tangible assets in project management include
methodologies, databases, and software; key examples of intangible assets are tacit knowledge sharing and
social capital. The problem is that most of the literature has focused on tangible project management assets
as a source of competitive advantage and the role of intangible assets in helping project management
become a source of competitive advantage remains to be explored. Within the VRIO framework, an
investment in tangible project management assets primarily enhances the “valuable” (V) and the
“organizational” (O) dimensions. As tangible assets are not rare, competing firms can mimic them so such

4
Work undertaken at Athabasca University, Alberta.

13 13
investments do not help firms improve their strategic positions. We propose that only the intangible assets
of project management helps make project management “rare” (R) and “inimitable” (I). Intangible assets
can be valuable, rare, inimitable, and have an organizational focus (VRIO). We propose that making project
management a source of competitive advantage depends on the extent to which the company specifically
develops and supports intangible assets. In this study, we test our theoretical framework to compare project
management practices at companies that focus primarily on tangible project management assets in contrast
to those companies that emphasize intangible assets. We posit that companies that support intangible assets
will have a stronger VRIO profile than their counterparts. This is an important topic because successful
project management contribute to improved business results.

14 14
Year 2004

15 15
Contents

Journal Articles

Hartman, F.T. and Ashrafi, R. (2004) "Development of the SMART Project 18
Planning Framework", International Journal of Project Management, 22(6);
499-510.

Ruwanpura, J.Y., AbouRizk, S.M. and Allouche, M. (2004). "Analytical 18
Methods to Reduce Uncertainty in Tunnel Construction Projects", Canadian
Journal of Civil Engineering, NRC Canada, 31, 345-360.

Ruwanpura, J.Y., Ariaratnam S. and El-Assaly, A. (2004) "Prediction 19
Models for Sewer Infrastructure using Rule Based Simulation." Journal of
Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems, Taylor and Francis, 21 (3),
169-185.

Jugdev, K. (2004). “Through the Looking Glass: Examining Theory 19
Development in Project Management with the Resource-Based View Lens”.
Project Management Journal, 35(3), 15-26.

Refereed Conference Proceedings

Ruwanpura, J.Y. and Ariaratnam, Samuel T. (2004). "Cost Forecast Models 20
For Sewer Rehabilitation", Proceedings of the NO-DIG 2004 Conference,
New Orleans, Louisiana, March, 2004.

Hewage, K.N. and Ruwanpura, J.Y. (2004) “Optimization of Traffic Signal 20
Light Timing Using Simulation” Proceedings of the 2004 Winter Simulation
Conference R. G. Ingalls, M. D. Rossetti, J. S. Smith, and B. A. Peters, eds.,
Washington DC, Dec. 2004., 1428-1433.

Jugdev, K. (2004). “Research issues: A conceptual look at project
management as a source of competitive advantage”. Proceedings of the 21
Administrative Sciences Association of Canada, Quebec City, Quebec June
2004.

Jugdev, K. (2004). “Project Management as a Strategic Asset: What does it 21
look like and how do companies get there?” Proceedings of the 3rd Project
Management Research Conference, London, England, July 2004.

Condon, E. and Hartman, F. (2004) "The Project Game", Proc. of IRNOP -
VI Turku, Finland. August.

16 16
Hirst, G. and Ruwanpura, J.Y. (2004) "Simulation Tool to Select the Most 21
Optimum Route for Pipeline Projects", Proc. Of IPC 2004 International
Pipeline Conference, Calgary, Oct. 2004

Howe, T. and Ruwanpura, J.Y. (2004). "The Land Forces Equipment 22
Support Model", In Proceeding of the Modeling and Simulation 2004 – 15th
IASTED International Conference, Marina Del Rey, Feb/March 2004, 36-41

Moussa, M., Ruwanpura, J.Y. and Jergeas, G.F. (2004) "Decision Tree 22
Module within Decision Support Simulation System," Proceedings of the
2004 Winter Simulation Conference R. G. Ingalls, M. D. Rossetti, J. S. Smith,
and B. A. Peters, eds., Washington DC, Dec. 2004., 1268-1276.

Non Refereed Conference Proceedings

Condon, E. and Hartman, F. (2004) "Playing the Game", Proc. of PMI 23
Research Conference, PMI, London, UK. July 2004.

Condon, E. and Hartman, F. (2004) "Playing Games", Proceedings of the 23
AACE International 48th Annual Conference, June 2004.

Hassan, J., Brown, T. and Jergeas, G. (2004) "Limit of Top Reinforcement 24
Length for the Double-Intensity Hillerborg's Corner Supported Element",
Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Conference Canadian Society for Civil
Engineering, Saskatoon, June 2004.

Jergeas, G. (2004) "Accelerating Change in Construction Project Delivery", 24
Proceedings of the AACE International 48th Annual Conference,
Washington, D.C., June 2004.

Krahn, J. and Hartman, F.T. (2004) "Important Leadership Competencies 24
for Project Managers: The fit between competencies and project
characteristics", Proceedings of the PMI Research Conference 2004, London,
England, July 2004.

Ohman, K., Hettiaratchi, P., Achari, G., Ruwanpura, J., and Balakrishnan, 25
J. (2004). "Applying the Analytical Hierarchy Process to Prioritize Landfill
Design and Operation Parameters", In Proceeding of the CSCE Annual
Conference, Saskatoon., June 2004.

Prado, B., Hettiaratchi, P., Ruwanpura, J., Chandrakanthi, M., and 25
Lendzion, C. (2004) "Waste Generation Predictions and Promotion of
Sustainable Construction Practices", In Proceeding of the CSCE Annual
Conference, Saskatoon, June 2004.

17 17
Journal Articles

Development of the SMART™ Project Planning Framework

Francis Hartman and Rafi Ashrafi

Abstract: This paper presents work on development and testing of the SMART™ Project Planning
framework. It is based on research into causes of both project failure and success. An empirical study of
what industry practitioners think is important for effective project planning formed the basis of the study.
Using this study, and other resources, a planning approach was developed that was designed to be holistic,
integrated and risk sensitive. Field tests of the approach on live projects followed. The framework presents
a unified approach to project planning, integrating both hard and soft aspects, enhancing current tools and
techniques, and improving the project planning process by providing internal validation. Competence in
project planning is reinforced as a cornerstone to effectively managing and leading projects.

Analytical methods to reduce uncertainty in tunnel construction
projects 5

Janaka Y. Ruwanpura, Simaan M. AbouRizk and Michael Allouche

Abstract: This paper presents a method to quantify uncertainty using simulation techniques and
approximate geotechnical methods. Unknown soil conditions are major contributors to uncertainty in any
underground construction project. Soil conditions are unknown because generally soil samples taken from
vertical boreholes show only the soils present in the discrete borehole locations. The soil profiles between
the boreholes therefore contribute to project uncertainty, and construction practitioners must make
assumptions about these soil profiles for construction planning and scheduling purposes. Analytical and
simulation methods are presented to accurately predict soil profiles between boreholes and reduce
uncertainty in a “rough and ready” fashion. These methods use existing borehole data to create an
analytical model for soil prediction, which is then incorporated with a process interaction simulation model
of the construction project using special purpose simulation concepts and advanced geotechnical
characterization techniques. The application of these methods to an Edmonton tunnel construction project
is also detailed. Construction engineers or managers can use these simulation methods to strengthen the
geological data obtained for the construction project.

5
Work undertaken at the University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta.

18 18
Prediction Models for Sewer Infrastructure Utilizing Rule-Based
Simulation

Janaka Y. Ruwanpura, Samuel T. Ariaratnam and Ashraf El-Assaly

Abstract: Management of infrastructure projects is becoming increasingly challenging due to inherent
uncertainties. The most effective way to deal with uncertainty is to collect supplementary information and
knowledge. When expensive or infeasible, quantification of uncertainty may be performed using analytical
or simulation techniques. The City of Edmonton, Canada has approximately 4600 km of sewer pipes in the
combined, sanitary, and storm sewer local systems with uncertainty issues related to deterioration. The City
has taken a proactive approach with respect to sewer rehabilitation, as it is more cost-effective to repair a
defective pipe prior to failure rather than after a collapse. This article demonstrates an approach for
predicting the condition of a sewer pipe and the related cost of rehabilitation, given the limited data. Three
models are described in this article that are developed to assist the City of Edmonton to effectively plan
maintenance expenditure. Each model uses a combination of rule-based simulation and probability analysis
to assist in the planning of future expenditures for sewer maintenance, thereby producing an invaluable
planning tool.

Through the Looking Glass: Examining Theory Development in
Project Management with the Resource-Based View Lens 6

K. Jugdev

Project management is a young discipline and young disciplines tend to lack well-developed theories. This
paper examines several topics that help with theory development – the use of a common terminology and
holistic frameworks, the importance of avoiding tautologies, and the merits of analogies. To guide the
process, the paper draws from a recent empirical study that used the Resource-Based View to study project
management as a strategic asset. The paper discusses how these four topics that contribute to theory
development were managed in the study. Applying theory construction practices enables us to be more
aware of the challenges related to research and improves our understanding of variables as used in
conceptual and empirical papers. By applying the Resource-Based View to project management, the paper
also shows how we can improve our understanding of project management as a source of competitive
advantage.

6
Work undertaken at Athabasca University, Alberta.

19 19
Refereed Conference Proceedings

Cost Forecast Models for Sewer Rehabilitation

Janaka Y. Ruwanpura, and Samuel T. Ariaratnam

Abstract: Predicting and evaluating the future condition of underground infrastructure systems has
become a necessity for municipalities as they try to strategically plan for short-term and long-term budget
allocation. Current practice is to first assess the condition of sewer lines and then translate these ratings into
predictive models although there are too many uncertainties such as aging process of certain materials,
surrounding soil conditions, etc. The most effective way to deal with uncertainty is to collect
supplementary information and knowledge. When expensive or infeasible, quantification of uncertainty
may be performed using analytical or simulation techniques. The City of Edmonton, Canada has
approximately 4600 km of sewer pipes in the combined, sanitary and storm sewer local systems with
uncertainty issues related to deterioration. The City has taken a proactive approach with respect to sewer
rehabilitation, as it is more cost-effective to repair a defective pipe prior to failure rather than after a
collapse. This paper demonstrates an approach to predicting the condition of a sewer pipe and the related
cost of rehabilitation given limited data. The specific model explains in the paper deals with prediction of
the condition rating of a pipe based on the current condition using rule based simulation.

Optimization of Traffic Signal Light Timing Using Simulation

Kasun N. Hewage and Janaka Y. Ruwanpura

Abstract: Traffic congestion is one of the worst problems in many countries. Traffic congestion wastes a
huge portion of the national income for fuel and traffic-related environmental and socioeconomic problems.
Computer simulation is a powerful tool for analyzing complex and dynamic scenarios. It provides an
appealing approach to analyze repetitive processes. Simulation helps decision makers identify different
possible options by analyzing enormous amounts of data. Hence, computer simulation can be used
effectively to analyze traffic flow patterns and signal light timing. This paper discusses a special-purpose
simulation (SPS) tool for optimize traffic signal light timing. The simulation model is capable of
optimizing signal light timing at a single junction as well as an actual road network with multiple junctions.
It also provides signal light timing for certain time periods according to traffic demand. Traffic engineers at
the University of Moratuwa, Sri Lanka are testing the developed tool for actual applications.

20 20
Research issues: A conceptual look at project management as a
source of competitive advantage 7

K. Jugdev

Abstract: As a knowledge-based asset, project management contributes to firm performance. Since there
is little research on project management as a strategic asset, this paper discusses conceptual issues within
the Resource Based View. The paper proposes a research design to examine the relationships between
codified and tacit knowledge in project management and its strategic asset profile.

Project Management as a Strategic Asset: What does it look like and
how do companies get there?

K. Jugdev

Abstract: In the global marketplace, companies are increasingly turning to project management as a way
of work and the discipline is gaining ground as an important organizational asset. Strategic assets are vital
to a firm’s strategy and its competitive advantage position. Strategic assets are a firm’s heterogeneous
resource bundles that are valuable, rare, inimitable, and have an organizational focus. Although the
connection between strategy and project management is relatively new, it is germane to many organizations
from a competitive advantage perspective. Within the strategy literature, the Resource-Based View (RBV)
of the firm focuses on a company’s internal assets as sources of advantage. Project management is a
knowledge-based organizational asset and most strategic assets are knowledge-based versus physical or
financial. Drawing from the findings of a mixed-methods multiple-case study, this paper explores project
management as a strategic asset. The paper examines the characteristics of a strategic asset in project
management and the processes companies use to develop and sustain the advantage. The paper begins with
a brief overview on the RBV. Then, the paper focuses on the research questions and outlines the
methodology used. Following the case study approach, the paper presents key findings and discusses them
with a particular focus on what a strategic asset in project management looks like and how companies
achieve it. The paper concludes with some insights from theoretical, research, and practical viewpoints.

Simulation Tool to Select the Most Optimum Route for Pipeline
Projects

Gary Hirst and Janaka Y. Ruwanpura

The decisions made during the process of selecting the route of pipeline are very critical to the project.
Unfortunately, the decision is often complicated by the numerous variables that must be considered and the
uncertainty of estimated costs. When choosing the pipeline route a project manager must balance the likely
capital cost of the pipeline with the risks inherent in the chosen route. Ideally, a project manager would
investigate numerous alternatives to fully explore the merits of various pipeline routes (including the level
of risk) prior to making his final decision. This paper presents a project manager with a simulation tool to
effectively and efficiently model the costs associated with various pipeline routes. The model is designed to

7
Work undertaken at Athabasca University, Alberta.

21 21
be user friendly by replicating the usual decision-making process as much as possible. The model uses a
graphical interface that promotes the rapid analysis of numerous alternatives and provides opportunities to
investigate in detail the various aspects of a pipeline route. The model output includes a calculation of the
costs of the alternative, a statistical analysis of the risks of the project and information that can be used to
establish the confidence level of a pipeline target price.

The Land Forces Equipment Support Model

Thomas Howe and Janaka Y. Ruwanpura

Abstract: Modeling real life is challenging, as the model is an abstraction of the real system. In the
battlefield, operational availability has a direct bearing on the combat effectiveness of the deployed forces,
and its equipment. The Land Forces Equipment Support Model provides a recent development of a Special
Purpose Simulation tool that allows military logisticians without any knowledge of simulation to model a
deployment in order to optimize operations and equipment availability. This paper focuses on the support
of electronic equipment used by the Army in the field. The tool also allows users to vary the number and
location of spares, the types of maintenance activities performed at the various support levels, re-supply
scenarios, and transportation times between support organizations. The future enhancements are outlined in
the paper to demonstrate the future directions of the development of this tool. SPS has been defined as "a
computer-based environment built to enable a practitioner who is knowledgeable in a given domain, but not
necessarily in simulation, to model a project within that domain in a manner where symbolic
representations, navigation schemes within the environment, creation of model specifications, and reporting
are completed in a format native to the domain itself" (Hajjar and AbouRizk, 1999). The LFESM Template
is an SPS tool developed using Simphony that utilizes the hierarchical structure, general purpose modeling
elements, and directly programmed modeling element features of Simphony to extend the application of
this powerful simulation tool into a completely new domain. The LFESM exemplifies the inherent
flexibility of Simphony as a simulation tool that can be applied in a number of application domains. It is a
powerful tool that can be used to support military logistics decision-making.

Decision Tree Module within Decision Support Simulation System

Mohamed Moussa, Janaka Y. Ruwanpura and George F. Jergeas

Abstract: Decision trees are one of the most easy to use tools in decision analysis. Problems where
decision tree branches are based on random variables have not received much attention. This paper
introduces a successful application of a Special Purpose Simulation (SPS) program in developing a
Decision Tree module that is part of a unified Decision Support System (DSS) template. The DSS template
consists of three modules: Decision Tree (DT), shortest and longest path Dynamic Programming (DP)
Network, and Cost / Time (CT) Estimate network. The DT module integrates with other modules and
allows users to model decision trees with variables that are based on probabilistic random numbers. This
paper introduces the DSS-DT module and shows its advantages.

22 22
Non-Refereed Conference Proceedings

Playing the Game

E. Condon, and F. Hartman

Abstract: Projects are recognized as key building blocks in the growth of organizations. Research into the
connection between projects, project strategy, and corporate strategy is growing as a field of study. But
corporate strategy will only be successful if it is supported by successful projects. The challenge for many
organizations is achieving such success, given that the historical performance of many projects, especially
major projects, has not been good. In fact, the failure rate on major projects, especially large engineering
projects (LEPs), threatens to bring the whole concept of major projects, and project management, into
disrepute at a time when more major projects than ever are being conceived and built. While research on
project performance has focused extensively on improving project management practices, perhaps there are
other factors at play that contribute to the failure of major projects. It may be that the seeds for project
failure are sown when projects are initially estimated and approved. Initial underestimation, through the use
of optimistic estimates, and continued delay in acknowledging true costs until projects reach a point of no
return, likely contribute in a significant manner to project cost overruns, and thereby real or perceived
project failure. This paper will look at the players involved in estimate development, describe potential
drivers for the use of optimistic estimates, and examine the interaction between project sponsors and other
players involved in project development. It will investigate the role senior management plays, review the
relationship between optimistic estimates and cost overruns, outline a series of actions which support the
continued underestimation of costs as projects are executed, and explore the perception of project success
based on adherence to estimated budgets. The paper will also provide details on the planned research work
that the author intends to pursue in the coming years through participation in a PhD program.

Playing Games

E. Condon and F. Hartman

Abstract: Various factors related to the underestimation of projects are discussed. Underestimation can
occur on a project due to several reasons such as liars contest, that occurs during early contract
negotiations. It is suggested that underestimation may be deliberately used to secure approval of major
projects that might not be economically justified otherwise. It is also suggested that to understand why
underestimation occur, it is necessary to look at the participants involved and their possible motivations for
creating, abetting or accepting optimistic estimates.

23 23
Limit of Top Reinforcement Length for the Double-Intensity
Hillerborg’s Corner-Supported Element

J. Hassan, T. Brown and G. Jergeas

Abstract: Hillerborg’s Advanced Strip Method is intended for use for the design of slabs supported as a
whole, or in part, by columns. The corner-supported element is the heart of the Advanced Strip Method.
The double-intensity corner-supported element is the most practical and economical configuration for
application to interior columns supported slabs than others. This paper provides an overview of the
application of the method to determine the theoretical curtailment length of top reinforcement in flat plates.
The approach requires the assessment of the ? values used to weight five different distribution options. This
paper presents an example that establishes the ? values behind the corner supported element and,
determines the theoretical location of bar curtailment in the double-intensity corner-supported element. The
negative bending moment diagram for the element can be drawn, based on ? values. The paper concludes
that the use of the bending moment diagram is more rigorous than Hillerborg’s general recommendation of
0.6 times the span length of the element. The paper also shows that the ? values are not unique and that
different sets of ? values can result in different interior behavior for the corner-supported element, in spite
of having same edge moments. The overall conclusion of this paper is that the closer the behavior of the
element is to the elastic behavior, the better the design.

Accelerating Change in Construction Project Delivery

G. Jergeas

Abstract: The implementation of project alignment frameworks to achieve the objective of delivering
projects successfully within agreed cost and schedule parameters through more effective and structured
management of projects is discussed. The process of aligning project players entails a considerable up-front
investment in time and resources to forge a common team identity among participants from different
organizations. It also involves the creation of mechanisms designed to sustain and expand collaboration
over the course of the project. The process can take many different shapes and forms, depending on the
nature of the project and contract, the number of organizations involved, and their prior experience working
together.

Important Leadership Competencies for Project Managers: The fit
between competencies and project characteristics

J. Krahn, and F.T. Hartman

Abstract: Would it not be wonderful if we always had confidence in our ability to deliver a project with
resounding success – AND have that confidence was fully justified? Beyond the tools and techniques for
planning and managing the project, this level of confidence would require knowing that the project – with
its team, in its context, and with its characteristics – was a good match with the skills and experience of its
project manager. To be in such a strong position requires a greater understanding of what it takes by way of
leadership competencies to achieve success. This is what the research in this paper is about. The paper
presents selected results from the first round of study and explains what the expected outcome will be of
subsequent work.

24 24
Applying the Analytical Hierarchy Process to Prioritize Landfill
Design and Operation Parameters

K. Ohman, P. Hettiaratchi, J. Ruwanpura, J. Balakrishnan, and G. Achari

Abstract: The application of scientifically based decision making tools to help address environmental
problems has been in place since the 1960's. Opportunities exist to use these management science tools to
further address difficult and challenging engineering design and operational concerns. Recently, simulation
modelling was used in waste management applications for construction and demolition debris recycling. As
well, research is being conducted in some areas to use operations research tools to help optimize landfill
design and operating parameters. This paper discusses the application of another type of decision making
tool, the analytical hierarchy process, to address priority ranking for various landfill engineering design and
operating parameters. In this application, the analytical hierarchy process is conceptually designed to rank
and prioritize economic and environmental parameters for landfill design and operations. The result is a
form of sensitivity analysis that can be site specific and sensitive to climate, geography, and in developing
or developed countries. It can also be potentially utilized as a risk management tool by engineers and
practitioners working in the landfill area.

Waste Generation Predictions and Promotion of Sustainable
Construction Practices

Bolivar Prado, Patrick Hettiaratchi, Janaka Ruwanpura, Mala Chandrakanthi and Charles Lendzion

Abstract: A continuous increase in the generation of construction waste and limited landfill capacity is a
growing concern for planners, municipalities, governments and environmental institutions. Construction
waste constitutes of material with high potential for reuse or recycling such as wood, metal, drywall,
rubble, concrete, cardboard, plastics, etc. These materials are traditionally disposed at landfills. Waste that
goes to landfills from construction sites can be reduced if on-site construction waste is minimized and best
practices are applied. This paper discusses the implementation of a waste management strategy during the
construction of a new building. The aim of this work is to present a critical analysis on the importance of
assessing the potential for construction waste minimization and recycling. The data obtained during the
construction of a four-story research facility with a floor area of 6,420 m2 were analyzed based on activities
performed according to the construction schedule. The methodology used to identify and quantify the daily
and weekly waste generation from different activities is explained. A statistical analysis was carried out to
generate a probabilistic model to predict the waste generation based on the construction activity schedule.
The purpose of this model is to help in the decision making process when dealing with the waste generated
at construction sites.

25 25
Year 2003

26 26
Contents

Published in Refereed Journals

Zaghloul, R. and Hartman, F.T. (2003) "Construction contracts: the cost of 29
mistrust", International Journal of Project Management, 2003 (21): 419-424.

Refereed Conference Proceedings

Carrillo, P., Robinson, H. and Hartman, F.T. (2003) "Knowledge 30
Management Strategies: Learning from other Sectors", Proceedings of
Construction Research Congress, Winds of Change: Integration and
Innovation in Construction, Honolulu, HI., United States, March 2003.

Fernando, S, Er, K.C., Mohamed, Y., AbouRizk, S, and Ruwanpura, J.Y. 30
(2003). "A Review of Simulation Applications for Varying Demands in
Tunneling." Proceedings of Construction Research Congress, Winds of
Change: Integration and Innovation in Construction, Honolulu, HI., United
States, March 2003.
Ruwanpura, J.Y., Ariaratnam, S. and El-Assaly, A. (2003) "Rule Based 30
Simulation Models for Sewer Infrastructure." Proceedings of Construction
Research Congress, Winds of Change: Integration and Innovation in
Construction, Honolulu, HI., United States, March 2003.

Liberda, M., Ruwanpura, J.Y., Jergeas, G. (2003) “Construction 31
Productivity Improvement: A Study of Human, Management and External
Issues”, Proceedings of Construction Research Congress, Winds of Change:
Integration and Innovation in Construction, Honolulu, HI., United States,
March 2003.

Non Refereed Conference Proceedings

Condon, E. (2003) "The Project Game", Proceedings of the PM Days '03 32
Practice Conference: Projects and Emotions, Vienna, Austria, Oct.

Eghbal, E., Ruwanpura, J.Y. (2003) “Gorgan Method: A Framework To
Manage Small Oil And Gas Projects” 5th Construction Specialty Conference 32
of the Canadian Society for Civil Engineering, Moncton, Nouveau-
Brunswick, June 2003.

Ruwanpura, J.Y., Meek, D., Nutting, T., Hamlin, J., Timler, M. and
Greaves D. (2003) “Most Significant Causes of Rework Due to Engineering 32
Deliverables” 5th Construction Specialty Conference of the Canadian
Society for Civil Engineering, Moncton, Nouveau-Brunswick, June 2003.

27 27
Ruwanpura, J.Y., Prado, B., and Hettiarachchi, J.P. (2003). "A Computer
Simulation Model to Predict Waste Generation and Promote Sustainable 33
Construction Practices at Construction Sites" Proceedings of CSCE
Environmental Specialty Conference, Moncton, N.B., June 2003.

Hartman, F.T., "Business Emotions on Renegade Projects", Proceedings of 33
the PM Days '03 Practice Conference: Projects and Emotions, Vienna,
Austria, October 2003.

Illincuta, A and Jergeas, G., "A Practical Approach to Managing Multiple 33
Small projects", Proceedings of the AACEI Annual Conference, Orlando,
Florida, June 2003.

Jergeas, G., "Project Partnering: A Case Study", Proceedings of the IPMA -
2003 Conference, Moscow, Russia, June 2003.

Minassian, V. and Jergeas, G., "Exploration Risk Management and Business 34
Development in the Petroleum Industry", Proceedings of the AACEI Annual
Conference, Orlando, Florida, June 2003.

Ohman, K., Hettiaratchi, P, Balakrishnan, J. and Ruwanpura, J. (2003).
"Current Status of Operations Research Modeling in Landfill Design and 34
Operation." Proceedings of the 45th annual conference of the Canadian
Operational Research Society, Vancouver, BC, May 2003.

Ruwanpura, J.Y. (2003)."A structured and logical framework for risk 34
analysis and simulation for project management" Proceedings of the PMI-
SAC Symposium 2003, Calgary.

Ruwanpura, J.Y., Liberda, M., and Jergeas, G. (2003)."Most critical 35
human factors that affect the productivity of Alberta construction projects"
Proceedings of the PMI-SAC Symposium 2003, Calgary.

Shlah, Z., and Jergeas, G. (2003) "Integration Projects - A Unique Project 35
Breed", Proceedings of the PMI-SAC Symposium, May 2003, Calgary.

28 28
Published in Refereed Journals

Construction contracts: The cost of mistrust

Ramy Zaghloul and Francis Hartman

Abstract: Current contractual relationships are mainly based on confrontational situations that reflect the
level of trust (or mistrust) in the contract documents. This can be the driver to increase the total cost of a
specific project and affect the overall relationship between the contracting parties. This has been tested in
the construction industry in Canada, and appears to be generalizable across North America. Based on two
independent surveys (including the one presented in this paper) of Owners, Consultants and Contractors
across Canada, the assessed premium associated with the five most commonly used exculpatory clauses in
construction is between 8 and 20% in a seller's market. It should be obvious that trust and contracting
methods are related and that this relationship is of vital importance to effective project management and
contract administration. To date, little work has been done to explore the advantages of this relationship.
This paper presents some of the results of a survey conducted across the Canadian construction industry
that identifies some opportunities for better risk allocation mechanism and contracting strategies that are
based on a trust relationship between the contracting parties. These opportunities are based on a trust
relationship that can be the root cause for a significant saving in the annual bill for construction.

29 29
Refereed Conference Proceedings

Knowledge Management Strategies: Learning from Other Sectors

Patricia Carrillo, H. Robinson and F.T. Hartman

Abstract: Knowledge Management is of strategic importance to organisations wishing to remain
competitive. Construction organizations rely extensively on their knowledge assets, expertise and human
capital to undertake construction projects. This paper adopts a case study methodology in order to provide
comparisons between the KM strategies adopted by UK construction companies and Canadian oil and gas
companies. Detailed interviews were held with senior officials in both the UK construction organisations
and the Canadian oil and gas organizations. The paper focuses on how KM strategies are developed, the
processes and resources utilized. The paper finds that there is little difference between the UK and
Canadian approaches. Some organizations are very much aware of the different interpretations of
knowledge management whilst some do not use the terminology “knowledge management.” The paper also
finds a strong reliance on IT-centred solutions with less regard given to the dissemination of tacit
knowledge through non-IT mechanisms.

A Review of Simulation Applications for Varying Demands in
Tunneling 8

S. Fernando, K.C. Er, Y. Mohamed, S. AbouRizk, and J. Ruwanpura

Abstract: Simphony is a simulation-modeling environment that may be applied to many aspects and fields
within construction engineering and management. Simphony has the ability to provide decision support
services for a variety of problems arising during the project life cycle. The focus of this paper will be given
to tunnel construction by detailing the application of Simphony on three separate projects. These examples
address the special purpose simulation templates within Simphony, and their use in addressing real life
concerns regarding estimation, planning, risk analysis, and refining of the construction process. Discussion
includes details of these example projects and the cost benefits identified.

Rule Based Simulation Models for Sewer Infrastructure

Janaka Ruwanpura and Samuel T. Ariaratnam

Abstract: Predicting and evaluating the future condition of underground infrastructure systems has become
a necessity for municipalities as they try to strategically plan for short-term and long-term budget
allocation. Current practice is to first assess the condition of sewer lines and then translate these ratings into
predictive models. Numerous predictive analytical modeling techniques have been utilized including the
use of straight-line extrapolation, regression models, Markovian models, non-linear regression, artificial

8
Work undertaken at the University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta

30 30
neural networks, and simulation. This paper presents the methodology of a model concluded very recently
using rule based simulation to predict the condition rating of the local sewer network maintained by the
City of Edmonton, Alberta.

Construction Productivity Improvement: A Study of Human,
Management and External Issues

Markus Liberda, Janaka Ruwanpura and George Jergeas

Abstract: Advancements in construction are concentrated largely on producing innovative practices to
perform construction projects in an efficient and timely manner. Understanding the relationship between
performance on the job site and level of productivity is important to develop best and innovative practices
to improve construction productivity. This paper explains the ongoing research project within Alberta
construction industry to identify the most critical aspects in terms of human, external and management
issues that affect construction productivity. The pilot study interviewed very experienced personnel from
the construction sector not only to prioritize the factors but also to identify the measurement criteria to
improve future construction projects. The second phase of the research and the deliverables are also
outlined in the paper.

31 31
Non-Refereed Conference Proceedings

The Project Game

E. Condon

Abstract: Due to the interdependence of the owner, consultant and contractor parties involved in the
development, approval and execution of projects, many projects are knowingly approved based on
unrealistic and unachievable cost and schedule targets, and they are predestined to fail. This is the “Project
Game.” This paper describes the Project Game concept, and uses game theory to understand why this
phenomenon occurs. It will look at the roles of the game players, their strategies, and what constitutes a
game win or loss. It will also look

Gorgan Method: A Framework to Manage Small Oil and Gas Projects

E. Eghbal and J.Y. Ruwanpura

Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to identify the best applicable method that contributes the effective
management of small projects in the oil and gas industry. The projects in this huge industry are of different
sizes and can be completed within a few months to a couple of years, and they have various kinds of
implementation and execution. The scope, duration and cost of the project can vary based on the location
of the project, nature of the project and the time required for execution and construction. To manage the
small projects in the oil and gas industry, a new method termed the "Gorgan Method" is developed with its
related monitoring and reviewing tool called the “Diamond concept.” The "Gorgan Method" focuses on the
small projects and introduces a framework for implementation of the projects during the project life cycle
in order to complete them within a predetermined time frame and budget. This model can then be used for
managing and monitoring the different levels and stages of a small project from the preliminary design to
final start up and commissioning. The “Gorgan Method” includes these sections and deliverables: Gates,
Levels (phases) and, Category Cost Estimates. The “Diamond Method” of the “Gorgan Method”, reviews
and monitors the executed project in the four main concepts including Scope, Time, Cost, and Quality.

Most Significant Causes of Rework Due to Engineering Deliverables

J.Y. Ruwanpura, D. Meek, T. Nutting, J. Hamlin, M. Timler, and D. Greaves

Abstract: Construction Owners Association of Alberta (COAA) Field Rework Committee is developing
industry Best Practices for reducing and preventing construction field rework. As part of this mandate, a
sub-committee of rework is assigned to identify the most significant causes for rework due to engineering
deliverables and to develop best practices. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the prioritization of
the most critical rework issues related to engineering deliverables assessed by experienced construction
project management experts in the industrial construction sector of Alberta. The root cause analysis and
influence diagrams developed by the rework sub-committee of Construction Owners Association of Alberta
under major sub-headings of Errors and Omissions in Engineering Work Packages, Late Design Changes,

32 32
Project Document Controls and Scope Changes are explained in the paper. The sub-committee’s goals to
develop best practices are also outlined in the paper.

A Computer Simulation Model to Predict Waste Generation and
Promote Sustainable Construction Practices at Construction Sites

J. Ruwanpura, B. Prado and P. Hettiaratchi

Abstract: Serious direct and indirect environmental adverse impacts are envisaged from the production of
solid waste at construction sites. Whilst there is some interest among construction engineers to apply
Sustainable Development (SD) principles during planning and implementation of construction projects,
there is little existing protocols or methods to help them in this regard. This paper provides information on
the development of a simulation model to determine solid waste generation at a construction site. The
paper also provides a protocol to use the simulation model results in the development of practices and
protocols to allow construction activity to contribute towards sustainable development.

Business Emotions on Renegade Projects

F.T. Hartman

Abstract: This paper presents the nature of a Renegade Project and describes how the Project Game is
played on these Renegade Projects. Where the Project Game is played we see more emotional rather than
just rational behaviour. This makes the process of understanding what is happening harder, and the tools for
traditional project management (based entirely on rational thinking) fall apart on us. Using empirical
evidence from project management cases, tests using the Ultimatum Game and MRI imaging of the brain
during the game-playing as well as other evidence, the builds a case to explain what is happening and how
to use fourth level Project Management skills to deliver success under these conditions. First level skills are
based on experience. Second level skills require, in addition, competence. Third level skills add integrity
and fourth level skills add intuition.

A Practical Approach to Managing Multiple Small Projects

Adrian Ilincuta and George F. Jergeas

Abstract: A practical approach for managing multiple small projects is presented. The approach has two
main components: time management and process flow management. The project manager is considered as
the single point contact for the whole process. The use of basic project management tools such as
scheduling and cost estimates is made. The approach resulted in the reduction of life cycle of the projects
and improved team work and communication.

33 33
Exploration Risk Management and Business Development in the
Petroleum Industry

Varoujan K. Minassian and George F. Jergeas

Abstract: A report on exploration of risk management and business development in the petroleum industry
is presented. Risk in petroleum projects are generated from two main levels of environment: immediate
level of risk environment such as large and complex projects risks, risks associated with conceptual
difficulty, risks of managing projects by an external agency and risks of failure by contractors. Within the
oil and gas sector there is continual and detailed management of risks conducted at all stages of a project
life cycle from feasibility to decommissioning.

Current Status of Operations Research Modeling in Landfill Design
and Operation

K. Ohman, P. Hettiaratchi, J. Balakrishnan and J. Ruwanpura

Abstract: The application of operational research tools to optimize landfill design and operational
components is in its infancy. Although, these tools have been used to help address environmental situations
for some time, applying them to the landfill area is quite a new application for these techniques. Some work
has been done in the life cycle analysis of landfills, some on the optimal scheduling of solid waste
collection systems, and more recent work has focused on simulating recycling efforts from construction
sites. This paper will briefly discuss the application of operational research tools as optimization
techniques in general, and focus on an associated literature review regarding landfill design and operation.
A general explanation of landfill design and operations from a performance based approach will be
provided to help provide some background to the paper and presentation.

A Structured and Logical Framework for Risk Analysis and
Simulation for Project Management

Janaka Ruwanpura

Abstract: Project risks are possibilities of occurring losses to a project that could have many negative
impacts. Risks prevail throughout the life cycle of a project in many different categories such as political,
social, environmental, construction, etc. Uncertainty is considered to be “the gap between the information
required to estimate an outcome and the information already possessed by the decision maker.” Risk and
uncertainty, therefore, go hand in hand and must be assessed together. A proper risk and uncertainty
analysis will definitely bring positive outcomes to successfully manage and complete projects. However,
developing systematic and logical tools to assess risks and uncertainty and analyzing impacts due to risks is
a challenging task.

This paper shows the four step risk analysis and simulation framework presently being developed and
implemented by the researcher. The first step of this framework is the identification of the risk factors
along the life cycle of a project at the right time through proper brainstorming. This step will reduce the
uncertainty in assessing the identified risk factors before unsuccessful quantification in terms of likelihood
of occurrence and the impact to the project. The second step deals with the logical quantification of the
risks using a structured quantitative approach. Developing a risk management plan to deal with the most

34 34
severe risk factors that have negative impact to cost, schedule, performance, safety, and viability is the third
step. The final step is to use simulation modeling to justify the real impact to the project and to develop
possible alternatives to execute the same project.

Three types of simulation models are used in this regard. One is a simple Monte Carlo simulation analysis
to tie the risk factors and their impact to project selection, project schedule and estimating. The second type
is a special purpose simulation models to analyze the processes and operations to remove non-value added
items, and to assess and validate possible alternatives to avoid the risk factors. The third type is tackling the
triggering situations that cause the risks. This risk analysis framework and simulation modeling will
provide many practical benefits to successfully manage and complete projects of any nature.

Most Critical Human Factors That Affect the Productivity of Alberta
Construction Projects

Janaka Ruwanpura, Markus Liberda, and George Jergeas

Abstract: There are many human factors that affect performance on the job site and to develop best
practices to improve construction productivity. This paper explains the ongoing research project within
Alberta construction industry to identify the most critical aspects in terms of human, external and
management issues that affect construction productivity. The pilot study results emphasized the need to
concentrate on human issues to develop some standard guidelines to properly monitor and measure
productivity. Current methods of monitoring, barriers to monitoring, and the mitigation strategies to
improve productivity for the top rated human issues are also explained in the paper.

Integration Projects - A Unique Project Breed

Z. Shlah and G. Jergeas

Abstract: Mergers and acquisitions (M&A) have become a prominent business trend in almost all
industries and disciplines. This phenomenon has been widely visible in the Oil & Gas sector. This paper
provides an introduction to M&A projects and outlines the scope of the tasks involved in its application in
the oil and gas sector. M&A projects are unique and the paper outlines the key characteristics of such
projects with a detailed case study based on an actual M&A project between two oil and gas companies. A
summary of the project approach with a detailed plan for completing the integration of the administration
integration component is provided. The paper concludes with a set of practical recommendations and a
summary of lessons learned based on events encountered during the project.

35 35
Year 2002

36 36
Contents

Published in Refereed Journals

Zaghloul, R.M. and Hartman, F.T. (2002), "Construction Contracts: A 40
Framework of Mistrust", Project Management, 8(1):56-59.

Hartman, F.T., and Ashrafi, R.A. (2002), "Project Management in the 40
Information Systems and Information Technologies Industries", Project
Management Journal, 33(3):5-15, Sept. 2002.

Jugdev, K., & Thomas, J. (2002). “Project management maturity models: 41
The silver bullets of competitive advantage”. Project Management Journal,
33(4): 4-14.

Refereed Conference Proceedings

Powers, G., Ruwanpura, J.Y. Dolhan G., and Chu M. (2002), “Simulation 42
Based Project Selection Decision Analysis Tool” Proceedings of the 2002
Winter Simulation Conference E. Yücesan, C.-H. Chen, J. L. Snowdon, and
J. M. Charnes, eds. San Diego. 1778-1785.

Chandrakanthi, M., Hettiaratchi, P., Prado, B, and Ruwanpura J.Y. (2002). 42
“Optimization of the Waste Management for Construction Projects Using
Simulation” Proceedings of the 2002 Winter Simulation Conference E.
Yücesan, C.-H. Chen, J. L. Snowdon, and J. M. Charnes, eds. San Diego.
1711-1777.

Jugdev, K., and Thomas, J. (2002). “Blueprint for value creation: 42
Developing and sustaining a project management competitive advantage
through the Resource Based View”. Proceedings of the 2nd Project
Management Institute Conference: Frontiers of Project Management
Research and Application, Seattle, Washington. July 2002.

Jugdev, K., and Thomas, J. L. (2002). “From operational process to strategic 43
asset - the evolution of project management's value in organizations”.
Proceedings of the 33rd Project Management Institute Symposium and
Conference, San Antonio, Texas October 2002.

37 37
Non Refereed Conference Proceedings

Hartman, F.T. and Zaghloul, R. (2002) "Construction Contracts and Risk 44
Allocation: The Cost of Mistrust", Proceedings of the PMI 2002 Symposium,
San Antonio, Texas, October 2002.

Hartman, F.T. (2002) "Project Management Maturity - The Trust Impact", 44
Proceedings of the International Research Network on Organization by
Projects, IRNOP V Conference, Renesse, Zeeland, the Netherlands. Hosted
by Erasmus University Rotterdam, May 2002.

Hartman, F.T. (2002) "From Strategy to Program and Program to Project: 45
the Critical Links", Proceedings of the IPMA 16TH World Congress 2002,
Berlin, Germany. June 2002.

Hartman, F.T. (2002) "The Biggest Discontinuity of All: Projects and 45
Enterprise Strategy", Proceedings of the PM Days '02 Research Conference:
Discontinuities in Project-oriented Societies, Vienna, Austria, November
2002.

Hartman, F.T. (2002) "Update on Trust: A collection of trust based research 46
findings", Proceedings of the PMI Research Conference 2002, Seattle,
Washington, July 2002.

Jergeas, G.F. (2002) "Project Partnering - A Case Study", Proceedings of -
the International Research Network on Organization by Projects, IRNOP V
Conference, Renesse, Zeeland, the Netherlands. Hosted by Erasmus
University Rotterdam, May 2002.

Jergeas, G.F. (2002) "A Proactive Auditing Tool for Project Success", -
Proceedings of the PM Days '02 Research Conference: Discontinuities in
Project-oriented Societies, Vienna, Austria, November 2002.

Jergeas, George and McTague, Robert (2002) "Construction Productivity: 46
An Auditing and Measuring Tool", Proceedings of AACEI, Portland,
Oregon, 2002.

Jergeas, George F. (2002) "Monitoring Project Performance", Proceedings -
of AACEI, Portland, Oregon, 2002.

Sennara, M. and Hartman, F.T. (2002) "Managing Cultural Risks in 46
International Projects", Proceedings of the PMI 2002 Symposium, San
Antonio, Texas, October 2002.

38 38
Skulmoski, G. and Hartman, F.T. (2002) "The Delphi Method: Researching 47
What Does Not Exist (Yet)", Proceedings of the International Research
Network on Organization by Projects, IRNOP V Conference, Renesse,
Zeeland, the Netherlands. Hosted by Erasmus University Rotterdam, May
2002.

39 39
Published in Refereed Journals

Construction Contracts: A Framework of Mistrust

R.M. Zaghloul and F.T. Hartman

Abstract: Based on two independent surveys of Owners, Consultants and Contractors across Canada, the
assessed premium associated with the five most commonly used exculpatory clauses in construction
contracts (work conditions, delays, indemnification, liquidated damages, and sufficiency of contracts) is
between 8% and 20% in a seller’s market. It would appear that inappropriate risk allocation through the
use of exculpatory clauses in contracts creates a framework of mistrust between the contracting parties. To
overcome this problem, a new approach to contractual relationships should be adapted. This approach is
based on a trust relationship between the contracting parties in such a way that we can promote creative
solutions for specific problems or, even better, to prevent the problem itself from the outset. This paper
presents the Colours of Trust Model (Blue trust—competence, Yellow trust—integrity, and Red trust—
intuitive) and some results regarding its applications and its relationship to cost reduction in construction
contracts. These results are based on a research study that includes a survey conducted across the Canadian
construction industry including owners, contractors, consultants, and contract specialists. The results
identify opportunities for significant cost reduction in the annual North American bill for construction of
about trillion dollars.

Project Management in the Information Systems and Information
Technologies Industries

F.T. Hartman and R.A. Ashrafi

Abstract: For many enterprises, sustainable success is closely linked to information systems (IS) and
information technologies (IT). Despite significant efforts to improve software project success, many still
fail. Current literature indicates that most of the software project problems are related to management,
organizational, human, and cultural issues - not technical problems. This paper presents results of a survey
of 36 software owners/sponsors, contractors/suppliers, and consultants on 12 projects. The empirical results
address answers to questions related to success, performance metrics, and project business drivers. A lack
of alignment on these critical issues emerge consistently by phase as well as across the entire project. The
results of this study also are compared with others that span seven additional industry sectors. As a result,
an approach has been developed that links project critical success factors (CSFs) to corporate strategy, and
project metrics to the CSFs. An important finding of this study is the critical need to identify and manage
realistic expectations of the stakeholders to achieve perceived project success.

40 40
Project management maturity models: The silver bullets of
competitive advantage

K. Jugdev and J. Thomas

Project management maturity models are important assessment tools for the profession. Maturity models
identify organizational strengths and weaknesses as well as provide benchmarking information. They
capture explicit, codified practice (know-what), but do not include the intangible assets of project
management (know-how). Some have made the claim that project management maturity models (MMs)
can lead to a competitive advantage for firms. This paper uses four resource-based frameworks to assess
whether or not maturity models lead to a sustained competitive advantage. In the context of the strategy
domain, the authors conclude that MMs can result in a temporary competitive advantage but not a sustained
competitive advantage. Clearly, a sustained competitive advantage is rooted in a combination of know-what
and know-how.

41 41
Refereed Conference Proceedings

Simulation Based Project Selection Decision Analysis Tool

Gary Powers, Janaka Y. Ruwanpura, Garry Dolhan, and Martin Chu

Abstract: Project Selection is the process of evaluating individual projects, to choose the right project
based on an analysis so that the objectives of the company will be achieved. It involves a thorough analysis
including the most important financial aspect to determine the most optimum project among all the
alternatives. Some projects have high uncertainty, and therefore simulation based project selection decision
analysis could evaluate the projects with a greater confidence. The model presented in the paper shows a
special purpose simulation tool for project selection based on influences that govern the project selection
process. A graphical and hierarchical approach is adopted for the non-simulation experts to use the model
to derive the expected results for project selection process and decision making under uncertain conditions.

Optimization of the waste management for Construction projects
using simulation

Mala Chandrakanthi, Patrick Hettiaratchi, Bolívar Prado and Janaka Y. Ruwanpura

Abstract: Growth in construction activities increases the amount of construction waste generated.
Recycling of construction waste is an important component of environmentally responsible construction, as
it reduces the amount of waste directed to landfills. In addition, it enhances the resource recovery for future
construction work. A model is presented in this paper to predict waste generation rates, as well as to
determine the economic advantages of recycling at construction sites. A future advanced version of the
model can be applied to any construction site to: determine the amount of daily waste generation, resource
and time requirement for sorting and transporting of recyclables. The model, therefore, is a valuable tool
for construction managers interested in asserting the viability of recycling projects.

Blueprint for value creation: Developing and sustaining a project
management competitive advantage through the Resource Based
View

K. Jugdev and J. Thomas

Abstract: Just as scientists are working to crack the biochemical code for each of the 100,000 genes that
determine human characteristics, business executives and researchers are trying to unlock the code for
value creation within firms (O'Connell, 2000). The code for business value creation involves tangible
assets such as financial, physical, and technological ones and less tangible ones such as organizational,
social, and human assets (Brush, Greene, Hart, & Haller, 2001). In the global race to unlock the code,
firms interlock assets in unique ways to create value to achieve or sustain a competitive advantage in the
marketplace. In the process of creating economic value, some firms may destroy it if they do not fully
understand the value of the assets. This is especially true for less tangible assets.

42 42
Although research in project management predominantly emphasizes applied studies, there is a growing
trend towards exploring strategic and organizational issues (Ulri & Ulri, 2000). Economic and strategic
management studies on competitive advantage focus on the question “Why do firms exist?” The short
answer is that firms exist to make profits. Although economic and strategic theories agree on this aim, they
differ in how firms achieve this important goal. The question on why firms exist has relevance to project
management as it is increasingly used as part of companies’ competitive advantage strategies.

A relatively new area of strategy research is the Resource Based View (RBV). It examines the firm’s
unique mix of resources as the source of competitive advantage. The RBV blends the external view of
strategy involving industry and environment assessments as popularized by Porter with the internal
assessment of the firm’s strengths and weaknesses (Porter, 1996). The RBV explores how organizations
develop certain resources necessary to support corporate strategy. The premise is that in order to do
strategy a firm must have the capability to do.

This paper begins by exploring key themes from strategy research such as competitive convergence and
competitive advantage. It discusses the importance of tangible and intangible firm assets and anchors these
discussions in a project management context by assessing the potential for project management maturity
models (PMM) to develop project management as a strategic advantage for firms. We then use the human
genome as an analogy for the business genome to depict how project management could be a strategic asset
in the RBV context.

From operational process to strategic asset - the evolution of project
management's value in organizations

K. Jugdev and J. L. Thomas

Abstract: Executives believe that project management is important to their firms. They simply do not
believe that it is important at the strategic level where they focus their energies. Ergo project management
is not important to them. At a time when projects are increasingly important to strategic organizational
success, how did project management come to be considered an operational activity? This paper examines
the evolutionary trends in project management and their implications for the future of project management.
In particular, it posits an alternative future where project management is a strategic alternative and explores
what it would take to get there.

43 43
Non-Refereed Conference Proceedings

Construction Contracts and Risk Allocation: The Cost of Mistrust

F.T. Hartman and R. Zaghloul

Abstract: The construction industry in both Canada and the United States is the single largest non-
governmental employer. In 1997, the industrywas estimated in Canada to have a value of about $90 billion,
representing 15% of the gross domestic product. However, within the last 20 years considerable cost
wastage has been identified by the Construction Industry Institute (CII, 1986). A significant portion of this
cost wastage may be attributed to inappropriate risk allocation in contracts, as cited in various examples
analyzing risk allocation in the construction industry and the underlying causes of disputes conducted in
Canada and the U.S. (American Consulting Engineers Council (ACE) and Associated General Contractors
of America (AGC), 1991; Enger, 1997; CII, 1988). Risk is a major element in the construction industry and
actually it is one of the main elements that can significantly affects the final cost of any project. The risk
inherent in the construction process has grown substantially over the past 50 years due to a myriad of
factors. Despite this, the process of allocating risk has not changed in the same proportion (Hartman, 2000).
Risk allocation always occurs in any situation where more than one party (owner, contractor, consultant,
etc.) is responsible for the execution of a project. Making sure that every risk is recognized and managed is
good practice in any project. This activity is an important step in that this allocation can significantly
influence the behavior of the project participants and hence impact both project performance and final cost.

Project Management Maturity – The Trust Impact

F.T. Hartman

Abstract: This paper presents a fresh view of project management and its maturity as a result of integrating
the findings from a series of research projects that have Trust in Project Management as a common theme.
These research projects span a number of topics from communication to inter-cultural projects and from
leadership to negotiation. This series of projects has led to a degree of validation of the Colour Trust
Model. This model, together with some scholarship, has led to development of a fascinating matrix that
links a number of concepts related to maturity, competence, use of tools, processes and competencies and
more. The matrix is presented in this paper and a number of observations are made. The paper is presented
as much for discussion as it is for information, as the ideas are still embryonic. Some of the observations
are potentially controversial. Some are intuitively obvious, but provide insights because of their context in
the matrix. The matrix itself is founded on a medieval model for maturity in a trade or craft: growth from
an apprentice to a journeyman then to a master. The modern professional equivalent is arguably more
complex and suggests that most professionals in the project management business are at all three levels in
different aspects of their career at any one time. Membership of project management associations probably
represents only a small percentage of the population of practitioners of modern project management. The
paper poses some interesting questions. Is project management really a profession in its own right? Or is it
just a part of the growing portfolio of skills in general management? Is it a part of the natural career path of
the upwardly mobile or is it a barrier based on type-casting? Can we isolate a unique set of skills and
competencies for project managers? Not all of these questions have definitive answers. The matrix
presented in the paper does, however shed new light from a fresh perspective on the picture of project
management maturity. Perhaps it will challenge some of the more conventional thinking.

44 44
From Strategy to Program and Program to Project: Critical Links

Francis Hartman

Abstract: No amount of exploration will discover something that is not there in the first place. Medical
research tries new drugs, new processes and other innovations based on knowledge to develop new cures
and to help people in need. Using a similar approach, SMART Management was developed and has now
been tested on over 800 projects.

This paper presents work on the development of more effective project management based on linking
projects to corporate strategy, and maintaining that link as a lever for success. The success of the projects
is defined in terms that make more sense to executives. The value of the project, its team and the project
manager are all increased and the delivery of the projects is made both simpler and easier.

The "SM" in SMART stands for Strategically Managed. This, simply put, is all about identifying the link
between the project and how it supports the strategy of the client enterprise. The "A" in SMART refers to
Alignment - one item to align is the strategies of the enterprises and individuals that are needed for the
success of the project with the direction of the project itself. This paper presents some of the techniques
used in achieving this alignment and presents the approach used in the context of some of the test cases.

Initial testing of new medical products is done on volunteers in carefully controlled clinical trials. The
trials for the SMART methodology were undertaken with volunteer projects in volunteer organisations.
They were generally successful. Only two projects died, but they were terminal cases anyhow. The others
survived and in most cased thrived. The discoveries about what helps projects do well - even under
difficult circumstances - touches on some interesting opportunities for the project and program managers,
both for their projects and for their personal career development.

The paper recognises some of the main project killers, from the poor morale germ to the unhappy
stakeholder virus, and offers some potential cures. The cures proposed here relate to repair of the link
between the project and the sponsor's corporate strategic objectives. Early identification of the root cause of
a symptom of project failure helps with the diagnosis and leads to a better prognosis. The link between
corporate strategy and the real drivers for success of a project fundamentally changes the way we look at
projects and assess their success. This, in turn, modifies what we focus on managing. The result is
healthier projects with less surgery and more non-intrusive cures for the most common ills that we see in
today's challenging programs and projects.

The paper will address the link between projects and corporate strategy first. It will then briefly discuss the
critical differences between projects that are so linked and ones that are not. The mechanisms for creating
such a link are outlined in general terms.

The Biggest Discontinuity of All: Projects and Enterprise Strategy

Francis Hartman

Abstract: Today's projects are increasingly being managed better, delivered faster and cheaper and the
results are often better. The new problem is that the world is changing faster and so it overtakes the project,
making it the wrong one despite all of the excellent work of the team.

This paper presents some of the issues project managers face more often than ever because of the
discontinuity between project teams and their corporate executive. Some of the specific issues discussed
include understanding the relationship between corporate strategy and projects, aligning stakeholders and

45 45
objectives, supply chains and other project or portfolio issues. The underlying instrument to understand
these issues is a new framework: EDNA. EDNA is the DNA of an Enterprise. This concept and its
derivation is outlined in this paper.

Update on Trust: A collection of trust based research findings

Francis Hartman, David Blakeney, Roch DeMaere, Jennifer Krahn, Greg Skulmoski, Liwen Ren, Mona
Sennara and Ramy Zaghloul

Abstract: Over the past few years, the issue of trust in project management has grown in importance and
the level of activity in both research and practice has grown significantly. Since 1999, the Project
Management Specialisation at the University of Calgary, under the direction of the Chair in Management of
Technological Change, has been undertaking research into the role of trust in project management
effectiveness. This paper presents some of the findings of the underlying primary research and some of the
closely related projects that have extended the reach of the primary study.

The primary study was to understand how trust can be developed faster and how it may be used to benefit
all participants in the temporary teams that are used in delivery of projects. The Colour Trust Model was
developed, has since been enhanced and further tested and validated. In parallel with this a number of other
studies related to trust and its specific impact on aspects of project management have been investigated.
These additional studies are part of the work of the Chair and are projects undertaken by some of the
approximately twenty doctoral and masters students supervised by the Chair.

The work cited in this paper includes the principal study as well as selected relevant findings of some of the
students' projects. The paper concludes with some of the interesting observations and links that have
emerged from the work of this research team.

Construction Productivity: An Auditing and Measuring Tool

George Jergeas and Robert McTague

Abstract: This paper presents a monitoring tool that will enable Project Managers to audit/evaluate
performance of construction projects and to determine where improvements can be made. The tool is
comprised of 14 key components that contribute towards doing a good construction job. These components
were assigned weights and further divided into a number of sub-components with their own weight. This
toll will enable contractors and owners to evaluate project performance against a defined baseline. By
applying this tool to a particular project, Project Managers can predict the expected success or failure. For
the tool to be used by construction firms and individuals, a specific customization is needed for proper
application.

Managing Cultural Risks on International Projects

Mona Sennara and Francis Hartman

Abstract: Globalization has made it increasingly important, even for businesses which have considered
themselves purely “domestic”, to be able to understand and assess the impact of events occurring in the

46 46
international business environment. Hence it is critical that firms involved in international projects take into
consideration “cultural risks” which, if not consciously recognized, can lead to ineffectiveness and in many
cases has proven to be very costly. This paper addresses the awareness issue of “cultural risks” that
Canadian firms encounter on international projects and points to the concepts that we need to understand in
order to mitigate their impact.

There is an Indian fable about the blind men who approached an elephant; the one who gets hold of a leg
thinks it is a tree, the one who gets the tail thinks it is a rope, but none of them understands what the whole
animal is like. Many studies have researched Organization Culture, a few looked at the influence of culture
on leadership, communication, and negotiations. However none have studied the effect of cultural diversity
on international projects as a whole entity. This paper discusses the relationship between different
dimensions of national cultures and the possible cultural risks associated with the five main phases of an
international project which are: Market Opportunities, Project Selection, Tendering & Contract signing,
Implementation, and Commissioning.

The research study explored the intercultural business, social, and personal dimensions that may create
challenges on international projects, and derived lessons for future planning and delivery of international
projects. The study sample investigated current practices from a survey conducted in the Oil & Gas,
construction, and development industries, from the different cultural perspectives of both the owner and
client involved on the same project.

The difference in the managerial approach between domestic and international projects is the need for
proactive measures in the initial stages between project selection and the pre-contractual stage of a project
where most of the risk (challenges) associated with international projects can be both foreseen and
mitigated. The research study found that the major cultural risks on international projects are superficially
similar to risks on local projects, but the root cause of the cultural risks and their impact on the projects
effectiveness and success are very much different. The results show six main issues that need to be taken
under serious consideration before approaching an international project. This paper will discuss each of
these six issues which are: Organizational Culture, Networking, Project Selection, Contracts and
Negotiation, Project Leadership, and Foreign Agent selection. This paper will also touch on the importance
of Trust on each of the six categories.

The Delphi Method: Researching What Does Not Exist (Yet)

G. Skulmoski and F.T. Hartman

Abstract: The Delphi method is a flexible research technique that has been successfully used in the Project
Management Specialization Programme at the University of Calgary to explore new concepts that do not
quite exist in the Project Management Body of Knowledge. The Delphi method is an iterative process to
collect and distill the anonymous judgments of experts using a series of data collection and analysis
techniques interspersed with feedback. The Delphi method is well suited as a research instrument when
there is incomplete knowledge about a problem or phenomenon. In this paper, we provide a brief
background of the Classical Delphi followed by a presentation of how it has evolved into a flexible
research method. To illustrate the method’s flexibility, we summarize the Delphi research projects used in
the Project Management Specialization Programme. We end by discussing what we have learned about
some key Delphi method design factors: i) methodological choices. ii) initial question degree of focus, iii)
number of participants, iv) number of rounds, v) mode of interaction, and vi) methodological rigor. The
Delphi method is a flexible, effective and efficient researchmethod that can help to answer research
questions in new areas like project management.

47 47
Year 2001

48 48
Contents

Published in Refereed Journals

DeMaere, R., Skulmoski, G., Zaghloul, R.M., Hartman, F.T. (2001) 51
"Contracting and the Flying Trapeze: The Trust Factor", Project
Management, 7(1):32-35.

Jergeas, G.F., Van der Put, J. (2001) "Analysis of the Benefits of 51
Constructability on Construction Projects", Journal of Construction
Engineering and Management, 127 (4), 281-290 (July/August 2001)

Ruwanpura, J.Y., AbouRizk, S.M., Er, K.C. and Fernando, S. 51
(2001)."Special Purpose Simulation Templates for Tunnel Construction
Operations." Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, CSCE, 28(2), 222-237.

Ruwanpura, J.Y., AbouRizk, S.M., and Fernando, S. (2001) 52
"Implementation of Computer Based Planning and Estimating Tools for a
Public Utility", Cost Engineering Journal, Association of the Advancement
of Cost Engineering, 43(10), 39-46.

Skulmoski, G., DeMaere, R., Paiaro, J., Hartman, F.T. (2001) "Don't be 52
Creative with Project Management, Be Creative with Solutions", Project
Management, 2001.

Ruwanpura, J.Y., AbouRizk, S.M., Er, K.C., and Fernando, S. (2001) 53
"Experiences in Implementing Simulation for Utility Tunnel Construction
Operations", Canadian Tunneling Journal, Tunneling Association of
Canada, 181-191.

Refereed Conference Proceedings

Ruwanpura J.Y., AbouRizk S.M. (2001) “Design, Development and 54
Application of Soil Transition Algorithms for Tunneling Using Special
Purpose Simulation” Proceedings of the 2001 Winter Simulation Conference
B. A. Peters, J. S. Smith, D. J. Medeiros, and M. W. Rohrer, eds.

Skulmoski, G., DeMaere, R., Paiaro, J., Hartman, F.T. (2001) "Don't be 54
Creative with Project Management, Be Creative with Solutions",
Proceedings of IPMA 16th World Congress on Project Management
Creativity, Stockholm, Sweden. 2001.

49 49
Non Refereed Conference Proceedings

Delisle, C., Thomas, J., Jugdev, K. and Buckle, P. (2001) "Virtual Project -
Teaming to Bridge the Distance: A Case Study", Proceedings of the PMI
2001 Symposium, Nashville, Tennessee, November 2001.

Hartman, F.T., "The Key to Enterprise Evolution - Future PM", 55
Proceedings of the PMI 2001 Symposium, Nashville, Tennessee, November
2001.

Hartman, F.T. (2001) "Project Management Evolution Framework" 55
Proceedings of the Vienna Project Management PM Days Research
Conference, Vienna, Austria, November 2001.

Hartman, F.T. (2001) "The Role of Trust in Project Management for E- -
business", Proceedings of the Vienna Project Management PM Days Practice
Conference, Vienna, Austria, November 2001.

Jergeas, G.F. (2001) "Claims and Disputes in the Construction Industry", 55
Proceedings of the AACEI Annual Cost Engineering Conference, Pittsburgh,
Pennsylvania, September 2001.

Krahn, J., Jergeas, G.F., Fahmy, S. (2001) "Key Partnering Success 56
Factors", Proceedings of the AACEI Annual Cost Engineering Conference,
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, September 2001.

Ruwanpura, J.Y. and AbouRizk, S.M. and Allouche, M. (2001). "Prediction 56
of Soil Transitions for Tunnel Construction Operations using Special
Purpose Simulation". 4th Construction Specialty Conference of CSCE,
Victoria, BC.

Thomas, J., Delisle, C., Jugdev, K., and Buckle, P. (2001) "Selling Project
Management to Senior Executives: Preliminary Phase II Findings", -
Proceedings of the PMI 2001 Symposium, Nashville, Tennessee, November
2001.

50 50
Published in Refereed Journals

Contracting and the Flying Trapeze: The Trust Factor

R. DeMaere, G. Skulmoski, R.M. Zaghloul, and F.T. Hartman

Abstract: In this paper we focus on the important role trust plays in contractual relationships. A conceptual
model of trust is outlined. We present practical suggestions as to how trust can he built— or at least not
destroyed—through contracting activities. The suggestions include identifying and choosing trustworthy
partners, ‘‘practicing’ or gaining experience with potential partners, and effectively allocating risks. Results
from research exploring the relationship between trust and use of exculpatory clauses in the Canadian
construction industry are presented. The results suggest that the use of exculpatory clauses can decrease
trust between contracting partners and increase overall project costs. We present a strategy based on trust
to overcome some of the problems associated with risk allocation and the use of exculpatory clauses. To
aid in the analysis we compare the relationship between contracting parties to that of individuals
performing on the flying trapeze.

Analysis of the Benefits of Constructability on Construction Projects

George Jergeas and John Van der Put

Abstract: This study was undertaken to identify the most significant gaps between the potential benefits of
applying constructability principles to Alberta, Canada, industrial projects and the benefits typically
realized in industry practice. This study also aims to gain an understanding of the barriers that commonly
restrict constructability benefits. The data for this survey was obtained by administering a survey based on
the Construction Industry Institute's 17 constructability principles. The results of this study indicate
collaborative industry effort should be focused in the areas where the largest gaps currently exist between
potential and realized benefits. These include among other things, involvement of construction in the
design phase, building mutual trust, respect, and credibility between project planners, designers, and
constructors. As the examples cited in this study illustrate, significant gains in project cost, schedule,
performance, and safety can be achieved when the above prescription is followed. For example, savings of
30–40% in the total installed cost for facilities are quite readily achievable.

Special purpose simulation templates for tunnel construction
operations 9

Janaka Y. Ruwanpura, Simaan M. AbouRizk, K. C. Er, and Siri Fernando

Abstract: Simulation is a powerful tool for decision making. It provides an appealing approach to analyze
and improve repetitive processes such as tunnelling. Notwithstanding this appeal, application of simulation

9
Work undertaken at the University of Alberta, Edmonton

51 51
to real-life construction projects has been minimal. This paper describes the design, development, and
application of a special purpose simulation tool for actual tunnel construction operations performed by the
City of Edmonton Public Works Department. The implementation of this tool in industry was successful
and serves as a model for others to follow. The decision-making process adopted by the model developers
and the construction industry personnel during the design, development, and implementation of the
simulation are described. The cost-planning tool in the tunnel template is very useful in making decisions
and evaluating the feasibility of tunnel construction projects. The real-life application of various
alternatives compared to the conceptual estimates prepared for a proposed tunnel project to be constructed
in Edmonton is presented in three stages. The basic costs, operational costs, support costs, productivity,
duration, and resources utilization data are presented for different alternatives for the proposed tunnel
project. Future modifications required by the engineering staff of the City of Edmonton, and the proposed
research for modelling uncertainties in tunnel construction are identified. The successful application of the
simulation for actual construction project highlights the interactive collaborative research work between
academia and industry.

Implementation of Computer Based Planning and Estimating Tools
for a Public Utility 10

Janaka. Y. Ruwanpura, Simaan M. AbouRizk and Siri Fernando

Abstract: Implementation of computer-based tools for construction planning and estimating for a public
organization, which has not relied heavily on computers, is a challenging task. This paper explains the
design, development and implementation of two computer tools for the design and construction branch of
the City of Edmonton (CE) Asset Management and Public Works Department. SmartEST is user-friendly
estimating software customized and implemented to suit the construction work performed by the CE. A
Simphony tunnel simulation template is a decision making tool used to evaluate different tunnel
construction proposals. The features of SmartEST are described before explaining the major steps of
implementation. The applications of tunnel simulation template are then explained after reviewing their
modeling elements and features. CE uses both SmartEST and the tunnel simulation template for their
current estimating, planning and construction work. The successful implementation of both tools is due to
interactive collaborative research work between academia and industry, joint team effort, customization to
suit the industry requirement, and the flexibility of the computer technology used to develop the tools. The
future enhancements of both tools are also briefly explained.

Don’t Be Creative with Project Management; Be Creative with
Solutions

G. Skulmoski, J. Paiaro, R. DeMaere and F.T. Hartman

Abstract: Increasingly businesses are interested in improving the project management maturity of their
organization. One effective way to realize this goal is to formalize project management tools, techniques
and processes in the organization. Described in this paper is how an information systems integration
services company has achieved this formalization of project management resulting in delivering successful
projects for its clients. A three step approach is described: i) project assessment, ii) project classification,
and iii) selecting a tool kit of project management tools, techniques and processes individually matched to

10
Work undertaken at the University of Alberta, Edmonton

52 52
the type of project under assessment. The benefits of this approach are that the technical project team is
guided by a structured and comprehensive approach to managing their projects yielding improved project
performance and project success. “It is best to do things systematically, since we are only human and
disorder is our worst enemy.” (Hesiod, 8th century B.C.)

Experiences in Implementing Special Purpose Simulation Tool for
Utility Tunnel Construction Operations

Janaka Y. Ruwanpura, Simaan M. AbouRizk, K. C. Er, and Siri Fernando

Abstract: Simulation is a powerful tool for decision-making and a very useful tool for repetitive
construction operations such as tunneling. This paper describes the implementation of a special purpose
tunneling simulation template based on the tunneling operations performed by the City of Edmonton (CE)
Public Works Department using shielded tunnel boring machines. The decision making process adopted by
the model developers and the construction industry personnel during the design, development, and
implementation of the simulation are described. The progression of use of simulation by CE is briefly
explained before describing the design and development of the Tunnel Template in Simphony. The real life
applications of tunnel simulation in evaluating several alternatives for the construction and bidding of a
tunneling project are described. The challenges faced by the model developers are highlighted to show how
the cooperation of industry and academia could provide productive results through collaborative research.
The paper also highlights the ongoing research that is being conducted to model the uncertainties in tunnel
construction.

53 53
Refereed Conference Proceedings

Design, Development and Application of Soil Transition Algorithms
for Tunneling Using Special Purpose Simulation 11

Janaka Y. Ruwanpura, and Simaan M. AbouRizk

Abstract: In tunnel construction, the vertical boreholes only show the soil types that are available in the
borehole locations. The soil profiles between the boreholes are uncertain and assumed by practitioners for
construction purposes. The productivity of the tunnel construction work is therefore affected by adverse
soil conditions. The successful implementation of a special purpose tunneling simulation tool identified that
the modeling of uncertainties such as soil conditions could provide better results. This paper presents new
modeling algorithms to predict the transition of soils between the boreholes along the tunnel path. The use
of transitional probabilities enables to predict the transition points. The various scenarios of the mixed
phases of soils are considered for modeling within the special purpose tunnel simulation template.
Application of the simulation for modeling algorithms to a past construction project proved that this
modeling algorithms provide a logical and an accurate prediction of the tunnel advance rate.

Don’t Be Creative with Project Management; Be Creative with
Solutions

G. Skulmoski, J. Paiaro, R. DeMaere and F.T. Hartman

Abstract: Increasingly businesses are interested in improving the project management maturity of their
organization. One effective way to realize this goal is to formalize project management tools, techniques
and processes in the organization. Described in this paper is how an information systems integration
services company has achieved this formalization of project management resulting in delivering successful
projects for its clients. A three step approach is described: i) project assessment, ii) project classification,
and iii) selecting a tool kit of project management tools, techniques and processes individually matched to
the type of project under assessment. The benefits of this approach are that the technical project team is
guided by a structured and comprehensive approach to managing their projects yielding improved project
performance and project success. “It is best to do things systematically, since we are only human and
disorder is our worst enemy.” (Hesiod, 8th century B.C.)

11
Work undertaken at the University of Alberta, Edmonton

54 54
Non-Refereed Conference Proceedings

The Key to Enterprise Evolution – Future PM

Francis Hartman

Abstract: The future of project management is closely intertwined with the future of how business and
government will operate. The drivers for change in enterprises will affect how we drive change through the
projects that implement or respond to these changes. This paper presents the relationship between trends in
business and the way in which we manage projects. We use this understanding to work out where project
management will need to be in five years’ time. Based on this knowledge, we look for tomorrow’s
solutions based on today’s best practices and some inspiration.

The forecasting process described in this paper has been in place, looking ahead 5 years at a time, for a
decade. This means we have five years of results. These results are presented and discussed as a foundation
for the next guess at the future. The impact of this new assessment of the future is then presented both from
the point of view of tomorrow’s successful enterprises and for how these changes will affect Project
Management as we know it. The profound changes for early adopters and high performers are presented in
summary form.

Project Management Evolution Framework

F.T. Hartman

Abstract: There are many aspects to project management. One that is starting to yield some interesting
links is the role of trust and how this links to different stages in the development of project management
(and possibly other) skills. As part of the research into the role of trust in other aspects of project
management some possibly interesting links are starting to emerge. This paper presents these possible links
for discussion and reaction at the Vienna pm research conference.

This "working paper" presents a matrix of possibly linked ideas that may help us in understanding the
phenomenon of "maturity" in project management a bit better.

Claims and Disputes in the Construction Industry

G.F. Jergeas

Abstract: The primary causes of claims within the construction industry are identified. A guideline for the
avoidance and protection of these issues is presented to help owners and contractors steer clear of costly
claims and disputes.

55 55
Key Partnering Success Factors

J. Krahn, G. Jergeas and S. Fahmy

Abstract: Partnering relationships change the way in which organizations work together. This paper
considers the key success factors of a partnering relationship and its characteristics and the significance of
the partnering relationship. The paper, including a literature review and industry input, examines the view
of partnering relationships held by project managers. Conclusions are drawn about what the literature says
about partnering and the view of project managers.

Prediction of Soil Transitions for Tunnel Construction Operations
Using Special Purpose Simulation 12

Janaka Y. Ruwanpura, Michael Allouche and Simaan M. AbouRizk

Abstract: Modeling uncertainty is generally considered to be a difficult task due to the nature and
occurrence of unforeseen events. The prediction of geological conditions for tunnel construction simulation
is a new area of research, which is very beneficial due to various applications in utility tunnel construction.
The successful implementation of a special purpose simulation template for project planning and decision
making of tunnel construction projects was recently completed to assist in modeling uncertainty. Two areas
of research related to the tunnel simulation template are discussed in the paper. The first is the prediction of
soil types using the and their elevations using an analytical approach, which provides the background
information for the second part of the research: the prediction of soil transitions along a tunnel path using
transition probabilities implemented within the SPS tunneling template. The application of the geological
prediction for Edmonton is discussed in the paper to illustrate the modeling concepts.

12
Work undertaken at the University of Alberta, Edmonton

56 56
Papers
under
Review

57 57
Contents

Choy, E. and Ruwanpura, J.Y., “Predicting Construction Productivity using 59
Situation-based Simulation Model” Submitted to Canadian Journal of Civil
Engineering – Special Edition in Construction. (January 2005).

Zhou,Y., George, J.F., and Ruwanpura, J.Y., “Motivation, Performance, 59
and Job Satisfaction of Construction Management Professionals—An
Expectancy Theory Research Approach” Submitted to Canadian Journal of
Civil Engineering – Special Edition in Construction. (January 2005).

Moussa, M., Ruwanpura, J.Y., and Jergeas, G., “Cost and Time Analysis 60
Network (CTAN) for Risk assessments using Multi-Level Stochastic
networks” Submitted to Journal of Construction Engineering and
Management. (July 2004).

Moussa M., Ruwanpura,, J.Y., and Jergeas, G., “Decision Tree modeling 60
using integrated Multi Level Stochastic networks” Submitted to Journal of
Construction Engineering and Management. (June 2005).

El-Assaly, A., Ariaratnam, S.T., Ruwanpura, J.Y., and Ng, H., “Cost 61
Forecast Model for Sewer Infrastructure” Submitted to the Journal of
Municipal Engineer, Institute of Civil Engineers, UK. (November 2005).

Ruwanpura, J.Y. and Ariaratnam, S.T., “Simulation Modeling Techniques 61
for Underground Infrastructure Construction Processes” Submitted to
Journal of Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology. (April 2005).

Hewage, K.N., and Ruwanpura, J.Y., “Workers Issues and Efficiencies 61
related to Construction Productivity in Alberta’s Commercial Construction
Projects” Submitted to Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering. (October
2005).

62esources, Conservation and Recycling. (February 2005). 62

58 58
Predicting Construction Productivity using Situation-based
Simulation Model

Eldon Choy and Janaka Y. Ruwanpura

Abstract: Both published and unpublished reports show that site productivity losses in construction projects
range from 40% to 60%. Construction site operations are very complex, and they involve complicated
relationships among numerous tasks, factors, obstacles, uncertainties, or triggering situations that affect the
productivity. To improve the performance of construction operations, understanding the impact of these
triggering situations on productivity is necessary. The paper discusses a recently developed modeling
technique called situation-based simulation modeling to model the triggering situations in construction to
predict productivity. This tool can model the cause-and-effect relationships among various triggering
situations, which previous construction models have ignored. More than 1700 working hours of
construction operations were directly observed and recorded as the data source for the development of the
model. The simulation results are not only able to predict productivity very closely to the actual
productivity observed at the site, but also provide recommendations to mitigate problematic situations to
improve productivity.

Motivation, Performance, and Job Satisfaction of Construction
Management Professionals—An Expectancy Theory Research
Approach

Yangbo Zhou, George Jergeas and Janaka Y. Ruwanpura

Abstract: Human potential is boundless, but humans require motivation to excel. Motivation is intangible:
it is a hypothetical construct that is used to help explain human behavior. Various researchers have
conducted comprehensive studies investigating construction labourers’ motivation patterns, which have
focused on the importance attached to various job related factors and their satisfaction with each factor. The
motivational issues of the construction management professionals who play a major rule have been ignored,
however. Using the Expectancy theory mode, this paper presents an investigation of how motivation, work
experience, and education affect Construction Management Professionals’ (CMPs) performance. Using a
statistical analysis based on an industry survey, this paper also examines the relationship between CMPs’
job satisfaction and their degree of satisfaction with their jobs’ outcomes. This study’s main finding is that
motivation, work experience, and education cumulatively improve CMPs’ performance, effective
performance, and efficient performance. Additionally, the study found that, to increase CMPs’ job
satisfaction, construction companies should increase their CMPs’ degree of satisfaction with job outcomes.
These findings may assist construction companies to establish an efficient motivation environment for
better project outcomes.

59 59
Cost and Time Analysis Network (CTAN) for Risk assessments using
Multi-Level Stochastic networks

Mohamed Moussa, Janaka Ruwanpura and George Jergeas

Abstract: Despite the apparent relationship among cost, time and scope, project risk-assessment modeling
concepts are unable to respond to the integration needs. Measuring cost and schedule risks in an integrated
framework has several modeling challenges. This paper presents a multilevel network modeling approach
that integrates project cost and schedule risks in one framework. The multilevel networks are a combination
of network modeling techniques integrated into one framework. This paper discusses only the cost and time
analysis network (CTAN). The CTAN uses the Activity-on-Node concept based on the critical path method
algorithm and merges in an integrated risk modeling to include uncertainties in the realization of the
schedule logic, in activities durations, in project scope, and in cost. The concept of the multilevel networks
is a computer simulation based notion that is supported by a simulation application presented in the paper
to demonstrate the advantages and characteristics of the modeling concept. The computer application is a
Decision Support Simulation System (DSSS) that consists of three modules: CTAN, tree analysis networks,
and shortest and longest path optimization analysis networks based on the dynamic programming
algorithm. The CTAN may be used in cost or schedule risk assessment or a combination of the two. The
CTAN-DSSS integrates with other DSSS modules and deals with cost, time and scope at equal importance,
and provides complete integration among them. The CTAN-DSSS was verified by conducting several tests
and validated by its extensive use for both undergraduate and graduate courses in Civil Engineering at the
University of Calgary over the last two years.

Decision Tree modeling using integrated Multi-Level Stochastic
networks

Mohamed Moussa, Janaka Y. Ruwanpura, and George Jergeas

Abstract: Decision trees (DT’s) have proven to be valuable tools for decision making. The common
approach for using DT’s is calculating the Expected Value (EV) based on single number estimates.
However, the single number EV method has limited the DT’s real-life applications to a narrow scope of
decision problems. This paper introduces the stochastic multilevel decision tree (MLDT) modeling
approach that is useful for analyzing decision problems that are characterized by uncertainty and
complexity. The MLDT’s advantages are shown through a computer simulation program: the Decision
Support Simulation System (DSSS). The DSSS allows the users to model probabilistic linear graph
networks and provides a hierarchical modeling method for modeling decision trees to present uncertainties
more accurately. DSSS consists of three modules: Tree Analysis Networks (TAN), shortest and longest
path Dynamic Programming Analysis Network, and Cost/Time Analysis Networks. The paper only discuss
the Tree Analysis Network module (TAN module) by presenting the multilevel decision trees (MLDT)
concept and a MLDT application under the TAN using the DSSS computer application. The content of the
paper includes the modeling approach, its advantages, and examples that can be used in modeling
stochastic trees. The DT-DSSS was verified by conducting several tests and validated by using it
extensively for undergraduate courses in Civil Engineering at the University of Calgary for the last two
academic years.

60 60
Cost Forecast Model for Sewer Infrastructure

Ashraf El-Assaly, Samuel T. Ariaratnam, Janaka Y. Ruwanpura and Herman Ng

Abstract: Sewer authorities are facing the onerous task of planning strategies for allocating funding levels
to rehabilitate aging sewer infrastructure. Numerous modeling approaches have been developed by
previous researchers that predict future condition based on various physical criteria. This paper develops a
cost forecast model the employs a deterioration prediction. The deterioration model uses condition
assessment data from inspections and incorporates these into a Logit regression model that includes five
independent parameters: 1) age; 2) waste type; 3) material type; 4) diameter; and 5) depth. The deficiency
probability generated from the Logit regression model provide the catalyst for a cost forecasting model of
sewer infrastructure presented in this paper.

Simulation Modeling Techniques for Underground Infrastructure
Construction Processes

Janaka Y. Ruwanpura and Samuel T. Ariaratnam

Abstract: Simulation is an efficient and cost-effective tool for decision making and analyzing real-world
systems and repetitive construction processes. Tunneling and trenchless construction processes are
excellent candidates for the utilization of computer simulation due to their repetitive nature. This paper
presents examples of simulation and analytical tools that have been developed over the last five years and
implemented to plan and manage a range of applications in underground infrastructure. Examples for
tunneling, soil type prediction, sewer condition forecasting, pipeline routing, horizontal directional drilling,
and trenchless pipe replacement are presented. The successful development and implementation of the
methods presented in this paper further illustrate the usefulness of employing simulation for pre-planning
and decision-making to reduce uncertainty inherent in construction projects involving underground
infrastructure systems.

Workers Issues and Efficiencies related to Construction Productivity
in Alberta’s Commercial Construction Projects

Kasun N. Hewage, and Janaka Y. Ruwanpura

Abstract: For many decades, many researchers have reported the declination of construction productivity
in North America. There have been many studies related to productivity conducted in North America.
However, it is impossible to apply the same conclusions and recommendations of these studies to Alberta’s
commercial construction because of the geographical differences, weather changes, skill level differences
in labour force, and so on. Further, most of these previous researches are lagging in data validation,
samples, innovativeness in research methods, and data analysis. At present, in Alberta alone, there are
approximately 160,000 construction workers on construction projects with a planned projects over 200
billion dollars. Because of the high demand and necessity for a comprehensive research study in the area of
construction productivity, the University of Calgary has initiated a research project with the collaboration
of four eminent contractors and two construction organizations. The research focused on three areas:
human issues, management issues, and external issues. Under human issues, 101 construction workers were
observed, interviewed, and questionnaire surveyed. Interviews and questionnaire surveys were conducted
to identify worker motivation based on an innovative motivational model using expectancy theory and

61 61
other motivational theories. In addition to motivation, the factors that lead to workers’ skills, team spirit,
and team-related concerns were also investigated. Additionally, twenty-three workers’ motives were
identified and prioritized by the questionnaire surveys. “Working time” distribution of each individual
construction worker was noted through observations that highlight both tool and non-tool times. This paper
discusses the research method, theoretical background, results, and recommendations of the productivity
research specific to the human issues mentioned above. The paper also suggests recommendations that
were communicated to the four major contractors for improving the human issues by developing and
analyzing a new expectancy model considering construction workers’ effort and performance, and the tool
times observed to mitigate the reasons for non-tool time.

Prediction of Waste Generation Rates at Construction Sites: A
Statistical Approach

B. Prado, J.P.A. Hittiaratchi, B.K. Rajbhandari and Janaka Y. Ruwanpura

Abstract: The generation of construction waste and shrinking landfill capacity is a growing concern for all
stakeholders dealing with solid waste. Construction wastes constitute of material with high potential for on-
site reuse and off-site recycle, but still a significant fraction of this waste is directed to landfills. Inability to
accurately predict the time-dependent and activity-specific waste generation rates is one of the barriers to
successful implementation of a construction waste minimization program. This paper discusses the
generation of activity-specific waste generation data and the development of statistical models for
prediction of waste generation rates at construction sites. The probabilistic statistical models were
developed by annualizing data collected from a four-storey research facility with a floor area of 6,420 m2.
Waste generation rates were related to construction activities that are defined by the construction schedule.
Although the predictive models presented here may not be directly used in predicting waste generation
rates at generic construction sites, the methodology presented here could be adopted in developing models
that may have universal applications. Potential application of the developed models and limitations are
discussed.

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