RESEARCH

B R I E F S

UNIVERSITY RESEARCH CONSORTIUM

JUNE

2000

Materials Research 1

Fabrication Research 20

Chemical Processes Research 41

Integrated Enterprise Systems Research 65

NATIONAL TEXTILE CENTER
The National Textile Center (NTC) is a research consortium of six universities: Auburn University, Clemson University, Georgia Institute of Technology, North Carolina State University, University of Massachusetts at Dartmouth and the Philadelphia College of Textiles and Science. These institutions share human resources, equipment and facilities. Serving the USA Fiber/Textile/Fabricated Products/Retail Complex, the NTC vision, mission and goals are realized through innovate research and links to other institutions.

Vision
To be the agent leading change in the industry's vision and in education for global competitiveness.

Mission
To enhance the knowledge base for a globally competitive USA industry.

Goals
1. Research: Design and develop new materials, innovative and improved manufacturing processes and integrated systems essential to USA competitiveness. 2. Education: Educate and train personnel in research processes, establish industrial partnerships and create transfer mechanisms to ensure utilization of technologies. 3. Partnerships: Strengthen the nation's textile research and educational efforts by uniting diverse experts and resources in unique collaborative

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Oversight Committee: Tom Malone, Milliken, Chair Stephen Felker, Avondale Mills Neil Hightower, Thomaston Mills John Lupo, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. David Rea, DuPont Fred Reichert, Ciba Specialty Chemicals Jerry Rowland, National Textiles Charles Watt, Scientific Research Corp. Jean-Lou Chameau, Georgia Tech James Gallagher, PCT&S Kermit Hall, NC State Jane McCormick, UMassD Michael Moriarty, Auburn Philip Prince, Clemson Roger Gilbertson, Dept. of Commerce

Operating Board: David Buchanan, NC State,chair David Brookstein, PhilaU Fred Cook, Georgia Tech Sherif El Wakil, UMassD Richard Gregory, Clemson June Henton, Auburn Bill Walsh, Auburn

Site Directors: Sabit Adanur, Auburn David Buchanan, NC State Gary Lickfield, Clemson Chris Pastore, PhiladelphiaU Doug Rippy, Clemson Wayne Tincher, Georgia Tech Carol Warfield, Auburn Steve Warner, UMassD

Technical Advisory Committee: Phil Geoghegan, DuPont, chairman Bob Adams, Milliken & Company Don Alexander, Guilford Mills Chris Bryant, Shaw Industries Jud Early, [TC]2 Steve Freudenthal, Milliken Research Subhash Ghosh, ITT Jack Larkins, Ciba Specialty Chemicals Bob Lewis, RWL Ent. Mike Mann, Russell Corp Gerald Mauretti, Engineered Yarns Co. Phil McCartney, Guilford Mills John Mi, Cotton Inc. Dhan Parekh - Johnston Industries David Salem, TRI Preston Sasser, Cotton Inc. Tonya Strickland, Southern Recruiters Kris Swamy, National Textiles Roger Warburton, Griffin Mfg Marshall White, Ciba Specialty Chemicals NTC Site Directors

This report is submitted to the Department of Commerce to fulfill the quarterly reporting requirements of the NTC grant.

Table of Contents
Materials
Research in the design, development, manufacture and measurement of natural and synthetic polymers and fibers, including polymer mixtures and additives.

Chain Orientation in Semi-Solid Polymers ................................................... 1
By decreasing chain entanglements during spinning, we hope to optimize polymer stretching and increase chain orientation and fiber tenacity. [M98-A4]

Photoadaptive Fibers ..................................................................................... 3
We are developing photoadaptive fibers that reversibly change their optical, heat reflectivity and electrical properties when exposed to high intensity visible light. [M98-A10]

Intelligent Fibers and Fabrics ........................................................................ 4
We hope to develop new textiles with surfaces coated with stimuli sensitive polymers that combine the mechanical properties of textiles with environmental responsiveness. [M98-A16]

Chameleon Fibers .......................................................................................... 6
We are designing fibers that can quickly change their color, hue, depth of shade or optical transparency by application of an electrical or magnetic field. [M98-C1]

Biomimetic Manufacturing of Fibers ........................................................... 8
We are exploiting recombinant DNA and plant transgenic technologies to create and produce novel protein polymers in significant quantities for fiber spinning. [M98-C5]

Nano Fibers
We are developing electrospinning as a way to make novel synthetic fibers with unusually small diameters ranging from 50 to 500 nm. [M98-D1]

High Stress Elastic Materials ....................................................................... 12
We are designing various textile structures that are characterized by an anomalously large strain that occurs just prior to failure, giving the material an enormous level of toughness. [M98-D3]

Draw Induced Morphology and Fiber Architecture .................................... 14
By studying how the incremental draw process effects fiber physical properties, we are identifying optimum process conditions to maximize fiber properties. [M-98-G5]

Nano-Machines: Molecular Spinnerets for Polymeric Fibers .................... 16
We are developing nano-material spinning machines to produce custom designed fibers. [M-98-G8]

Controlling Fluid Flow Through Fabrics ..................................................... 18
We are building a model for non-Newtonian fluid flow through fabrics. [M98-P2]

Biotechnological Production of Polyesters ................................................ 19
We are using enzyme technology to explore the enhanced control of a cell-free process to produce polyesters with novel functionality. [M99-G11]

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000

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Fabrication

Research in the design, development, manufacture and measurement of fibrous structures, including yarns, textiles, garments, nonwovens, carpets, coated fabrics, papers, preforms, etc.

Nonlinear Models for Yarn Transport Systems ......................................... 20
We are developing nonlinear models that predict the tension and balloon shape of yarns undergoing high speed translation and rotation. [F97-C5]

Flock Fundamentals .................................................................................... 22
We are developing a fundamental understanding of flock materials and flocking processes. [F97-D1]

Fiber Hydroentanglement Using Pulsed Elliptical Jets .............................. 23
Pulsing an impinging jet flow through elliptical holes improves hydroentanglement and fabric strength in nonwovens. [F98-C4]

Ultra-thick Cross Section Composites ..................................................... 25
We are examining the fundamental fiber and resin material parameters that are important in the manufacture of thick cross-section composites. [F98-D4]

Fiber-Particle-Airflow Interaction ................................................................ 26
We are developing the knowledge base that can lead to more efficient machines, shortened production lines and novel processes to convert fiber batt directly to yarns. [F98-G15]

Modeling of Ductile Braided Composites ................................................... 28
We are developing an analytical model of ductile braided composites that describes static and dynamic load response for such uses as rebars to reinforce concrete. [F98-P1]

Automated 3D Fabric Part Handling ............................................................ 30
We are developing efficient and optimal fabric part handling technologies for automated processes. [F98-S4]

Fiber-on-Fiber Friction ................................................................................ 32
We are investigating the friction behavior of fibers and energy dissipation under dynamic loading conditions. [F98-S9]

Microelectromechanical Fabric Formation Systems ................................ 33
We are developing fundamentally new approaches for processing fibers into textile structures using microelectromechanical systems technology. [F98-S12]

Filling Yarn Insertion in Air Jet Weaving .................................................... 35
We are developing a spiral-eddy flow model to predict fiber and yarn motion dynamics during insertion of filling yarns in air jet weaving. [F99-A10]

Multicomponent Cotton Blending Variability .............................................. 36
To optimize yarn and fabric processability, we are developing ways to measure the complex interaction of cotton fibers in multicomponent blends. [F99-A13]

Kansei Engineering of Fabric Aesthetics ................................................... 37
We are applying principles of sensor (Kansei) engineering to design consumer pleasing textile materials that obey a "1/f" relationship of well-being and harmony. [F99-S2]

Fiber Motion in High-Speed Air Flows ........................................................ 39
We are developing models to study how to optimize high-speed airflows to separate, condense and twist fibers as in air jet texturing of filament yarns and Vortex spinning of cotton. [F99-S6] ii
National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000

Chemical Processes

Research in dyeing, finishing and waste reduction in textile processes.

Flexible Crosslinking Systems in Durable Press Cotton ............................ 41
We are investigating the relationship between the loss of mechanical strength in durable press finished cotton fabrics and the molecular structure of the crosslinking agent. [C97-C3]

Moisture Transport in Textiles ..................................................................... 43
We seek to fundamentally understand moisture transport in fibrous assemblies to improve drying processes and fluid management in textile structures. [C97-G31]

Antimicrobial Textiles .................................................................................. 45
We are developing textiles that deliver reactive chemical species, especially those with extensive antimicrobial activity. [C98-A17]

Finish Film Stability ...................................................................................... 47
We are investigating ways to minimize “mist” and “slinging” from the breakup of finish film on fiber. [C98-P2]

Delivering Additives Embedded in Textile Fibers and Polymers ............... 49
We are embedding textile additives into polymer and fibers during spinning.

Simultaneous Dyeing and Finishing ............................................................ 51
We are developing ways to combine dyeing and finishing in textile wet processing by designing textile dyes capable of imparting finishing affects to textile fibers. [C98-S4]

Closed Loop Desizing, Scouring and Bleaching ........................................ 53
Using nontoxic, environmentally-friendly enzymes, we are developing a closed-loop process, including reuse of treatment effluent, to desize, scour and bleach cotton. [C99-A7]

Chemistry and Transport in Super and Sub-Critical Fluids ....................... 55
We are studying the solubility and transport of dyes and chemicals in super- and sub-critical fluids and their interactions with textile substrates. [C99-C3]

Improving Textile Ink Jet Printing ............................................................... 57
We are learning how image formation is dependent on how particles influence ink flow behavior and how a single ink jet droplet is formed and interacts with the textile substrate. [C99-G8]

Optimizing Batch Dyeing Process Control ................................................. 59
We are optimizing our batch dyeing process model to improve dye process control strategies. [C99-S2]

Dye Diffusion in and Surface Treatment of Fibers ..................................... 61
To minimize dye streaks, we are studying dye diffusion in and surface treatment of fibers using laser scanning confocal microscopy to measure the 3-D distribution of dye in fiber. [C99-S4]

Non-Aqueous Fabric Finishing .................................................................... 63
We are investigating the use of high energy plasma to create a continuous non-aqueous fabric treatment system, encompassing desizing, scouring, dyeing and especially finishing. [C99-S9]

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Integrated Enterprise Systems

Research in systems to enable rapid response, including information technology, computer modeling, management processes,
market research, expert systems, customer interactive design and demand-activated, closed-loop production systems.

Lifestyle Aspiration as a Purchasing Motivation ....................................... 65
We are developing an online, visual-based methodology to assess the impact of lifestyle-related consumption imagery on consumers’ preferences for textile and apparel products. [I97-A11]

On-Line Data Measurement ......................................................................... 67
We are designing a new on-line quality measurement system that will make full use of all data captured on-line. [I97-S1]

Building Global Brand Image Strategies ..................................................... 69
We are developing a computer simulation model to forcast the impact of various brand image strategies on consumer purchase intentions in targeted international markets. [I98-A6]

An Interactive, On-line Baby Boomer Panel ............................................... 71
By discovering how baby boomers are visualizing their retirement lifestyles, we can explore web-based consumer research. [I98-A7]

Fitting Preferences of Females ................................................................... 73
We seek to understand the nuances of fit from the consumer's perspective so we can translate consumer fit preference data into an expert system. [I98-A8]

Simulating Consumer's Apparel Purchases ............................................. 75
We are using agent-based simulation to model the formation of a consumer’s intent to purchase apparel. [I98-A9]

Integrated Supply Chain Analysis ............................................................... 77
We are attacking critical softgoods supply chain integration and decision support problems using fuzzy mathematics and neural network technologies. [I98-S1]

Predicting Textile and Apparel Demand .................................................... 79
We are designing consumer demand equations to predict consumer purchases in textiles and apparel. [I98-S6]

Apparel Production Systems to Support Quick Response ....................... 81
We are developing software to understand the role of manufacturing configuration and production planning and control in support of quick response replenishment to retail. [I98-S12]

Designing Dyes, Chemical Auxiliaries, Polymers, and Fibers .................. 83
We are using genetic algorithms, neural networks and fuzzy logic with molecular orbital methods to design a variety of dyes, chemical auxiliaries, polymers and fibers. [I98-P1]

Fabric Drape Model ...................................................................................... 85
We are developing a physically based model of fabric drape that can be used in apparel design including multiple layers of fabrics, two-ply seams and fabrics with stitches. [I98-P2]

Compressing the Supply Chain .................................................................. 86
We are helping to design Enterprise Resource Planning software that will compress the time between order entry and shipment in fabric weaving. [I98-P3]

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National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000

New Textile Technologies: Will They Flourish or Perish? ....................... 88
To improve purchasing decisions, we are developing a model to predict how new textile technologies will survive, flourish, diminish and perish versus competitive technologies. [I99-A2]

When is Domestic Apparel Manufacturing Competitive? .......................... 90
We are studying how synergistic combinations of business strategies, garment types and market trends can favor quick response domestic apparel manufacturing vs. offshore sources. [I99-D16]

Educating the Educators .............................................................................. 92
We are researching the best way to teach textile science and engineering students by identifying, testing and implementing various active learning methods. [I99-P1]

Developing Better Products Faster ............................................................. 94
By linking textile and pattern design software, we are developing ways to rapidly create new, improved digital printed fabrics and to minimize fabric waste. [seed project: I99-S7]

Information Engineering .............................................................................. 95
We are developing ways to extract the "meaning" from on- and off-line textile manufacturing raw data so that humans can quickly make more effective decisions. [I99-S10]

Index By Principal Contributor ................................................................... 97

In This Section Table of Contents .......................................................................................... i Index by Project Management ................................................................... vi Auburn ......................................................................................................... vi Clemson ...................................................................................................... vii Georgia Tech ............................................................................................ viii University of Massachusetts Dartmouth ....................................... North Carolina State ............................................................................ Philadelphia University ....................................................................... ix x xi

Abbreviations .................................................................................................. xi Discontinued Projects ................................................................................. xii

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Index by Project Management
AUBURN Management
Consumer Preferences for Apparel and Textile Products as a Function of Lifestyle Imagery (Solomon with Berry College) [I97-A11] .................................... 65 Textiles Having the Ability to Deliver Reactive Chemical Systems (Broughton with Georgia Tech, UC Davis) [C98-A17] ....................................................... 45 Building Global Textile & Apparel Brand Image Strategies: A Cross National Model (Forsythe with Sandia) [I98-A6] ...................................................... 69 Interactive Cohort Analysis: An Online Panel of "Baby Boom" Consumers Anticipating Their Retirement Years (Ulrich) [I98-A7] ...................................... 71 Understanding Fitting Preferences of Female Customers: Development an Expert System to Enhance Accurate Sizing Selection (Connell with UNC-Greensboro, Nottingham Trent, [TC]2) [I98-A8] ........................................ 73 Agent-Based Simulation of the Consumer's Apparel Purchase Decision (Brannon) [I98-A9] ............................................................................................... 75 Development of Chain Orientation During Deformation of Semi-Solid Polymers (Broughton with NC State) [M98-A4] ......................................................... 1 Photoadaptive Fibers For Textile Materials (Mills) [M98-A10] ........................... 3 Intelligent, Stimuli-Sensitive Fibers and Fabrics (Walsh with NC State) [M98-A16]. 4 Environmentally Benign Closed-Loop Preparatory Process (Buschle-Diller with Georgia Tech, NC State, UCalDavis) [C99-A7] ................................................................ 53 Characterization of Air-Yarn Interface in Air-Jet Weaving (Adanur) [F99-A10] . 35 Developing Fundamental Measures of Cotton Multi-Component Blending Performance (El Mogahzy with Georgia Tech, UNO, ITT) [F99-A13] ................................ 36 Bionomic Analysis of Predatory Exclusion of Technologies (Thomas with VaTech, ITT) [I99-A2] ........................................................................... 88

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National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000

Clemson Management
Investigation of Flexible Crosslinking Systems for the Retention of Mechanical Strength and Abrasion Resistance in Durable Press Cotton Fabrics (Lickfield with Georgia) [C97-C3] .................................................... Development and Experimental Validation of Nonlinear Phenomena for High-Speed Yarn Transport Systems (Goswami with NC State, Univ. of Sydney (Australia)) [F97-C5] ............................................................................................. Improved Fiber Hydroentanglement Using Pulsed Elliptical Jets (Ellison) [F98-C4] ......................................................................................................... Chameleon Fibers: Dynamic Color Change From Tunable Molecular and Oligomeric Devices (Gregory with Georgia Tech, Furman) [M98-C1] .................... Biomimetic Manufacturing of Fibers (Ellison) [M98-C5] ..................................... Chemistry and Transport in Super and Sub-Critical Fluids (Drews with NC State) [C99-C3] ................................................................................

41

20 23 6 8 55

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Georgia Tech Management
Fundamentals of Moisture Transport in Textiles: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Studies (Beckham with UMassD [C97-G31] ................................................. 43 Analysis of Fiber-Particle-Airflow Interaction and Its Application to the Development of a Novel Card-Spinning System (Wang with Clemson) [F98-G15].. 26 Draw Induced Morphology Development and Fiber Architecture (Jacob with Ohio State, TRI) [M98-G5] ....................................................................... 14 Molecular Spinnerets for Polymeric Fibers (Jacob) [M98-G8] ........................... 16 Textile Ink Jet Performance and Print Quality Fundamentals (Carr with InstPaperSci&Tech) [C99-G8] ................................................................................... 57 New Approaches for Biotechnical Production of Polyesters (May with Auburn) [M99-G11] ......................................................................................................... 19

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University of Massachusetts Dartmouth Management
Scientific Study of Flock Materials and the Flocking Process (Kim) [F97-D1] ........................................................................................................... Ultra-thick Cross Section Fiber Reinforced Composites (Kim) [F98-D4] ......... A Fundamental Investigation of the Formation and Properties of Electrospun Fibers (Warner with M.I.T.) [M98-D1] .................................................. High Stress Elastic Materials (Chen with UMass Dartmouth) [M98-D3] ...................... When is Domestic Apparel Manufacturing Competitive? (Warburton with NC State, URI) [I99-D16] ........................................................... 22 25 10 12 90

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North Carolina State Management
Real-Time Yarn Characterization and Data Compression Using Wavelets (Suh) [I97-S1] ..................................................................................... 67 Delivering Additives Embedded in Textile Fibers and Polymers
(Tonelli) [C98-S1]

Simultaneous Dyeing and Finishing (Freeman) [C98-S4] .................................... 51 Automated Three Dimensional Fabric Part Handling (Eischen with Clemson) [F98-S4] ............................................................................................................ 30 A Novel Approach for Measurement of Fiber-on-Fiber Friction (Qiu with Cotton Inc, Georgia Tech) [F98-S9] ................................................................ 32 Micromachine Based Fabric Formation Systems (Hodge with Loughborough Univ) [F98-S12] .......................................................................................................... 33 Integrated Supply Chain Analysis and Decision Support (Berkstresser) [I98-S1] ............................................................................................................. 77 Demand Systems Approach to Prediction of Textile and Apparel Demands Under Dynamic Social Trends (Suh) [I98-S6] ................................. 79 Analysis of Apparel Production Systems to Support Quick Response Replenishment (King with [TC]2) [I98-S12] ............................... 81 Optimizing Dyeing Process Control Through Improved Modeling (Smith) [C99-S2] ........................................................................................................... 59 Fundamental Dye Diffusion and Surface Treatment of Fiber (Tonelli with Clemson, Georgia Tech, LSU) [C99-S4] ....................................................................... 61 A Novel Non-Aqueous Fabric Finishing Process (McCord) [C99-S9] ................ 63 Sensory (Kansei) Engineering of Aesthetics in Textile Fabrics (Barker) [F99-S2] ............................................................................................................ 37 Fiber Motion and Yarn Forming in High Speed Air Flows (Oxenham with Loughborough (ENG), South India TRA) [F99-S6] ............................................................ 39 Rapid Prototyping: Developing Better Products Faster (Istook: Seed Project) [I99-S7] .................................................................................. 94 Information Engineering: Textile Industry's Value-Adding Key To Effective Decision-Making (Hodge with ITT) [I99-S10] .......................................... 95

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National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000

Philadelphia University
Finish Film Stability and Its Relevance to Slinging to Spin Finish on a Spinline (Kamath with TRI) [C98-P2] ....................................................................... Braided Hybrid Composites for Bridge Repair (Pastore with Drexel) [F98-P1] ...... Use of Artificial Intelligence in Designing Dyes, Chemical Auxiliaries, Polymers and Textile Fibers (Sztandera) [I98-P1] .............................................. Physically Based Fabric Drape Models as Tools for Computor-Aided Design of Apparel and Other Textile Structures (Govindaraj) [I98-P2] ............. A Programmatic Solution to Compress the Supply Chain in a Fabric Weaving (Duenas) [I98-P3] ................................................................................. Evaluating Fluid Flow Through Fabric (Dunn) [M98-P2] .................................... Educating the Educators (Pastore) [I99-P1] ........................................................ 47 28 83 85 86 18 92

Abbreviations
The following abbreviations are not always defined in articles Auburn (A): University of Auburn, Auburn AL 36849 Chem Eng: Chemical Engineering CivE: Civil Engineering Clemson (C): Clemson University, Clemson SC 29634 dpf: denier per filament ESR: electron spin resonance Fib: Fiber Georgia Tech (G): Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta GA 30332 IPST or InstPaperSci&Tech: Institute of Paper Science &Technology ITT: Institute of Textile Technology, Charlottesville VA 22903-4614 MAE: Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering ME: Mechanical Engineering M.I.T.: Mass. Inst. of Technology NC State (N): North Carolina State University, Raleigh NC 27695 NMR: nuclear magnetic resonance PET: poly(ethylene terephthalate) PhiladelphiaU (P): Philadelphia University, Philadelphia PA 19144 Poly Sci: Polymer Science S: University of Sydney, Australia TAM: Textile and Apparel Management [TC]2:Textile/Clothing Technology Corp TE: Textile Engineering Tex: Textile TexE: Textile Engineering TFE: Textile and Fiber Engineering TFPS: Textile, Fiber & Polymer Science TRI: Textile Research Institute (Princeton NJ 08542) UAB: Univ. of Alabama-Birmingham UC-Davis: University of Calif - Davis UD: = University of Delaware UG: University of Georgia UNC-G: University of North Carolina at Greenville UMassD (D): University of Massachusetts at Dartmouth, MA 02747 UofPA: University of Pennsylvania U of Tenn: University of Tennessee

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Discontinued Projects
The following NTC programs were discontinued because they successfully completed their maximum three-year life span or because other research was of higher priority. For their last report, see the NTC Web site at http://www.ntcresearch.org, the April 1999 NTC Research Briefs or the November 1999 NTC Annual Report. You may also contact the principal investigators whose phone numbers and E-mail addresses are listed therein. However, several new programs grew out of these projects. See the notes following the listings below and a page number, if li bl

Biological Renovation and Reuse of Spent Reactive Dyebaths [C96-G2] Information Integration in the Textile Complex (with Georgia Tech) [I96-S15] Production of Fibers From New Polymers Derived from Biotechnology
(with Bioelastics) [M96-A2]

Chaotic Mixing in Extrusion Based Melt Spinning of Fibers [M96-C1] Rapid Solidification of Polymeric Fibers (with U. Delaware, Univ. de Nancy I, France)
[M96-G19]

Molecular Structure of Wool [seed project: M98-P1] Development of Characterization Methodologies of Fiber Surface Characteristics: Surface/Process Analysis [F96-A3] On-Line Measurement of Fabric Mechanical Properties for Process Control (with NC State) [I96-A9] Effect of Enzymatic Treatment on Dyeing and Finishing of Cellulosic Fibers: A Study of the Basic Mechanisms and Optimization of the Process (with Georgia Tech) [C96-A1] see C99-A7 ............................................ 53 Biological Renovation and Reuse of Spent Reactive Dyebaths [C96-G2] Information Integration in the Textile Complex (with Georgia Tech) [I96-S15] Developing Subjective-Based Objective Parameters of Fabric Comfort for Predicting Textile/Human/Environment Interaction Under Various Physical Activities (Seed Project) [I98-A19] Brain Wave Fluctuations to Target Consumer Tactile Preference (Seed Project) [I98-A19] see F99-S2 ............................................................................ 37 Fluid Flow in Fine Capillarities (Seed Project) [C98-G30] see C99-G8 ......................... 57 Modeling Blood Flow Through Vascular Grafts [C98-P1] see M98-P2 ................ 18 Intelligent Manufacturing and Management Systems for an Agile U.S. Softgoods Complex (with [TC]2) [I95-S2] see I98-S1 ............................................. 77

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National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000

Materials
Research in the design, development, manufacture and measurement of natural and synthetic polymers and fibers, including polymer mixtures and additives.

Development of Chain Orientation During the Deformation of Semi-Solid Polymers
M98-A4

Roy Broughton, leader; Yasser Gowayed (Auburn), John Cuculo (NC State) Chain orientation is the principal factor which dominates the mechanical properties of fibers. The traditional method to achieve polymer chain orientation in the fiber Pump Spinneret direction is based on drawing solid fiber at a Resin temperature moderately Coagulant bath above its glass transition temperature. But chain mobility in solid polymer is very limited due to strong chain interaction and/or crystallization which creates a high level of stretching tension. On the other hand, high speed spinning of polymeric melts produces only moderate degrees of fiber orientation which is limited by the relaxation phenomena in the melt. Our research is based on the proposition that in very high viscosity liquids or gels, there is a higher molecular mobility flow that may upon quenching form highly orientated, high strength fibers. Such an approach has already been successfully demonstrated in one very high molecular weight system.1,2,3 A fiber-forming polymer fluid represents a network of entangled chains. The degree of entanglement affects the elasticity and flow of polymer melts and solutions, and it plays an essential role in fiber formation and fiber strength development. Since gel spinning is a relatively slow process the degree of chain entanglement may be more important in restricting the orientation of molecules than the relaxation processes.

Cellulose Gel Previous work tried to enhance spinnability by reducing molecular chain interactions so that solutions could flow more easily. In contrast, we are trying to enhance molecular chain interaction so that fibers can withstand stretching ratios after the gel passes through the spinneret. In the process pictured below, the gel threads are stretched in the air gap at different ratios as soon as the polymer solution passes through the spinneret. As the stretching Air gap Quenching bath ratio in the air gap increases, fiber orientation and tenacity Dry Drawing in hot air increase somewhat. Dramatically higher orientation occurs during coagulation and annealing to produce strengths as high as 5 g/denier. Our conclusions to date are: • The best conditions we found thus far are a 1.5 stretching ratio in the gel state and a 20°C quench bath temperature. • The more stretching during quenching, the higher the orientation. • Annealing aids achieving and maintaining orientation. • Significantly higher strength regenerated cellulose fibers are possible from very high viscosity liquids. We are now focusing on increasing the stretch ratio in both the air gap and the quench bath and on solvent recovery. Molten Polyester We spun high molecular weight polyester monofilaments at take up speeds up to 8000 m/min and then cooled them over a four meter path with a liquid isothermal bath (LIB) in the first meter. The LIB process5 involves placing this liquid isothermal bath in the threadline, somewhere between the spinneret and take-up roll, to increase threadline tension and temperature, thereby producing more fully developed fiber morphology. Although polyester is not chemically cross-linked, chain entanglements and crystallites create an effective network structure which permits, above the glass transition temperature, the use of rubber elastic models. Thus, we can use classical rubber elasticity theory to relate fiber shrinkage stress to extension ratio upon heating using the equation: ó = NkT (ë2 -ë-1) where
ó = shrinkage force per unit deformed cross-section area, g/cm sec2 k = the Boltzman constant, 1.38×10-16 gcm2/sec2 k T = the absolute temperature, K ë = the extension ratio: 1/(1–shrinkage) N = the classical entanglement density, the number of active network chain segments per unit volume, cm-3

By decreasing chain entanglements during spinning, we hope to optimize polymer stretching and increase chain orientation and fiber tenacity.
By understanding how chain entanglement and viscoelasticity of molten and gel polymers lead to chain orientation during fiber formation, we should be able to produce a degree of orientation (and thereby fiber strength) that has been generally unattainable in most polymeric fibers. Throughout our research, we will also be developing techniques to quantitatively measure the entanglement density in fiber spinning and drawing processes and how this further affects the resulting fiber structure and properties. Initially, our work will concentrate on polyester melts and cellulose solutions.

We found that entanglement density, thus crystallinity, is more dependent on the take-up speed for LIB fibers than for those fibers spun under normal cooling conditions, especially when
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the take-up speed increases from 2000 to 3000m/min. (See Figure 2).
Figure 2. The entanglement density vs.take-up speed for fiber spun under normal cooling condition and with LIB
Entanglement Density(E20 cm-3)
500 400 300 200 100 0
1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500

LIB(80 cm) (No LIB)

Take-up speed(m/min)

Both permanent and slip-link entanglements likely exist in polyester fibers and are affected by spinning conditions, such as take-up speed and cooling conditions. Our model does not efficiently characterize both types of entanglements in the fiber network but we will try incorporating the findings of Qian, et. al.6 to improve our model. [Other Contributors: graduate student: Lewin Guo, Sung Sig Yang (NC State); Visiting Scholar: Weijun Wang (Auburn)]
Industry interactions: none reported Project Web Site Address:
http://www.eng.auburn.edu/department/te/ntc/99/broughton/m98a04.html

Roy M. Broughton, Jr, a Professor of Textile Engineering at Auburn since 1976, received his Ph.D. with concentrations in textile chemistry and fiber and polymer science from NC State. Before joining Auburn, Roy worked in polyester research at Goodyear Tire & Rubber. His research interests include manufacture, utilization and testing of fibers and nonwovens. M93-S5, I95-A11*, M96-A2*, M98-A10, F96-A3, F98-A4*, C98-A17*, M99-G11 royalb@eng.auburn.edu (334)-844-5460 http://www.eng.auburn.edu/department/te/faculty/Broughton John A. Cuculo, Hoechst Celanese Professor Emeritus of Fiber and Polymer Science at NC State, joined the faculty in 1968 after an 18-year career in fiber research at DuPont. He received a Ph.D. in chemistry from Duke and a Sc.B. from Brown. John's research interests include high performance fibers from polyester fiber extrusion and cellulose. He holds several patents in these areas. F98-A4 john_cuculo@ncsu.edu (919)-515-6556 Yasser A. Gowayed, an Associate Professor at Auburn joined the faculty in 1992, when he received a Ph.D. in fiber and polymer science at NC State. He also earned a M.S. in materials engineering from the American University (Cairo) in 1989 after an 8-year career in industry as a structural designer and civil engineer. Yasser's research interests include modeling and analysis of textile composites, image analysis, geotextiles and re-utilization of solid wastes. F94-A8, F95-A24*, I95-A11, F98-A4, I96-A9 ygowayed@eng.auburn.edu (334)-844-5496 http://www.eng.auburn.edu/~ygowayed

For further information: 1. Y. Ohta and H. Sugiyhama, Polymer Application, 38: 68 (1989). 2. T Nakajima, Advanced Fiber Spinning Technology, Woodhead Publishing Ltd, 172 (1994). 3. T. Kunugi , T. Kawasumi and T. Ito, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 40:2101 (1990). 4. Kavesh et al., U. S. Patent 4,413,110. 5. John A. Cuculo, Paul A. Tucker and Gao-Y. Chen, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., Appl. Polym. Symp., 47:223 (1991). 6. Baojun Qian, Panpan Hu, Jianmin He, J. X. Zhao and Chengxun Wu, Polym. Eng. and Sci., 32: #17, (Sep 1992).

2

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000

Photoadaptive Fibers for Textile Materials
M98-A10

German Mills, Chemistry, leader; Lewis Slaten, Consumer Affairs, Roy Broughton, Textile Engineering (Auburn) Adaptive systems that exhibit desirable and predictable reversible alterations of their properties in response to external stimuli are very attractive, and are usually called "smart" systems. Important classes of responsive systems are those that are photoadaptive, that is, systems experiencing reversible changes upon exposure to light. A simple example are photochromic glasses, where photoreduction of silver halides yields silver particles that decay in a dark reaction with Cu2+ ions to reform the starting silver halides. We are developing photoadaptive fibers which undergo photo induced reversible changes in their optical, heat reflectivity and electrical properties. Potential applications for these fibers include shielding of electromagnetic radiation and selective reflection of high intensity infrared radiation. Since high concentrations of nanometer-sized silver and gold particles reflect infrared radiation they are used on photoadaptive fibers as active reflectors. These fibers should also display improved charge transport by minimizing charge accumulation typically found in environments with high light intensity. By generating these metal particles inside fibers under high fluxes of photons, we can manipulate the electromagnetic properties of flexible textiles, conditions requiring heat reflection. Potential applications include enclosures for electromagnetic radiation, protective garments for firefighters and clothing that limits exposure to high intensity sunlight. These "metallized" fibers can also, in principle, be used as recording media for 3D storage of optical data. For this purpose metal crystallites would be generated as layers in sequential fashion within structural anisotropies that are regularly spaced in the fibers. To verify our proposed biphotonic mechanism of metal particle generation via free radical chain reactions, we are using films of uniform thickness so we can determine photonic efficiencies as a function of photon flux. To study the role of polyvinylalcohol (PVA) free radicals in chain reductions of metal complexes, we are adding selected free radical scavengers to the fibers. Preliminary results indicate that silver particles present in the PVA films are sensitive toward oxidation upon exposure to peroxide solutions. Interestingly, particle formation again takes place when the treated samples are exposed again to light, suggesting that reversible particle formation is achievable by incorporating mild oxidants in the films. Stable organic peroxides are obvious candidates as oxidizers; but we will also investigate a possible attack of silver crystallites by molecular iodine, since it can oxidize bulk silver in non-aqueous media. We will characterize the oxidation reaction, expected to proceed much slower than particle generation, by determining the activation energy as well as measuring oxidation rate constants in dry and wet films in the absence and presence of light.

We are developing photoadaptive fibers that reversibly change their optical, heat reflectivity and electrical properties when exposed to high intensity visible light.
[Other Contributors: Graduate Students: G. Gaddy, Kelly Malone]
Industry interactions: 4 Project Web Site Addresses: www.auburn.edu/~slatebl/reportitf.html www.auburn.edu/~gaddyga For further information: nothing reported German Mills, an Associate Professor of Chemistry at Auburn since 1995, joined the faculty in 1989. He earned a Ph.D. in physical chemistry from the Technical University of West Berlin in 1985 and a MS in inorganic chemistry from the University of Chile in 1981. "Jimmy" has held postdoctoral positions at Caltech and Argonne National Lab. His research interests include synthesis and properties of nanometer-sized metal and semiconductor particles, "smart" materials and transformation of toxic chemicals. F95-S24, C98-A17, M98-A10* millsge@mail.auburn.edu (334)-844-6974 http://www.auburn.edu/~winkekj Roy M. Broughton, Jr, a Professor of Textile Engineering at Auburn since 1976, received his Ph.D. with concentrations in textile chemistry and fiber and polymer science from NC State. Before joining Auburn, Roy worked in polyester research at Goodyear Tire & Rubber. His research interests include manufacture, utilization and testing of fibers and nonwovens. M93-S5, I95-A11*, M96-A2*, M98-A10, F96-A3, F98-A4*, C98-A17*, M99-G11 royalb@eng.auburn.edu (334)-844-5460 http://www.eng.auburn.edu/department/te/faculty/Broughton B. Lewis Slaten, an Associate Professor at Auburn, joined the faculty in 1974 after receiving a M.S. in organic chemistry from University of Arkansas and a Ph.D. in chemical engineering from Maryland. Previously, Lew was a chemist for Freeport Minerals and the National Bureau of Standards' Fire Technology division. His research interests include fabric test methods, barrier textiles, protective clothing, environmental chemistry and chemistry of textile finishes. slatebl@auburn.edu F95-S24, M98-A10, C98-A17 (334)-844-1330 http://www.auburn.edu/~slatebl

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000

3

Intelligent, Stimuli-Sensitive Fibers and Fabrics
M98-A16
OH-

H+ OHOHOH OHOHH+ H+

William K. Walsh, leader, Weiping Lin, Gisela Buschle-Diller, Aliecia McClain (Auburn), Sam Hudson (NC State) Stimuli sensitive polymers (SSP’s) that respond to their environment are usually gels with low mechanical strength and slow response times. If they could be incorporated on the surfaces of conventional textiles, the resulting coated structures should combine the mechanical properties of textiles with the environmental responsiveness of SSP’s. An added advantage would be the greatly lowered response time associated with the high surface areas common to all fibrous materials.

Low crosslink density

H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+

OHOHOHOH-

OHOH-

High crosslink density

H+ H+ H+

H+ H+ H+

H+

We hope to develop new textiles with surfaces coated with stimuli sensitive polymers that combine the mechanical properties of textiles with environmental responsiveness.
We are investigating SSP’s that have a unique capability to change structure in response to small environmental changes, such as temperature, pH, salt, light, electrical field and stress (See Figure below). Possible applications are controlleddelivery of functional substances (drugs, nutrients, herbicides, etc.), temperature and moisture regulation, separation, communication, robotic muscles, sensors and quality control. Ultimately, we expect these studies to lead to an understanding of smart materials with “triggerable” microdomains capable of interacting with external agents.
Changes in temperature, pH, light, etc. SSP layers Fiber Fiber

Schematic representation of a poly(acrylated urethane) and a chitosan semi-interpenetrating network with low/high crosslinking densities.

the gel during polymerization or be incorporated and trapped in the gel as a semi-interpenetrating network (See Figure above). Cationic Systems With Chitosan We are now studying UV cured cationic gel films with chitosan as the primary polymer, a photoinitiator and a waterdispersible crosslinking oligomer. This system is an anionic polymer at high pH and a cationic polymer at low pH (See

Fiber

SSP Anionic polymer

Cationic polymer Low High pH value

Action of Fiber Coated with Cationic SSP in Solutions of Different pH Values.

Swelling degress

Included compounds

Figure above). The crosslinking effect of the oligomer restricts swelling at higher pH levels (See Figure below).
Swelling and Deswelling of LMW Chitosan Gel in Different pH Solutions
6000 5000-6000 5000

Temperature
An SSP coated fiber swollen with water and an active substance. As the environment changes, SSP collapses dramatically and releases the active substance.

4000-5000 3000-4000 2000-3000 1000-2000 0-1000

4000

Swelling 3000 Rates(%)
2000 1000

We are exploring several processes including the extrusion of fibers with SSP’s and radiation-curing (UV, gamma ray) to synthesize SSP fibers. For example, fibers could be coated with a solution of uncrosslinked SSP, crosslinking monomer and a photoinitiator which when decomposed with UV would produce free radicals, initiating polymerization of the crosslinking monomer. The already formed SSP could link to

5

9

30%

7

8

20%

3

pH Values

10

Swelling of UV cured films of chitosan with crosslinking oligomer (Ebecryl) [based on the weight of the chitosan].

4

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000

10%

0

Amount of Ebecryl(%)

2%

By varying the orientation and crystallinity in the as-spun fiber, we obtained different distributions of crosslinking which will influence the swelling and collapse behavior of the fibers. For faster UV cure rates, we added N-vinyl pyrrolidone to the cationic system which decreased the maximum swelling at all but the lowest amounts of crosslinking oligomers, presumably due to its increased accessibility. We are now focusing on thermosensitive gel systems which can shrink effectively with an increase in ambient temperature. [Contributing students: Changqing Chen, Andrew Hawkins, Abby Whittington, Gary Blackmon (Auburn University); Sheng Zhang (NCSU)]
William K. Walsh, a Professor and Head of the Department of Textile Engineering at Auburn since 1989, received a Ph.D. in chemical engineering at NC State in 1967. He then joined the NC State faculty, becoming an Associate Dean in 1988. His research interests include mechanical and surface properties of polymers, esp. adhesive bonding of fabrics, wetting and wicking in porous media; electron beam and UV radiation polymerization and curing; and hydrophilic fiber finishes and moisture transport mechanisms for improved clothing comfort. C95-A8, C95-C14, C96-A1, M98-A16* wwalsh@eng.auburn.edu (334)-844-5452 http://www.eng.auburn.edu/department/te/faculty/Walsh Gisela Buschle-Diller, an Assistant Professor of Textile Engineering at Auburn, joined the faculty in 1995. Gisela earned a Ph.D. in chemistry from the U. of Stuttgart (Germany) in 1989 with postdoctoral work at U. of California, Davis, in textiles and clothing. She worked at Berlin's Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Polymer Science and Rathgen Research Laboratories. Her research interests include dyeing and finishing, especially enzymatic processes, natural fibers, environmental issues and the history of dyes and textile materials. C96-A1*, M98-A16, C99-A7* giselabd@eng.auburn.edu (334)-844-5468 http://www.eng.auburn.edu/~giselabd Samuel M. Hudson, an Associate Professor at NC State, joined the faculty in 1987. He is also an Adjunct Assistant Professor in Art Conservation for the University of Delaware. Sam received a Ph.D. in fiber and polymer science at NC State in 1981 whereupon he became a senior chemist for DuPont before returning to NC State. His research interests include the development of "environmentallyfriendly" fibers, especially chitin and chitosan, and micromechanics of bone fracture. M98-A16 sam_hudson@ncsu.edu (919)-515-6545 http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/college/personnel/shudson.html National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000

Industry Interactions: 6 [Milliken, & Co., EMS Associates, Technical Development Corporation, Patagonia, Sterling Fibers, Fusion Systems] Project web site address:
http://www.eng.auburn.edu/department/te/ntc/99/walsh/m98a16.html

For further information: 1. Abby Whittington, Andrew Hawkins, Gary Blackmon, Gisela BuschleDiller, Simuli-Sensitive Textile Materials; AATCC 1999 International Conf. & Exhibition, October 12-15, Charlotte. 2. Misuhiro Shibayama & Toyoichi Tanaka, Volume Phase Transition and Related Phenomena of Polymer Gels, Advances in Polymer Science, 109:1 (1993). 3. Stevin H. Gehrke, Synthesis, Equilibrium Swelling, Kinetics, Permeability, and Applications of Environmentally Responsive Gels, Advances in Polymer Science, .110:83 (1993). 4. F. L. Buchholz & A. T. Graham, Ed. Modern Superabsorbent Polymer Technology, Wiley VCH (1998). 5. Y.C. Wei and S.M. Hudson, Binding of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate to a Polyelectrolyte Based on Chitosan Macromolecules, 26:4151 (1993). 6. Y.C. Wei, S.M. Hudson, J.M. Meyer and D.L. Kaplan, The Cross-Linking of Chitosan Fibers with Epichlorohydrin, J.Polym. Sci., Polym. Chem. Ed., 30:2187 (1992). 7. M. Logan, G. Cannon and C. McCormick, pH Responsive Microdomain Formation in a De Novo Polypeptide. Biopoly, 41:521 (1997). Weiping Lin, on the research faculty of Textile Engineering at Auburn since 1997, received a Ph.D. in fiber and polymer science from China Textile University (Shanghai) in 1990, then became an Assistant Professor of Material Science at Zhongshan University (Guangzhou, China). From 1994 to 1996 Weiping was a Postdoctoral Research Fellow at CaliforniaDavis and Auburn. His research interests include polymer synthesis, fiber formation, surface modification, stimuli-sensitive polymers, advanced fibers and reclamation of textile waste. M98-A16 lwp@eng.auburn.edu (334)-844-4327 Aliecia R. McClain, an Assistant Professor of Textile Engineering at Auburn, joined the faculty in 1998 when she earned her Ph.D. in agricultural and environmental chemistry at UC-Davis. Aliecia also has a B.S. in chemistry from Benedict College (SC) in 1985 and a M.S. in inorganic polymer chemistry from Clark-Atlanta University in 1990. Her research interests includes polymer synthesis, fiber and polymer science, and the use of chelating fibers and resins to treat effluents. M98-A16 amcclain@eng.auburn.edu (334)-844-5459

5

Chameleon Fibers: Dynamic Color Change From Tunable Molecular and Oligomeric Devices
M98-C1

Richard V. Gregory, leader (TF&PS, Clemson) Timothy Hanks (Furman), Robert J. Samuels (Chem Eng, Georgia Tech) We are designing fibers that can quickly change their color, hue, depth of shade or optical transparency by application of an electrical or magnetic field. Towards that end we are identifying, preparing and characterizing electroactive and magneN Br H N (CH2)4OH + Pd(PPh3)2Cl2 CuI/(CH3CH2)2NH N

characteristics, and therefore their color, under applied electrical or magnetic stress. Currently, we are working to increase the compatibility of our new polymer chromophores, to optimize color change and to find inexpensive methods of attaching chromophores to the surface of conducting polymers, especially polyaniline, polypyrrole, polythiophene and poly(ethylenedioxythiophene). We are initially focusing on conducting polymers, since they are ideally suited for delivering large electric potentials to the chromophore environment. We now have several potential target monomers and oligomers in fiber and film and are

OH

1) KOH, 2) NaOH/Br2

N Br

H

(CH2)4OH

CuCl/Et2NH/MeOH

OH
Dibutyltin dilaurate Butyl isocyanatoacetate

N (CH2 )4 8

O N H

O O (CH2)3CH3

toactive oligomeric molecules with unique abilities to change their absorption and/or reflection of electromagnetic radiation in the infrared, visible and ultraviolet frequency ranges. We will introduce these molecules with "tunable" properties into polymers, then measure their optical properties under differing electrical, magnetic and thermal stress. We already know that varying the electrical or magnetic field changes the visible radiation absorption and color of these materials, suggesting applications in coatings, additives or stand alone fibers.

evaluating these unique materials for their degree and depth of color change. Through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, contact angle analysis and atomic force microscopy force curve measurements, we have found that organic species can be covalently bound to the surface of these polymers in densely packed monolayers. [Other Contributors: Graduate Students Steve Hardaker, Mike Pepitone, Jun Wang, Huaidong Meng (Clemson); Runqing Ou, Tao Liu (Georgia Tech); Post Doctoral: Xingwu Wang (Clemson)]
Industry interactions: none reported Project Web Site Address: http://www.furman.edu/~hanks/ntc For further information: nothing reported Richard V. Gregory, a Professor and Director of the School of Textiles, Fiber and Polymer Science at Clemson, joined the faculty in 1990. He received his Ph.D. in physical chemistry at Clemson in 1984 and continued with postdoctoral work in polymer spectroscopy whereupon he joined the research staff at Milliken. Dick is thrust leader of NSF Center for Advanced Fibers and Films, and on the editorial board of Macromolecular Materials and Engineering. His research interests include the formation, characterization and potential industrial applications of conductive polymers and the interaction of ultraviolet radiation with polymers. M95-C6*, M95-C4*, M98-C1* richar6@clemson.clemson.edu (864)-656-5961 http://www.eng.clemson.edu/textiles/faculty

We are designing fibers that can quickly change their color, hue, depth of shade or optical transparency by application of an electrical or magnetic field.
We have now prepared a series of urethane-based diacetylenes (See Figure) which are known to undergo a unique solidstate photopolymerization to give highly colored, highly conjugated polymer crystals. These materials are solvotochromic, thermalchromic and mechanochromic. The presence of a longchained urethane on one or both sides of the diacetylene increases the solubility of the polymer dramatically in organic solvents. Thus, we can blend polydiacetylenes with both conventional textile polymers and certain piezoelectric materials, which results in a mechanical stress upon application of an electric field. As the conjugated back bone of the polydiacetylene is stressed, its color changes. These molecules form the initial basis of our investigations into production of true chameleon fibers capable of changing their adsorption

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National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000

Timothy Hanks, an Associate Professor of Chemistry at Furman University, joined the faculty in 1990. He earned a B.S. in chemistry from South Dakota School of Mines and Technology in 1982 and a Ph.D. in organic chemistry from Montana State in 1986. After postdoctoral research at Minnesota, Tim was a visiting assistant professor at Clemson. His research interests include nanoporous solids, organometallic polymers for microelectronics and electro-responsive polymers for nonlinear optics, catalysis and sensing applications. M98-C1 hanks@furman.edu (864)-294-3373 http://www.furman.edu/~hanks/hanks.html

Robert J. Samuels, a Chemical Engineering Professor at Georgia Tech since 1979, received a Ph.D. in polymer chemistry from University of Akron in 1961. During an 18 year career at Hercules, Robert was an Adjunct Professor at the Universities of Delaware and Washington. His research interests include rapid nondestructive characterization of anisotropic polymers, deformation kinetics of polymer systems, and prediction of advanced material behavior. He is author of the book Structured Polymer Properties and the recipient of the 1999 International Research Award of the Society of Plastics Engineers. M95-C4, M98-C1 robert.samuels@che.gatech.edu (404)-894-2885

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000

7

Biomimetic Manufacturing of Fibers
M98-C5

Michael S. Ellison, leader; Albert G. Abbott, Gary Lickfield, William Marcotte, Florence Teulé, Sook Jeong, Manan Shah, Jihua Chen (Clemson) Biotechnology provides the tools to clone and express synthetic protein fibers in simple organisms and to design these fibers with precisely engineered properties for specific applications. We want to lay the foundation for development of biomimetic protein fiber spinning by identifying the fundamental molecular biology of clonal production of fiber forming protein polymers by genetic expression in plants and also to understand the biology of arachnid silk production. Our approach is to exploit recombinant DNA technologies to create novel protein polymers and then, by expression using plant transgenics, produce them in significant quantities. We are developing genes encoding a number of natural structural protein domains that represent portions of fibrous proteins and are combining these domains into longer homopolymer and heteropolymer tracts for synthetic protein fiber production. We are also developing spinning technologies for biotechnologically produced protein fibers. Spider Silk Spidroin, the dragline silk of the spider Nephila clavipes, is the archetype for study of these fibers, being a strong, elastic, waterproof, stretchable, biodegradable, b-sheet natural protein polymer. We are designing a wet spinning system inspired by the spider's spinning apparatus (See Figure) because mimicking this structure should be the best route to successful protein filament spinning. Our strategy is to study in-depth the biology of spiders to develop unique fiber spinning technologies by exploiting both nanotechnology and stimuli-responsive polymers. Initially we cloned the amino acid containing portion of spidroin 1 and 2 genes which encode components of the dragline spider silk protein. We have used published sequences of these genes to construct oligonucleotides which have been

We are exploiting recombinant DNA and plant transgenic technologies to create and produce novel protein polymers in significant quantities for fiber spinning.
linked together to build repetitive gene units for expression studies of protein thought to be critical in fiber alignment. We have introduced one spidroin-2 gene construct to Pichia pastoris yeast and successfully extracted and purified the resulting synthetic fiber protein for characterization and spinning (See Photos below). We also introduced a synthetic heteropolymer gene construct into yeast. Plants We are constructing plant transgenic vectors with homopolymer and heteropolymer gene constructs for introduction into plants, concentrating our efforts on yeast and higher plants. We are making the transgene constructs for introducing polymer genes into appropriate plant hosts, such as peanuts, tobacco and rice (an example being the putative peanut seed specific omega 9 desaturase promoter we are characterizing for the transgenic expression of these genes in legumes). Since Invitrogen’s Pichia pastoris system was shown by others1 to give substantial yields of recombinant protein, we have used it to quickly verify that our constructs are making the appropriate proteins. By expressing the gene in these plants we will have enough polymer to enable the investigation of parameters which contribute to polymer spinnability, such as polymer molecular weight (protein length) and primary structure. We are also investigating the feasibility of large-scale production of helical protein polymers through expressing collagen genes in plants.
Industry interactions: none reported Project Web Site Address:
http://hubcap.clemson.edu/~ellisom/Biomimetic%20Fibers/index.htm

Western Blot analyses of synthetic fiber protein produced by transformant Pichia pastoris at different times after the induction of protein synthesis: (left) spidroin-2 homopolymer; (right) collagen-spidroin-2 heteropolymer. showing the presence of the copolymer protein secreted into the culture media.

For Further Information 1. M. Xu, and R.V. Lewis, Structure of a protein superfiber: spider dragline silk, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 87:7120 (1990). 2. M.B. Hinman and R.V. Lewis, Isolation of a clone encoding a second dragline silk fibroin, J. Biol. Chem., 267 (27): 19320 (1992). 3. J.T. Prince, K.P. Mc Grath, C.M. Di Girolamo and D.L. Kaplan, Construction, cloning and expression of synthetic genes encoding spider dragline silk, Biochem., 34:10879 (1995). 4. J.P. Anderson, J. Capello and D.C. Martin, Morphology and primary structure of a silk like protein polymer synthesized by genetically engineered Escherichia coli, Biopolymers, 34:1049 (1994). 5. S.R. Fahnestock and L.A. Bedzyk, Production of synthetic spider dragline silk protein in Pichia pastoris, Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 47:33 (1997).

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National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000

6. Y. Fukushima, Genetically engineered synthesis of tandem repetitive polypeptides consisting of glycine-rich sequences of spider dragline silk, Biopolymers, 45:269 (1998). 7. S. Arcidiacono, C. Mello, D. Kaplan, S. Cheley and H. Bayley, Purification and characterization of recombinant spider silk expressed in Escherichia coli, Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 49(1):31 (1998). 8. T. Wang, C.M. Deom and R.S. Hussey, Identification of a Meloidogyne incognita cuticle collagen gene and characterization of the developmental expression of three collagen genes in parasitic stages, Mol. Biol. Parasitol., 93:131 (1998). 9. P.L. Tate, A molecular analysis of a stearoyl-acyl-carrier protein desaturase cDNA from Arachis hypogaea L. and its use in amolecular systematic study of the section Arachis nomina nuda, Ph.D. dissertation, Clemson, (1994). 10.A. Kabbaj, Isolement des gènes régulés lors de la maturation des graines de tournesol Helianthus annuus L. et des désaturases chez deux variétés normales et à haute teneur en acide oléique, Ph. D. dissertation, Université de Montpellier II, France (1996). 11.F. Teulé, Etude de l'expression des D9 et D12 désaturases dans les graines immatures de variétés de tournesol normales et à haute teneur en acide oléique, Diplome d'Etudes Approfondies, Université de Montpellier II, France, (1996). 12.F. Vollrath and D. P. Knight, Structure and function of the silk production pathway in the spider Nephila edulis, Int. J. Bio. Macro., 24:243 (1999). 13.J. Kovoor, L'appareil séricigène dans les genres Nephila Leach et Nepilgengys Koch: Anatomie microscopique, Histochimie, Affinités avec d'autres Araneidae, Rev. Arachnol., 7:15 (1986) Michael S. Ellison, a Professor of Textile and Polymer Science at Clemson, joined the faculty in 1984. He received a Ph.D. in polymer fiber physics at the University of California (Davis) in 1982. Mike's research interests include structure/property relationships in melt extrusion of fibers, tensile and non-tensile loading during mechanical property testing of fibers, electrical properties of polymers and application of chaos theory to polymer physics. M94-C4*, M94-S2, M96-C1*, M98-C5*, F98-C4* ellisom@clemson.clemson.edu (864)-656-5966 http://www.eng.clemson.edu/textiles/faculty/ellison.html Albert G. Abbott, Associate Professor of Biological Sciences at Clemson, joined the faculty in 1984. He earned a Ph.D. in cell and molecular biology from Brown University in 1980 and a B.S. in biological sciences from Univ. of Connecticut in 1976. He was a Fellow at the Rockefeller Foundation's Plant Breeding Institute in Cambridge (England). Bert's research interests include basic gene structure and function, improving plant products through genetic manipulation and genetic engineering to produce novel proteins. M98-C5 aalbert@clemson.edu (864)-656-3060

Gary C. Lickfield, an Associate Professor in Textiles, Fiber & Polymer Science at Clemson, joined the faculty in 1986. He earned a Ph.D. there in physical chemistry in 1983 and a B.S. in chemistry from Ursinus College in 1978. Gary's research interests include molecular modeling, polymer surfaces and interfaces modification and characterization, wetting and adhesion. M95-S22, C97-C3*, M98-C5, C99-C3 lgary@clemson.clemson.edu (864)-656-5964 http://www.eng.clemson.edu/textiles/faculty/lickfield.html William R. Marcotte, Jr, an Associate Professor of Biological Sciences and Genetics at Clemson, joined the staff in 1992. He received his B.S. in biochemistry in 1980 from Virginia Polytech and his Ph.D. in microbiology from Virginia in 1986. He was a Visiting Scientist at DuPont from 1986-9 and a Research Associate at North Carolina from 1989-92. Bill’s research interests include molecular genetics and molecular physiology of gene and protein expression in plants. M98-C5 marcotw@clemson.edu (864)-656-0119 http://cufp.clemson.edu/biosci/Faculty/marcotte.htm Sook Jeong, a Ph. D candidate in genetics at Clemson, expects to graduate in May 2000. She earned a M.S. in biochemistry from Clemson in 1996. She also earned a pharmacy degree from Busan National University (Korea) and worked as a pharmacist for four years. M98-C5

Florence Teulé, a Ph.D student in genetics at Clemson, earned a BS in plant biology and chemistry in 1995 from from the University of Pau (France) and a D.E.A. Bases de la production végétale in plant breeding at the University of Montpellier in France in 1996. M98-C5

Jihua Chen, an M.S. student in textile, fiber and polymer science at Clemson since 1999, earned a B.S. in polymer material from Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics (China) in 1997, then continuing graduate work there until 1999. M98-C5 Manan Shah, an M.S. student in textile chemistry at Clemson, earned a degree in petrochemical engineering from Maharashtra Institute of Technology (Pune-India) in 1999. M98-C5

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000

9

Fundamental Investigation of the Formation and Properties of Electrospun Fibers
M98-D1

Steven B. Warner (UMassD), leader; Gregory C. Rutledge (M.I.T.) We are developing electric field-driven fiber formation (“electrospinning”) as a technology for generating polymer fibers with nanoscale diameters (“nanofibers”) and enhanced mechanical properties. The electrospinning process is based on the application of a high electric field that generates sufficient surface charge to overcome surface tension in a pendant drop of a polymer fluid. The droplet deforms into a conical shape and eventually, a fluid jet is ejected from the apex of the cone (See Photos). The jet is accelerated towards a grounded collector and charged solid fibers are deposited in the form of a non-woven fabric. Instabilities induced in the spin line probably play a major role in producing these fibers with diameters ranging from 50 to 500 nm, several orders of magnitude smaller than fiber made by conventional extrusion techniques. Electrospun nanofibers possess unique properties that make them ideal candidates for applications such as membranes and filters, biomedical devices and composite reinforcements.

We are developing electrospinning as a way to make novel synthetic fibers with unusually small diameters ranging from 50 to 500 nm.
continuous removal of the non-woven fabric as a yarn. This unit also improves the economic viability of electrospinning because it uses multiple spinnerets.

Rotor Electrospinner

An unperturbed droplet (left) that deforms into an electrohydrodynamic cone-jet upon application of an electric field during electrospinning

The fibers spun to date are often birefringent, indicating molecular orientation, but there is little quantitative information on the degree of orientation attainable in such fibers. We have characterized fiber sizes with electron microscopy and are developing techniques to study morphology and orientation and to measure single fiber mechanical properties. [Other Contributors: Graduate Students: Alexandre Buer, Martine Grimler (UMassD), Michael Y. Shin (MIT); Visiting Scientist: Samuel Ugbolue (UMassD)]
Outside interactions: 4 [University of Chicago, University of Akron, University of Twente, U.S. Army Natick Labs] Project Web Site Address: http://heavenly.mit.edu/~rutledge Steven B. Warner, a Professor and Chair of Textile Sciences at UMass Dartmouth since 1994, earned a Sc..D. in polymer and material science & engineering from M.I.T. in 1976. He then spent 12 years in industrial research at HoechstCelanese and Kimberly-Clark and 5 years on the faculty of Georgia Tech. Steve is the author of the texts: The Science and Design of Engineering Materials and Fiber Science. His research interests include fibers science, microstructure of nonwovens and fluid management in fibrous assemblies and properties. M95-G8*, C95-G2, M98-D1*, M98-D3, C97-G31, I99-D16 swarner@umassd.edu (508)-999-8449

To fully exploit the potential of the electrospinning process, we require improved control over the fiber formation process and an improved means for evaluating the structure and properties of these novel fibers. As an intermediate but necessary step towards improved process control, we are developing a quantitative process model which is based on a perturbation analysis and the long wavelength instabilities indicated by our experiments. This combination of experiment and theory has been instrumental in allowing us to rationalize our experimental observations with an understanding of the behavior of charged fluid jets in electric fields, and to generate operating guidelines for more efficient process development. To date, the chaotic nature of the spinning process has limited electrospinning technology to the formation of non-woven fabrics. Recently, we developed a novel rotor electrospinning unit to produce the first yarns (See Figure). This unit is capable of spinning from multiple spinnerets simultaneously and the radial geometry minimizes electrostatic interactions between threadlines, in particular charge repulsion between jets. A rotating collector provides a mechanism for

10

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000

Gregory C. Rutledge an Associate Professor of Chemical Engineering at M.I.T. since 1991, earned a Ph.D. in chemical engineering there in 1990. He also holds a B.S. degree in chemical engineering from Virginia (1983). Greg worked for the Dow Chemical for 2 years and did postdoctoral research at ETH (Zurich) and the University of Leeds (England). His research interests include structure/ property relationships in polymer science and engineering, statistical mechanics and molecular simulation of polymers, liquid crystal polymers and polymer mechanics. M98-D1 rutledge@mit.edu (617)-253-0171

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000

11

platforms typically have too little “give” and must sustain high loads under large amplitude waves during stormy weather. Julie Chen (Mech. Eng., UMass Lowell), leader; Another example might be a fishing net where an externally Armand Lewis, Steven B. Warner applied stress is used to change the net’s mesh size. (Textile Sciences, UMassD) Our model will consider overall stress-strain behavior at the Braided textile structures do not rely on a matrix to transmit molecular level [chain unraveling (Irwin, 1993) and hydrogen load to the fibers, as in textile composites. Instead, yarns bonding networks2 such as those that provide spider silk with within a braid are able to its extraordinary change orientation quite toughness] and on the freely under increasing supermolecular level tension until the “locking [crystal-crystal transitions angle” is reached (See that can provide a high Figure), at which point strain-to-fail or stress plathe structure exhibits a teau, as in wool and rapid increase in stiffness. poly(butylene terephthalPrevious composite modate) (Warner, 1995)]. els, which rely heavily on A plot of the load vs. a fixed fiber orientation Yarn cross-sections before (left) and after the locking angle is reached deflection in a braided rope and volume fraction for shows an initial zero load predicting mechanical properties, are therefore not valid for plateau and then a dramatic increase in load, the onset of lockbraided textile structures where deformations can be large, ing (See Figure below). We believe this difference is caused causing significant changes in textile architecture. Existing by a consolidation of the fibers within the strand, resulting in models of rope and braided structures (e.g., Hsu 1984, Toney an increased resistance to further rotation and compaction. 1986, Naik 1994) generally assume that the structure does not change appreciably during loading which is only appropriate Locking Angle Specimen - V01H4 Braid for structures undergoing small strains. Electromechanical Instron Model

High Stress Elastic Materials

M98-D3

2500

Tensile Load (lbs.)

We are designing various linear textile structures that are characterized by an anomalously large strain that occurs just prior to failure, giving the material an enormous level of toughness.
Because of these complexities, we are developing a generalized model for braided and other linear textile structures so we can better understand them and modify them to obtain increased toughness. Our model will allow for large strains and deformations in textile architecture, such as yarn orientation and compaction (local fiber volume fractions). We are constructing our model from interrelated building block modules representing the fiber, yarn, strand, subcomponent and full structure levels for optimizing design of novel textile structures, such as braided ropes, that can be used for high strain to failure, and high toughness, elastic rope structures for marine applications. Many textile architectures, such as weaves, knits, braids, are known to exhibit distinct deformation responses. To optimize the design of structure with a desired stress-strain behaviors we are developing a model with a combination of materials and geometric arrangement of the fibers. Because most structures exhibit a stiffening response when subjected to strain in the elastic regime, we chose to demonstrate the benefits of our predictive model by initially modeling very high toughness linear textile structures that are characterized by an anonymously large strain that occurs just prior to failure. For example, stiff mooring line braided ropes for boats and oil-rig

2000

1500 Test 1 1000 Test 2 Test 3 500

0 0 -500 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5

Stroke in Tension (inches)

Our current model contains a manufacturing module that can predict the initial braid configuration, based on manufacturing parameters such as yarn size, mandrel diameter and number of carriers. To better understand the stress-strain response near the locking region and the compaction of the yarns that occurs during loading, we developed a second module to predict the point at which the slope of the loaddisplacement curve starts to increase dramatically (the “locking angle”), as well as the stiffness of the post-locking region. This yarn interaction before and after the locking angle is critical because it drives the stiffness behavior of braided rope structures. The factors influencing the point at which locking occurs are many, including the level of twist in the yarn, yarn size, number of yarns or carriers, coverage, braid angle, braid type, mandrel diameter, and constituent properties. As one would expect, locking occurs sooner in braids with larger strand widths and coverage. However, because of the combination of parameter values, a smaller initial strand spacing
National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000

12

equates to a larger degree of shear deformation prior to locking. We are also developing a finite element model of the yarn cross-sectional deformation behavior to incorporate this behavior into the linear textile structural model. We will initially emphasize the compaction behavior that affects the stress-strain response near the locking region and will fabricate and test a range of materials and hybrid structures to validate the model. Our ultimate goal is to design a user friendly computer based design tool for predicting the global mechanical properties of a braided textile structure, such as stress-strain behavior, stiffness and strength. [Contributing Graduate Student: Robert A. DaSilva (UMass Lowell)]
Industry Interactions: 1 [New England Ropes] Project Web Site Address: none reported http://m98d3uml.cjb.net For Further Information 1. R.S. Irwin, Chain Folding in Thermotropic Polyesters, Macromolecules, 26, 7125-7133 (1993). 2. S.B. Warner, Structure and Properties of Spider Silk, AATCC Internat. Conf., 15-18 (Sept, 1996). 3. S.B. Warner, Fiber Science, Prentice-Hall (1995). 4. M. Seo, H.C. Wu, J. Chen, C.S. Toomey, and S. Backer, Wear and Fatigue of Nylon and Polyester Mooring Lines, Textile Research Journal, 67 467 (1997). 5. T.M. McBride and J. Chen, Unit-cell geometry in plain-weave fabrics during shear deformations, Composites Science and Technology, 57 345 (1997). Julie Chen, Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering and CoDirector of the Advanced Composite Materials and Textile Research Laboratory at UMass Lowell since 1997, earned a Ph.D. from MIT in mechanical engineering in 1991, then became Assistant Professor, Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering at Boston University until 1997. Julie’s research interests include mechanical behavior and deformation of fiber structures, fiber assemblies and composite materials. M98-D3 julie_chen@uml.edu (978)-934-2992 http://m-5.uml.edu/chen

Armand F. Lewis, a lecturer of Textile Chemistry and Environmental Science at UMass Dartmouth, joined the faculty in 1993. He earned a Ph.D. in surface chemistry from Lehigh in 1958 following a B.S. in textile chemistry from the New Bedford Textile Institute and an M.S. in chemistry from Oklahoma State. From 1959-88, Armand was in research at American Cyanamid, Lord Corp. and Kendall. His research interests include adhesion science, flock material and processes, composite materials and the fibrous wiping of surfaces by nonwoven fabrics. M98-D3, F97-D1, F98-D4 alewis@umassd.edu (508)-999-8452 Steven B. Warner, a Professor and Chair of Textile Sciences at UMass Dartmouth since 1994, earned a Sc..D. in polymer and material science & engineering from M.I.T. in 1976. He then spent 12 years in industrial research at HoechstCelanese and Kimberly-Clark and 5 years on the faculty of Georgia Tech. Steve is the author of the texts: The Science and Design of Engineering Materials and Fiber Science. His research interests include fibers science, microstructure of nonwovens and fluid management in fibrous assemblies and properties. M95-G8*, C95-G2, M98-D1*, M98-D3, C97-G31, I99-D16 swarner@umassd.edu (508)-999-8449

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000

13

Draw Induced Morphology and Fiber Architecture
M98-G5

Karl I. Jacob, leader (Georgia Tech); Steve Bechtel (Ohio State), David Salem (TRI) Tensile and other mechanical properties of polymeric fibers can be enhanced to levels approaching theoretical values for fully oriented molecules by using a modified multistage drawing process without recourse to gel-spinning techniques. However, the success of the draw process depends on the temperature-draw sequence the fibers will be subjected to during the process. But temperature-draw sequences have been determined on an empirical trial and error basis with little regard to the underlying thermodynamics. By combining morphological molecular models and continuum models with experimental results we are studying how to optimize the incremental draw process to maximize fiber physical properties. Towards that end we developed a macroscopic theory for the cold drawing process (on rollers) and developed a new constitutive relationship by applying plasticity theory for the hot drawing process. To more fully understand the complex interactions of fiber rheological properties with drawing conditions, we are taking the various approaches enumerated below: Continuum Rheology Approach We are deriving dominant continuum thermodynamic quantities for each step of multistage fiber drawing processes by incorporating the work done by external forces, heat supplied, heat absorbed due to crystal melting, heat evolved due to crystallization and kinetic energy of the deforming fiber. Our model will contain internal structure representations to reflect the evolution of morphology during drawing (noncrystalline and crystalline orientation, crystallization etc.). We have also developed a constitutive model for a fiber undergoing draw using a novel plasticity approach, which can take unloading into account. In these models parameters can be changed to permit simulations of the effects of processing conditions on fiber structure and properties, and identification of the best process conditions for producing fibers with specific mechanical properties. Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics Approach Fiber forming processes take place under conditions far from thermodynamic equilibrium, and it is reasonable to question whether classical thermodynamics are applicable. We are examining Lindenmeyer's formulation of “truly dynamic” thermodynamics and their implications for fiber drawing. In this formulation, the rate of energy flow, not the energy per se, plays the determining role in the thermodynamics, implying that fluctuating energy conditions encourage the evolution of more and more complex structures by subdividing into systems and subsystems that minimize the dissipation of energy. Experimental Approach To refine the modeling efforts we are employing a uniquely flexible incremental drawing process where the fiber is drawn in many small increments permitting the imposition of numerous, rapid, controlled energy fluctuations; for example, the temperature from increment to increment could be varied over

By studying how the incremental draw process effects fiber physical properties, we are identifying optimum process conditions to maximize fiber properties.
a wide range. We are looking for the possibility that this may lead to new structures and unusual properties. To study the evolution of morphology we are using online (synchrotron) and off-line X-ray, Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) and intrinsic fluorescence techniques.

A two stage draw process: x’s at of entrance or exit of fibers from the rollers, y’s at beginning or end of draw (slip).

Current Developments We are studying the deformation of a flexible fiber in contact with a roll driven at a specified angular velocity, in which the fiber is allowed to slip and accelerate at ambient temperature. This corresponds to the problem of cold drawing, where we showed that the draw occurs only on the rollers. We approached the problem by first formulating the equations of motion for two possible cases of a deformable fiber on a roll, with and without fiber slippage on the rollers. We obtain results that are independent of the relation between tension in the fiber and its deformation, i.e. they are valid for all fibers. One such result is that in the steady case the tension in the fiber must be greater than the product of its mass flow rate and speed. If not, the roll would have to pull on the fiber to keep it in contact and accelerating in a circular path. The roll cannot do this, and the insufficiently-tensioned fiber will fly off the roll. We also found that the normal force per unit length and the friction force per unit length on the fiber are monotonically increasing with arc length along the direction of roll rotation when the fiber is moving faster than the roll surface, and monotonically decreasing when the fiber is moving slower than the roll surface. For hot drawing, we have developed a constitutive model based on plasticity theory to account for the stress–strain behavior of the fiber. In this theory there are two stress free states, one before drawing and one after the complete drawing. Thus we characterized the drawing kinetics between two stress free states using this unique theory that we developed for the fiber drawing process. We have also analyzed a two stage drawing process for various combinations of draw in the first and second draw stages and various temperature combinations in selected regions. As the continuum models for fiber drawing are already developed, we have been attempting to match the macroscopic results with microscopic morphology
National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000

14

development. While we have already developed molecular models to characterize the development of molecular orientation during drawing, we are now identifying the temperaturetime combination of each drawing step that can impart the maximum orientation, to maximize the net molecular orientation in the drawn fiber. Currently we are connecting the molecular and macroscopic models, along with experimental analysis of polyester drawing to derive a unified theory for a fiber drawing process. We are incorporating thermodynamic effects, as well as kinetic effects, in our formulations. [Contributing Graduate Student: Hai Dong, Qiang Hu (Georgia Tech); Sanjay Vohra (OhioSt)] Industry Interactions: 89
Industrial interactions: none reported Project Web Site Address: http://www.tfe.gatech.edu/faculty/jacob/jacob-resabs.html For Further Information: nothing reported Karl I. Jacob, Assistant Professor in Textile and Fiber Engineering at Georgia Tech, joined the faculty in 1995 after 6 years in mechanics of composites and molecular modeling of polymers with Dacron* Research and Central Research & Development at DuPont. He earned a Ph.D. in applied mechanics from Ohio State in 1985 and a B.S. in civil engineering in 1978 from University of Kerala (India). Karl's research interests include polymer solidification, flow induced morphological instabilities, molecular modeling and mechanics. M96-G19*, M98-G5*, M98-G8* karl.jacob@tfe.gatech.edu (404)-894-2541 http://www.tfe.gatech.edu/faculty/jacob/jacob.html

Stephen E. Bechtel, Professor and Graduate Studies Chair at Ohio State, joined the faculty in 1983 upon earning a Ph.D. in mechanical engineering at UCal-Berkeley. He also holds a B.S. in engineering science from Michigan in 1979, Steve's research interests include computer modeling of industrial polymer processing, continuum mechanics, viscoelastic fluid flow, free surface flows and instability mechanisms characterization of industrial and agricultural materials. M98-G5 bechtel@seb1.eng.ohio-state.edu (614)-292-6570 David Salem, Director of Research at TRI/Princeton and member of NTC’s TAC committee, joined them in 1983 after earning his Ph.D. in polymer and fiber physics from the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology. From 1986-88, he was a research physicist at RhonePoulenc in France. David received the Fiber Society's Award for Distinguished Achievement in Fiber Science in 1996. His research interests include polymer crystallization, microstructure characterization of polymers and structure formation during polymer processing. M98-G5 dsalem@triprinceton.org; (609)-924-3150x35

Top Figures: A single chain before and after undergoing draw Bottom Figures: A polymer sample undergoing draw left: isotropic sample, right: drawn sample

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000

15

Nano-Machines: Molecular Spinnerets for Polymeric Fibers
M-98-G8

Karl I. Jacob, leader; Malcolm Polk (Georgia Tech) The current fiber spinning process is an energy intensive operation that requires large spinning machines and other support systems. The resulting fiber structure and geometry can be controlled only to an extent by adjusting process conditions. Our objective is to design and synthesize molecular spinning machines that are shaped in the form of membranes. Recent developments in synthesis of large ring shaped molecules (discotics) makes it possible to design a membrane with a large number of discotics connected together which can rotate in a magnetic field. The discotics within these membranes have to be custom designed for each polymer fiber and for each fiber geometry and structure desired. Using state-of-the-art theoretical, computational and experimental tools we are investigating how to design these material spinning machines to produce fibers with precise control of structure and geometry, hence properties. The drawing step will be unnecessary with this system, since the final required fiber structure is already formed within the molecular machines. Our ultimate objective in this investigation is to combine polymerization and spinning into one on-line operation.

hooks and their rotation must be achieved by applying a magnetic or electromagnetic field. The discotics must also be designed and positioned so they can attract and pull certain polymer molecules in the prescribed sequence. Selective Fiber Transport Monomer &/or Prepolymer Microporous Polymeric Membrane Solvent Phase with Liquid Crystals Fine Fibers in Quench
Schematic representation of polymerization and spinning using nano-technology

Liquid Crystals

Microporous Polymeric Membrane Solvent Phase
Schematic representation of ultra-fine fiber production with discotics of increasing sizes

We are developing nano-material spinning machines to produce custom designed fibers.
Molecular interactions are the basic building blocks of nano-technology which has been increasingly used in microelectronics to design atomic scale gears, rods and bearings. The basic idea behind nano-machines has been to tailor a material to function like a machine. The nano-spinning "machine" we envision consists of membrane containing discotics (See Figures below) positioned at designed locations. As discotics are made to rotate in a synchronized fashion, they will pull polymer molecules supplied at the top surface of the membrane, organize and oriented with the required structure, and release fiber at the bottom of the surface. To achieve this synchronization, discotics must be connected by molecular

Computational Approaches The structure and location of the discotics in the membrane are the key to success and each specific polymer system must have its own uniquely designed discotic. To accomplish this extremely complex task, we are applying molecular modeling to design and position the discotics. Such "virtual" machine designs can be done on a computer with good precision. Discotics must spin molecular assemblies using non-bonded interactions with the polymer molecules. Using molecular dynamics, we are attempting to simulate these interactions. Our objective is to redesign the chemical compositions of the discotics to improve specific interactions with the polymers, and to specify the location of discotics where the spun polymer

Discotic Molecules for Spinning Machines

16

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000

molecules will attain their desired structure. We are currently investigating and identifying possible molecular interactions that can result in a stable material based spinning machine consisting of discotic molecules. We are also applying a continuum approach to nanostructures1 to study the rotational characteristics of discotic rotations. Synthetic Studies We have synthesized our first candidate discotic molecule which is based on taper-shaped monoesters of oligo(ethylene oxide) with tris(p-dodecyloxybenzyloxy)benzoic acid polymethacrylates. These systems form tubular supramolecular architectures involving a columnar mesophase. They also selfassemble to form almost identical supramolecular tubular architectures because of the presence of the tapered exoreceptors attached to the polymethacrylate backbones. Exomolecular recognition generated by the similar sized and shaped surfaces results in spontaneous self-organization to form cylindrical-shaped assemblages remarkably similar in shape to molecular rotors. 3,4,5-Tris(p-alkyloxybenzyloxy) benzoic acids are flat, triangular-shaped molecules which selfassemble like slices in a pie to form columnar mesophases. To synthesize these taper shaped monoesters we first reacted the methyl ester of 3,4,5-trihydroxy-benzoic acid with p-dodecyloxybenzyl chloride (but have not yet isolated the product); then we will hydolyze it to form tris(p-dodecyloxybenzyloxy)benzoic acid which is then reacted with ethylene glycol, then methacryoloyl chloride to form 2-methacryloyloxyethyl-3,4,5-tris(p-dodecyl-oxybenzyloxy)benzoate which undergoes a free radical polymerization to spontaneously form enantiotropic hexagonal columnar mesophase as confirmed by X-ray scattering experiments. The column radii of the self-assembled tubular structures are related to the number of oxyethylene segments present in a family of columnar systems prepared previously. Using 4,4’-azobiscyanovaleric acid as a free radical initiator and dithiodigycolic acid as a chain transfer agent adds carboxylic acid end group sites for hydrogen bonding. We are now synthesizing a deuterated version of the first candidate discotic molecule for 2D solid-state NMR analysis so we can obtain solid-echo 2H-NMR data to characterize rotation about the long axis of the polymer. In addition we have synthesized the first bowlic side-chain polymer by reacting a bowl-shaped central core (2,3,7,8,12,13-hexa-substituted 10,15-dihydro-5H-tribenzo[a,d,g]cyclononene acid chloride) with a copolymer of poly(dimethylsiloxane) and poly(methylsiloxane) and hexachloroplatinic acid. Initial NMR studies indicate that the polymer might rotate in a synchronized

fashion under a magnetic field. IBM Researchers have visualized a single-molecule rotor rotating inside of a supramolecular bearing by using a scanning tunneling microscope. Since a suitable metallic atom on the molecule might help the rotation of discotics in the magnetic field, we are currently studying the synthesis of columnar polymeric phthalocyanines which contain metals such as copper, zinc, cobalt, nickel and lead. [Contributing Graduate Student: Hang Shi (Georgia Tech)]
Industry Interactions: 51 Other Interactions Outside NTC: 8 [Oak Ridge National Lab] Project Web Site Address: http://www.tfe.gatech.edu/faculty/jacob/jacob-resabs.html For Further Information 1. K. Sohlberg, B. G. Sumpter, R. E. Tuzun, D. W. Noid, Nanotechnology, 9:30 (1998). Karl I. Jacob, Assistant Professor in Textile and Fiber Engineering at Georgia Tech, joined the faculty in 1995 after 6 years in mechanics of composites and molecular modeling of polymers with Dacron* Research and Central Research & Development at DuPont. He earned a Ph.D. in applied mechanics from Ohio State in 1985 and a B.S. in civil engineering in 1978 from University of Kerala (India). Karl's research interests include polymer solidification, flow induced morphological instabilities, molecular modeling and mechanics. M96-G19*, M98-G5*, M98-G8* karl.jacob@tfe.gatech.edu (404)-894-2541 http://www.tfe.gatech.edu/faculty/jacob/jacob.html Malcolm Polk, a Professor of Textile and Polymer Chemistry at Georgia Tech, joined the faculty in 1985. He received a Ph.D. in organic chemistry from the University of Pennsylvania in 1964. After a postdoctoral at the Univ. of California (Davis), he worked at DuPont until 1972, when he became Associate Professor at Atlanta University. Malcolm's research interests include polymer synthesis and characterization; depolymerization; liquid crystalline polymers; high temperature resistant polymers and molecular modeling of polymers. M95-S22, M98-G8 malcolm.polk@tfe.gatech.edu (404)-894-2535 http://www.tfe.gatech.edu/faculty/polk/polk.html

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000

17

Evaluating Fluid Flow through Fabrics
M98-P2

Matthew W. Dunn (PhiladelphiaU) Since many methods to specifically measure the flow of fluids through textile materials (permeability) have inherent limitations (due to speed contraints or confinement to the turbulent flow range), we have developed a new device which gives very reproducible results with excellent exhibition of laminar flow. Fluid flow through a porous membrane can be described by the relationship B =µtV/∆P where

material varies linearly with the velocity of the fluid flow. Conversely, nonlaminar (i.e. turbulent) flow does not result in a straight line fit with velocity, but instead varies with the velocity squared.
Water Flow Rate vs Pressure Drop (Laminar Flow)

0.30

y = 0.1144 R = 0.9633
2

0.25

y = 0.0584 R = 0.9953
2

y = 0.0081 R = 0.9992
2

0.20

µ = the viscosity of the fluid,
t = the thickness of the membrane, V = the velocity of the fluid

0.15

0.10 Plain Weav 0.05 Twill Wea Satin Weav 0.00 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Pressure Drop, dP (KPa)

∆P = the pressure drop across the membrane1,2
B = the permeability of the membrane, which depends on the type of porous media and the pore geometry.

We are building a model for nonNewtonian fluid flow through fabrics.
Assuming the void content in a porous media is a primary factor in permeability, the Kozeny-Carman equation was developed to provide a description of fluid flow based on filtration media properties.3 MacGregor4 extended the KozenyCarman equation for a textile assembly to model the flow of dyes through textile yarn packages and to predict permeability based on constituent fabric properties. We developed a novel tester (See Schematic) to evaluate the fluid permeability of a fabric. Based on Joule-Thomson experiments (changing gas temperature as volume is varied), we designed the tester to use a constant volume of fluid in an enclosed chamber while the pressure drop across a fabric is measured at controlled flow. This constant volume approach should lead to permeability values untainted by turbulence.

Acquired Permeability Data for Fabric Series

We are now using elevated levels of fluid velocity to push the limits of “laminar” flow. As velocity increases, we expect the materials to show increasingly turbulent behavior. We will then develop bicomponent models of flow for the exhibited permeability. [Other Contributors: none reported]
Industry Interactions: none reported Project Web Site Address: http://spike.philacol.edu/perm/ For Further Information: nothing reported 1. H. Darcy, Les Fontaines Publiques de la Ville de Dijon, Paris, 1956. 2. J. Daily and D. Harleman, Fluid Dynamics, Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1966, pp. 180-184. 3. A. Scheidegger, The Physics of Flow Through Porous Media, revised ed., University of Toronto Press, Toronto, 1960. 4. R. McGregor, Journal of the Society of Dyers and Colourists, Vol. 81, October 1965, pp. 429-438. Matthew W. Dunn, a Research Assistant Professor in Textile Engineering at PhiladelphiaU, joined the faculty in 1998 after serving as Assistant Director of Research at Fiber Concepts, Inc. Matt received his B.S. in 1995 in textile materials science from NC State and an M.S. in 1997 in textile engineering from PhiladelphiaU and is currently completing his Ph.D. in materials engineering at Drexel. Matt's research interests include composite preform manufacturing and design and permeability modeling of textiles. C98-P1* mdunn@fibers.texsci.edu (215)-951-2683 http://fibers.texsci.edu/html/matt.html

Schematic of Permeability Testing Device

Testing trials have yielded very reproducible results (with coefficient of variations below 2%) and the constant volume design has shown a high correlation to laminar flow (See Figure). Laminar flow is evident in materials when the relationship of the pressure drop caused by forcing a fluid through the

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National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000

New Approaches for Biotechnological Production of Polyesters
M99-G11

Sheldon W. May, leader (Chem & Biochem, Georgia Tech), Roy Broughton, Jr (Auburn) It has been known since 1926 that certain polyesters are enzymatically synthesized and intracellularly deposited in granules by many microorganisms. Now as biotechnology is increasingly incorporated into many industrial processes, there is a need to explore its use in the manufacture of new fibrous textile materials with novel functionality. Recognized as world leaders in the enzymology of oxygenases, we have over 20 years experience in biocatalysis and enzyme technology. We believe that the textiles of the future will include new materials produced using advanced biologically-based approaches. Therefore, we believe we are helping to lay the groundwork necessary for applying biotechnological approaches to the production of a variety of new materials.

out a lysozyme-based procedure for cell lysis, and have used it successfully with a polyester-producing strain of B. cepacia. [Lysozyme is itself an enzyme, which cleaves the polysaccharide chain in bacterial cell walls]. Enzymatic production of polyesters represents a very good prototype of such biologically-based processes, and thus success in our project would lay the groundwork for applying biotechnological approaches to the production of a variety of new materials. We regard this system as a prototype for the application of biocatalysis to the production of a variety of new materials in the future. [Contributing Graduate Students: Jennifer Overcast, Jeremy Thompson, Michelle Woznichak]

Industry Interactions: none reported Project Web Site Address:
http://www.chemistry.gatech.edu/faculty/may/biotechnolpolymers.html

We are using enzyme technology to explore the enhanced control of a cell-free process to produce polyesters with novel functionality.
Biotechnology has the potential of enabling a significant enhancement of control and specificity in polymer synthesis which is difficult, if not impossible, to achieve in chemical systems. We are focusing on the enzyme technology necessary for achieving polyester synthesis outside the cell, since this overcomes the severe limitations imposed on precursor monomers by cell permeability; and cell toxicity is not an issue. Among the attractive properties of these materials are their high biodegradability and their immunological compatibility with human tissue. We now have in hand three cloned E. coli strains which over-express the ketothiolase (phbA), reductase (phbB) and polymerase (phbC) enzymes whose sequential action produces polyesters (See Figure). Recognizing that developing methodology for cell lysis which does not destroy a given enzyme system of interest is always a problematical issue in biotechnology, we have also developed a very promising cell lysis protocol which works well with polyester-producing bacteria. Briefly, after many unsuccessful attempts to utilize sonication (both continuous and pulsed) and hypo-osmolality, we worked

Sheldon W. May, Associate Director, Institute for Bioengineering and Bioscience, and Regents' Professor of Chemistry & Biochemistry at Georgia Tech, earned a B.S. in 1966 from Roosevelt Univ. and a Ph.D. in chemistry from Univ. of Chicago in 1970. Then he joined Exxon, where he was a founding member of the first industrial biotechnology group in the U.S. Sheldon is editor of Enzyme and Microbial Technology, and of the Biochemical Engineering section of Current Opinion in Biotechnology. His research interests include enzyme technology and applications of biotechnology in materials Science. M97-G2*, M99-G11* sheldon.may@chemistry.gatech.edu (404)-894-4052 Roy M. Broughton, Jr, a Professor of Textile Engineering at Auburn since 1976, received his Ph.D. with concentrations in textile chemistry and fiber and polymer science from NC State. Before joining Auburn, Roy worked in polyester research at Goodyear Tire & Rubber. His research interests include manufacture, utilization and testing of fibers and nonwovens. M93-S5, I95-A11*, M96-A2*, M98-A10, F96-A3, F98-A4*, C98-A17*, M99-G11 royalb@eng.auburn.edu (334)-844-5460 http://www.eng.auburn.edu/department/te/faculty/Broughton

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000

19

Fabrication
Research in the design, development, manufacture and measurement of fibrous structures, including yarns, textiles, garments, nonwovens, carpets, coated fabrics, papers, preforms, etc.

Development and Experimental Validation of Nonlinear Models for High-Speed Yarn Transport Systems

F97-C5

Bhuvenesh C. Goswami, leader; Christopher D. Rahn (Clemson); Subhash K. Batra, Tushar K. Ghosh, William Oxenham (NC State), W. Barrie Fraser (Univ. of Sydney, Australia) High-speed movement of yarns to and from packages is common to many textile processes. In both winding and unwinding the inertial forces tend to create an enveloping surface called a balloon. We pioneered development of computer models for high speed yarn transport systems. In ring spinning and twisting, for example, we developed models that predict balloon shapes and tension including the effects of control rings. These models show instabilities in the process that could result in yarn breakage. Similar models have been developed for yarn unwinding systems. We have only recently begun experimental validation of the ring spinning results and design of an unwinding test stand.

research focuses on models for specific textile processes that involve rotating balloons such as: • unwinding from cylindrical packages, as in texturing • unwinding from conical packages, as in warping and weaving • ring twisting and winding, as in ring spinning or ply-twisting • two-for-one twisting. The computer models will promote understanding of complex process dynamics and can be used to design processes that provide low, uniform tension at high speed. This maximizes the process efficiency by minimizing yarn breaks and maximizing throughput. Unwinding Models We will be incorporating some important and practical aspects of unwinding into our recently developed inextensible yarn model. Our analysis will include yarn elastic deformation, germane to the textured yarn industry. We will also investigate tension and balloon shape variation due to the wind angle change and yarn sliding at the edge of a package. Using nonlinear simulations, we plan to predict a fluttering dynamic balloon instability, discovered in our earlier research, which can lead to large, rapid tension variations. Finally, these model enhancements will be incorporated into the process design software. Unwinding Experiments We have constructed a new unwinding test stand consisting of a Reiter yarn transport machine and tension head, a balloon rotation sensor, strobes, a video camera and a PC. The Reiter machine pulls the yarn from the package at up to 2000 m/min and measures the real-time tension. The PC reads the tension and balloon rotation synch signals, captures 3D strobed balloon images and displays the results. An easy to use, graphical user interface allows the operator to change balloon capture settings and export the image and tension data (See Figure). This new system will enable in-depth study of the unwinding process and extensive verification and improvement of the unwinding models. Ring Spinning We will be determining the best ways to measure the speed, shape and tension of a ring spinning yarn balloon. The data obtained from these measurements will be used to verify the theoretical model and clearly define unstable operating conditions. This could ultimately be used as the basis of a control system to maximize the production capabilities of the ring frame.

We are developing nonlinear models that predict the tension and balloon shape of yarns undergoing high speed translation and rotation. translation
In this project we will develop and experimentally validate nonlinear models for high-speed yarn transport systems. The

20

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000

[Contributing Graduate Students: Xiaofeng Ma, Josephine Harsha Punitha (NC State), Ming Keung, M. Loffler, Rajiv Sharma, Fang Zhu (Clemson); Undergraduates: Matthias Kloeck, Ian Paradis (Clemson)]
Industry Interactions: 4 [DuPont, Rieter, Glen Raven, Milliken] Other Interactions Outside NTC: 7 [U. of Michigan, Ohio State] Project Web Site Address:

NEED THIS
For Further Information 1. F. Zhu, R. Sharma and C. D. Rahn, "Steady State Response and Stability of Ballooning Strings in Air International Journal of Nonlinear Mechanics, 33:33 (1998). 2. F. Zhu, Nonlinear Dynamics of Rotating Elastic Strings with Fluid Drag Ph.D. Thesis, Clemson (Aug 1998). 3. R. Sharma and C. Rahn An Experimental Study of Ballooning Yarn with a Control Ring Journal of the Textile Institute, Part1: Fibre Science and Textile Technology, 89:621 (1998). 4. J. Clark, W. Fraser, R. Sharma and C. Rahn, The Dynamic Response of a Ballooning Yarn: Theory and Experiment Proceedings of the Royal Society London, (accepted, Feb 1998). 5. X. Kong, C. Rahn and B. Goswami, Steady State Unwinding of Yarn from Cylindrical Packages, Textile Research Journal, 69:292 (1999) 6. J. Clark, W. Fraser, R. Sharma and C. Rahn, The dynamic response of a ballooning yarn: theory and experiment, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series A: Mathematical Physical and Engineering Sciences, 454:2767 (1998). 7. R. Wu, J. Yu, C. Rahn and B. Goswami, Measurement of Yarn/Package Friction During Over-end Unwinding, Textile Research Journal, 70:321 (2000). Bhuvenesh Goswami, a Professor of Textile and Polymer Science at Clemson, joined the faculty in 1984. He received his Ph.D. in textile technology from Manchester (England) in 1966 and a M.S. in textiles from Bombay University (India) in 1963. Bhuvenesh is past president of The Fiber Society. and a Fellow of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. His research interests include dynamics of fiber processing, fiber/yarn fatigue, textile structures for composites and fiber, yarn and fabric structural mechanics. M94-S2, F94-A8, F94-S9, F95-C9, F97-C5*, F98-C4, F98-G15 gbhuven@clemson.clemson.edu (864)-656-5957 http://www.eng.clemson.edu/textiles/faculty Subhash K. Batra, a Professor in Textile and Apparel Management and in Textile Engineering, Chemistry and Science at NC State and Director of the Nonwovens Cooperative Research Center, received a Ph.D. in mechanics at Rensselaer Polytechnic in 1966 and a S.M. in management from M.I.T. in 1977 when he joined the faculty at NC State. Subhash was also a senior scientist at Battelle and a supervisor at the Ahmedabad New Cotton Mill in India. His research interests include mechanical behavior of fibrous and textile materials and textile processing technology. M94-S2*, F97-C5 subhash_batra@ncsu.edu (919)-515-6555
http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tam/aboutdept/facresstaff/facstaff_frame.htm

W. Barrie Fraser, a Senior Lecturer in the School of Mathematics and Statistics at the University of Sidney (Australia), joined the faculty in 1965. He received a Ph.D. in applied physics from Harvard in 1965 and an M.E. in civil engineering from the University of New Zealand in 1961. In 1990 Barrie was a Visiting Scholar at NC State. His research interests include mathematical modeling, dynamics of moving threadlines, theory of ring spinning and transformation toughening of ceramics. F94-S9, F97-C5 barrief@maths.usyd.edu.au Tushar K. Ghosh, an Associate Professor in Textile and Apparel Management at NC State, joined the faculty in 1988 after receiving a Ph.D. there in fiber and polymer science. Earlier he was a scientist at the Jute Technological Research Laboratories in Calcutta (India). Tushar's research interests include mechanics of fibrous assemblies, design and analysis of industrial textiles, dynamics of textile processes and technology of fabric formation. F94-A8, F94-S9*, F97-C5, I96-A9 tushar_ghosh@ncsu.edu (919)-515-6568
http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tam/aboutdept/facresstaff/facstaff_frame.htm

William Oxenham has been an Associate Professor at NC State since 1992 after having lectured at the University of Leeds (England) since receiving a Ph.D. there in 1974. Bill's research interests center in the area of yarn manufacture and include fiber property measurement to control product and process quality during spinning. F94-S9, I95-A11, F96-A3, F97-C5, F99-S6*, I99-S10 woxenham@tx.ncsu.edu (919)-515-6578
http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tam/aboutdept/facresstaff/facstaff_frame.htm

Christopher D. Rahn, an Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering at Clemson since 1992 earned a Ph.D. degree in mechanical engineering from the University of California, Berkeley. He also spent several years as a research and development engineer at Space Systems, LORAL. Chris's research interests include the modeling, dynamic analysis and control of nonlinear flexible systems, including fiber, fabric and paper handling machinery. F94-S9, F95-S20, F97-C5, F98-S4 rchrist@clemson.clemson.edu (864)-656-5621 http://www.eng.clemson.edu/me/ME_Faculty/Rahn.html

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000

21

Scientific Study of Flock Materials and the Flocking Process

Yong K. Kim, leader; Armand F. Lewis (UMassD) The majority of flocking involves the application of finely cut fibers to adhesive coated surfaces. Flock fibers are usually applied to these surfaces either mechanically, electrostatically or by a combination of both techniques. Mechanical flocking can be windblown or ”beater-bar” while electrostatic flocking sometimes incorporates a pneumatic process to propel fibers toward a surface in a windstream, allowing flocking of contoured shapes.

REFLECTANCE (%)

F97-D1

55 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 400

460

520

580

640

700

We are developing a fundamental understanding of flock materials and flocking processes.
Both natural and synthetic flock materials are applied to many different surfaces, resulting in end products ranging from retail consumer goods to high-technology military applications. Flocked finishes impart friction modification, heat insulation and thermal stability, transitionless power transmission, liquid retention or dispersal, buffing, polishing, cushioning and a decorative, tactile and visual appeal. Even though flocking technology has existed for a long time, the mechanisms of process and fiber application are not fully understood. Earlier we developed an equation to describe flock motion trajectory and found that about 60% is the optimum relative humidity for processing nylon 6/6 flock fibers. Now we are establishing measurement and interpretation criteria for color matching between woven fabrics and flocked substrates. To compare the different types of textures, such as nylon fabric, nylon (bulk) flock fibers and nylon flocked fabric, we needed to quantify the various parameters which affect surface reflectance. Since flocked fabrics at different angles give inconsistent reflectance values, we measured reflectance at all eight viewing orientations. We chose an 80% porosity for bulk flock fiber reflectance measurements because we found only marginal reflectance increases as fabric porosity decreased. For a given dye concentration, the reflectance of dyedfabric, dyed-flock and dyed-flocked fabric are at different levels, but the curves run parallel to each other (See Figure). The flocked fabrics show a steady rise in reflectance as % dye increases in lighter shades, but then reflectance remains constant for darker shades.

WAVELENGTH (NM)
Relationship between reflectance and wavelength for CI Acid Blue dyed-fabric (top), dyed-flock (middle) and dyedflocked fabric (bottom)

[Other Contributors: Graduate Students: Cindy (Yue-Jun) Hou, Francis V. Pottakarian, Young-Sil Kim; Undergraduate Students: Jacob Knowels, Justin Sylvia]
Industry Interactions: 3 [OEM/Erie, Erie PA; Claremont Flock, Claremont NH; Spectro Coating, Leominster MA] Project Web Site Address: http://www.umassd.edu/engineering/textiles/research.html For Further Information: none reported Yong K. Kim, a Professor of Textile Sciences at UMass Dartmouth, joined the faculty in 1981 when he earned a Ph.D. in fiber and polymer science from NC State. He holds a BS and M.S. in textile engineering from Seoul National University (Korea) in 1974. Yong’s research interests include textile process design and manufacturing systems, mechanics of fibrous structures and composite materials. F97-D1*, F98-D4 ykim@umassd.edu (508)-999-8452 Armand F. Lewis, a lecturer of Textile Chemistry and Environmental Science at UMass Dartmouth, joined the faculty in 1993. He earned a Ph.D. in surface chemistry from Lehigh in 1958 following a B.S. in textile chemistry from the New Bedford Textile Institute and an M.S. in chemistry from Oklahoma State. From 1959-88, Armand was in research at American Cyanamid, Lord Corp. and Kendall. His research interests include adhesion science, flock material and processes, composite materials and the fibrous wiping of surfaces by nonwoven fabrics. M98-D3, F97-D1, F98-D4 alewis@umassd.edu (508)-999-8452

22

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000

Improved Fiber Hydroentanglement Using Pulsed Elliptical Jets

F98-C4

Michael Ellison, leader; David Zumbrunnen, Bhuvenesh Goswami, Edward Vaughn, Patricia Schempp, Yuqi Bao (Clemson) Hydroentanglement is a generic term for a nonwoven fabric production process that can be used for bonding, laminating, and/or surface texturing. The mechanism involves rearranging fibers by using hydrodynamic forces from impinging water-jet flows. Hydroentangled nonwovens are used as coating substrates, interlinings, technical wipes, medical devices, apparel, home textiles and fiber reinforced composites.

Transfer, R. M. Manglik and A. D. Kraus, editors, Begell House, New York, 307 (1996) 4. E. C. Mladin and D. A. Zumbrunnen, "Local Convective Heat Transfer to Submerged Pulsating Jets, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 40:3305 (1997) 5. H. S. Sheriff and D. A. Zumbrunnen, Local and Instantaneous Heat Transfer Characteristics of Arrays of Pulsating Jets, Journal of Heat Transfer (1999, in press). Michael S. Ellison, a Professor of Textile and Polymer Science at Clemson, joined the faculty in 1984. He received a Ph.D. in polymer fiber physics at the University of California (Davis) in 1982. Mike's research interests include structure/property relationships in melt extrusion of fibers, tensile and non-tensile loading during mechanical property testing of fibers, electrical properties of polymers and application of chaos theory to polymer physics. M94-C4*, M94-S2, M96-C1*, M98-C5*, F98-C4* ellisom@clemson.clemson.edu (864)-656-5966 http://www.eng.clemson.edu/textiles/faculty/ellison.html Bhuvenesh Goswami, a Professor of Textile and Polymer Science at Clemson, joined the faculty in 1984. He received his Ph.D. in textile technology from Manchester (England) in 1966 and a M.S. in textiles from Bombay University (India) in 1963. Bhuvenesh is past president of The Fiber Society. and a Fellow of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. His research interests include dynamics of fiber processing, fiber/yarn fatigue, textile structures for composites and fiber, yarn and fabric structural mechanics. M94-S2, F94-A8, F94-S9, F95-C9, F97-C5*, F98-C4, F98-G15 gbhuven@clemson.clemson.edu (864)-656-5957 http://www.eng.clemson.edu/textiles/faculty/goswami.html Edward A. Vaughn, a Professor of Textiles at Clemson, joined the faculty in 1966. He received a Ph.D. from the University of Manchester in 1969, an MS from the Institute of Textile Technology in 1964, and a BS in physics and math from Lynchburg College in 1962. Ed is past president of the National Council for Textile Education and the Textile Quality Control Association. His research interests include fiber processing dynamics, fabric formation mechanics, and materials analysis. F98-C4 vedward@clemson.edu (864)-656-5965 http://www.eng.clemson.edu/textiles/faculty/vaughn.html

Pulsing an impinging jet flow through elliptical holes improves hydroentanglement and fabric strength in nonwovens.
We have recently shown that momentum and heat transfer can be significantly increased if the impinging jet flows are pulsed. A pulsating water jet flow emerging from an elliptic hole forms a rotating helical structure in the free surface, thereby imparting a strong twisting action. The elliptical nozzle by itself may even result in a slightly stronger fabric vis-à-vis a circular nozzle. Using both pulsations and elliptic free surfaces in impinging jet flows should be an effective means to improve fiber entanglement. A higher degree of entanglement should result in higher fabric strength, since more fibers will be in surface contact with one another, thus resulting in a greater frictional resistance. Pulsations might also be used to impart unique patterns in nonwoven fabrics since jet-to-jet interactions can be altered by changing pulsation frequency and amplitude. Initial results (with 3.5 oz/yd2 polyester staple nonwoven fabrics) imply that as pulsation rates increase from 100 to 600 pulses per minute, fabric breaking strength increases, suggesting that pulsation enhances fiber entanglement in the web. We are conducting two parallel studies. One is to use energy efficient hydroentanglement methods to enhance the filtration/insulation properties of needled fabrics that have been augmented with splittable conjugate fiber structures. The other is to study the effects of nozzle geometry and pulsation levels on the physical properties of hydroentangled fabric.
Other Interactions Outside NTC: 4 [Perfojet (ICBT), Fleissner, Chicopee (PGI), Polymers and Derivatives of Mexico] Project Web Site Address: none reported For Further Information 1. M. Ghandi, MS Thesis, Clemson (1992) 2. H. S. Sheriff and D. A. Zumbrunnen, Effect of Flow Pulsations on the Cooling Effectiveness of an Impinging Water Jet, Journal of Heat Transfer, 116:886 (1994) 3. D. A. Zumbrunnen, Convective Heat Transfer Modifications Due to Flow Pulsations in Impinging Jets Process, Enhanced, and Multiphase Heat

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000

23

David A. Zumbrunnen, a Professor of Mechanical Engineering and supervisor of the Laboratory for Materials Processing and Industrial Mixing at Clemson, joined the faculty in 1988 upon earning a Ph.D. in mechanical engineering from Purdue. Dave received a Presidential Faculty Fellow Award from The White House in 1992 for excellence in scientific research and teaching. His research interests include melt-processing and chaotic mixing to yield in-situ structured materials, and unsteady convective heat and mass transfer. M96-C1, F98-G15 david.zumbrunnen@ces.clemson.edu (864)-656-5625 http://www.eng.clemson.edu/me/ME_Faculty/Zumbrunnen.html

Patrica Schempp, a MS candidate in Textiles, Fiber and Polymer Science at Clemson, earned a BS (correct degree??) in textile technology (when?) from Philadelphia College of Textiles and Science and is currently a Sirrine Fellow. Yuqi Bao a MS candidate in Textiles, Fiber and Polymer Science at Clemson, earned a textile engineering degree (which one??) in 1994 at North-West Institute of Textile Science and Technology (China) then worked as a textile engineer for four years.

24

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000

Ultra-thick Cross Section Fiber Reinforced Composites

F98-D4

Yong K. Kim, Leader; Armand F. Lewis, Alex Fowler (UMassD) Complex textile structures, such as two and three dimensional woven fabrics and braided structures, offer the potential to produce net shape preforms continuously, as well as provide a product form with improved damage tolerance and impact resistance at low cost. When used with resin transfer molding, these technologies also offer lower cost organic polymer engineering composites for marine applications (e.g. ship hulls, submersible structural members) and construction engineering structures. When thick cross section (2 to 8 cm) fiber reinforced organic polymer engineering composite shapes are cured, however, a reaction exotherm occurs that can lead to uneven curing, uneven mass shrinkage and improper consolidation of the fiber/resin composite media. Furthermore, if the exotherm is too high, thermal degradation of the matrix material can occur resulting in potentially hazardous processing conditions.

pre-catalyzed composites, especially toward the center where the temperatures are highest. We are also trying to reduce catalyst consumption by studying other composites where pre-catalyzed fabric is only used in every other ply. [Contributing Graduate Student: Jonathan Reuss (Mech. Eng)]
Industry Interactions: 2 [Foster-Miller, Waltham MA; Fiber Spar Inc., Wareham MA Other Interactions Outside NTC: 3 [Drexel, NSF] Project Web Site Address: http://www.umassd.edu/engineering/textiles/research.html For Further Information: none reported Yong K. Kim, a Professor of Textile Sciences at UMass Dartmouth, joined the faculty in 1981 when he earned a Ph.D. in fiber and polymer science from NC State. He holds a BS and M.S. in textile engineering from Seoul National University (Korea) in 1974. Yong’s research interests include textile process design and manufacturing systems, mechanics of fibrous structures and composite materials. F97-D1*, F98-D4 ykim@umassd.edu (508)-999-8452 Armand F. Lewis, a lecturer of Textile Chemistry and Environmental Science at UMass Dartmouth, joined the faculty in 1993. He earned a Ph.D. in surface chemistry from Lehigh in 1958 following a B.S. in textile chemistry from the New Bedford Textile Institute and an M.S. in chemistry from Oklahoma State. From 1959-88, Armand was in research at American Cyanamid, Lord Corp. and Kendall. His research interests include adhesion science, flock material and processes, composite materials and the fibrous wiping of surfaces by nonwoven fabrics. M98-D3, F97-D1, F98-D4 alewis@umassd.edu (508)-999-8452 Alex Fowler, an Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering at UMassD since 1994 after earning a Ph.D. in mechanical engineering from Duke. and a B.A. in philosophy in 1987 from Weslyan University. Alex’s research interests include heat transfer with specific applications involving porous media, computational fluid dynamics, multiphase systems and bioengineering. F98-D4 afowler@umassd.edu (508)-999-8542

We are examining the fundamental fiber and resin material parameters that are important in the manufacture of thick cross-section composites.
We are examining the fundamentally important fiber and resin material parameters in the manufacture of thick crosssection composites. We are also developing a new method to manufacture polyester based thick cross section composites by using glass fabric pre-catalyzed with benzoyl peroxide. We believe that by applying the catalyst to the fabric rather than mixing it with the resin we can control and slow down the reaction, thus reduce the exotherm.
200 Temperature (C) 160 120 80 40 0 0 50 Time (min) 100 Patially precatalyzed Fully precatalyzed Catalyst/resin mixed

Center temperatures for three composites

Thermal profiles of 120-ply composites of fully and partially pre-catalyzed fabrics show that they reach much lower maximum temperatures (120oC) than mixed catalyst/resin composites (160oC - See Graph). Initial mechanical results show higher tensile strengths in the

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000

25

Analysis of Fiber-Particle-Airflow Interaction and Its Application to the Development of a Novel Card-Spinning System

F98-G15

Youjiang Wang, leader; Wallace W. Carr, Fred L. Cook, J. Lewis Dorrity, Radhakrishnaiah Parachuru, Mary Lynn Realff (Georgia Tech), Bhuvenesh C. Goswami, David A. Zumbrunnen (Clemson) Staple yarn manufacturing involves four essential operations: fiber separation, parallelization, attenuation, and consolidation. Currently, about 10 machines, in sequence, are needed for these tasks. We are developing the fundamental knowledge base that can lead to more efficient machines, shortened production lines, and novel processes. Our tasks include analyzing the motion dynamics of fiber clumps and other particles in an airflow field, and developing a single-step process to convert fiber batt directly into yarns.

drawframes and the yarn-spinning machine (see Figure). The elimination of the drawing processes makes it necessary for the card to provide better web uniformity, fiber alignment and straightening. We have tested the use of a monitoring device for web uniformity measurement and the results are encouraging. The web will be divided into multiple ribbons and transported to the spinning heads. We are designing novel yarn spinning devices and have built a prototype. Our primary industry partner, American Truetzschler, has donated a carding machine equipped with a bale opener and a chute feed system. We are in the process of designing and then fabricating prototype web monitoring, splitting and transport devices to be installed on the card. [Other Contributors: Graduate Students: Shumin Zheng, Fan Zhao, Jen-te Yu, Hua Huang (Georgia Tech); Kai Liu, Mike Wolf (Clemson); Undergraduate students: Jimmy Chowdhury, Mandy Kratus (Georgia Tech) Research Scientist: Xi Chen (Georgia Tech)]
Industry Interactions: 20 [American Truetzschler, BP Amoco, Russell, Rieter, Avondale, Delta Woodside] Other Interactions Outside NTC: 10 Project Web Site Address:
http://www.tfe.gatech.edu/faculty/wang/CardSpin/index.htm

We are developing the knowledge base that can lead to more efficient machines, shortened production lines and novel processes to convert fiber batt directly into yarns.
Fiber opening, cleaning and transport in the opening and cleaning processes are achieved through interactions among airflow, inertia forces, gravity, fiber/particle configurations, barrier arrangements (mote knives, grid bars, plates, etc.), beating actions, carding actions, among others. To better understand the opening-cleaning process we are employing computational fluid dynamics, experimental analysis and fluid flow visualization using high-speed videography. We are also developing a novel card-spinning process by incorporating multiple spinning heads on the carding machine itself. This single machine will replace the card, two

For Further Information: none reported Youjiang Wang, an Associate Professor in Textile and Fiber Engineering at Georgia Tech, received his BS in textile engineering from China Textile University and MS and Ph.D. in mechanical engineering from MIT. Youjiang is the Associate Technical Editor on Textiles for the Journal of Manufacturing Science & Technology in textiles. His research interests include textile processes, mechanics, composites and advanced construction materials. F94-A8, F98-G15*, F98-S9 youjiang.wang@tfe.gatech.edu (404)-894-7551

Drafting Unit

Staple-Fiber-Roll

Channel Nozzle-Holder &Air-supplier Feed Roll Cylinder Doffer

Spinning Nozzle

Suction -Tube

Yarn-Winder Carding Machine
Schematic of Process Line Under Development

Spinning Unit

26

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000

Wallace W. Carr, an Associate Professor in Textile and Fiber Engineering at Georgia Tech since 1980, received a Ph.D. in mechanical engineering from Georgia Tech in 1973. Before joining the faculty, "Chuck" was a senior research engineer at Monsanto. His research interests include thermal sciences in industrial fiber and textile processes (particularly radio frequency, microwave, ultrasound and infrared), electrophotographic printing of textiles and polymer properties and structure. C95-G1*, C95-G2*, F98-G15, C97-G11, C98-G30*, C99-G8* wallace.carr@tfe.gatech.edu (404)-894-2538 http://www.tfe.gatech.edu/faculty/carr/carr.html Fred L. Cook, a Professor and Director of the School of Textile & Fiber Engineering at Georgia Tech, has been on the faculty since he received a Ph.D. there in organic-polymer chemistry in 1975 after being a polymer research chemist at DuPont. He is a consulting chemical editor of Textile World magazine, and vicepresident of the National Council for Textile Education. Fred's research interests include textile/polymer chemistry, sustainable textile chemical application processes and carbon fibers. F98-G15 fred.cook@tfe.gatech.edu (404)-894-2536 http://www.tfe.gatech.edu/faculty/cook/cook.html J. Lewis Dorrity, an Associate Professor of Textile & Fiber Engineering at Georgia Tech, joined the faculty in 1988. He received a MS in electrical engineering at the Air Force Institute of Technology in 1965, then served 6 years in the U.S. Air Force, leaving as a Captain. Lew then earned a Ph.D. in electrical engineering from Clemson in 1973 and spent 15 years at Greenwood Mills rising to vicepresident of Research and Quality. His research interests concentrate on instrumentation and control of textile processes. I94-G2*, I94-S4, F98-G15 lew.dorrity@tfe.gatech.edu (404)-853-9076 http://www.tfe.gatech.edu/faculty/dorrity/dorrity.html Bhuvenesh Goswami, a Professor of Textile and Polymer Science at Clemson, joined the faculty in 1984. He received his Ph.D. in textile technology from Manchester (England) in 1966 and a M.S. in textiles from Bombay University (India) in 1963. Bhuvenesh is past president of The Fiber Society. and a Fellow of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. His research interests include dynamics of fiber processing, fiber/yarn fatigue, textile structures for composites and fiber, yarn and fabric structural mechanics. National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000

M94-S2, F94-A8, F94-S9, F95-C9, F97-C5*, F98-C4, F98-G15 gbhuven@clemson.clemson.edu (864)-656-5957 http://www.eng.clemson.edu/textiles/faculty/goswami.html Radhakrishnaiah Parachuru, a Research Scientist in Textile and Fiber Engineering at Georgia Tech, joined the staff in 1988 from the staff of NC State. He received a Ph.D. in textile engineering in 1981 from the Indian Institute of Technology (New Delhi) and an MS in applied statistics from Georgia State in 1995. Krishna was on the Textile Technology faculty at the University of Madras (India) in 1984-5. His research interests include spun yarn structure-property relationships, Kawabata methodology and computer modeling of manufacturing processes. C96-A1, F98-G15, C99-A7 krishna.parachuru@tfe.gatech.edu (404)-894-0029 http://www.tfe.gatech.edu/faculty/krishna/krishna.html Mary Lynn Realff, an Associate Professor in Textile and Fiber Engineering at Georgia Tech, joined the faculty in 1992 upon receiving a Ph.D. in mechanical engineering and in polymer science and technology from MIT. She earned a B.Eng. in textile engineering from Georgia Tech in 1987. Mary Lynn's research interests include design of textile structures, investigation and modeling of the mechanical behavior of textile structures, image processing and modeling and design of textile processes. I95-G7*, I97-S10, F98-G15 marylynn.realff@tfe.gatech.edu (404)-894-2496 http://www.tfe.gatech.edu/faculty/realff/realff.html David A. Zumbrunnen, a Professor of Mechanical Engineering and supervisor of the Laboratory for Materials Processing and Industrial Mixing at Clemson, joined the faculty in 1988 upon earning a Ph.D. in mechanical engineering from Purdue. Dave received a Presidential Faculty Fellow Award from The White House in 1992 for excellence in scientific research and teaching. His research interests include melt-processing and chaotic mixing to yield in-situ structured materials, and unsteady convective heat and mass transfer. M96-C1, F98-G15 david.zumbrunnen@ces.clemson.edu (864)-656-5625 http://www.eng.clemson.edu/me/ME_Faculty/Zumbrunnen.html

27

Scale Sensitive Modeling of Ductile Braided Composites

F98-P1

Christopher M. Pastore (PhilaU) , Frank Ko (Drexel) Replacement of steel reinforcement in concrete structures with more corrosion resistant substitutes, such as composites, is rapidly becoming a more economical option for construction facilities worldwide. In general, composites have high strength, a range of moduli and low ultimate tensile strains compared to steel. The stress-strain behavior of all of these fiber systems is linear up to failure, which makes it impossible to have significant hysteretic behavior. In spite of their superior light weight, corrosion resistance and non-magnetic properties, the lack of material ductility and energy absorbing capabilities is a severe limitation of all these fiber systems if they are to be considered for earthquake resistant applications.

Schematic illustration of Braidtrusion process (right to left)

We are developing an analytical model of ductile braided composites that describes static and dynamic load response for such uses as uses reinforce concrete. rebars to reinforce concrete.
In order to achieve ductility in reinforced concrete structures without using conventional steel rebars, we introduced a new design methodology to identify suitable composite materials that mimic the stress-strain characteristics of steel. By judicious selection of fiber materials and fiber architecture for the braid sleeve and the core structure, we can tailor the load-deformation behavior of the braided fibrous assembly.  For this research the sleeve is a tough aramid (Kevlar ) and the core structure is a high modulus carbon to provide the initial resistance to deformation. To simulate the surface characteristics of current steel rebars, a rib is built into the sleeve structure during the braiding process. by making one of the yarn bundles about five times larger than the others. The rib created by this large bundle (See Photo) is used to improve mechanical bonding between the resulting composite rebar and the concrete. In pull-out tests, the average bond strength of these bars is similar to deformed steel bars of similar diameter.

Graph). The definite yield strength is achieved by the hybridization process, and it’s a manifestation of the fracture of the fibers with the lowest failure strain. The apparent ductility is associated with resin cracking at the interlacing points of the aramid braiding yarns and some continuing reinforcement effect of the failed carbon yarns behaving like short fiber composites. We are now accounting for this behavior in further developments of our predictive model.
350 S-1 S-4 S-5 S-2 S-3 Predicted 300

250

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50

0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 Strain (%) 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0

Comparison of experimental and theoretical stress-strain response for 5 mm hybrid braided rebars.

[Contributing Graduate Student: Hoa Lam, (Drexel); Undergraduate students: George Papadopolis, Cindy Colluci, Jason Lyons (PhilaU); Research Associates: Moishe Garfinkle, Eileen Armstrong-Carroll (PhilaU)]
Industry Interactions: 5 [Amoco, DuPont, Shell,Fiber Concepts, Inc.; Albany International] Other Interactions Outside NTC: 3 [Drexel, NSF] Project Web Site Address: http://fibers.texsci.edu/F98P01 For Further Information: none reported Christopher M. Pastore, an Associate Professor of Textile Engineering and Technology and Director of Research of the School of Textiles and Materials Technology at Philadelphia University, joined the faculty in 1995. Previously he was on the Textile Materials Science faculty at NC State and the Materials Engineering faculty at Drexel University. Chris holds a B.A. and M.S. in mathematics and a Ph.D. in materials engineering from Drexel in 1988. His research interests include modeling of fabric and composite structures. F98-P1*, I99-P1* cpastore@fibers.texsci.edu (215)-951-2683 http://fibers.texsci.edu/stmt/cpastore.html National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000

Micrograph of typical hybrid rebar with surface rib yarns

Our process, called “Braidtrusion” (See Schematic), takes the braided fabric through a forming ring, then runs the braid through an infusion zone wherein epoxy resin is dripped onto the fell of the cloth. The wet fabric is then run through a heated chamber to cure the resin. Tensile Response The monotonic stress-strain behavior of the composite rebars shows high initial modulus as well as a ductile failure mode characterized by a bi-linear stress-strain curve (See

28

Frank K. Ko, a Professor in Materials Engineering and Director of the Fibrous Materials Research Center at Drexel, joined the faculty in 1984 after 8 years at PhiladelphiaU. He earned a Ph.D. in textile engineering at Georgia Tech in 1977. Frank is a SAMPE fellow and recipient of the Fiber Society distinguished achievement award. His research interests include advanced textile structural composites, mechanics of fibrous structures, fiber viscoelasticity, biomedical and industrial textiles, and nanofibers and nanocomposite technology. F98-P1 fko@coe.drexel.edu (215)-895-1640 http://fmrc.coe.drexel.edu/fmrc_director.html

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000

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Automated Three Dimensional Fabric Part Handling

F98-S4

Jeffrey W. Eischen (MAE, NC State), leader; Timothy G. Clapp (TE, NC State); Our key questions and challenges are: Frank Paul, Christopher D. Rahn (ME, Clemson), • Can computer-aided-engineering techniques commonly used Darren Dawson (ECE, Clemson) in the automotive and aerospace industries be applied to the We are combining computer-aided-engineering methods design and development of fabric handling equipment? with practical control strategies to develop precise, efficient • Can machinery be designed to accommodate multiple part and optimal fabric part handling technologies. We are focused configurations (shape, thickness, etc.) and material properon mechatronic design concepts for assembly processes such ties (weight, stiffness, as: folding, joining, etc.)? placing and locating that We will simplify advanced take into account 3D modeling of fabric variability in fabric drape and manipulation material properties such using the finite element as weight and stiffness. method for the design of Handling maneuvers fabric handling control such as pick and place systems. We will investiare the primary focus, gate controls that stabilize with design variables the fabric motion and allow being location and accurate handling with number of gripper points Robot Gripper and Optimal Gripper Points for Square Fabric Part minimum wrinkling. and fabric material Computer Simulation properties. Potential applications for this technology are 3D We developed a computer simulation tool that allows automated airbag assembly, automated apparel manufacturing modeling of various fabric manipulation processes that occur and automated assembly of automotive interior systems such during manufacturing. Fabric parts are modeled as very flexias seats, carpets and headliners and also includes 3D fabric ble elastic surfaces that can accommodate stretching, bending processes such as shape pressing and sewing. and shear with the governing equilibrium equations solved by using either a finite element or a particle system approach. QNX Real-Time Operating System Windows NT The nonlinear moment curvature response is measured directly Task Level Program with the Kawabata test system, or with a simpler drape test. We assumed that our robot and gripper would have the QNX/QRobot port of the ARCL Robot Control Robot Simulator Library capability to grab a fabric part at four locations (See Figure). Our simulation identifies the optimal gripper point locations Joint Level Force/Torque (for a square part) that result in the minimal deflection and Control Client Sensor Client strain energy in the part. The points where the colored lines converge are the optimal gripper points.
Joint Level Control I/O Board Client

developing We are developing efficient and optimal logies fabric part handling technologies technolo for automated processes.

MultiQ Server

Force/Torque Sensor Server

MultiQ Board

FT I/O Board

Air Valve

Air Valve Tool Changer Puma 560 Manipulator

Force/ Torque Sensor

Gripper

Overview of the Robot Control System

Hardware Implementation Air bag manufacturing includes picking up air bag parts of different shapes and putting them on stacks. Currently, workers do this operation by hand, which is labor intensive, time consuming and expensive. Automatic fabric handling solutions require advanced robot control systems that operate different tools and sensors (See Schematic). We extended the QRobot joint level control to a complete robot control system using the QNX Real-Time Operating System to run the software tasks. QRobot is a purely PC based system that integrates the following components: • A joint level control and a trajectory generator with a high level programming interface for Puma manipulators. • A 3D OpenGL-based hardware-accelerated robot simulator. • Interfacing of different sensors. • Control of different robotic end-effectors. The entirely PC-based system is cost-effective, because the advanced technology is less expensive and has a simpler
National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000

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architecture, is more flexible and has many widely-known, powerful software applications and interface boards. [Other Contributors: Graduate students: Srinivas Lankalapalli (Mechanical Engineering - NC State), Nick Costescu, Markus Loffler, Elango Sundaraman, Erkan Zergeroglu (Mechanical Engineering - Clemson); Visiting Scholar: Roberto Bigliani (Polytecnico di Torino, Italy)]
Industry Interactions: 3 [American Bag Corporation (Milliken), BF Goodrich, Ford Motor Company, Southpeak Design] Project Web Site Address:
http://www2.ncsu.edu/unity/lockers/project/ntcprojects/F98-S04/

Timothy G. Clapp, a Professor at NC State, joined the faculty in 1985 after receiving a B.S., M.S. and Ph.D. in mechanical engineering from NC State. Tim's research interests include apparel automation and automated material handling. I94-S4*, F95-S20, F98-S4 timothy_clapp@ncsu.edu (919)-515-6566
http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/college/personnel/tclapp.html

For Further Information 1. Finite-Element Modeling and Control of Flexible Fabric Parts, IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, Special Issue on Computer Graphics in Textiles and Apparel, 16:71 2. Optimum Manipulation Strategies for Limp Fabric Materials, with W. Clifton, Proceedings of the Fifth Pan American Congress of Applied Mechanics Conference, San Juan, Puerto Rico, Jan. 1997. 3. W. Clifton, Optimum Fabric Trajectories for Edge Position and Control, MS Thesis, NC State, (1996) 4. S. Mast, Iterative Techniques for Control of Fabric Manipulations, MS Thesis, Clemson (1997) 5. S. Shenoy, Neural Adaptive Position Control of Fabric on a Frictional Surface, MS Thesis, Clemson (1997) 6. S. Shenoy and C. Rahn, Neural Adaptive Control for Positioning Fabric on a Frictional Surface, ASME Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, (accepted, Dec 1997). 7. Drape Modeling of Cloth, Short Course notes for the 1998 SIGGRAPH Computer Graphics Conference, Course 31- Cloth and Clothing in Computer Graphics (1998). 8. S. Mast, C. D. Rahn and F. Paul, Iterative Techniques for Fabric Position Control During Folding; Proceedings of the 35th Annula Society of Engineering Science Conference-SES98, Pullman WA (1998) (invited) 9. S. Mast, C. D. Rahn and F. Paul, Computer Modeling of Fabric Drape, Proceedings of the 35th Annual Society of Engineering Science Conference, Pullman WA (1998) (invited). 10.R. Bigliani, Continuum Versus Particle Representations, chapter in upcoming book Cloth Modeling and Animation, to be published by A. K. Peters, 2000 (invited). 11.R. Bigliani, Collision Detection in Cloth Modeling, chapter in upcoming book Cloth Modeling and Animation, to be published by A. K. Peters, 2000 (invited). 12.C. Kopp, The Measurement of Deformations of Limp Fabrics for Material Handling, M.S. Thesis, Clemson (Dec 1998). 13.N. Costescu, M. Loffler, E. Zergeroglu and D. Dawson, QRobot - A Multitasking PC Based Robot Control System, Microcomputer Applications Journal Special Issue on Robotics, 18:13 (1999). 14.C. Kopp, C. Rahn and F. Paul, The Measurement of Deformations of Limp Fabrics for Material Handling, Textile Research Journal, (accepted August 1999). Jeffrey W. Eischen, an Associate Professor of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at NC State since 1986, received a Ph.D. in Applied Mechanics from Stanford University. Jeff has been involved with the College of Textiles in interdisciplinary research for several years. His research interests include finite element numerical analysis of fabric drape and manipulation, dynamics and control of flexible mechanisms and stress analysis in layered microelectronic media. F95-S20*, F98-S4* eischen@eos.ncsu.edu (919)-515-5263 http://www.mae.ncsu.edu/faculty/faculty.html

Darren M. Dawson, a Professor in Electrical and Computer Engineering and the Center for Advanced Manufacturing at Clemson, joined the faculty in 1990 when he received a Ph.D. in electrical engineering from Georgia Tech. After receiving a B.S. in 1984 he was a control engineer at Westinghouse until 1987. Darren’s research interests include nonlinear based robust, adaptive and learning control for electromechanical systems including robot manipulators, motor drives, magnetic bearings, flexible cables, flexible beams and high-speed transport systems. F98-S4 ddawson@ces.clemson.edu (864)-656-5924 http://ece.clemson.edu/crb/index.htm Frank W. Paul, the Quattlebaum Professor of Mechanical Engineering at Clemson and Director of the Center for Advanced Manufacturing, joined the faculty in 1977. He received a Ph.D. in mechanical engineering from Lehigh in 1968 and an M.S. from Penn State in 1964. Frank has served on the faculties of Carnegie-Mellon and Lehigh and on the technical staffs of Hamilton Standard Division, United Technologies. His research interests include process control, robotic automation, machine design and sensors. F95-S20, F98-S4 frank.paul@ces.clemson.edu (864)-656-3291 http://www.eng.clemson.edu/me/ME_Faculty/Paul.html Christopher D. Rahn, an Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering at Clemson since 1992 earned a Ph.D. degree in mechanical engineering from the University of California, Berkeley. He also spent several years as a research and development engineer at Space Systems, LORAL. Chris's research interests include the modeling, dynamic analysis and control of nonlinear flexible systems, including fiber, fabric and paper handling machinery. F94-S9, F95-S20, F97-C5, F98-S4 rchrist@clemson.clemson.edu (864)-656-5621 http://www.eng.clemson.edu/me/ME_Faculty/Rahn.html

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A Novel Approach for Measurement of Fiber-on-Fiber Friction

F98-S9

Yiping Qiu, Leader (NC State), leader; Youjiang Wang (Georgia Tech), John Z. Mi (Cotton Inc.) In many textile processes, the movement of fibrous material is largely determined by the frictional forces which result from constant flow and fluctuation of materials, both among fibers and between fibers and machine parts. As processing speed increases, time dependence becomes more significant. Understanding fiber friction behavior under these dynamic loads should lead to improved manufacturing processes with increased quality and efficiency.

When cotton and polyester rovings with different twist levels and gage lengths were treated with dry lubricant under various loading conditions, their static friction increased while their dynamic energy loss decreased (See Figure). The dry lubricant possibly bonds the fibers together reducing the inter-fiber friction. This indicates that the dynamic energy loss is sensitive to treatment of fiber surface and thus can be used to measure the effect of fiber, yarn or fabric treatment. [Contributing Graduate Students: Michael A. Laton (Georgia Tech); Chuyang Zhang (NC State)]
Industry Interactions: 2 Other Interactions Outside NTC: 2 Project Web Site Address: none reported

We are investigating the friction behavior of fibers and energy dissipation under dynamic loading conditions.
Fiber-on-fiber friction is very important because it holds the fibers in a staple yarn together and also determines fabric properties, such as tensile strength, bending, shear and drape. While previous research mostly focused on the friction coefficient under a tensile or a compressive loading condition, we are formulating a theoretical model based on fiber-on-fiber friction in a fibrous structure. In a structure two types of energy loss are present, namely frictional energy loss due to inter-fiber friction and that due to intermolecular friction. We are developing a test where the fiber strand or a fabric is subjected to cyclic loads. We are analyzing our results using cross-correlation and other advanced data analysis techniques. This new method will allow us to evaluate the change in fiber-on-fiber friction due to variation of fiber surface properties, moisture content, temperature, fiber linear density and fiber mechanical properties. We are also working on a theoretical model to characterize inter-fiber friction considering the effect of various environmental factors such as moisture content, temperature and loading frequency. Intermolecular frictional energy loss is much smaller than inter-fiber frictional energy loss, but may not be negligible.
P o l y es te r R o v ing , D M A t e st W it h a nd W i th ou t D r y L ub

NEED THIS
For Further Information Yiping Qiu, an Assistant Professor at NC State since 1996 received a B. Engr. in textile engineering at Zhejiang Institute of Silk Technology (China), a M.S. in textile science at Auburn and a Ph.D. in fiber science at Cornell. Yiping 's research interests include fabrication and characterization of fiber reinforced composites, modification and analysis of fiber matrix interfaces, mechanics of fibrous structures and moisture vapor transfer in fibrous structures. F98-S9*, C99-S9 yiping_qiu@ncsu.edu (919)-515-9426 Zhong-Xing Mi, Manager, Fabric Development at Cotton, Inc. joined the staff in 1995 from being a Research Associate at the Nonwovens Cooperative Research Center at NC State. He received a Ph.D. in textile physics in 1983 at the Univ. of Manchester (England) whereupon he became Associate Professor and Deputy Head of the No. 1 Textile Engineering Dept. at China Textile University (Shanghai). Earlier he was Technical Director for the Guangxi (China) Textile Mill. He is on NTC’s TAC committee. John's research interests include fiber-reinforced composites and textile physics. F98-S9 jmi@cottoninc.com (919)-510-6134 Youjiang Wang, an Associate Professor in Textile and Fiber Engineering at Georgia Tech, received his BS in textile engineering from China Textile University and MS and Ph.D. in mechanical engineering from MIT. Youjiang is the Associate Technical Editor on Textiles for the Journal of Manufacturing Science & Technology in textiles. His research interests include textile processes, mechanics, composites and advanced construction materials. F94-A8, F98-G15*, F98-S9 youjiang.wang@tfe.gatech.edu (404)-894-7551 National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000

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Micromachine Based Fabric Formation Systems

F98-S12

George Hodge, leader; William Oxenham, Abdelfattah Seyam, Paul Franzon (NC State) Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) is an emerging high technology that has proven to be very successful in several industries such as medical (blood pressure monitors that can be placed within the heart, and biosensors for measuring carbon dioxide and oxygen content in blood), automotive (sensors for air bags) and the ink jet industry. It is now possible to design equipment with mechanisms that are smaller than the diameter of fibers, and their low cost (polysilicon batch) give them a strong advantage. Micromachines are the merging of sensors, actuators and electronics onto the same silicon substrate. The sensors provide the information about the environment based on electrical, physical, chemical or biological measurements; the electronics process the information derived form the sensors and provide a decision making capability for the system based on the information; the actuators respond to control signals from the electronics and manipulate the system or environment for a desired outcome, purpose or feedback.

Signal non filtered, plain weave

Now we are integrating the amplifier to the sensor, applying digital filters, optimizing yarn guiding and evaluating yarn abrasion. Later, we will build an array of smart sensors and implement MEMS technology in industry for large scale experiments. [Contributing Graduate Students (NC State): Severine Gahide (Textile Technology and Management), Jeremy Palmer (Mechanical Engineering), Karthik Sekar (Electrical and Computer Engineering)]
Industry Interactions: 3 (Precision Fabrics). Project Web Site Address:
http://www2.ncsu.edu/unity/lockers/project/ntcprojects/projects/F98-S12

We are developing fundamentally new approaches for processing fibers into textile structures using microelectromechanical systems technology.
We are developing fundamentally new approaches for processing fibers into textile structures using microelectromechanical systems technology. Initially we identified possible applications of MEMS technology in spinning, weaving, knitting, fiber formation, dyeing and finishing and nonwovens.1 Based on a perceived real need and large potential market for a successful device, we have concentrated our efforts to developing a MEMS based detection system to monitor warp tension and end breaks in a Jacquard weaving machine (See Photo). Preliminary results from a stain gage sensor and an amplifier installed on a weaving machine yield a signal that shows a weaving pattern effect (See Figure)

For Further Information 1. Hodge, ISA Textile Conference June 1997 2. Publication accepted at the 80th World Textile Conference, in Manchester (England), April 2000. George L. Hodge is an Associate Professor in Textile and Apparel Technology and Management at NC State where he received a Ph.D. in industrial engineering in 1990. He previously held engineering positions with Ohio State Univ. and Carolina Power & Light. His research interests include economic analysis, multi-attribute decision analysis, expert systems, technology management, systems modeling and computer integrated manufacturing. F98-S12, I96-S15, I99-S10* george_hodge@ncsu.edu (919)-515-6579
http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tam/aboutdept/facresstaff/facstaff_frame.htm

Paul D. Franzon is a Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Director of the Engineering Research Laboratory at NC State University. He received his Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering from the University of Adelaide, Australia in 1989. He joined NC State in 1989 after working for AT&T Bell Laboratories, Australian Defense Science and Technology Organization, and Communica Pty. Ltd. His research interests include developing novel integrated systems incorporating MEMS (micromachines), silicon ICs and advanced packaging. (919)-515-7351 paulf@eos.ncsu.edu http://www.ece.ncsu.edu/erl/faculty/paulf.html

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000

33

William Oxenham has been an Associate Professor at NC State since 1992 after having lectured at the University of Leeds (England) since receiving a Ph.D. there in 1974. Bill's research interests center in the area of yarn manufacture and include fiber property measurement to control product and process quality during spinning. F94-S9, I95-A11, F96-A3, F97-C5, F99-S6*, I99-S10 woxenham@tx.ncsu.edu (919)-515-6578
http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tam/aboutdept/facre sstaff/facstaff_frame.htm

Abdelfattah M. Seyam, an Associate Professor in Textile and Apparel Management at NC State since 1991 and Associate Director of Technology Transfer in the Nonwoven Cooperative Research Center, earned an M.S. degree in textile engineering in 1978 from Alexandria Univ. (Egypt) and a Ph.D. in fiber and polymer science from NC State in 1985. He then held research positions at Burlington Ind. and Valdese Textiles. Abdelfattah's research interests include mechanics of woven fabrics and technologies for apparel automation and web forming. F98-S12 a_seyam@ncsu.edu (919)-515-6583

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National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000

Characterization of Air-Yarn Interface in Air-Jet Weaving

F99-A10

Sabit Adanur, Sayavur Bakhtiyarov, David Beale, Anwar Ahmed (Auburn) We are developing a model to better understand fiber and yarn motion dynamics in air-jet weaving with a focus on yarn transportation and low energy losses. We will build a computerized air-jet weaving loom simulator system and develop a database to predict the performance of filling yarns. Our system should shorten fabric development time and reduce cost in manufacturing of air-jet woven fabrics.

We are developing a model to better understand fiber and yarn motion dynamics in air-jet weaving.
While we are building our simulator we are theoretically analyzing air flow through the guide, which is more complex than liquid flow because of the dependency of specific weight on pressure changes. The basic equations for simulating pressure drop for the flow of air through tubes are based on the steady-state energy balance and the differential form of the Bernoulli equation. For the flow of air in a straight guide, the pressure drop for a given mass flow rate is complicated because gas densities vary significantly as air undergoes thermodynamic changes with pressure changes. Therefore, for significant pressure drops, both the velocity and the density of the air change significantly. Hence, to apply the Bernoulli equation properly and develop expressions to predict a pressure drop, we must know the relationship between air pressure and density. The pressure drop will depend on the type of flow existing in the guide. The flow will usually exist between adiabatic and isothermal conditions. For short lines, such as guides, the air flow can be considered adiabatic as there is little heat transferred to or from the line, but for long operation times the flow will approach isothermal. [Contributing Graduate Student: Mevlut Tascan]
Industry Interactions: none reported Project Web Site Address:
http://www.eng.auburn.edu/department/te/ntc/99/adanur/f99a10.html

Sabit Adanur, a Professor in Textile Engineering at Auburn since 1992, received a Ph.D. in fiber and polymer science in 1989 and a M.S. in textile engineering in 1985 from NC State and a B.S. in mechanical engineering in 1982 from Istanbul Technical University in Turkey. Before coming to Auburn, Sabit was a product and process development manager for Asten Forming Fabrics (Appleton WI). His research interests include industrial textiles, composites, computeraided design and manufacturing. F94-A8*, F95-A24, I96-A9*, F99-A10*, I00-A6 sadanur@eng.auburn.edu (334)-844-5497 http://www.eng.auburn.edu/~sadanur/ Anwar Ahmed an Associate Professor and Director of the Wind Tunnel and Aerodynamics Lab at Auburn, earned a B.Sc. in mechanical engineering from Peshawar Univ. (Pakistan) in 1976 and a Ph.D. in aerospace engineering from Wichita State in 1985. Since then Anwar taught at Tuskegee Univ and Texas A&M and was Associate Director of Aerospace at Southern Univ. His research interests include aerooptics of airborne lasers, flow instabilities in jets, wakes and boundary layers, vortex dominated flows, circular shear layers and free vortex dynamics. F99-A10 aahmed@eng.auburn.edu (334)-844-6817 http://www.eng.auburn.edu/~aahmed Sayavur I. Bakhtiyarov, a Senior Research Fellow in the Space Power Institute at Auburn, joined the staff in 1995. Sayavur earned a Sc.D. from the Azerbaijan Inst. of Math. & Appl. Mech. in 1992 and a Ph.D. from the Azerbaijan Institute of Thermophysics in 1978, all mechanical engineering. He also holds a B.Sc. from Azerbaijan Inst. Of Oil & Chemistry in 1971. His research interests are rheology of composites and polymers, fluid and gas dynamics. F99-A10 sayavurb@eng.auburn.edu (334)-844-6198 David G. Beale, an Associate Professor in Mechanical Engineering at Auburn, received a Ph.D. in mechanical engineering from Michigan. David’s research interests include dynamics, control and design of mechanisms and mechanical systems. F99-A10 dbeale@eng.auburn.edu (334)-844-3336 http://www.eng.auburn.edu/users/dbeale

For Further Information: none reported

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000

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Developing Fundamental Measures of Cotton Multi-Component Blending Performance

F99-A13

Yehia El Mogahzy, leader (Auburn); Subhas Ghosh (ITT), Mohamed Mahrous (UNO) To develop reliable measures of multi-component blending, we are analyzing the transient nature of variability and variability conservation laws. Our discovery of the blending propensity index has led to industrial on-site blending trials.

To develop reliable measures of multi-component blending, are analyzing we are analyzing the transient nature of variability and variability conservation laws.
This index basically confirmed what is already known (fiber blending performance depends on the fiber surface, resiliency and compatibility). However, our index provides for the first time a quantitative measure of multi-component blending which industry can use to establish reference values and determine the optimum mix. To examine the impact of mixing on yarn quality we are focusing our study on cotton/polyester blends. [Contributing Graduate Student: Weiping Du (Auburn)]
Industry Interactions: none reported Project Web Site Address: none reported For Further Information 1. The Impact of Short Fibers on Yarn Quality and Blending PerformanceCotton Beltwide Conference, January 2000.

Yehia E. El Mogahzy, an Associate Professor of Textile Engineering at Auburn, joined the faculty in 1986 when he received a Ph.D. in fiber and polymer science from NC State. He also holds a M.S. in textile engineering from Alexandria University (Cairo). Yehia's research interests include statistical analysis, quality control, fiber-to-yarn engineering and physical/mechanical properties of fibers, yarns and fabrics. I95-A11, F96-A3, F99-A13* yehiae@eng.auburn.edu (334)-844-5463 http://www.eng.auburn.edu/~yehiae/welcome.html Subhas Ghosh, a Professor and Director of Research at ITT, joined the faculty in 1976. He earned a B.S. in textile technology in 1967 from Calcutta University and a M.S. and Ph.D. in fiber science in 1994 from the University of Manchester (ENG). He was also a Quality Control Director at National Spinning Company (North Carolina). Subhas’ research interests include near infrared spectroscopy, textile material characterization, polymer recycling, and filament processing. F99-A13 (804)-296-5511 subhasg@itt.edu

Mohamed Mahrous, a Professor of Applied Mathematics at the Univ. of New Orleans since 1973, earned two Ph.D. degrees from Iowa State in 1966: mathematics (numerical analysis) and engineering mechanics. Mohamed was a consultant to LSU Medical Center 1976-1995 on inner ear physiology and nerve transmission. His research interests include mathematical modeling, (e.g. simulating artificial organ mechanisms, plasmas in the sun's atmosphere, and characterizing human organ functions) and modeling non-parametric variables. F99-A13 mmahrous@math.uno.edu (504)-394-0078

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National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000

Sensory (Kansei) Engineering of Aesthetics in Textile Fabrics

F99-S2

Roger L. Barker, leader, Moon W. Suh, Marian G. McCord, Jae L. Woo, Itzhak Shalev, H. B. Kim (NC State) Sensory engineering is an emerging interdisciplinary field which attempts to causally relate human sensory perception and psycho-physiological response to technological features in consumer products. Our aim is to use sensory engineering to devise systematic ways to tailor textile products in response to empirically identified consumer preferences.

Brain Wave Measurement To ensure that we acquire state-of-the-art expertise in brain wave measurement techniques pertinent to sensory engineering, including the Emotion Spectrum Analysis Method (ESAM), we have established a working relationship with the Brain Function Labroatory in Kawasaki (Japan). Its president, Toshimitsu Musha, a foremost Japanese expert on 1/f fluctuations developed ESAM which attempts to quantify human emotional response such as the stress, relaxation, sadness and joy by analyzing the output from scalp electrodes (See Photos). We are now exploring the usefulness of ESAM as a means of characterizing human response to textile aesthetics.

We are exploring the use of sensory engineering to design textile products with maximum consumer appeal.
While Sensory engineering was born as Kansei engineering in Japan, U.S. scientists (Mandlebrot, Voss, et. al.) pioneered work leading to the discovery that stimuli which appear to engender pleasure and harmony in humans fluctuate in a pattern reciprocal to their frequency, i.e., 1/f. This pattern is similar to the brain alpha waves of a comfortable and content individual. The Japanese (Musha and others) then refined the 1/f phenomenon to use in their new established Kansei engineering as the first and systematic means to screen, identify and implement desirable Kansei features in design and products. Later they fine-tuned it to extensively document fluctuation patterns and rhythms that exist both naturally and in works of art. Our immediate challenge in translating the 1/f concept into the design and production of textiles is that it is a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for a stimulus to be attractive or pleasant to humans. Visual Measurement System We now have a measurement system capable of converting optical patterns of planar test objects into a spectrogram with a log-log plot (See Figure). This helps us to assess the extent of conformance to the 1/f relationship, and also enables us to objectively evaluate purportedly sensory-engineered textile products now in the Japanese market.

Participant wearing cap with electrodes and display of emotional response to stimuli, such as music

[Other Contributors: none reported]
Industry Interactions: none reported Project Web Site Address:
http://www2.ncsu.edu/unity/lockers/project/ntcprojects/projects/F99-s2

For Further Information: nothing reported Roger L. Barker, a Professor and Director of the Center for Research on Textile Protection and Comfort at NC State, joined the faculty in 1981 after having served on the faculties of Cornell and Clemson. He received a M.S. in physics from Tennessee in 1969 and a Ph.D. in textile and polymer science from Clemson in 1978. Roger's research interests include textile comfort and protective materials. F95-S24*, I98-S8*, F99-S2* roger_barker@ncsu.edu (919)-515-6577 http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/college/personnel/rbarker.html Hyung Bum Kim, a Visiting Scholar and measurement and control specialist at NC State since 1997, earned an M.S. in textile engineering in 1996 and a M.S. in measurement & control in 1993 from Kyunghee Univ. (Korea) and a B.S. in electronics in 1986 from Sung Kyun Kwan Univ. (Korea). Hyung Bum was in R&D on Industry Automation for Samsung and a Research Officer at KITECH and KyungHee Univ. His research interests include signal processing, fabric visualization and instrument design for yarns and nonwovens. F99-S2 hbkim@tx.ncsu.edu (919)-515-6580

Spectrograms (below) showing “1/f - like” patterns for optically scanned 2-dimensional images (above)

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37

Marian Gayle McCord, an Assistant Professor at NC State since 1994 when she received a Ph.D. in textiles and polymer science at Clemson, also earned a Sc.B. in biomedical engineering at Brown and a M.S. in bioengineering at Clemson. Marian's research interests include torsional properties in high performance fibers, barrier fabrics and comfort of textile materials. M94-C4, F95-S24, I98-S8, C99-S9*, F99-S2 marian_mccord@]ncsu.edu (919)-515-6571 http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/college/personnel/mmccord.html

Itzhak Shalev, Visiting Associate Professor in Textile Engineering, Chemistry and Science at NC State since 1991, is also CEO of Arpal Engineering Ltd. Itzhak earned a B.S. in textile chemistry from Shenkar College (Israel) in 1980 and a Ph.D. in fiber and polymer science at NC State in 1984. He served as Head of the Textile Chemistry Dept. at Shenkar College from 1994-98. Itzhak's research interests include protective barrier textiles, clothing comfort, finishing technology and computer aided instruction. F95-S24, I98-S8, F99-S2 itzhak_shalev@ncsu.edu (919)-515-6550 http://www.shalev.net

Moon W. Suh, a Professor of Textile and Apparel Management and of Statistics at NC State, joined the faculty in 1987 after a 19-year career at Burlington Ind. as a statistician and operations research analyst. He earned a B.S. in textile engineering from Seoul National Univ. (Korea) in 1961 and a Ph.D. in statistics from NC State in 1969. Moon's research interests include statistical and probabilistic modeling of textile processes and products, quality control methods, apparel business information systems, biostatistics and statistical failure models. I95-A11, I97-S1*, I98-S6*, F99-S2 moon_suh@ncsu.edu (919)-515-6580
http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tam/aboutdept/facresstaff/facstaff_frame.htm

Jae L. Woo, a Visiting Research Professor in textiles at NC State since 1994, earned a B.S. in textile engineering at Seoul National Univ. (Korea) where he taught textile engineering and process statistics, a S.M. at MIT and a Ph.D. at Univ. of New South Wales (Australia) where he taught machine dynamics, random vibrations, experimental engineering in 1975-85. Jae’s research interests include cotton and wool fiber testing, on-line measurements in textile processes, statistical process control, textile mechanisms and variations analysis. I95-A11, I97-S1, F99-S2 jae_woo@ncsu.edu (919)-515-6580

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National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000

Fiber Motion and Yarn Forming in High Speed Air Flow

F99-S6

William Oxenham, leader (NC State); Memis Acar (Loughborough), Arindam Basu (South India TRA) We are developing models to elucidate the behavior of fiber in high speed airflows. Our main focus is to fundamentally understand the interaction of fiber with high-speed airflows, then to establish suitable models which could be used to optimize the use of air in fiber/filament manipulations. However, we must first develop an in-depth understanding in both the air texturing and vortex spinning processes. In air texturing the airflow dynamics are relatively simple, since the air stream is used primarily to bend the filaments; however, any finish and/or water on the yarn prior to passing into the air stream will influence the efficiency of the texturing process. We are also examining the role of fiber properties on the texturing process, including "high modulus" fibers, to represent an extreme case to be validated by the model.

Software Images from CFD-ACE depicting increasing velocities of airflow (left) and a solid model of the fiber to be modeled.

[Contributing Graduate Students: Guldemet Basal, Yiyun Cai, Nikhil Dani (NC State)]
Industry Interactions: none reported Project Web Site Address:
http://www2.ncsu.edu/unity/lockers/project/ntcprojects/projects/F99-S06

For Further Information: nothing reported William Oxenham has been an Associate Professor at NC State since 1992 after having lectured at the University of Leeds (England) since receiving a Ph.D. there in 1974. Bill's research interests center in the area of yarn manufacture and include fiber property measurement to control product and process quality during spinning. F94-S9, I95-A11, F96-A3, F97-C5, F99-S6*, I99-S10 woxenham@tx.ncsu.edu (919)-515-6578
http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tam/aboutdept/facresstaff/facstaff_frame.htm

We are developing models to elucidate the behavior of fibers in high speed air streams.
In vortex spinning, which is being hailed as the future technology for short staple spinning, air is used not only to transport and maintain the integrity of the fiber assembly, but to impart false twist to the structure and to generate a two-part structure consisting of a core of parallel fibers wrapped with an outer sheath (See Photos). The airflow dynamics in this process are more complex than air jet texturing.

Scanning Electron Microscope Images of Vortex Yarn Structures

Since it is necessary to establish idealized models of yarns and fibers, we have chosen the CFD-ACE modeling and software package to model fiber motion in high-speed airflows (See CFD-ACE Images). We will use the output from these idealized models to establish more efficient parameters for commercial processes. We will be • conducting an analysis of the high-speed airflow patterns acting on a fiber • establishing the model of fiber motion (such a model could be used to optimize how air is used to twist fibers into yarn)

Memis Acar, a visiting research scholar at NC State, has been a Lecturer (1986) and Senior Lecturer (1991) in Mechanical Engineering at Loughborough University (Leicestershire UK) where he earned a PhD in mechanical engineering in 1984. He earned a MSc in textile technology in 1979 from Univ. of Manchester. Memis' research interests include air-jets for texturing and mingling, water jets for hydroentanglement, hydroentangled nonwovens, design of textile machinery, mechatronics in textile industries and yarn imaging. F98-S12, F99-S6 macar@unity.ncsu.edu (919)-515-6449 m.acar@lboro.ac.uk, +44 1509 223218

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Arindam Basu, the Assistant Director of The South India Textile Research Association, Coimbatore, earned a Ph.D. in textile engineering from Univ. of Leeds in 1991, a Bachelor's in 1983 in textile technology from Univ. of Calcutta and a Diploma in business and industrial management from Datamatics Institute (Bombay). He was a supervisor for West Bengal Co-operative spinning mills from 1986-1997 and then Deputy manager for Indian Rayon and Industries Limited. F99-S6 sitra@md2.vsnl.net.in +91-422-574367 (India)

40

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000

Chemical Processes
Research in dyeing, finishing and waste reduction in textile processes.

Investigation of Flexible Crosslinking Systems for the Retention of Mechanical Strength and Abrasion Resistance in Durable Press Cotton Fabrics
Gary C. Lickfield, leader (Clemson); Charles Q. Yang (University of Georgia)

literature values and the Young’s modulus is very close to that of normal viscose rayon. Thus, the procedures for producing model structures are reasonable, and we will use them to generate models for further simulations.
Average mechanical properties of amorphous cellulose models: Young’s Bulk Compress Shear Poisson’s modulus modulus -ibility modulus ratio GPa GPa GPa GPa 9.7 5.4 0.18 4.0 0.2
1 0.9 0.8 0.7 stress (GPa) 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 -0.1 0 5 10 strain (%) 15 20

C97-C3

Severe tensile strength loss has been the major disadvantage for durable press finished 100% cotton fabrics. The loss of tensile strength in resin finished cotton has been attributed to two main factors: reduction in the degree of polymerization of the cellulose due to acid degradation under high temperature curing conditions; and formation of the network polymer itself. The latter is related to the rigidity of the crosslinks formed. To develop a fundamental understanding of the mechanism of tensile strength loss in crosslinked cotton fabrics, we are investigating the relationship between the strength loss due to crosslinking and the molecular structure of the crosslinking agent.

We are investigating the relationship between the loss of mechanical strength in durable press finished cotton fabrics and the molecular structure of the crosslinking agent.
Studies presented earlier focused on the response of single crosslink model structures and single polymeric chain models to an applied strain, providing such information as molecular extensibility and ultimate modulus. We are now extending that stress-strain work to three dimensional model structures to better understand the influence of intermolecular interactions on the extension and elastic recovery potential of crosslink structures in cellulosic models, specifically for amorphous cellulosic structures. Under periodic boundary conditions using Monte Carlo methods we generated amorphous cells consisting of cellulose chains with a degree of polymerization of forty. These amorphous cells were relaxed and optimized using a combination of molecular mechanics minimization and molecular dynamics, first at high temperature (1000 K), then at room temperature (300 K). The fully optimized structures had an average density (1.42 g/cc) very close to literature values and a minimal internal stress indicating that the models are fully relaxed. The average Hildebrand solubility parameter, which can sometimes be used as a rough indicator of mechanical properties of the polymer, was comparable with the experiment values. Calculated mechanical properties are very close to

Average stress-strain diagram for amorphous cellulose 3D model structures using molecular mechanics calculations.

From these initial amorphous cellulose 3D models we generated stress-strain data (See Graph) by calculating the internal stress within the periodic cell due to an applied strain along one axis of the cell. These data represent the average of each direction and each amorphous structure. Interesting, these amorphous cells appear to deform elastically up to an applied strain of approximately 5-8%, above which there appears to be plastic deformation and chain slippage. We are currently investigating the affect that water content and crosslink density has on these predicted mechanical properties. [Other Contributors: Graduate Student: Wei Chen (Clemson)] Research Scientists: Zhiping Mao, Lei Quian (Georgia)]
Industry Interactions: 4 [Calloway Chemical, FMC Corp., Sequa, Oxford Intl.] Project Web Site Address: none reported For Further Information

1. I. Kang, C. Q. Yang, W. Wei, and G. C. Lickfield, The Mechanical Strength of the Cotton Fabrics Crosslinked by Polycarboxylic Acids: Part I. Acid Degradation and Crosslinking of Cellulose, Textile Res. J. 68:856 (1998). 2. W. Wei, C. Q. Yang and G. C. Lickfield, The Mechanical Strength of Durable Press Finished Cotton Fabrics: Part II. Effects of the Catalysts Used for DMDHEU, submitted to Textile Res. J. 3. W. Wei, C. Q. Yang and G. C. Lickfield, Mechanical Strength of Durable Press Finished Cotton Fabric: Part III. Comparison of Crosslinking Agents with Different Molecular Structures and Reactivity, submitted to Textile Res. J.

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000

41

4. C. Q. Yang, Characterizing the Ester Cross-Linkages of Cotton Cellulose With FT-IR Photoacoustic Spectroscopy, Textile Res. J. 61:298 (1991). 5. C. Q. Yang and G. Bakshi, Quantitative Analysis of the Nonformaldehyde Durable Press Finish on Cotton Fabric: Acid-base Titration and Infrared Spectroscopy, Textile Res. J. 66:377 (1996). 6. C. Q. Yang L. Xu, S. Li, and Y. Jiang, Nonformaldehyde Durable Press Finishing of Cotton Fabrics by Combining Polymers of Maleic Acid with Citric Acid, Textile Res. J. 68:457 (1998). 7. C. Q. Yang and X. Wang Formation of the Cyclic Anhydride Intermediates and Esterification of Cotton Cellulose by Multifunctional carboxylic Acids: An Infrared Spectroscopy Study, Textile Res. J. 66:595 (1996). 8. C. Q. Yang, X. Wang and I. Kang, Nonformaldehyde Durable Press Finishing of Cotton Fabrics by the Combination of Polymers of Maleic Acid and Citric Acid: Part I. Ester Crosslinking Cotton Fabric by the Polymers of Maleic Acid and Citric Acid, Textile Res. J. 67:334 (1997)

Charles Q. Yang, a Professor in the Dept. of Textiles at Georgia since 1995, joined the faculty in 1990 after an assistant professorship in Chemistry at Marshall University (WV). Charles earned a Ph.D. in analytical chemistry from Kansas State in 1987, an M.S. in polymer chemistry in 1981 from Nanjing University (China) and a B.S. in chemistry from Peking University in 1969. His research interests include chemical modifications and analyses of textile fibers, fabrics and polymeric materials and nonformaldehyde durable press finishing of cotton fabrics. C97-C3 cyang@hestia.fcs.uga.edu (706)542-4912

Gary C. Lickfield, an Associate Professor in Textiles, Fiber & Polymer Science at Clemson, joined the faculty in 1986. He earned a Ph.D. there in physical chemistry in 1983 and a B.S. in chemistry from Ursinus College in 1978. Gary's research interests include molecular modeling, polymer surfaces and interfaces modification and characterization, wetting and adhesion. M95-S22, C97-C3*, C99-C3 lgary@clemson.clemson.edu (864)-656-5964 http://www.eng.clemson.edu/textiles/faculty/lickfield.html

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National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000

Fundamentals of Moisture Transport in Textiles: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Studies

C97-G31

Haskell Beckham, leader; Wallace Carr, Johannes Leisen (Georgia Tech), Steven B. Warner (UMassD) If we can fundamentally understand and quantify moisture transport in textile structures, new drying processes and novel and improved textile materials for fluid management can be developed. To design textile materials with specific functional properties (e.g. moisture absorption or transport), we must first establish the relationship between these properties and the structure of the fibrous substrate. Methods such as optical microscopy and porosimetry have been used1,2 in order to obtain structural information of fibrous materials. However,

pores in the yarns and less liquid was available for the transverse flow to the top and bottom layers. 2. In type 1 structures, the flow front advanced fastest in the structure consisting of 186 denier, 36 filament yarn (186/36). This structure had the largest hydraulic radius (largest pore size), the lowest capillary pressure and the highest permeability in both principal directions. The advancement of the flow front was slowest in the structure consisting of 1500/384 yarn which had the smallest hydraulic radius, the highest capillary pressure and the lowest permeability in the principal directions. 3. In type 1 structures, although a high uniaxial in-plane orientation was provided with parallel continuous filaments, flow anisotropy was not as high as expected, but was higher in the middle layer than in the top or bottom layer. To explain the flow behavior in type 1 structures we used the model that Montgomery et al. developed to quantify the directional in-plane permeabilities of geotextiles1 in a new way to predict the flow front. The predicted flow front using this model was within 20% of the experimental values (See Graph).
Flow Front vs Time in the Principal Directions for
Flow Front vs Time
0.06 distance (m) 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 0 0 50 100 time (sec) 150 200 predicted (direction 1) experimental (direction 1) predicted (direction 2) experimental (direction 2)

We seek to fundamentally understand moisture transport in fibrous assemblies to improve drying processes and fluid management in textile structures.
these methods are destructive if a sample must be cut to obtain information about interior regions. An alternative approach is to investigate fluid distributions within materials noninvasively with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques.3 Additional advantages include the measurement of MRI properties relative to various physicochemical properties of the fluids: translational and rotational motions, viscosity or temperature.4 We are using MRI to visualize 3D spatial moisture distributions within these opaque fibrous textile structures and to measure pore structure and moisture movement (both vertical and horizontal) during loading and/or drying. Design, Manufacture and Modeling of Anisotropic Fibrous Assemblies To enhance the fluid flow in a desired direction we designed, constructed and tested two multilayer fibrous structures of different anisotropic wicking properties where fiber orientation is in one direction. • Type 1 structures transport liquid as fast as possible in one direction with minimal wicking in any other direction. Here parallel-laid continuous filament yarns maximize the in-plane orientation. • Type 2 structures transport liquid through the surface plane with minimal wicking in the surface plane. Here flocked fibers maximize the orientation perpendicular to the surface plane. We built models to explain and predict these observed flow behaviors. Our conclusions from this study are: 1. In a three-layer type 1 structure, flow was fastest in the middle layer, which consisted of parallel-laid continuous filament yarns. Transverse flow from the middle to the outer layers was not fast enough to keep the flow front uniform among the layers. As liquid advanced along the yarns in the middle layer, liquid was retained in the smaller

Uniaxially-oriented 1500 Denier Filament Polyester Yarns

Hence, when the three structural variables - porosity, in-plane directional permeabilities and pore size (from which capillary pressure can be determined) - and properties of the spreading liquid are known, we can predict the in-plane flow front for the structure. [Other Contributors: none reported]
Industry Interactions: 5 [Engineered Yarns of America, Timberland, Kimberly-Clark, Milliken, Queen Carpet] Project Web Site Address: http://www.tfe.gatech.edu/beckham/C97-G31 For Further Information

1. S. M. Montgomery, K. L. Adams, M. Rebenfeld, Geotextiles and Geomembranes 7:275 (1988). 2. E. Coskuntuna, MS thesis, Textile Sciences Department, UMass Dartmouth (Mar 2000). 3. J. Leisen, L. Hou, H. W. Beckham, W. W. Carr, Observation of the Water Distribution during Drying of Textiles in Spatially Resolved Magnetic Resonance: Methods, Materials, Medicine, Biology, Rheology, Geology, Ecology, Hardware, edited by P. Blümler, B. Blümich, R. Botto and E. Fukushima, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 265 (1998). 4. J. Leisen, H. W. Beckham, W. W. Carr, S. Warner, J. Good Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Water Ingress and Distribution in Fluorochemical-Finished Polyester Cut-Pile Carpet, Textile Chemist and Colorist 31:21 (1998) 5. J. Leisen, H. W. Beckham, W. W. Carr, Observation of Drying Processes in Textiles by Magnetic Resonance Microscopy, 39th Experimental NMR Conference; Pacific Grove CA; (March 1998)

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000

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6. H. W. Beckham, Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Fluids in Engineered Fibrous Substrates DuPont; Chattanooga, TN (Sep 1997) 7. J. Leisen, H. W. Beckham, W. W. Carr Observation of Water Distribution and Diffusion during the Drying Process in Textiles 4th Int Conf on Magnetic Resonance Microscopy and Macroscopy; Albuquerque (Sep 1997) 8. H. W. Beckham, J Leisen, WW Carr, Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Water Distribution in Carpet, AATCC Int Conf & Exhibition. Book of Papers (1997) 9. H. W. Beckham, Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Water Distribution in Carpet: Drying Studies, AATCC Int Conf & Exhibition, Atlanta (Sep 1997)
Haskell Beckham, an Associate Professor at Georgia Tech, joined the faculty in 1993. He received a B.S. in textile chemistry at Auburn and a Ph.D. in polymer science at M.I.T. in 1991 whereupon he served a 2-year postdoctoral internship at the Max Planck-Institute (Mainz). His research interests include polymer and textile chemistry, synthesis and properties of functionalized polymers and solid state NMR investigations of polymer molecular structure, order and dynamics. M95-G8, C95-G2, C95-G13*, C97-G11* haskell.beckham@tfe.gatech.edu (404)-894-4198 http://www.tfe.gatech.edu/beckham Wallace W. Carr, an Associate Professor in Textile and Fiber Engineering at Georgia Tech since 1980, received a Ph.D. in mechanical engineering from Georgia Tech in 1973. Before joining the faculty, "Chuck" was a senior research engineer at Monsanto. His research interests include thermal sciences in industrial fiber and textile processes (particularly radio frequency, microwave, ultrasound and infrared), electrophotographic printing of textiles and polymer properties and structure. C95-G1*, C95-G2*, F98-G15, C97-G11, C98-G30*, C99-G8* wallace.carr@tfe.gatech.edu (404)-894-2538 http://www.tfe.gatech.edu/faculty/carr/carr.html

Johannes Leisen, a research scientist at Georgia Tech since 1997, received a PhD in chemistry from Johannes Gutenberg University in 1994 for research conducted at the Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research (Mainz). He then did research at Fraunhofer Institute for Biomedical Research in St. Ingbert (Germany). Hanno’s research interests include polymer characterization using NMR spectroscopy and development and application of spatially resolved NMR techniques in textile sciences. C97-G31 johannes.leisen@textiles.gatech.edu (404)-894-9241 Steven B. Warner, a Professor and Chair of Textile Sciences at UMass Dartmouth since 1994, earned a Sc.D. in polymer and material science & engineering from M.I.T. in 1976. He then spent 12 years in industrial research at Hoechst-Celanese and Kimberly-Clark and 5 years on the faculty of Georgia Tech. Steve is the author of the texts: The Science and Design of Engineering Materials and Fiber Science. His research interests include fibers science, microstructure of nonwovens and fluid management in fibrous assemblies and properties. M95-G8*, C95-G2, M98-D1*, M98-D3, C97-G31, I99-D16 swarner@umassd.edu (508)-999-8449

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National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000

Textiles Having the Ability to Deliver Reactive Chemical Species

C98-A17

Roy M Broughton, Jr. (TE, Auburn), leader; Dave Worley, German Mills, B. Lewis Slaten, Christine Sundermann (Auburn), Gang Sun (UC Davis), Steve Michielsen (Georgia Tech) The use of textiles to support and dose active chemical species is as old as the application of an ointment to a gauze for covering a wound. The chemical species should have a long active lifetime; or if exhausted quickly, should be easily and quickly regenerated. Initially we are using chemical wet finishing and polymer grafting technologies to incorporate chemically reactive moieties onto fibers and fabrics to achieve antibacterial or antifungal effects or even chemical reactions. To be effective such antimicrobial materials released from the fiber should be safe and must retain their biocidal activity in laundering and extended use, either because the activity is durable functionality or regenerable (See Figure).

powders to a variety of textiles materials, nonwovens and other polymer surfaces (See Photo), and have incorporated antimicrobial pigments into polypropylene fibers during extrusion. We are also determining how much N-halamine is required on a textile surface for antimicrobial activity and whether such activity requires the actual release of halogen to work. Thus far, We have incorporated antimicrobials with a textile substrate by: • Surface reaction between functional groups (conventional chemistry) • High energy grafting processes – photo and plasma (e.g. poly(acrylic acid) grafted to the surface of nylon 6,6 films) • During fiber extrusion • Powder adherence to the fiber surface using a binder or adhesive • Dye absorption techniques (ion exchange etc.)

developing We are developing textiles that deliver reactive chemical species, especially those with extensive antimicrobial antimicrobial activity.
Some mechanisms suggested for biocidal action are: disruption of the cell wall, protein denaturing, interference with enzymes, crosslinking of protein, chemical oxidation and binding or reaction at particular sites on the protein. A reasonable hypothesis is that those materials, which react with proteins and enzymes, must be released from a biocidal fiber and penetrate the cell, while the membrane disrupters and perhaps oxidants may work acceptably from outside the microbe. We are developing textiles that deliver reactive chemical species, especially those with extensive antimicrobial activity. We expect to deliver antimicrobial activity similar to how catalysts are delivered in chemical synthesis and how reactants are used to remove pollutants from air or water and to produce biocompatible materials. Our work has concentrated on the use of N-halamine compounds and quaternary ammonium compounds for incorporating biocidal activity onto fibers. Certain N-halamine compounds are stable but release a small amount of free halogen in response to a challenge from a microorganism. These compounds have been used as biocidal compounds for cleaning swimming pools, and producing potable water from contaminated sources. Our goal is to develop ways of attaching the functional group to textile materials, thereby rendering them antimicrobial. To date we have used conventional chemistry to bond N-halamines to several kinds of fiber (including aramids, nylon, melamine and cellulose) to form effective antimicrobials. We have also bonded antimicrobial

Micrograph of antimicrobial powder coated on polymer surface

To test antimicrobial effectiveness we are using either a filtration or a modified AATCC fabric test. In the filtration test contaminated water is recirculated through a filter containing the antimicrobial textile and the contact time to kill bacteria is measured by plating a sample periodically during the time of recirculation. The N-halamines are particularly fast acting in this test. The modified AATCC fabric test, used where the fabric is not hygroscopic, involves sandwiching a small sample of contaminated liquid between layers of fabric or film containing the antimicrobial. We can now measure the surface conductivity as a function of frequency (0.01 – 100,000 Hz) which will allow us to determine the mobility of the surface grafted chain. We believe that the optimum polymeric antimicrobial will have to be able to conform to the cell surface and thus require (as yet unknown) surface mobility. [Contributing Graduate Student: Unchin Cho, Shi Wei Huang (Auburn); Shuying Yang (Georgia Tech); Post-doctoral Fellows: Jian Lin (Auburn), Yuyu Sun (UC Davis)]
Industry Interactions: 20 Project Web Site Address:
http://www.eng.auburn.edu/department/te/ntc/99/broughton/c98a17.html

For Further Information: nothing reported

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000

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Roy M. Broughton, Jr, a Professor of Textile Engineering at Auburn since 1976, received his Ph.D. with concentrations in textile chemistry and fiber and polymer science from NC State. Before joining Auburn, Roy worked in polyester research at Goodyear Tire & Rubber. His research interests include manufacture, utilization and testing of fibers and nonwovens.
M93-S5, I95-A11*, M96-A2*, M98-A10, F96-A3, F98-A4*, C98-A17*, M99-G11

royalb@eng.auburn.edu (334)-844-5460 http://www.eng.auburn.edu/department/te/faculty/Broughton Stephen Michielsen, an Associate Professor in Textile and Fiber Engineering at Georgia Tech, joined the faculty in 1995. He has a B.S. in chemistry from S.U.N.Y. and earned a Ph.D. in physical chemistry from the University of Chicago in 1979 and did postdoctoral research at Stanford whereupon he spent 15 years at DuPont in their polymer and fiber research departments. Steve's research interests include fiber surface modification, fiber strength, thermomechanical properties of fibers and polymers, fiber/polymer physics and polymer blends. C98-A17, C99-S4 stephen.michielsen@tfe.gatech.edu (404)-894-6345 http://www.tfe.gatech.edu/faculty/michielsen/michielsen.html German Mills, an Associate Professor of Chemistry at Auburn since 1995, joined the faculty in 1989. He earned a Ph.D. in physical chemistry from the Technical University of West Berlin in 1985 and a MS in inorganic chemistry from the University of Chile in 1981. "Jimmy" has held postdoctoral positions at Caltech and Argonne National Lab. His research interests include synthesis and properties of nanometer-sized metal and semiconductor particles, "smart" materials and transformation of toxic chemicals. F95-S24, C98-A17, M98-A10* millsge@mail.auburn.edu (334)-844-6974 http://www.auburn.edu/~winkekj/group.html

B. Lewis Slaten, an Associate Professor at Auburn, joined the faculty in 1974 after receiving a M.S. in organic chemistry from University of Arkansas and a Ph.D. in chemical engineering from Maryland. Previously, Lew was a chemist for Freeport Minerals and the National Bureau of Standards' Fire Technology division. His research interests include fabric test methods, barrier textiles, protective clothing, environmental chemistry and chemistry of textile finishes. slatebl@auburn.edu F95-S24, M98-A10, C98-A17 (334)-844-1330 http://www.humsci.auburn.edu/ca/html/slaten.html Gang Sun, an Assistant Professor in Textiles and Clothing at University of California, Davis since 1995, received a Ph.D. in organic/ polymer chemistry from Auburn in 1994. He also received an M.S. in 1984 in textile chemical engineering from China Textile University (Shanghai). His research interests include functional modifications of polymers and textiles, development of biological and chemical protective materials, evaluation of functional properties of textiles and polymers, and utilization of agricultural wastes in textile processing. C98-A17 gysun@ucdavis.edu (530)-752-0840 Christine A. Sundermann, a Professor of Zoology & Wildlife Science at Auburn, joined the faculty in 1984. She earned a Ph.D. in zoology from University of Georgia in 1983 and a B.S. from Iowa State in biology in 1977. Christine’s research interests include inactivation of Giardia and other parasitic protozoa in potable water; in vivo and in vitro development of Toxoplasma gondii and its detection; hormone receptors in ciliated protozoa. C98-A17 sundeca@mail.auburn.edu (334)-844-3929 S. D. Worley, a Professor of Chemistry at Auburn, joined the faculty in 1974 after being at Johnson Spacecraft Center, Cleveland State Univ. and the Office of Naval Research. He earned a Ph.D. in chemistry from Texas in 1969. Dave’s research interests include synthesis and testing of new biocidal polymers for numerous applications such as coatings. C98-A17 worlesd@mail.auburn.edu (334)-844 4043

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National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000

Finish Film Stability and Its Relevance to Slinging of Spin Finish on a Spinline
Y. K. Kamath, leader; Xuemin Chen, Alexander V. Neimark (TRI/Princeton)

C98-P2

2. The amplitude of the waves increases 3. The film ruptures and a regular array of droplets is formed 4. Smaller droplets may form between larger ones 5. Neighboring droplets may coalesce and the string of droplets loses its regularity

Textile fibers and yarns are treated with spin finishes that act as lubricants and anti-static agents during melt spinning. As the finish is applied it will first form liquid films on the fibers and then break up into droplets due to film instability caused by capillary forces. These droplets may detach from the yarn because of yarn vibration during spinning or centrifugal forces at the winder, creating an undesirable condition known as "slinging". A better understanding of the factors that influence finish film stability, droplet formation and slinging

We are investigating the stability of finish films on fibers and how finish droplets detach from vibrating yarns.
tendency should lead to improved finish formulations. We developed thermodynamic and hydrodynamic models to predict the stability of liquid films on static and moving fibers. We have used a PC-based imaging system to observe the breakup of finish films and the formation of droplets on fibers and have observed the detachment of finish droplets from vibrating yarns. Stability of Finish Films on Fibers The stability of a uniform liquid film on a fiber depends upon capillary forces which act to thin and break the film and upon interfacial adhesion which acts to keep the film in place. Our modeling work shows that for a given liquid-fiber system there exits for a stable film an upper limit of thickness, known as the critical thickness, over which the film is thermodynamically unstable and will break up into droplets. The critical thickness is a function of fiber radius, liquid surface tension, and liquid-fiber adhesion (See Graph). Viscosity does not affect the conditions of finish film stability, but it determines the rates of film breakup.
450 400

Finish film breakup and droplet formation on Nylon (left) and Teflon (right) fibers.

Film breakup on a Teflon fiber takes place at a much faster rate than that on a nylon fiber (See Photos above). In addition, the tendency of neighboring droplets to coalesce is virtually nonexistent for Teflon fibers compared to nylon fibers. The droplets on Teflon fibers tend to be regularly spaced, while the droplets on nylon fibers tend to coalesce, resulting in uneven spacing between the droplets. These observations can be attributed to the higher surface energy of nylon and the stronger adhesion between the finish liquid and nylon fibers. Detachment of Finish Droplets from Vibrating Yarns Detachment of finish droplets was observed when the yarn vibrated at moderate frequencies (20-30 Hz) with relatively high amplitudes (see photo at right). Smaller droplets remained on the yarn after the detachment of larger droplets. Further detailed studies are required, including modeling work, to understand the detachment mechanisms. Some of the factors that determine the tendency of a liquid droplet to detach from a vibrating yarn are: • Inertia forces acting on the droplets when the yarn vibrates • Frequency and amplitude of the vibration • Droplet size • Interfacial adhesion between the liquid and the yarn • Area of contact between the droplet and the yarn • Intermolecular cohesion within the liquid • Density and viscosity of the liquid

Film Thickness (nm)

350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000

Fiber Radius (µm)

Critical thickness of thermodynamically stable films. vs. fiber radius

The breakup of liquid films proceeds in the following stages: 1. Ripples in the form of stationary waves appear in the film
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• Surface tension of the liquid [Other Contributor: Konstantin G. Kornev]
Industry Interactions: none reported Project Web Site Address: http://fibers.texsci.edu/C98P02 For Further Information

1. Lord Rayleigh, Phil. Mag. 34:145 (1879) 2. S. L. Goren, J. Fluid Mech., 12:309 (1962). 3. M. Johnson, R. D. Kamm, L. W. Ho, A. Shapiro and T. J. Pec, J Fluid Mech., 233, 141 (1991). 4. A. L. Yarin, A. Oron and P. Roseneau, Phys. Fluids A 5:91 (1993). 5. A. Neimark, Private Communication (1998).
Y. K. Kamath, a Director of Research at TRI/Princeton and an Adjunct Professor at PhiladelphiaU, joined TRI in 1972. He earned a Ph.D. in physical and organic chemistry from Univ. of Connecticut in 1973, a M.S. in plastic Technology and a B.S. in chemistry and physics from Bombay Univ. (India) in 1959. His research interests include polymer colloids, polymerization kinetics, fiber and fiber surface chemistry, interfacial interactions, fiber transport, fiber finishes and fiber, yarn and fabric mechanical properties. C98-P2 ykamath@triprinceton.org (609)-430-4820

Xuemin Chen, a Staff Scientist at TRI/Princeton, joined TRI in 1999. He earned a Ph.D. in physical chemistry from Brigham Young Univ. in 1991 and an M.S. from Nankai University (China) in 1985. Before joining TRI, Xuemin was a postdoctoral fellow and research associate at Brigham Young. His research interests include interactions of liquids with fibrous materials, distribution and stability of finish films on fibers and yarns, and chemical instrumentation. C98-P2 xchen@triprinceton.org (609)-430-4836 Alexander V. Neimark, a Principal Scientist at TRI/Princeton since 1996, earned an M.S. in mechanical engineering in 1973, a Ph.D. in chemical engineering in 1977 and a D.Sc. in physical chemistry in 1988 from Moscow State Univ. (Russia). He was then a Research Professor in Physics at the Russian Academy of Science then to the faculty of Yale’s Chemical Engineering Dept. 1994-96. Alex’s research interests include interfacial phenomena and porous materials engineering, from molecular level theories of nanocapillarity to macroscopic models of fluid flow and sorption in porous media and fiber systems. C98-P2 aneimark@triprinceton.org (609)-430-4818 http://www.triprinceton.org/aneimark

48

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000

Delivery of Textile Additives with Inclusion Compounds
Alan Tonelli, leader; Peter Hauser (NC State)

C98-S1

Many textile products rely on additives to enhance their performance. These additives are commonly applied to fabric by padding from an additive bath. Depending on the additive and the fibers in the fabric, it is often difficult to deliver the additive to the fabric in sufficient quantity or with sufficient fastness to achieve long-term additive function. If, instead, the additive is delivered in the form of an inclusion compound with a cyclodextrin (See Figure at left), then it could be embedded in a fiber during A cyclodextrin spinning, achieving a more effective delivery and a durable shelf-life of the additive. In addition, delivery via such cyclodextrin inclusion compounds (CD-ICs) may permit an on-demand release of the additive. For example, perspiration permeating a garment during active exercise might disrupt the embedded, additive-CD-IC crystals releasing the additive, which could be a deodorant or a biocide. It might even be possible for fabric whose fibers contain embedded, water repellant-CD-IC crystals to confer water repellency on-demand when worn in the rain.

ability to dye nylon from the inside out, to fabricate antibiotic, bioabsorbable sutures from poly (L-lactic acid) fibers and to deliver a normally-liquid flame retardant in a solid form that only retards burning when the embedded PET films are exposed to flames. Incorporated into a CD-IC, nonoxynol-9, a surfactant and the most widely used, normally liquid spermicide, can now be delivered to fibers and films via its CD-IC crystals, thereby producing, for example, spermicidal fabrics and/or condoms. In addition, it appears that we may have successfully incorporated silk (Bombyx mori) into a CD-IC, so we may be able to fabricate silk-synthetic polymer composites through coalescence of the silk from its CD-IC crystals into the synthetic carrier polymer.

We are embedding textile additives into polymer and fibers during spinning.
We have had preliminary discussions with major manufacturers of flame retardants, sutures and medical polymers, drugs, food packaging, fibers and nylon and polyester webbing used in safety harnesses. Webbing fibers containing CD-ICs upon abrasion or threshold exposures of UV radiation, could release guest additives that might indicate when to replace a safety harness.
For Further Information: nothing reported Industry Interactions: 10 Project Web Site Address: none reported For Further Information

1. L.Huang and A. E. Tonelli, J. Macrmol. Sci., Revs. Macromol Chem . Phys., 38(4), 781, 1998. 2. A.E. Tonelli, Polym. International., 43, 295, 1997. 3. L.Huang, H. Taylor, M. Gerber, P. Orndorff, J. Horton and A. E. Tonelli, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 74 (1999) 4. L. Huang and A. E. Tonelli, Chap. 10, p.131 in Intelligent Materials for Controlled Release, S. M. Dinh, J. D. DeNuzzio and A. R. Comfort, Eds., American Chemical Society Symposium Series #728, Washington DC (1999).
Alan Tonelli, the KoSa Professor of Polymer Science at NC State, joined the faculty in 1991 after a 23-year career at AT&T's Bell Labs. He earned a B.S. in chemical engineering from Kansas in 1964 and a Ph.D. in chemistry from Stanford in 1968. Alan is a Fellow of the American Physical Society and author of “NMR Spectroscopy and Polymer Microstructure The Conformational Connection" and "Polymers from the Inside Out: An Introduction to Macromolecules." His research interests include conformational characteristics, microstructures, NMR spectroscopy and physical properties of polymers. C95-S7, C98-S1*, C99-S4* alan_tonelli@ncsu.edu (919)-515-6588
http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tecs/tecs_personnel/home_pages/tonelli.html

When an additive is delivered in the form of its CD-IC crystals (See Figure above), it is protected from the environment encountered both during and after embedding into the carrier polymer fibers. It becomes active only after exposure to conditions which disrupt the additive-CD-IC crystals. In addition to protecting the guest additive, the CD-IC provides some control over when and how the additive is delivered and over the physical nature of the additive itself. We are in the early stages of exploring the potential benefits of delivering textile additives and auxillaries by this technology, but our recent success in forming CD-ICs with dyes, antibiotics, flame retardants, spermicides and a variety of polymers provides further opportunities to tailor and control the release of these guests to achieve textile products with enhanced properties. We have already demonstrated the

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000

49

Peter J. Hauser, an Associate Professor of Textile Chemistry at NC State, joined the faculty in 1997 after a 23-year industrial research career with Milliken, Burlington and Virkler Co. He received a B.S. in 1969 and a Ph.D. in 1974 in chemistry from NC State. Peter's research interests include high performance chemical finishes for enhanced value textiles, indigo dyeing and denim garment wet processing, mathematical modeling of textile wet processes and new textile processes to reduce costs, energy usage and pollution associated with textile wet processing. C98-S1, C98-S4, C99-S9 peter_hauser@ncsu.edu (919)-513-1899
http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tecs/tecs_personnel/home_pages/hauser.html

50

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000

Simultaneous Dyeing and Finishing
Harold S. Freeman, leader, Peter Hauser (NC State)

Cl
C98-S4

Cl N N Cl
NH4OH

N H OH N N

N N NH2

We are developing ways to combine the dyeing and finishing steps of textile wet processing by designing textile dyes capable of imparting finishing affects, as well as color, to textile fibers. To demonstrate the potential of this new technology, we are initially emphasizing the design and synthesis of dyes that impart water-repellent properties to cotton and PET fabrics.

H OH N

NaO3S

SO3Na

NaO3S
N2 Cl

SO3Na

SO3 Na

Cl

We are developing ways to combine dyeing and finishing in textile wet processing.
Reactive Dyes We recently prepared water-repellent reactive dyes 1 and 2 (See Figure below), which give water repellency on mercerCl N R OH N N SO3Na NaO3S SO3Na H N N NH
NaO3S

N H OH N NaO3S
(CF 3(CF2)nCO)2O

N N NH2

N N NaO3S Cl N N N O NHC(CF2)nCF3 SO3Na

n = 0 ,1

H OH N

N

NaO3S

N N SO3Na

Synthesis of a fluoroacyl-containing reactive dye

1 R = C12H25 2 R = C14H29

media. To circumvent this problem, we designed type 5 dyes (See Scheme below), which would be much less prone to acidinduced cleavage. We have already synthesized the tosylate (A) and coupler (B) precursors.
N OH (Pyridine)
+ TsCl

ized cotton but not on unmercerized cotton, because of expected low fixation on the latter type substrate. The best water repellency we obtained (80 in AATCC 22-1989) was with type 3 dyes containing a second hydrophobic group (See Figure); however, the low water solubility of these dyes limits their application to the pad-dry-cure process.
Cl N H29C14 OH N N H N N NHC12H25 N

N -10 to -20°C A OTs

CH3(CH2)11NH2 65-70°C (CH3CN)

N B Ar N N
SO3Na

NH(CH2)11CH3

NaO3S

3 Our most recent studies involve the synthesis of reactive dyes containing a perfluoroacyl group (See 3-step sequence in Scheme at top right). Disperse Dyes Earlier we prepared a series of water-repellent disperse dyes (See Insert) in which the Ar-group included substituted benzenes and heteroaromatic O N N systems and the R-group Ar N O included alkyl and perfluoroalkyl chains. Such dyes, however, lost the acyl group during dye application, even in weakly acid

Ar

N N 5 N NH(CH2)11CH3

R

[Contributing Graduate Students: Monthon Nakpathom, Xin Chen (NC State)]
Industry Interactions: none reported Project Web Site Address:
http://www2.ncsu.edu/unity/lockers/project/ntcprojects/projects/C98-S04

For Further Information: nothing reported

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000

51

Harold S. Freeman, a Professor of Dyestuff Chemistry at NC State, joined the faculty in 1982. He received a Ph.D. in organic chemistry from NC State in 1981 while working as an organic chemist at BurroughsWellcome. Harold's research interests include synthetic pigment and dyestuff chemistry, especially computer-aided design, purification, photodegradation, environmental interactions and instrumental analysis. M95-S22*, C98-S4*, C99-A7 harold_freeman@ncsu.edu (919)-515-6552 http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/college/personnel/hfreeman.html

Peter J. Hauser, an Associate Professor of Textile Chemistry at NC State, joined the faculty in 1997 after a 23-year industrial research career with Milliken, Burlington and Virkler Co. He received a B.S. in 1969 and a Ph.D. in 1974 in chemistry from NC State. Peter's research interests include high performance chemical finishes for enhanced value textiles, indigo dyeing and denim garment wet processing, mathematical modeling of textile wet processes and new textile processes to reduce costs, energy usage and pollution associated with textile wet processing. C98-S1, C98-S4, C99-S9 peter_hauser@ncsu.edu (919)-513-1899
http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tecs/tecs_personnel/home_pages/hauser.html

52

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000

Environmentally Benign Preparatory Processes – Introducing a Closed-Loop System

C99-A7

Gisela Buschle-Diller (Auburn) leader Radhakrishnaiah Parachuru (Georgia Tech) Harold Freeman (NC State), S. H. Zeronian (UC Davis) In conventional textile preparatory processes, strongly alkaline conditions are used to remove the noncellulosic impurities of cotton. Consequently high amounts of rinse water are necessary, making the process expensive. We are developing a novel closed-loop process that combines desizing, scouring and bleaching using only nontoxic environmentally friendly enzymes.

absorbency and mechanical properties. Furthermore, the degree of polymerization did not decrease if suitable enzymes were used for biopreparation; whereas, in conventional wet processes, the degree of polymerization decreases considerably, lowering tensile strength. In future research we plan to improve the hydrogen peroxide activation by enzymatic means so that bleaching can take place in one step and are currently relating the hand and comfort properties of our products (Kawabata) with process variables. [Contributing Graduate Students: Xiang Dong Yang (Auburn), Maria Inglesby (UC Davis)]
Industry Interactions: 10 Project Web Site Address:
http://www.eng.auburn.edu/department/te/ntc/99/diller/c99a07.html

Using nontoxic environmentally-friendly enzymes, we are developing a closed-loop process, including reuse of treatment effluent, to desize, scour and bleach cotton.
Glucose produced during scouring and desizing can be converted into hydrogen peroxide for bleaching by glucose oxidase enzymes. This makes it possible to reuse the treatment bath. The enzymes are selected based on compatibility in their active pH and temperature ranges. Treatment temperatures are 40-50°C and thus much lower than in conventional preparatory processes. The advantages of less water usage, lower energy consumption and less fiber damage make this process extremely attractive. In the first approach we developed enzymatic processes separately for each of the wet processing steps. For the desizing process we were using amyloglucosidases since these enzymes produce the most glucose from starch and starch derivatives. For bioscouring we investigated pectinases from different organisms and studied the effect of additional enzymes for added benefits. Cellulase in small concentrations, for example, adds softness to the scoured products, but lowers their tensile strength. We have now combined the treatment baths of both the desizing and bioscouring steps which, because they now contain considerable amounts of glucose, can be used for enzymatic hydrogen peroxide production by glucose oxidase. In the next step, we developed an effective combined desizing and bioscouring procedure which generated sufficient glucose. So far we are bleaching in two stages 1. Hydrogen peroxide is enzymatically generated. 2. pH and temperature are increased and the fabric bleached with the available hydrogen peroxide. With this process we are able to reach the same product whiteness index of 72 as with the conventional hydrogen peroxide process, and the treated cotton goods show excellent water

For Further Information

1. G. Buschle-Diller, X.D. Yang, Enzymes for Bleaching of Cotton, 219th Amer. Chem. Soc. National Meeting, San Francisco CA (Mar 2000). 2. M.K. Inglesby, S.H. Zeronian, T. Elder, G. Buschle-Diller, Interaction of Direct Dyes with Cellulose Substrates Utilizing Molecular Modeling, 219th Amer. Chem. Soc. National Meeting, San Francisco CA (Mar 2000). 3. M.K. Traore, G. Buschle-Diller, Environmentally Friendly Scouring Processes, Am. Assoc. Text. Chem. Color., 1999 Inter. Conf., Charlotte, NC, (Oct 1999). 4. G. Buschle-Diller, M.K. Traore, X.D. Yang, Bioscouring and Biobleaching of Cotton, Int. Conf. Adv. Fiber Materials, Ueda, Japan (Oct 1999) (invited). 5. G. Buschle-Diller, M.K. Traore, X.H. Shi, H.Hou, Recent Aspects of Enzyme Treatment of Cotton Fabric as Eco-Friendly Textile Processing, 5th Asian Textile Conference, Kyoto, Japan (Sep 1999) (invited). 6. M.K. Inglesby, S.H. Zeronian, G. Buschle-Diller, K. Weisz, Dyes as Structural Probes of Cellulose Fine-Structure Modifications, 218th Amer. Chem. Soc. National Meeting, New Orleans LA (Aug 1999). 7. G. Buschle-Diller, Enzymatic Wet Processing for Cotton Fabric, USDA Forest Products Laboratory, Madison WI (Jul 1999).
Gisela Buschle-Diller, an Assistant Professor of Textile Engineering at Auburn, joined the faculty in 1995. Gisela earned a Ph.D. in chemistry from the U. of Stuttgart (Germany) in 1989 with postdoctoral work at U. of California, Davis, in textiles and clothing. She worked at Berlin's Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Polymer Science and Rathgen Research Laboratories. Her research interests include dyeing and finishing, especially enzymatic processes, natural fibers, environmental issues and the history of dyes and textile materials. C96-A1*, M98-A16, C99-A7* giselabd@eng.auburn.edu (334)-844-5468 http://www.eng.auburn.edu/~giselabd

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000

53

Harold S. Freeman, a Professor of Dyestuff Chemistry at NC State, joined the faculty in 1982. He received a Ph.D. in organic chemistry from NC State in 1981 while working as an organic chemist at BurroughsWellcome. Harold's research interests include synthetic pigment and dyestuff chemistry, especially computer-aided design, purification, photodegradation, environmental interactions and instrumental analysis. M95-S22*, C98-S4*, C99-A7 harold_freeman@ncsu.edu (919)-515-6552 http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/college/personnel/hfreeman.html Radhakrishnaiah Parachuru, a Research Scientist in Textile and Fiber Engineering at Georgia Tech, joined the staff in 1988 from the staff of NC State. He received a Ph.D. in textile engineering in 1981 from the Indian Institute of Technology (New Delhi) and an MS in applied statistics from Georgia State in 1995. Krishna was on the Textile Technology faculty at the University of Madras (India) in 1984-5. His research interests include spun yarn structure-property relationships, Kawabata methodology and computer modeling of manufacturing processes. C96-A1, F98-G15, C99-A7 krishna.parachuru@tfe.gatech.edu (404)-894-0029 http://www.tfe.gatech.edu/faculty/krishna/krishna.html

S. Haig Zeronian, a Professor Emeritus at U.C. Davis, earned an M.S. in textile chemistry in 1955 and a Ph.D. in cellulose chemistry in 1962 from Manchester University, England. He was honored with a D.Sc. from there in 1983 for contributions to polymer and fiber science. Haig is a Fellow of the Textile Institute and has received the American Chemical Society's Anselme Payen Award for advances in cellulosic science and technology. He is on the editorial board for Cellulose. His research interests include cellulose-water interactions, base hydrolysis of polyester, cellulose oxidation, bleaching and degradation. C99-A7 shzeronian@ucdavis.edu (530)-752-6560

54

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000

Chemistry and Transport in Super and Sub-Critical Fluids

C99-C3

Michael J. Drews, leader; Gary C. Lickfield (Clemson), David Hinks (NC State) Super and sub-critical fluids (SCF) as a process media possess many desirable properties for solution based fiber processing, such as low surface tensions that can facilitate penetration into micro-porous materials under highly controlled pressure, temperature and agitation conditions. Solvents like carbon dioxide (CO2), ethylene and ethane are particularly useful as their critical temperatures (31oC, 9.3oC and 32.2oC, respectively) are near ambient. Water, on the other hand, has an extremely high critical temperature (374.2oC) owing to its high polarity and intermolecular hydrogen bonding. Supercritical carbon dioxide is the solvent of choice for this work for the following reasons: • Dyeing in CO2 has been demonstrated. • CO2 is nonflammable and environmentally acceptable. • CO2 is inexpensive and can be recycled efficiently. • Reactions in CO2 can occur without hydrolysis of functional groups because of the low water environment. However, many questions concerning solubility and transport of solutes in a SCF process remain unanswered, as well as the role of the interface between the substrate and the fluid. Also SC CO2 has extremely low polarity and is unable to solubilize common ionic species used in the textile industry. Therefore, we are conducting fundamental research to increase our understanding of the interactions at the SCF-substrate interface and then to incorporate suitable functional groups to develop novel applications and compounds. Potential applications include fiber-reactive dyes, flame retardants, waterrepellency and durable press and antimicrobial finishes.

in fiber and film form, easily Wetting of Modified cleaned, very sensitive to small Supercritical CO2 changes in surface energy and Treated Glass Plate o similar in chemical functionality to Surface Showing a 79 Contact Angle with cellulose. Also, liquids do not Water. easily diffuse into glass fiber or fibrillar interstitial spaces. Moreover, treatment in SC CO2 significantly alters the model glass surface from wetting to non-wetting (See contact angle in photo). We will also use surface chemistry and modeling to select the initial chemical structures for additional surface modification experiments. Fiber-reactive compounds In our research we are emphasizing the design and synthesis of functional groups which can react covalently with specific sites in or on substrates such as polyamide, cellulosic or wool fibers in SC CO2. For nucleophilic addition or substitution reactions in an aqueous environment in all fiber-reactive compounds there is a competing reaction whereby hydrolyzed bi-products are produced that remain unreacted with the fiber. This competing effect means that almost all aqueous based fiber-reactive processes are inefficient, produce enormous effluent issues and are therefore expensive. A mechanism of efficiently reacting compounds with fibers that does not involve competing side reactions is highly desirable. Therefore, one goal of this research is to provide, for the first time, an efficient SCF process that provides covalent bond formation between a fiber and a reactive compound in which the reaction is driven to completion, due to the exclusion, or near exclusion, of protic solvents such as water. We have now synthesized and characterized the first target compound, a non-ionic, vinylsulfone dye (See Scheme). Based on the initial dyeings of nylon-6 carpet samples in SC CO2, we conclude that the vinylsulfone acts primarily as a disperse dye with very little of the dye covalently bonded to the fiber. We are now synthesizing a non-reactive analog of this dye, where the vinyl group is replaced with a –CH2CH3 group. While
O HO3SCH 2CH 2 S O NH2 2M NaOH pH 11 25 C
0

We are studying the solubility and transport of dyes and chemicals in superand sub-critical fluids and their interactions with textile substrates.
We are identifying functional groups that could form covalent bonds with substrates possessing reactive nucleophilic groups such as polyamide, cellulosic and protein fibers. Since one of the major impediments to widespread adoption of SC CO2 are the solubility limitations it imposes, we are developing structure-activity relationships for modeling its solubility characteristics. Furthermore, our research to date has shown that solubility limitations impede the covalent bond formation of certain nucleophilic addition reactions, indicating that a catalyst or suitable co-solvent may be required for optimized covalent bond formation. Fiber-Solvent Interface Our objective is to combine reactive compound synthesis with surface interaction studies into the nature of the substrate fluid interface. We chose glass as a simple model surface for surface interaction studies because glass is uniform, available

H H

H O C C S O NH 2

NaNO2 0-3 C HCl

0

H Et N Et H

H C C

O S O

+ N N

Cl

-

Et H H H O C C S O N N N Et

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000

55

ensuring nonreactivity, the ethyl group does not significantly change the molecular weight of the dyes and will only slightly increase the hydrophobicity. [Other Contributors: Graduate Students: S. Alavi (Clemson), Qinglin Che (NC State); Undergraduate Student: E. Richardson (Clemson); Summer Research Student: R. Clontz (Governor's School for Science and Mathematics); Technical Personnel: K. Ivey, B. Leggett (Clemson)]
Industry Interactions: 6 Project Web Site Address: www.ces.clemson.edu/ntc For Further Information

David Hinks, an Assistant Professor at NC State, joined the faculty in 1993 as a research associate upon earning a Ph.D. in organic dye chemistry from Leeds (U.K.) where he had earlier received a Bachelors in colour chemistry. David’s research interests include computer-aided colorant design, synthesis and application of dyes and pigments and functional chemistry in supercritical fluids. M95-S22, C99-C3 david_hinks@tx.ncsu.edu (919)-515-6554
http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tecs/tecs_personnel/home_pages/hinks.html

1. M. J. Drews, M. Barr and M. Williams, “A Kinetic Study of the SCWO of a Sulfonated Lignin Waste Stream,” Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Supercritical Fluids, ISSF 2000, Atlanta, Ga, April, 2000. 2. M. J. Drews, M. Williams and M. Barr, “The Corrosion of Sol-Gel Coated Type 316SS in Chlorinated SC Water,” Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Supercritical Fluids, ISSF 2000, Atlanta, Ga, April, 2000.
Michael J. Drews, a Professor of Textiles, Fiber and Polymer Sciences at Clemson, joined the faculty in 1974. He is the co-director of Clemson's Center for Advanced Engineering Fibers and Their Composites. He received a Ph.D. in physical chemistry from the Univ. of North Texas in 1971 following a B.S. in chemistry from the Univ. of Wisconsin. Mike's research interests include instrumental methods to characterize polymers, supercritical fluids and fiber reinforced composites for biomaterials. M94-C4, F94-C2*, M95-S22, C95-C3*, C99-C3* dmichae@clemson.clemson.edu (864)656-5955

Gary C. Lickfield, an Associate Professor in Textiles, Fiber & Polymer Science at Clemson, joined the faculty in 1986. He earned a Ph.D. there in physical chemistry in 1983 and a B.S. in chemistry from Ursinus College in 1978. Gary's research interests include molecular modeling, polymer surfaces and interfaces modification and characterization, wetting and adhesion. M95-S22, C97-C3*, C99-C3 lgary@clemson.clemson.edu (864)-656-5964 http://www.eng.clemson.edu/textiles/faculty/lickfield.html

56

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000

Textile Ink Jet Performance and Print Quality Fundamentals

C99-G8

Wallace W. Carr, leader, Jeffrey F. Morris, F. Joseph Schork, Wayne C. Tincher (Georgia Tech); JunYong Zhu (Inst. Paper Sci & Tech) Ink jet printing is becoming an important technology for printing textiles; however, hardware reliability (e.g., clogged nozzles) and speed limitations are technical barriers that limit its use primarily to generation of samples. Textile ink jet systems currently employ two-phase inks or require specially prepared fabrics; yet little is known about how two-phase ink droplets are formed or how fabric should best be prepared for ink jet printing. Properties of ink formulations used for ink jet printing, such as viscosity and surface tension, are quite different from those used in traditional textile printing systems. We are developing the fundamental understanding of ink flow, droplet formation and droplet-substrate interactions in digital ink jet printing needed to design new systems. Initially we are studying the flow behavior of actual pigment-laden inks presently used in textile ink jet printing to identify the basic characteristics of the droplet breakup and impingement process in current ink jet printing. For flow visualization we will formulate transparent model inks utilizing well-characterized polymeric particles. The primary variables in the nozzle flow and droplet formation studies are particle loading, the ratio of nozzle diameter to particle radius and flow rate. For the impingement studies, we will investigate the role of these properties on drying time and substrate penetration for various fabric constructions and finishes. Our research to determine the key factors affecting printing quality is divided into the following four tasks: 1. Model Ink Properties Using novel latex particles from miniemulsion polymerization, we are generating latex particle dispersions with very narrow particle size distributions and controlled average particle sizes. We will blend these dispersions into model systems to study the effect of particle size distribution and particle loading on rheology.

We are developing a fundamental understanding of ink flow, droplet formation and droplet/substrate interactions in digital ink jet printing.
2. Suspension Flow Using flow visualization coupled with stress measurements, we are conducting both experimental studies and computational simulations to better understand suspension flow in nozzle entry contractions and in fine capillary nozzles. These studies will give us velocity and microstructural information, which we will combine with pressure and shear stress measurements. 3. Droplet Formation Using high-magnification imaging and highspeed video we are examining how different particulate suspensions effect the dropletformation process (See Figure), especially on jet instability and droplet pinch-off. We will study particulate suspensions by modeling the physical properties of ink flow through geometrically similar nozzles and break up by mechanical perturbation at the orifice. Critical issues are regularity of droplet formation and pigment loading. 4. Droplet Impingement and Interaction with Textiles We are investigating the interactions of single ink droplets with textile printing substrates and how that effects image formation. By paying attention to the role of surface properties on image formation, we expect to develop a better fundamental understanding of the factors affecting printing quality. By conducting parametric studies, we will correlate our results with droplet size, velocity, ink properties and textile surface properties. [Other Contributors (Georgia Tech): Graduate Students: Heungsup Park, Roy J. Furbank, Ryan M. Miller; Undergraduate Students: Sean Kerrigan]
Industry Interactions: 3 [The Sawgrass Co., Milliken Research, Abbott Laboratories] Project Web Site Address: http://www.tfe.gatech.edu/faculty/carr/ntcproject.htm For Further Information

1. W.W. Carr, J.F. Morris, F.J. Schork, W.C. Tincher, and J.Y. Zhu Textile Ink Jet Performance, Techtextil, North America Symposium, Atlanta GA (March 2000).

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000

57

Wallace W. Carr, an Associate Professor in Textile and Fiber Engineering at Georgia Tech since 1980, received a Ph.D. in mechanical engineering from Georgia Tech in 1973. Before joining the faculty, "Chuck" was a senior research engineer at Monsanto. His research interests include thermal sciences in industrial fiber and textile processes (particularly radio frequency, microwave, ultrasound and infrared), electrophotographic printing of textiles and polymer properties and structure. C95-G1*, C95-G2*, F98-G15, C97-G11, C98-G30*, C99-G8* wallace.carr@tfe.gatech.edu (404)-894-2538 http://www.tfe.gatech.edu/faculty/carr/carr.html Jeffrey F. Morris, an Assistant Professor of chemical engineering at Georgia Tech, joined the faculty in 1995 after obtaining a Ph.D. in ChemE. at Caltech and spending a year with Shell Research in Amsterdam. Jeff also earned a B.Ch.E. in 1989 from Georgia Tech. In 1999 he was a Visiting Professor at the Universite de Provence in Marseille (France). His research interests include suspensions and colloids especially modeling their flow behavior. C98-G30, C99-G8 jeff.morris@che.gatech.edu (404)-894-5134 http://www.chemse.gatech.edu/people/jfm.html F. Joseph Schork, a Professor and Associate Chair of Chemical Engineering at Georgia Tech, earned a Ph.D. in chemical engineering in 1981 from Wisconsin. He also has a B.S. in 1973 and an M.S. in 1974 from University of Louisville whereupon he worked for DuPont until 1977. Joe’s research interests include the dynamics and control of reacting systems, esp. development of mathematical models, on-line sensors, digital control schemes, and novel reactor configurations for polymerization, and other reaction systems. C99-G8 joseph.schork@che.gatech.edu (404)-894-8470 http://www.chemse.gatech.edu:80/people/fjs.html

Wayne C. Tincher served for five years as the Research Director of the Apparel Manufacturing Technology Center and is currently NTC Site Director and a Professor in Textile and Fiber Engineering at Georgia Tech. He received a Ph.D. in physical chemistry at Vanderbilt. Before coming to Georgia Tech in 1971, Wayne led fundamental research at Monsanto on polymer and fiber structure-property relationships. His research interests include textile, carpet and apparel manufacturing technologies. C95-G1, C96-G2, C98-G30, C99-G8 wayne.tincher@tfe.gatech.edu (404)-894-2197 http://www.tfe.gatech.edu/faculty/tincher/tincher.html JunYong Zhu, an Associate Professor at the Institute of Paper Science and Technology (IPST), joined IPST in 1993. Previously, he was a Research Scientist at a high technology firm in Sunnyvale California. JunYong’s research interests include ink jet printing, ink droplet formation, laser based instrumentation for droplet characterization and drop and printing medium interaction. C99-G8 junyong.zhu@ipst.edu (404)-894-5310

58

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000

Optimizing Dye Process Control Through Improved Modeling
Brent Smith, leader; Keith Beck, Warren Jasper, Gordon Lee (NC State)

C99-S2

We are optimizing our batch dyeing process model to improve dye process control strategies.
reliable and lower cost. Triethanolamine - FeSO4 - caustic was the best solvent system we evaluated. [Contributing Graduate Students: Sara Draper, Michelle Wallace, Wei Huang, Richa Joshi, Jay Merritt (NC State)]
Industry Interactions: none reported Project Web Site Address: none reported For Further Information - nothing reported C. Brent Smith, a Professor of Textile Engineering at NC State, joined the faculty in 1983. He received a Ph.D. in chemical physics from the University of Florida in 1966. Since then, Brent held various research positions in United Merchants and Manufacturers, West Point Pepperell and Cotton Incorporated. his research interests include pollution control by source reduction, mathematical modeling and real-time data for process control, coloration and color perception. C95-S4, C99-S2* brent_smith@ncsu.edu (919)-515-6548
http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tecs/tecs_personnel/home_pages/bsmith.html

Variable-structure controllers have many desirable features for dealing with complex non-linear process behavior like dyeing systems. This technique, which is broadly applicable to complex processes (not just dyeing), is similar to neural nets in that the controller is self-learning. The method is also wellsupported by available resources, such as PC-type computers and our innovative sequential injection analysis (SIA) and flow injection analysis (FIA) analytical systems. Our real-time monitoring of dyeing processes by SIA has most of the advantages of FIA, including a large dynamic range, ability to handle insoluble dyes, avoidance of interactions such as pH or salt sensitivity of dyes, low cost, high speed, accuracy, simplicity and portability. SIA also overcomes some of the limitations of FIA because it requires less equipment maintenance and a smaller sample size without sacrificing accuracy. Our new self-organizing fuzzy sliding mode controller (SOFSMC) integrates classical sliding mode control with adaptive and fuzzy control approaches. We previously evaluated many models including dimensionless parametric diffusion and Langmuir process models, as well as non-parametric controllers which included rule-based, self learning, neural nets, fuzzy logic, adaptive, real time and closed loop features. We developed non-parametric control systems because parameters values are often uncertain or proprietary, and thus are unknown to the dyer. These parameters include dye molecular weight, active concentration, diffusion coefficient, affinity, reaction rate constant, fiber size, shape, concentration of dye sites, dye-dye interactions and degree of sulfonation, as well as uncontrollable factors such as fabric, water, utilities, steam, misweighings, etc. Along the same lines, we are beginning to develop other methods for dealing with uncertainty or incomplete knowledge in dye systems. Our work includes installation of a computer/dyeing machine interface, and the use of a two-dye Langmuir process simulation model along with the SOFSMC method. We are now identifying key dyeing process parameters for development of this control method. For dosing control, we have successfully controlled shade buildup of 3-dye mixtures; so they are exhausted in a pre-determined ratio at all times during the dyeing process, thus maintaining perfect on-tone shade buildup and facilitating dyebath reuses. Significant advantages from this method include outstanding shade repeatability (avoiding blocking effects and tippy dyeing appearance), better color matching, easier dyebath reuse, simplification of dye recipes and consistent optimized dyeing technique. For indigo dye monitoring, we used FIA to measure indigo concentration and evaluated four chemical solvent analysis systems. Our FIA is as accurate as titrimetric determinations, but operates about 4 times faster and is automated, more

Keith R. Beck, a Professor of Textile Chemistry at NC State, received his Ph.D. in chemistry from Purdue in 1970. Before joining NC State in 1986, Keith was on the faculty of Elmhurst College and Purdue. His research interests include durable press finishing, near infrared spectroscopy, carbon dioxide as an analytical and processing fluid, flow injection analysis and other spectroscopic methods for dyebath monitoring. C95-S4, C99-S2 keith_beck@ncsu.edu (919)-515-6558
http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tecs/tecs_personnel/home_pages/beck.htm

Warren J. Jasper, an Assistant Professor in Textile Engineering at NC State, joined the faculty after receiving a Ph.D. in aeronautics and astronautics from Stanford in 1991. Upon receiving his B.S. and M.S. from M.I.T. in 1983, Warren joined the technical staff at Hughes Aircraft's Space and Communications Group. His research interests include automated manufacturing and realtime data acquisition and control of textile processes. I94-G2, C95-S4, I97-S1, C99-S2 warren_jasper@ncsu.edu (919)-515-6565 http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/college/personnel/wjasper.html

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000

59

Gordon K. L. Lee is a Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Professor at NC State . He received a Ph.D. in control systems from University of Connecticut in 1978; then, thru 1989 was on the Electrical Engineering faculty at Colorado State University where he served as the Director for Robotic Studies. Gordon is President of the International Society for Computers and Their Applications. His research interests include realtime control and adaptive learning systems, especially when applied to robotics and dyeing processes. C95-S4, C99-S2 glee@eos.ncsu.edu (919)-515-5292

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National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000

Fundamental Dye Diffusion and Surface Treatment of Fibers

C99-S4

Alan Tonelli, leader (NC State), Stephen Michielsen, Mohan Srinivasarao (Georgia Tech), J. Richard Aspland (Clemson), Paul Russo (Louisiana State) Fabric streaking, especially dye streaks, have long troubled the textile industry. Not only is the quantity of dye or finish on a fabric important to its appearance, but also its precise location and distribution on or in the constituent fibers. To develop practical solutions for eliminating dye streaks, we must learn about the molecular details of dye diffusion into the fibers and about the surface treatment applied to fibers. Both processes can effect the final fabric appearance. Laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), fluorescence microscopy and microspectrophotometric reflectometry provide probes for investigating the molecular-level details of both the dyeing and finishing processes. We have pioneered the observation of fibers by LSCM, and have confirmed that its observations of dye diffusion in fibers are in accord with those obtained from traditional macroscopic dye bath measurements.

dye across the fiber, but these same profiles can also be established in the application bath from 1µm above down to the fiber surface. From time- and processing-dependent LSCM observations of dyed and/or finished fibers we expect to answer such questions like • In a fiber that is dyed to less than full saturation concentration, is the dye redistributed later; e.g. after removal from the dye bath or during other processes like laundering? • Does all the dye in a fiber dyed to complete saturation remain in the fiber after further processing or even over a long period of use? If fibers with dye initially confined to a relatively thin outer skin because of short dye times are reintroduced into the bath where the dye has been removed, the dye will diffuse and redistribute until the dye concentration is uniform. Linked with fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) observations, which yield the diffusion coefficients of dyes in the absence of a concentration gradient, we may compare the movement of dyes in fibers in the presence of and without a dye concentration gradient. We intend to build another FRAP instrument that will measure diffusion coefficients of dye molecules in directions both parallel and perpendicular to the fiber axis. This will enable us to better understand the dynamics of the dye molecules in the fiber. Our ability to measure the reflectance of individual fibers possessing different amounts, distributions and/or orientations of dye will enable us to determine which of these features of the dyed fiber are most important to the visual perception of its color and that of the resulting fabric. [Contributing Graduate Students: Ye Song, Robert Kyles (NC State), Mojgan Bakhshee, Elizabeth MacFarland (Georgia Tech) Kanitta Asvashem (Clemson)]
Industry Interactions: none reported Project Web Site Address: none reported For Further Information

To minimize dye streaks, we are studying dye diffusion in and surface treatment of fibers using laser scanning confocal microscopy to measure the 3-D distribution of dye in fiber.
Because LSCM employs spot illumination and strongly eliminates out-of-focus light, the internal structures of solid polymers may be visualized without physical sectioning of the sample. For example, a fiber dyed with a fluorescent dye may be examined by illuminating with a laser emitting close to the absorption maximum of the dye and then detecting the reflected fluorescent light after passing through a dichroic filter. This discriminates between the wavelengths of illuminating and reflected fluorescent light and results in a 3-dimensional distribution of dye in the fiber. Because LSCM scans are rapid (a few minutes), we may eventually be able to monitor the dyeing process on-line. By coupling LSCM observations of dyed fibers with microspectrophotometric measurement of their reflectance we can determine the effect of dye distribution in a fiber on its color, and also how fiber finishes effect fiber color. Our studies on the diffusion of fluorescent dyes in uniformly dyed fibers will provide a measure of dye mobility in the absence of a concentration gradient, which can then be compared to diffusion coefficients measured by LSCM during fiber dyeing. LSCM enables the reconstruction of 3-D images of the distribution of dye molecules in a fiber in terms of both their concentrations (fluorescence) and their orientations (Raman). We are now building a new LSCM which will be able to investigate the spectral behavior of dye across a fiber crosssection and to learn how the absorption spectrum of a dye is influenced by its environment in the fiber. By operating in an evanescent wave spectroscopy configuration, not only can we observe the location, orientation and spectroscopic profiles of
National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000

1. Y. Song, M. Srinivasarao, A. E. Tonelli, C. M. Balik and R. McGregor, Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopic Study of Dye Diffusion in Fibers, Macromolecules 33: (Jun 2000).
Alan Tonelli, the KoSa Professor of Polymer Science at NC State, joined the faculty in 1991 after a 23-year career at AT&T's Bell Labs. He earned a B.S. in chemical engineering from Kansas in 1964 and a Ph.D. in chemistry from Stanford in 1968. Alan is a Fellow of the American Physical Society and author of “NMR Spectroscopy and Polymer Microstructure The Conformational Connection" and "Polymers from the Inside Out: An Introduction to Macromolecules." His research interests include conformational characteristics, microstructures, NMR spectroscopy and physical properties of polymers. C95-S7, C98-S1*, C99-S4* alan_tonelli@ncsu.edu (919)-515-6588
http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tecs/tecs_personnel/home_pages/tonelli.html

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J. Richard Aspland, a Professor of Textile Chemistry at Clemson, joined the faculty in 1982. He earned a M.S. in dyeing at Leeds (U.K.) in 1960 and a Ph.D. in textile chemistry from Manchester (U.K.) in 1964. From 1966-82, Dick held research and research management positions at Sodyeco (now a Sandoz div.) and Reeves Brothers. His research interests include dye-fiber interactions, shade sorting and dye synthesis. C95-S7, C99-S4 aj@clemson.clemson.edu (864)-656-5953 Stephen Michielsen, an Associate Professor in Textile and Fiber Engineering at Georgia Tech, joined the faculty in 1995. He has a B.S. in chemistry from S.U.N.Y. and earned a Ph.D. in physical chemistry from the University of Chicago in 1979 and did postdoctoral research at Stanford whereupon he spent 15 years at DuPont in their polymer and fiber research departments. Steve's research interests include fiber surface modification, fiber strength, thermomechanical properties of fibers and polymers, fiber/polymer physics and polymer blends. C98-A17, C99-S4 stephen.michielsen@tfe.gatech.edu (404)-894-6345 http://www.tfe.gatech.edu/faculty/michielsen/michielsen.html

Paul S. Russo, a Professor in the Department of Chemistry at Louisiana State University, joined the faculty in 1983 after a period as Postdoctoral Associate at the University of Massachusetts. He has worked in the Wright Research & Development Center at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, and in Sandia National Laboratory, Department of Organic and Electronic Materials. Paul's research interests include polymer physical and analytical chemistry, optical measurements, gels, liquid crystals, and rodlike polymers. C95-S7 paul_russo@chemgate.chem.lsu.edu (504)-388-3361 Mohan Srinivasarao, an Assistant Professor in Textile and Fiber Engineering, joined the faculty in 1999 from the NC State faculty He earned a M.Sc. in applied chemistry from University of Madras (India) in 1981, a M.S. in polymer science in 1985 and a Ph.D. in chemistry from Carnegie Mellon in 1990, then was a Research Fellow at UMass-Amherst. He also consulted at AT&T and Polaroid. Mohan's research interests include physical chemistry of polymers, physics of nematic liquid crystals and rheology and rheooptics of polymeric fluids, liquid crystals and biological color science. C99-S4 mohan@tfe.gatech.edu (404)-894-9348

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National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000

A Novel Non-Aqueous Fabric Finishing Process
Marian McCord, leader; Peter Hauser, Yiping Qiu, Jerome Cuomo (NC State)

C99-S9

We are investigating a new, environmentally friendly method for fabric finishing and modification which uses plasmas. Plasmas are gases in a highly excited state, consisting of ions and free radicals, which can interact with polymer surfaces and radically change the nature of those surfaces.

We are investigating the use of high energy plasma to create a continuous non-aqueous fabric treatment system, encompassing desizing, scouring, dyeing and especially finishing.
an atmospheric plasma process. Effects of these treatments may be either beneficial or deleterious to the desired finished fabric properties. We will compare the properties of fabrics treated with atmospheric plasmas to those from vacuum plasmas and from conventional aqueous finishing processes. We have now designed a new atmospheric plasma device specifically for treatment of rolled goods in a variety of gaseous environments (See Schematic). This device will allow diagnostic characterization of the plasma during processing, controlled treatment variation throughout a fabric roll and continuous fabric processing. {Other Contributors: Graduate Students: Laura Canup, Jinho Hyun (NC State), Undergraduate Student: Traci Jones (NC State); Faculty: Mohamed Bourham, Orlando Hankins (Nuclear Engineering NC State)]

Plasma treatments have been used to induce both surface modifications and bulk property enhancements of textile materials, resulting in improvements to textile products ranging from conventional fabrics to advanced composites. These treatments can enhance dyeing rates of polymers, improve colorfastness and wash resistance of fabrics, change the surface energy of fibers and fabrics and improve toughness, tenacity and shrink resistance. We are now investigating plasma treatments for producing Schematic of our new atmospheric plasma chamber hydroscopicity in fibers, altered degradation rates of biomedical materials (such as sutures) and for the deposition of antiwear coatings.

Plasma treatment can occur in either a vacuum or at atmosIndustry Interactions: 2 [Milliken, Air-helium plasma Plasma Ireland] pheric pressures. There are advantages and disadProject Web Site Address: none reported vantages to each process. Vacuum processes are usually not viable for industries requiring high throughput and large surface area, are expensive and take up lots of space; also, For Further Information sample size is limited. However, a wide variety of plasma 1. B.L. Bures, O.H. Hankins, M.A. Bourham, L.K. Canup and M. McCord, Optical Emission Spectroscopy of Plasma-Fabric chemistries can be used since it is a closed system and the Interafce" ; (in preparation). fundamental physics of vacuum plasma processes are well 2. L. Canup, M. McCord and M. Bourham, An Exploration into understood. On the other hand, atmospheric processes are Atmospheric Plasma Treatment of Textile Materials (in preferred by industries requiring large surface areas and high preparation). throughput (such as the textile industry where there is substanMarian Gayle McCord, an Assistant tial interest) and sample size is practically unlimited (dependProfessor at NC State since 1994 ing on the configuration of the sample). However, when she received a Ph.D. in textiles atmospheric plasma chemistries are limited and environmental and polymer science at Clemson, also earned a Sc.B. in biomedical enclosure must be used when using gases with unfavorable engineering at Brown and a M.S. in by-products. Atmospheric processes are also more suited to bioengineering at Clemson. Marian's organic materials, due to their lower temperatures. Atmosresearch interests include torsional pheric plasma technology is still relatively new, and less is properties in high performance fibers, barrier fabrics and comfort of known about its physics and chemistries. We are conducting experiments in a prototype atmospheric plasma device using air-oxygen and air-helium plasmas (See Photo). These plasmas are not intended to treat the fabrics, but rather represent background effects that may be present in
National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000 textile materials. M94-C4, F95-S24, I98-S8, C99-S9*, F99-S2 marian_mccord@]ncsu.edu (919)-515-6571 http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/college/personnel/mmccord.html

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Jerome J. Cuomo, a Professor of Materials Science and Engineering at NC State since 1993, is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and received the National Medal of Technology in 1995. He holds a Ph.D. in physics in 1979 from Odense Universitet (Denmark) and a M.S. in physical chemistry from St. Johns in 1960. Jerry had a 30-year career at IBM culminating as manager of Materials Processing. His research interests include enhanced plasma processes. C94-S13, C99-S9 cuomo@ncsu.edu (919)-515-6556 Peter J. Hauser, an Associate Professor of Textile Chemistry at NC State, joined the faculty in 1997 after a 23-year industrial research career with Milliken, Burlington and Virkler Co. He received a B.S. in 1969 and a Ph.D. in 1974 in chemistry from NC State. Peter's research interests include high performance chemical finishes for enhanced value textiles, indigo dyeing and denim garment wet processing, mathematical modeling of textile wet processes and new textile processes to reduce costs, energy usage and pollution associated with textile wet processing. C98-S1, C98-S4, C99-S9 peter_hauser@ncsu.edu (919)-513-1899
http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tecs/tecs_personnel/home_pages/hauser.html

Yiping Qiu, an Assistant Professor at NC State since 1996 received a B. Engr. in textile engineering at Zhejiang Institute of Silk Technology (China), a M.S. in textile science at Auburn and a Ph.D. in fiber science at Cornell. Yiping's research interests include fabrication and characterization of fiber reinforced composites, modification and analysis of fiber matrix interfaces, mechanics of fibrous structures and moisture vapor transfer in fibrous structures. F98-S9*, C99-S9 yiping_qiu@ncsu.edu (919)-515-9426

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National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000

Integrated Enterprise Systems
Research in systems to enable rapid response, including computer modeling, sensor technology, expert systems, customer interactive design, market research and demand-activated, closed-loop production systems.

Consumer Preferences for Apparel and Textile Products as a Function of Lifestyle Imagery
Michael R. Solomon, leader (Auburn); Basil G. Englis (Berry College)

I97-A11

We are constructing a visual database to explore the role played by the perceived "fit" between a product and a valued This tool will help us monitor the changing tastes and product lifestyle in shaping the wants and needs of twentysomething preferences of key textile and apparel customers, thus facilitatfemale customers for textile and apparel products. Our ing prediction of massconceptual framework emphaTechnological Symbolic market acceptance of sizes how consumers' preferInnovation Innovation clothing and textile designs ences are influenced by their and products. desires to attain aspirational Abundant Resources Actualizers lifestyles, as well as how they Certain VALS types tend integrate depictions of these to adopt an innovation first Principle Oriented Status Oriented Action Oriented lifestyles from advertising, then the innovation diffuses entertainment, editorials and across other types. These Fulfilleds Achievers Experiencers other mass-media. While “fashion-forward” opinion most research on apparel leaders tend to be found in choices is confined to a the high-resources region of Makers specific product category, we Believers Strivers the VALS typology and in are emphasizing how these the status- and actionproducts are evaluated in the oriented segments. To context of other products with recruit our respondents, we which they are jointly Strugglers are using the Simmons Study consumed to make a lifestyle Minimal Resources of Media & Markets statement. database that is linked to The VALS2 Consumer Typology (courtesy SRI) VALS2 and contains detailed Our procedure gives rapid consumption information of feedback about visual product over 20,000 specific Amerioptions which can be related can consumers. to important psychological and socioeconomic characterThe fashion-forward, istics of selected fashion twentysomething respondents innovator market segments. in our opinion leader panel With the cooperation of the will react to visual images Stanford Research Institute culled from a variety of (SRI), our industry partner media. By thus understandwho has given us access to ing how consumers’ aspiratheir widely used Values and tions are expressed visually, Lifestyles (VALS2) consumer we hope to be able to forge typology, we can specify tools that will help the indusprecise psychographic profiles try better understand the of female fashion innovators specific lifestyle images and recruit these women into a sought by its customers. This national panel. VALS2 information will help apparel divides the American public manufacturers and retailers Scenario Screen with Access to Jennifer’s Closet into eight general categories in develop strategic positioning terms of resources available and strategies and should facilitate self-orientation by principle, status or action (See top Figure).

We developed a web-based interactive data collection technique that allows us to efficiently track evolving product and style preferences in a national sample of fashion-forward women.

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National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000

efforts to penetrate global markets, where timely product design and lifestyle positioning are more pronounced. In our web-based, quickresponse data collection tool we can capture preferences for specific product and style images from our panel in a central testing facility or in their own homes via our passwordprotected web site. When the A Trip Through Jennifer’s Closet on Our Web Site: Left to Right respondent logs on, she is given Respondent clicks on a category (left), chooses specific item (e.g. outfit) for more detail, then repeats the process to assemble a completed “collage” of products (right). a specific social scenario; for example, Jennifer, a twentysoConference on Recent Advances in Retailing and Services Science, Puerto Rico. mething woman, is hosting a dinner party for work colleagues Michael Solomon, Human Sciences and wants to present herself and her home in the best way Professor of Consumer Behavior in (See Figure p. 65). The respondent makes selections for Consumer Affairs at Auburn, joined Jennifer from six discrete categories: outfits, shoes, perfumes, the faculty in 1995 from being Chairwatches, hairstyles and purses that include brand names, price man of the Dept. of Marketing at Rutgers. He earned B.A. degrees in points, available colors, etc. (See Figure above). We have psychology and sociology magna now added a "living room" (choices for couch, music, cum laude at Brandeis Univ. in 1977, artwork, table, chair, carpet) and a "dining room" (choices for and a Ph.D. in social psychology after-dinner drinks, cocktails, desserts, entrees, wallpaper from UNC-Chapel Hill in 1981. He has written Consumer Behavior: Buying, patterns, table settings). We can also track the “clickstreams” Having and Being and Marketing: of our respondents and can follow up selections with probing Real People, Real Choices. Mike’s questions. research interests include consumer [Other Contributors: Graduate Students: Carri Lego, Natalie Quilty, Stephanie Wright, Trinske Antonides (Vrije Universiteit, The Netherlands]
Industry interactions: 21 [Stanford Research Institute, DDB Needham Worldwide, Animated Images Inc., Total Research, Levi Strauss, Vanity Fair, Milliken, American Sheep Industry Association, Alexander Julian, Inc., fashionmall.com, Cotton Inc., Bruskin Marketing, Young & Rubicam, Consolidated Apparel Industries (Australia), delSol Publicidad (Argentina), Ziv Consulting and Training (Israel), Cone Mills, Burlington Industries, Price Waterhouse Coopers, Look-Look Omnimedia, Lion Apparel] Other non-NTC interactions: 15 Project Web Site Address: http://fafnir.berry.edu/ConsumersOnLine For Further Information: behavior and lifestyle issues, the symbolic aspects of products, the psychology of fashion, decoration and image, and services marketing. I97-A11* msolomon@humsci.auburn.edu (334)-844-1316 http://www.humsci.auburn.edu/ca/html/solomon.html Basil G. Englis, who holds the Richard Edgerton Chair in Business Administration at Berry College, joined the faculty in 1996. He earned a B.A. in psychology/sociology from CUNY in 1978 and a Ph.D. in experimental psychology from Dartmouth in 1982. Basil was an Assistant Professor at Clarkson and Rutgers Universities and an Associate Professor at Penn St and at the University of Umeå (Sweden), where he was also a Fulbright Scholar. His research interests include mass media and consumer socialization, political marketing, consumer knowledge acquisition and cognitive representation of lifestyle-related product groupings. I97-A11 benglis@biz.campbell.berry.edu (706)-290-2645 http://campbell.berry.edu/faculty/benglis/b-vita.htm

1. Englis, Basil G. and Michael R. Solomon (2000), "Life/Style OnLine: A Web-Based Methodology for Visually-Oriented Consumer Research," Journal of Interactive Marketing, 14,1, 2-14. 2. Englis, Basil G. and Michael R. Solomon, (1999), "Life/Style OnLine: A Web-Based System to 3. Track Apparel Preferences," presented at the International Apparel Research Conference, Atlanta. 4. Englis, Basil G. and Michael R. Solomon (1999), "Consumer Dreams and Nightmares: A Web-Mediated Study of Lifestyle Aspirations," paper presented at European meeting of the Association for Consumer Research, Jouy-en-Josas, France. 5. Solomon, Michael R., Basil G. Englis, and Carrie Lego (1999), "Life/Style Online: A Web-Based Consumer Research Tool to Study Retail Positioning," paper presented at the 6th International

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Real-Time Yarn Characterization and Data Compression using Wavelets
Moon W. Suh, Leader; Warren Jasper, Jae L. Woo (NC State)

sub-frequency scales to detect and model the variation of signals which could not be analyzed otherwise.
I97-S1

‘On-line’ monitoring or measurement systems in textile manufacturing processes are proliferating, but are we sure they are increasing our competitiveness? With faster sensing and data-acquisition, the amount of data has increased exponentially over the last few years. For example, it takes one Mbyte of memory to store a set of yarn density data acquired at every millimeter on a 1000m long specimen. Do we really need to collect so much data, most of which is simply stored and never analyzed?

We analyzed and compared two yarn signals with similar visual qualities using a wavelet-based multi-resolution (MRA) technique. The yarns, showing no significant differences in CV% and spectrogram, were decomposed into several sub-bans to investigate the yarn characteristics at different frequencies. In spite of their similar original density profiles, the MRA windows showed quite different patterns at the mid-frequency levels. The fabric images from the signals showed a clear difference in appearance. Based on these observations, the variation of mid-frequency signals are highly correlated with the visual qualities of the resulting fabrics.

We are designing a new on-line quality measurement system that will make full use of all data captured on-line.
With modern signal processing techniques, one can retain most of the salient features of a yarn with over 99.9% compression. Therefore, most of the data collected in realtime on-line measurement systems is redundant and not needed for yarn visualization and characterization. There is an urgent need, and a definite promise, for a more sensible approach in screening and storing of data on-line. Thus we are designing a new on-line quality measurement system that provides more meaningful and cost-effective decision making. It eliminates wasteful data handling by extracting, retaining and synthesizing only the essential information required for characterizing the yarn. We selectively employ wavelet, joint time-frequency and time-series analyses, together with some data compression techniques and algorithms generated from stochastic models. Our research has a two pronged approach: • A theoretical time series analysis of yarn properties using wavelets to reduce the data set (compression) and predict the visual qualities of the resulting fabrics (image rendering) • An experimental test-bed to determine the accuracy and precision of the system. Also we will determine how best to combine different measurements (data fusion) which will be used in our time series analysis. The heart of the experimental test-bed is a LawsonHemphill Constant Tension Transport system which allows us to sample the yarn every millimeter to produce a 1024 pixel (12 bit) line-scan image. We also measure the linear mass density using a capacitance sensor with an 8 mm sensing zone. We applied wavelet transforms to represent all the yarn characteristics from only a minimal amount of data without losing significant information. In this method the original density profile of yarns is decomposed into different

Typical output of line scan camera.

[Contributing Graduate Students: Jooyong Kim, Sugjoon Lee, Melih Gunay; Visiting Scholar: Hyung Bum Kim (NC State)]
Industry interactions: 6 [Sara Lee, Lawson-Hemphill, Cotton Inc.] Other non-NTC interactions: 1 Project Web Site Address:
http://www2.ncsu.edu/unity/lockers/project/ntcprojects/projects/I97-S01

For Further Information:

1. Jooyong Kim, On-Line Measurement and Characterization of Yarn and Fabric Qualities Using a Wavelet-Stochastic Hybrid Method, Ph.D. Thesis, NC State (1998) 2.Jooyong Kin, Wavelet-Stochastic Models And Their Application To Yarn And Fabric Quality Measurement And Control, The Fiber Society Symposium “100 Years of Modern Fiber Science”, Asheville, NC (Jul 1998) - Best Student Paper Award 3.Moon W. Suh and Jooyong Kim, Wavelet-Stochastic System for Measurement and Analysis of Yarn and Fabric Qualities, 11th EFS Systems Research Forum, Raleigh NC (Nov 1998) 4.Sugjoon Lee, Development of a Measurement System for Yarn Mass Variation, Masters Thesis, NC State (Dec 1998)

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Moon W. Suh, a Professor of Textile and Apparel Management and of Statistics at NC State, joined the faculty in 1987 after a 19-year career at Burlington Ind. as a statistician and operations research analyst. He earned a B.S. in textile engineering from Seoul National Univ. (Korea) in 1961 and a Ph.D. in statistics from NC State in 1969. Moon's research interests include statistical and probabilistic modeling of textile processes and products, quality control methods, apparel business information systems, biostatistics and statistical failure models. I95-A11, I97-S1*, I98-S6*, F99-S2 moon_suh@ncsu.edu (919)-515-6580
http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tam/aboutdept/facresstaff/facstaff_frame.htm

Jae L. Woo, a Visiting Research Professor in textiles at NC State since 1994, earned a B.S. in textile engineering at Seoul National Univ. (Korea) where he taught textile engineering and process statistics, a S.M. at MIT and a Ph.D. at Univ. of New South Wales (Australia) where he taught machine dynamics, random vibrations, experimental engineering in 1975-85. Jae’s research interests include cotton and wool fiber testing, on-line measurements in textile processes, statistical process control, textile mechanisms and variations analysis. I95-A11, I97-S1, F99-S2 jae_woo@ncsu.edu (919)-515-6580

Warren J. Jasper, an Assistant Professor in Textile Engineering at NC State, joined the faculty after receiving a Ph.D. in aeronautics and astronautics from Stanford in 1991. Upon receiving his B.S. and M.S. from M.I.T. in 1983, Warren joined the technical staff at Hughes Aircraft's Space and Communications Group. His research interests include automated manufacturing and realtime data acquisition and control of textile processes. I94-G2, C95-S4, I97-S1, C99-S2 warren_jasper@ncsu.edu (919)-515-6565 http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/college/personnel/wjasper.html

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000

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Building Global Textile and Apparel Brand Image Strategies

Online Shoppers Demographic Characteristics
I98-A6

Sandra M. Forsythe, leader, Jai-Ok Kim, Thomas Petee, Gerry Dozier (Auburn); Leon Chapman (Sandia National Lab) Recent efforts to market domestic apparel products and brands abroad have resulted in increased concern among industry executives about the effectiveness of brand image strategies across international markets. A key question is “How can U.S. apparel firms develop a powerful, non-price tool that will provide a sustainable advantage in targeted global markets?” Effective brand image strategies in many international markets can provide U.S. textile and apparel marketers with a sustainable competitive advantage; whereas, ineffective image strategies can result in lost sales and wasted investment.

Positive Motivation/ Perceived Benefits of Online Shopping

Negative Motivation/ Perceived Risks of Online Shopping

Online Shopping Behavior

Strategies to Increase Positive Motivation

Strategies to Decrease Negative Motivation

Increased Online Shopping

Industry interactions: 1 Project Web Site Address: none reported http://www.humsci.auburn.edu/ca/html/forsntc2.html For Further Information:

We are examining the potential of the Internet as a strategic tool to enhance global brand images and sales for U.S. apparel products and brands.
We are examining the potential of the Internet as a strategic tool to enhance global brand images and sales for U.S. apparel products and brands. Online marketing, if properly developed and implemented, has tremendous potential as a strategy to build brand image, collect information from highly motivated and targeted consumers and provide an avenue for selling products worldwide. We completed an initial examination of current U.S. industry efforts to market apparel products and brands online and another examination of the perceived risks or barriers associated with shopping online. We are now developing a model to examine the benefits and barriers associated with Internet shopping. Many web site visitors may be reluctant to purchase online due to unresolved concerns about the online shopping experience or may choose to purchase online due to perceived benefits. Thus, actions to reduce barriers by effectively addressing visitor concerns in these areas can lead to increased confidence in the online purchase process; whereas, actions that increase perceived benefits to purchase may lead to a greater motivation to purchase. We examined the barriers to online purchases using a perceived risk framework and found that the perceived risks were significantly related to online search behavior, which was significantly related to shopping behavior. We also investigated the gender differences in online behavior. At present we are in the process of examining the perceived benefits and risks of Internet shopping (see Figure). [Contributing Graduate Students: Bo Shi, Chuanlan Liu, Xue Li, Samah Ahmed (Auburn); Visiting Research Scholar: Chun Liu (People’s Republic of China)]

1. S. Forsythe and B. Shi, Consumer Patronage and Risk Perceptions in Internet Shopping Journal of Business Research (in press). 2. S. Forsythe and C. Liu, Exploring Gender Differences in Online Behavior (submitted for presentation at ITAA). 3. S. Forsythe and B. Shi, Internet Consumers’ Risk Perception and Online Behavior (submitted for presentation at ITAA). 4. B. Shi, graduate thesis, Internet Consumers’ Risk Perception and Online Behavior (Auburn). 5. D. Batey, graduate thesis, The Effect of Cue Utilization on Purchase Intention for Apparel Products (Auburn). 6. S. Forsythe and J. Kim, Product Cue Usage Among Consumers in Two Asian Markets, Asian Pacific Journal of Management 16 275 (1999). 7. S. Forsythe and B. Shi, A Communication-Based Model of Online Marketing Presented at the 1999 ACRA Spring Conference, Tucson AZ. 8. S. Forsythe, J. Kim, Z. Gu and S. Moon, Cross-Cultural Consumer Needs and Purchase Behaviors. Presented at the 1999 ACRA Spring Conference, Tucson AZ.
Sandra Forsythe, Wrangler Professor of Consumer Affairs at Auburn, joined the faculty in 1991 after five years at Miami Univ. of Ohio and four years at Univ. of Georgia. She earned an M.S. from Virginia Tech in 1976 and a Ph.D. in textiles and clothing, marketing and consumer economics from Univ. of Tennessee in 1981. She is editor of Clothing and Textiles Research Journal. Sandra's research interests include international apparel marketing consumer behavior, apparel selection, brand image and perception formation and consumer behavior. I95-A23*, I98-A6* forsysa@auburn.edu (334)-844-6458 http://www.humsci.auburn.edu/ca/html/forsythe.html

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Leon D. Chapman, the DAMA (Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture) laboratory project manager at Sandia, earned a Ph.D. in electrical and computer engineering from Oklahoma State in 1971, then was an Assistant Professor at Univ. of Alabama in Computer Science and Operations Research. Leon has also been a design engineer at Continental Oil and a senior executive VP in information and manufacturing technologies at BDM Corp. (1985-90). His research interests include information systems and technology and systems analysis. He plays golf on the Senior PGA tour. I95-A23, I98-A6 leon_chapman@sandia.gov] (505)-845-8668 Gerry Dozier is an Assistant Professor in Computer Sciences and Software Engineering at Auburn, joined the faculty in year? Gerry holds a Ph.D. His research interests include genetic and evolutionary computation, esp. constraint satisfaction, motion planning and obstacle avoidance. I98-A6 doziegv@auburn.edu (334)-844-6327

Thomas A. Petee, an Associate Professor of Sociology at Auburn, joined the faculty in 1989 upon earning a Ph.D. in sociology from Notre Dame. He also holds a M.S. in sociology and a B.S. in criminal justice from Univ. of Toledo. Tom's research interests include decisionmaking models. I95-A23, I98-A6 peteeta@mail.auburn.edu (334)-844-2821

Jai-Ok Kim, an Assistant Professor in Consumer Affairs at Auburn, joined the faculty in 1992 when she earned an MBA from Kentucky. She also earned a Ph.D. in textile science from Maryland in 1987 and a B.S. in house planning, interior design and art from You Sei Univ. (Seoul) in 1973. She has been chairperson of Textiles and Consumer Economics at Inha Univ (Korea) and a manager for Korean Air Lines. Jai-Ok's research interests include clothing comfort and apparel quality analysis and apparel marketing and retail analysis, esp. East Asian. I96-A23, I98-A6 kimjaio@auburn.edu (334)-844-1341 http://www.humsci.auburn.edu/ca/html/kim.html

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000

70

Interactive Cohort Analysis: An Online Panel of "Baby Boom" Consumers I98-A7
Pamela Ulrich, Ann Beth Presley, co-leaders, Evelyn Brannon, Lenda Jo Connell (Auburn) "Baby boomers” expenditures, purchase choices and demands for new ideas and items have had a major impact on the U.S. market, as the “boomers” have moved through their various life stages. Now ages 36 to 54, baby boomers are reaching the heights of their working careers and incomes, heavily involved in raising families and/or facing empty nests and coping with aging parents. As they enter their retirement years, it is unlikely they will be content with the status quo in products and services. Demographic forecasts suggest that they will live longer in retirement. By asking baby boomers how they are visualizing their retirement lifestyles, we can better anticipate their future consumption patterns.

Our conceptual framework for questioning is cohort analysis. Moving beyond demographic profiles and lifestyle psychographics, cohort analysis recognizes that each generational group's mentalities and attitudes were shaped by the particular influences of their cultural time frames and that their choices are driven by cohort membership. We suspect that baby boomers, the largest U.S. generational sub-cohort and the one nearest to retirement, may be driven somewhat differently than the youngest sub-cohort (See Figure). [Contributing Graduate Student: Marina Alexander (Auburn)]
Industry interactions: 2 [Milliken, Lands’ End] Project Web Site Address: http://www.humsci.auburn.edu/ca/html/ntc/htmlcode.html For Further Information:

1. Presentation Association.

Submitted:

International

Textile

&

Apparel

By discovering how baby boomers are visualizing their retirement lifestyles, we research. can explore web-based consumer research.
Our primary research goal is to evaluate the benefits and parameters of using a web-site as a new way for companies to conduct longitudinal research and establish learning relationships with consumers. Boomers affluent enough to own and use computers in their homes may be ready to comment on how the textile and apparel marketplace is or is not meeting their needs. They may also be the trendsetters who can help us anticipate boomer behavior in coming years. We are establishing an online, interactive relationship with about 500 female and male baby boom consumers by creating a controlled access web site that will seek information for consumer research. Three years of online interaction data with a panel of trend setting consumers will reveal the benefits of this method for • delineating strategies • testing new concepts or styles • identifying consumers' satisfaction and dissatisfaction factors Our bulletin board setting gives us a way to combine specific questions with opportunities to open up topics for discussion and feedback. As the life of the web site proceeds, we will seek a balance between tight control of discussions and a flexibility to change according to participants’ directions. Developing and retaining participants’ interest in and willingness to be active respondents is an overarching goal of our web-site.

Pamela V. Ulrich, an Associate Professor in Consumer Affairs at Auburn, joined the faculty in 1987. She earned a Ph.D. in American history from Univ. of Oregon in 1991 and a M.S. in clothing and textiles from Auburn in 1980. She has department store experience. Pamela is curator of Consumer Affairs' Historic Costume and Textile Collection at Auburn. Her research interests include commercial development of the textile, apparel and retail sectors; fashion history, analysis and forecasting; and marketing trends. I95-A19, I95-A20, I98-A7*, I98-A8, I98-A9 ulricpv@auburn.edu (334)-844-1336 http://www.humsci.auburn.edu/ca/html/ulrich.html Evelyn Brannon, an Associate Professor in Consumer Affairs at Auburn, joined the faculty in 1990 after earning a Ph.D. in Communications at the Univ. of Tennessee in 1989. She also has an M.S. in Clothing and Textiles from Auburn. Evelyn has been an editor/writer for several consumer publications and an industry consultant on product development and entrepreneurship. Her research interests include consumer behavior, retail forecasting systems, and rural economic development. I95-A19, I95-A20*, I98-A7, I98-A8, I98-A9* brannel@auburn.edu (334)-844-6457 http://www.humsci.auburn.edu/ca/html/brannon.html

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National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000

Lenda Jo Connell, an Associate Professor in Consumer Affairs at Auburn, joined the faculty in 1971 after receiving a masters degree in clothing and textiles from Louisiana State University. In 1990, she earned a Ed.D. in adult education from Auburn. For 15 years she was an Extension Resource Management Specialist for the textile and apparel industry and now coordinates the Apparel Production Management program. Lenda Jo's research interests include electronic sourcing, apparel product development and consumer preference style testing. I94-A13, I95-A19*, I95-A20, I98-A7, I98-A8*, I98-A9 anderl1@auburn.edu (334)-844-3789 http://www.humsci.auburn.edu/ca/html/anderson.html

Ann Beth Presley, an Associate Professor at Auburn since receiving a Ph.D. in textile science in 1992 from the University of Maryland, has a B.S. from Western Kentucky University and an M.S. from Ohio State. Ann Beth supervised quality assurance for Eddie Bauer and worked in textile testing for the International Fabricare Institute. She was a faculty fellow at [TC]2. Her research interests include quality issues in apparel and textiles, historic aspects of the industry, and computerization of the industry. I98-A7, I98-A8, I98-A9 preslab@auburn.ed (334)-844-1347 http://www.humsci.auburn.edu/ca/html/presley.html

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000

72

Understanding Fitting Preferences of Female Consumers: Development of an Expert System to Enhance Accurate Sizing Selection
Lenda Jo Connell, leader, Evelyn L. Brannon, Pamela V. Ulrich, Ann Beth Presley (Auburn), Maureen Grasso (UNC-G), Judson H. Early [TC]² Stephen Gray (Nottingham Trent)

I98-A8

questionnaire to use in surveys with female students, black professional women and an additional group of professional women. The questionnaire included flat sketches depicting categories of garments, including jackets, blouses, dresses, jeans, pants and skirts. To understand if body shape is related to fit preference, we asked survey participants to select from figures representing hourglass, rectangular, pear and inverted triangle body shapes the shape most representing their body shape. Then we developed consumer profiles for each fit preference and body type for each of the three survey groups.

A significant number of consumers are dissatisfied with the Fit preference is related to age and body shape - older fit of apparel - mail order companies find it is one of the women and larger women generally prefer more loosely fitted primary reasons for garment returns. Now apparel. Using our data, we developed A Focus Group Body Scan we are on the threshold of two new profiles for very specific consumers. For technologies (3-D body scanning and the example, twentysomething black profesInternet) which could combine to allow sional women of average weight and waist manufacturers to interact directly with who are rectangular or hourglass shaped consumers to produce garments tailorand feel that fit and body part emphasis are made to each individual’s body measurenot important clothing benefits will usually ments. However, satisfying consumers’ prefer a fitted jacket. On the other hand, expectations for fit of apparel extend heavy, thirty-something black professional beyond body measurements. To produce women who are rectangular shaped and feel garments that fit in an electronic environthat fit and body part emphasis are imporment, manufacturers must understand tant clothing benefits will usually prefer a consumers’ perceptions of physical and loosely fitted jacket. Next, we will survey a psychological comfort and appearance. national population of female consumers. We are exploring the role that fit plays [Contributing Graduate Students: Marina from the perspective of the individual Alexander, Melissa Manuel, Gina Pisut consumer. From the traditional perspec(Auburn), Linda Cocciolone (UNC-G)] tive, achieving “good fit” in a garment

We seek to understand the nuances of fit from the consumer's perspective so we can translate consumer fit preference data into an expert system.
often required numerous on site fittings. Our ultimate goal is to develop an expert system that would be used in conjunction with body measurements to aid designers, product developers, and pattern makers in successfully fitting consumers in remote locations. Initially we are focusing on understanding the fit preferences of females. While males buy clothing sized by measurement, female consumers select sizes from numerical or alphabetical listings not related to body measurements. We first took a qualitative look at what female consumers had to say about fit. We conducted four focus groups to collect multiple sets of data including body scans (See Figure) and a questionnaire assessing fit problems, body cathexis (feelings of satisfaction or dissatisfaction with the body), and benefits sought in selection of apparel. We analyzed the focus group data for comments relative to fit and relationships among hard data and group discussions, then refined the

Industrial Interactions: Technologies

Clarity

Fit

Project Web Site Address: http://www.auburn.edu/~anderl1 For Further Information:

1. Goldsberry, 1993 2. Melissa Manuel, Master’s thesis, Auburn, Understanding the Fit Preferences of Black Professional Women (2000).
Lenda Jo Connell, an Associate Professor in Consumer Affairs at Auburn, joined the faculty in 1971 after receiving a masters degree in clothing and textiles from Louisiana State University. In 1990, she earned a Ed.D. in adult education from Auburn. For 15 years she was an Extension Resource Management Specialist for the textile and apparel industry and now coordinates the Apparel Production Management program. Lenda Jo's research interests include electronic sourcing, apparel product development and consumer preference style testing. I94-A13, I95-A19*, I95-A20, I98-A7, I98-A8*, I98-A9 anderl1@auburn.edu (334)-844-3789 http://www.humsci.auburn.edu/ca/html/anderson.html

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Evelyn Brannon, an Associate Professor in Consumer Affairs at Auburn, joined the faculty in 1990 after earning a Ph.D. in Communications at the Univ. of Tennessee in 1989. She also has an M.S. in Clothing and Textiles from Auburn. Evelyn has been an editor/writer for several consumer publications and an industry consultant on product development and entrepreneurship. Her research interests include consumer behavior, retail forecasting systems, and rural economic development. I95-A19, I95-A20*, I98-A7, I98-A8, I98-A9* brannel@auburn.edu (334)-844-6457 http://www.humsci.auburn.edu/ca/html/brannon.html Judson H. Early, Director of R&D with Textile Clothing Technology Corporation and on NTC’s TAC committee, joined [TC]2 in 1991 following a 21 year career at Haggar Apparel Co. where he served as Director, and later, Vice President of R&D. Following mechanical and electrical engineering studies at Arlington State College (TX) from 1962-66, Jud launched a custom machine development business. He has more than 25 patents received over a 30 year span. In 1995-96 he was Chairman of the Apparel Research Committee of the AAMA. His research interests include technology integration and 3D imaging. I98-A8 jearly@tc2.com (919)-380-2156 Maureen M. Grasso, Associate Dean of the Graduate School and Associate Professor of textile products design and marketing at UNCGreensboro joined the faculty in 1992 after 12 years at Univ. of Texas -Austin. She earned an M.S. from Cornell in 1977 and a Ph.D. in textile science and consumer economics from the Univ. of Tennessee in 1982. Her research interests include environmental aspects of textile products and mass customization. I98-A8 m_grasso@uncg.edu (336)-334-4887 http://www.uncg.edu/tdm/faculty_and_research.html#Grasso

Stephen Gray, a Professor and Head of Computer Clothing Research at Nottingham Trent Univ., joined the faculty in 1991. He earned a degree in mathematics from Univ. of Sussex in 1976 and M.Sc. degree in computing science from Imperial College in 1979. Stephen created the ORMUS Fashion software and authored CAD/CAM in Clothing and Textiles (1998). His research interests include CAD/CAM, system interfaces, software tools for the creative artist, 3D modeling and animation. I98-A8 stephen.gray@ccr.ntu.ac.uk Ann Beth Presley, an Associate Professor at Auburn since receiving a Ph.D. in textile science in 1992 from the University of Maryland, has a B.S. from Western Kentucky University and an M.S. from Ohio State. Ann Beth supervised quality assurance for Eddie Bauer and worked in textile testing for the International Fabricare Institute. She was a faculty fellow at [TC]2. Her research interests include quality issues in apparel and textiles, historic aspects of the industry, and computerization of the industry. I98-A7, I98-A8, I98-A9 preslab@auburn.ed (334)-844-1347 http://www.humsci.auburn.edu/ca/html/presley.html Pamela V. Ulrich, an Associate Professor in Consumer Affairs at Auburn, joined the faculty in 1987. She earned a Ph.D. in American history from Univ. of Oregon in 1991 and a M.S. in clothing and textiles from Auburn in 1980. She has department store experience. Pamela is curator of Consumer Affairs' Historic Costume and Textile Collection at Auburn. Her research interests include commercial development of the textile, apparel and retail sectors; fashion history, analysis and forecasting; and marketing trends. I95-A19, I95-A20, I98-A7*, I98-A8, I98-A9 ulricpv@auburn.edu (334)-844-1336 http://www.humsci.auburn.edu/ca/html/ulrich.html

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000

74

Agent-Based Simulation of the Consumer's Apparel Purchase Decision
Evelyn L. Brannon, leader; Lenda Jo Connell, Ann Beth Presley, Sven Thommesen, Pamela V. Ulrich (Auburn)

I98-A9

We are using agent-based simulation to model the formation of a consumerÊs intent to purchase apparel.
Tradeoffs between the Product Profile and the Consumer Profile take place in three analysis modules: ! The Closet Inventory module involves a needs assessment which helps determine the level of urgency to make a purchase decision. ! The Risk Evaluation module considers social, enjoyment and economic risks under the following conditions: • products purchased for public or private use • necessities or luxuries • branded or unbranded • symbolic, hedonic and functional products • the influence of reference groups on purchasing ! The Price/Value module evaluates tradeoffs between consumer wants and needs and product attributes given economic constraints. During a simulation run, the more the proposed product “connects” with a consumer’s preferences and behavior profile, the more points will accrue leading to a strong buy signal, a weak buy signal or a not-buy signal. At the end of the simulation a diagnostic report details the points of connection (or lack of connection) between Product Profile and Consumer Profile. The main outcome of agent-based simulation of the apparel purchase decision will be to provide apparel executives with a customized "Virtual Consumer" for proprietary buyer behavior research. The executive will use a menu to set selected variables within the model in two categories: • The intrinsic and extrinsic product attributes submitted to the tradeoff analysis. • The segmentation profile of the Virtual Consumer based on proprietary profiles of current or targeted customers. This "consumer in a box" approach provides a new tool for exploring the decision making process and for discovering the triggers, interactions and barriers in the formation of purchase intention. Executives can use the Virtual Consumer to experiment with scenarios based on long-tern and short-term company strategies and to identify and interpret the interactions between variables that could lead to product modifications or alternative marketing approaches. A spin-off from such investigations could be more fine-grained profiling of consumers to provide more detailed specifications for the model and for subsequent research using the simulation. Simulation of the apparel decision process provides a useful tool for identifying and defining U.S. and foreign markets and for fine-tuning the purchase proposal. [Contributing Graduate students: Missam Momin (Auburn)]
Industry interactions: 10 Other non-NTC interactions: 77 [Santa Fe Institute,Swarm Development Group] Project Web Site Address: http://www.humsci.auburn.edu/ca/brannon/elbhome.html For Further Information: nothing reported National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000

In an instant consumers simplify a cluttered, crowded marketplace using pattern matching and heuristics to determine which garments to consider for purchase and which to eliminate from further consideration. Our research attempts to model that decision-making process by using agent-based simulation. The simulation models the connections between apparel products; consumers' intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, attitudes, beliefs and preferences; and constraints on purchase decisions. This simulation offers a tool to explore consumer response to a proposed apparel purchase by making the connections, interactions and barriers more transparent. Apparel executives will be able to submit “what-if” scenarios based on specification of the target consumer and the characteristics of the product. Results will show the probability of purchase, the most positive connections between consumer and product and potential barriers to purchase. This approach dovetails with structural changes in the industry aimed at perfecting the supplier/consumer relationship by increasing responsiveness to consumers. The simulation is being designed in modules. Agent-based modeling allows simulation design as nested swarms of rules with messages passing between swarms. Each module can be modeled as subsets of rules synthesized from decades of buyer behavior research. Using SWARM software means that subsets can be programmed with either logical operators or with fuzzy logic, neural nets or genetic algorithms to mimic the different approaches used by consumers in decision making. Programming for each module will be comprised of associated rules and constraints. When complete the simulation will include: • Rules (variables) that can be set as discrete or continuous values • Coordinated rules sets programmed for each module • Connections established between rules sets for message passing on preliminary purchase decisions • A weighting system that can be set to favor one rule set or module over all others in the tradeoff analysis • Constraint filters that will either pass a preliminary purchase decision to the next rule set, modify the decision or halt the decision (veto the purchase) Two modules, each with a complex system of interacting variables, are used to initiate the simulation: ! The Product Profile includes rule sets for style genre, fashionability, fabric, fit, season and consumer adoption variables (compatibility, complexity and relative advantage). ! The Consumer Profile includes rule sets for shopping orientation, fashion leadership, personality type, innovativeness and product preferences. Executives supply available information on the proposed product and on the target consumer for each module.

75

Evelyn Brannon, an Associate Professor in Consumer Affairs at Auburn, joined the faculty in 1990 after earning a Ph.D. in Communications at the Univ. of Tennessee in 1989. She also has an M.S. in Clothing and Textiles from Auburn. Evelyn has been an editor/writer for several consumer publications and an industry consultant on product development and entrepreneurship. Her research interests include consumer behavior, retail forecasting systems, and rural economic development. I95-A19, I95-A20*, I98-A7, I98-A8, I98-A9* brannel@auburn.edu (334)-844-6457 http://www.humsci.auburn.edu/ca/html/brannon.html Lenda Jo Connell, an Associate Professor in Consumer Affairs at Auburn, joined the faculty in 1971 after receiving a masters degree in clothing and textiles from Louisiana State University. In 1990, she earned a Ed.D. in adult education from Auburn. For 15 years she was an Extension Resource Management Specialist for the textile and apparel industry and now coordinates the Apparel Production Management program. Lenda Jo's research interests include electronic sourcing, apparel product development and consumer preference style testing. I94-A13, I95-A19*, I95-A20, I98-A7, I98-A8*, I98-A9 anderl1@auburn.edu (334)-844-3789 http://www.humsci.auburn.edu/ca/html/anderson.html

Ann Beth Presley, an Associate Professor at Auburn since receiving a Ph.D. in textile science in 1992 from the University of Maryland, has a B.S. from Western Kentucky University and an M.S. from Ohio State. Ann Beth supervised quality assurance for Eddie Bauer and worked in textile testing for the International Fabricare Institute. She was a faculty fellow at [TC]2. Her research interests include quality issues in apparel and textiles, historic aspects of the industry, and computerization of the industry. I98-A7, I98-A8, I98-A9 preslab@auburn.ed (334)-844-1347 http://www.humsci.auburn.edu/ca/html/presley.html

Sven N. Thommesen, a Research Associate at Auburn since 1996 when he received a C.Phil in economics from UCLA. He also earned a B.A. in economics from Auburn in 1985. Sven's research interests include modeling of artificial agent simulations and macroeconomic stability. I98-A9 thommsn@auburn.edu (334)-844-6457

Pamela V. Ulrich, an Associate Professor in Consumer Affairs at Auburn, joined the faculty in 1987. She earned a Ph.D. in American history from Univ. of Oregon in 1991 and a M.S. in clothing and textiles from Auburn in 1980. She has department store experience. Pamela is curator of Consumer Affairs' Historic Costume and Textile Collection at Auburn. Her research interests include commercial development of the textile, apparel and retail sectors; fashion history, analysis and forecasting; and marketing trends. I95-A19, I95-A20, I98-A7*, I98-A8, I98-A9 ulricpv@auburn.edu (334)-844-1336 http://www.humsci.auburn.edu/ca/html/ulrich.html

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000

76

Integrated Supply Chain Analysis and Decision Support

Schematic for Supply Chain Design and Optimization Procedure
I98-S1

Gordon Berkstresser, Trevor J. Little (NC State, Textiles) Shu-Cherng Fang, Russell E. King, Henry L. W. Nuttle, James R. Wilson (NC State, Engineering) A softgoods supply chain involves the activity and interaction of many entities. Usually each of these entities knows how to make locally optimal decisions when the situation is clear. Unfortunately many decisions must be made in settings involving vagueness and uncertainty. Furthermore successful supply chain operation requires coordination of the decisions of the individual entities while the level of uncertainty is amplified as information is passed through the chain. Even in the emerging data rich environment with current information technology (electronic data interchange, Internet, data mining), lack of fundamental knowledge about supply chain operation in a vague and uncertain environment is still a key problem faced by the industry. In this project we are attacking critical softgoods supply chain integration and decision support problems using fuzzy mathematics and neural network technologies. In spite of the name, fuzzy mathematics is a rigorous discipline, more general than standard mathematics. In the past fuzzy mathematics has been used mainly for the control of machinery and processes while neural networks have been used primarily for pattern recognition and prediction. We are bringing fuzzy mathematics and neural network technology into the arena of knowledge extraction and application for optimal decision making in a setting which involves coordination among various entities.

Supply Chain Configuration

Knowledge Extraction

Simulation

Input - Performance Data

Goals met? Stop Fuzzy System / Relationship Identification

Activate Fuzzy Rules/Logic

Soft Computing Guided Simulation
Industry interactions: 17 [Fruit of the Loom, I2 Technologies, Mercantile Stores, Milliken & Company, Paragon Management Systems, Inc., Chinese Textile Institute, Universal Furniture, Century Furniture] Other non-NTC interactions: 3 Project Web Site Address: http://www.ie.ncsu.edu/fangroup/NTCpage/NTCI98S1.html For Further Information

We are attacking critical softgoods supply chain integration and decision support problems using fuzzy mathematics and neural network technologies.
We will provide the fundamental knowledge necessary to develop the tools to support coordinated capacity allocation, inventory planning, scheduling and delivery date assignment in a supply chain operating in a vague and uncertain environment. To date we have developed prototype fuzzy-based decision support systems for inventory control, interactive multi-customer due-date bargaining, system identification and supply chain design and optimism (See Figure). A neural network based decision surface modeling tool is now included in the Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) project's Sourcing Simulator. We have also developed "jackknifing" techniques to determine confidence intervals on the decision surface models. [Contributing Students: Shyh-Huei Chen, Yi Liao,Hao Cheng, Saowanee Lertworasirikul (NC State, Eng)]

1. T-W Hung, A New Approach to Fuzzy System Identification, Ph.D. Dissertation, Operations Research (NC State 1999). 2. T-W Hung, S-C Fang and H.L.W. Nuttle, A Clustering-Based Approach to Fuzzy System Identification, Proceedings of the Eighth International Fuzzy Systems Association World Congress, 1:415 Taipei, Taiwan (Aug 1999). 3. H.L.W. Nuttle, D-W Wang, S-C. Fang and S-H. Chen, MultiCustomer Due-Date Bargaining with Soft Computing, Proceedings of the Eighth International Fuzzy Systems Association World Congress, 1:401, Taipei, Taiwan (Aug 1999). 4. H.L.W. Nuttle, R.E. King, J. A. Wilson, N.A. Hunter and S-C. Fang, Simulation Modeling of the Textile Supply Chain, Part II Results and Research Directions, to appear in The Journal of the Textile Institute. 5. D-W. Wang, S-C. Fang and H.L.W. Nuttle, Soft Computing for Multi-Customer Due-Date Bargaining, IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, 29 (4) (1999). 6. D-W. Wang, S-C. Fang and H.L.W. Nuttle, Fuzzy Rule Quantification and Its Application in Manufacturing Systems, to appear in Journal of Chinese Institute of Industrial Engineering - Special Issue on Softcomputing in Industrial Engineering (2000). 7. P. Wu, S-C. Fang and H.L.W. Nuttle, Curved Search Based Neural Network Learning Using Fuzzy Control, Proceedings of the Eighth International Fuzzy Systems Association World Congress, 1: 381, Taipei, Taiwan (Aug 1999). 8. T-W Hung, S.-C. Fang, H. L. W. Nuttle and R. E. King, A FuzzyControl-Based Quick Response Reorder Scheme for the Retailing of Seasonal Apparel, Proceedings of the 2nd Int. Conference on Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience 2:300 (1997) 9. T-W Hung, J. R. Wilson and P. Wu, Confidence Intervals for Estimated Decision Surfaces", working paper, NC State (1997). 10.F.B. Stringer, Robust Confidence Interval Estimation for Neural Network Decision Surfaces, Masters' Thesis, NC State (1998).

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National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000

11.D-W. Wang, S-C. Fang and H. L. W. Nuttle,Soft Computing for Multi-Customer Due-Date Bargaining, Technical Report #98-04, Operations Research and Industrial Engineering, NC State (1998) 12.P. Wu, Neural Networks and Fuzzy Control with Applications to Textile Manufacturing and Management, Ph.D. Dissertation, Graduate Program in Operations Research, NC State (1997) 13.P. Wu, S.-C. Fang, H. L. W. Nuttle, R. E. King and J. R. Wilson, Decision Surface Modeling of Textile Spinning Operations Using Neural Network Technology, Proceedings of the IEEE 1994 Annual Textile, Fiber and Film Industry Conference, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway NJ (1994). 14.P. Wu, S-C. Fang, H. L. W. Nuttle, R. E. King and James R. Wilson, Guided Neural Network Learning Using a Fuzzy Controller with Applications to Textile Spinning, International Transactions in Operational Research, 2, No. 3 (1995) 15.P. Wu, S.-C. Fang, H. L. W. Nuttle and R. E. King, Decision Surface Modeling of Textile Retail Operations Using Neural Networks, Proceedings of the Third Annual Fuzzy Theory and Technology International Conference, Duke, 312 (1994). 16.P. Wu, S.-C. Fang, H. L. W. Nuttle and R. E. King, Decision Surface Modeling of Apparel Retail Operations Using Neural Network Technology, International Journal of Operations and Quantitative Management, 1, #1 (1995).
Gordon A. Berkstresser III is a Professor (and former Department Head) of Textile and Apparel Technology and Management at NC State. Before returning to his NC State alma mater in 1978, Gordon worked 16 years in the textile and furniture industries, then received an MBA in human resources from Baruch and a Ph.D. in business from City University of New York. His research interests include marketing and international trade in textiles, apparel and related products and the modeling and analysis of the fiber-textilesapparel-retail pipeline. I95-S2*, I98-S1* gordon_berkstresser@ncsu.edu (919)-515-6593 Shu-Cherng Fang, the Walter Clark Professor of Operations Research and Industrial Engineering at NC State, received his Ph.D. in Industrial Engineering and Management Science from Northwestern University. Before joining NC State, he worked on manufacturing process optimization and telecommunication network design for AT&T. His current research interests are operations research and systems optimization, such as analysis and modeling of the apparel pipeline. I95-S2, I98-S1 fang@eos.ncsu.edu (919)-515-2350 http://www.ie.ncsu.edu/people/new_page_people.htm

Russell E. King, a Professor of Industrial Engineering at NC State, earned a Ph.D. in industrial engineering from the University of Florida. Before joining the faculty at NC State in 1986, he worked as a Systems Analyst for Dynamic Corporation of Rockville MD. In 1990, Rusty received an NC State Alumni Outstanding Teacher Award and in 1995 received the Alcoa Foundation Engineering Research Achievement Award. His research interests include modeling and analysis of the fiber-textile-apparel-retail pipeline. I95-S2, I98-S1, I98-S12*, I99-D16 king@eos. ncsu.edu (919)-515-5186 http://www.ie.ncsu.edu/people/new_page_people.htm Trevor J. Little, a Professor and Head of the Textile and Apparel Management Dept. at NC State, joined the faculty in 1984. He received his Ph.D. in textile industries at the Univ. of Leeds (England) in 1974 whereupon he was a research scientist in textile physics at CSIRO (Australia), a professor at PhillaU and Director of Product Development at Danskin. Trevor's research interests include automated manufacturing and handling systems, sewability and sewing dynamics and apparel manufacturing and management. I98-S1 , I98-S12 trevor_little@ncsu.edu (919)-515-6646
http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tam/aboutdept/facresstaff/facstaff_frame.htm

Henry L.W. Nuttle, Professor of Industrial Engineering at NC State, received a Ph.D. in operations research from Johns Hopkins. Hank's research interests include applied operations research and production systems such as the analysis and modeling of the fiber-textile-apparelretail pipe- line. I95-S2, I98-S1 nuttle@eos.ncsu.edu (919)-515-2364 http://www.ie.ncsu.edu/people/new_page_people.htm

James R. Wilson, a Professor of Industrial Engineering at NC State, received a Ph.D. in industrial engineering from Purdue. Jim has served as Departmental Editor of Management Science for Simulation. His current research interests include the design and analysis of simulation experiments and operations research techniques applied to industrial engineering. I95-S2, I98-S1 jwilson@eos.ncsu.edu (919)-515-6415 http://www.ie.ncsu.edu/people/new_page_people.htm

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000

78

Demand Systems Approach to Prediction of Textile and Apparel Demands under Dynamic Social Trends
Moon W. Suh, leader, Matthew T. Holt (NC State)

Estimated Change in Habit Stock for Men's Apparel
5.75 5.45 Habit Stock 5.15 4.85 4.55 4.25 1990 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 Year 1995 1996 1997 1998

I98-S6

Because of nearly unlimited substitution possibilities, fashion-oriented textile and apparel demand may only be accurately predicted if all available information is incorporated using a systems approach. Only by combining both quantitative information (relating to demographic and socioeconomic changes) and qualitative information (on social, political and technological trends) can we design a comprehensive and theoretically consistent system of consumer demand equations for predicting consumer purchases in textiles and apparel. Information and Data Acquisition At the statistical and econometric modeling level, we merged demographic and economic data with measurable social, political and technological trends and other nontraditional qualitative and quantitative data pertaining to fashions and their intensities. We applied a first-order differential demand system (the Rotterdam Demand System) and specified the parameters of this system as a function of the consumer's "habit stocks," the mix of various types of clothing that the consumer purchases. We specified these habit stocks as a dynamic state-adjustment equation. With this approach, representative consumer's preferences for particular textile or apparel categories were allowed to evolve systematically over time. For example, with the advent of a more casual business attire, dress shirts have declined as a percentage of men’s habit stock of shirts.

interrelationships for the past nine years. The model incorporates a measure of the psychological stock of habits as well. The notion is if there is ‘persistence’ in consumer expenditure patterns for men’s clothing, then this habit stock variable should help determine the current demand for the various categories of men’s apparel. Using 1990 to 1998 monthly purchasing statistics, most equations fit the data well, with individual equation correlation coefficients (R2) generally in the 0.80 to 0.95 range. Overall, the Rotterdam model used in conjunction with consumer habit stock formation provided a good fit to the data and demonstrated the apparel purchase behavior patterns of men (See Figure). Of interest is that total expenditure for all men’s clothing is increasing over time and the habit stock variable is not represented by a simple linear trend, but instead cycles with the seasons. We have attempted to link habit stock variables to some of the social trend data to see how well consumers’ response rates correlate with apparel purchase volumes. We ran a correlation analyses with the GSS cumulative dataset that merges 20 years of annual data consisting of over 1000 questions about socioeconomic status, social mobility, social control, the family, race relations, sex relations, civil liberties and morality. From this GSS data we selected 12 questions that are likely to be correlated with consumer purchasing behavior. Although the sample size is rather small, it seems that, in general, there is a positive correlation between the response rates and apparel purchase sales volumes (See Figure below for the buying habits of people who favor abortion at the woman’s discretion - a GSS question).
Correlation of Pro-Abortion Support with Casual Women's Shorts Purchases
casual units purchased 300000 250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 Abortion for any reason y = 87.602x + 176432 R2 = 0.7064

We are designing consumer demand equations to predict consumer purchases in textiles and apparel.
We have now used our estimated demand systems to link habit stock variables to observed social, economic, demographic, technological and other industry-specific fashion trend variables. In addition to commonly deployed econometric variables, we incorporated General Social Survey1 (GSS) data, standard industry advertising expenditures, indicators for ethnic diversity and measures related to sudden changes in political and technological climates. In this way, we are able to identify which factors, aside from prices and income, are important in explaining consumers' buying patterns. Concurrently, we have also updated all relevant U.S. government statistics (e.g. Census, Economic Analysis and Labor Statistics) in our Textile and Apparel Business Information System (TABIS) database. Modeling, Analysis and Results We have now applied the so-called “habit-stock” model to fifteen categories of men’s apparel items, including knit shirts, dress shorts, jeans, shorts, suits, blazers and casual slacks to examine consumption trends and price-consumption

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National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000

[Other Contributors: Graduate Student Eun-Kyung Lee (NC State); Consultant: Carl Priestland (AAMA)]
Industry interactions: 8 [American Apparel Manufacturers Association, BLS, Cotton Inc., Dept. of Commerce, Fashion Institute, Univ. of Chicago National Opinion Research Center, NPD Group (Port Washington NY), Shinshu Univ. (Japan)] Project Web Site Address:
http://www2.ncsu.edu/unity/lockers/project/ntcprojects/projects/I98-S06

For Further Information

1. University of Chicago National Opinion Research Center. 2. A.Deaton and J. Muellbauer, An Almost Ideal Demand System. American Econ. Rev., 70 (1980) 3. M. Holt, B.Goodwin, Dynamic Generalizations of Inverse Almost Ideal Demand Systems: An Application to Meat Expenditures in the United States., Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics. 4. Moon W. Suh and Eun-Kyung Lee, Modeling of U.S. Mens Apparel Consumption Trends and Its Implication on Cotton Consumption, Beltwide Cotton Economics Conference, Orlando FL (Jan 1999) 5. Moon W. Suh and Eun-Kyung Lee, Modeling of U.S. Men's Apparel Consumption Tredns and Its Implication on Cotton Consoumption, Beltwide Cotton Economics Conference, Orlando, FL (Jan. 1999) 6. Moon W. Suh and Eun-Kyung Lee, Modeling and Estimation of U.S. Textile Mill Cotton Demand Based on Men's Apparel Consumption Trends., International Textile and Apparel Association Conference, Santa Fe, NM (Nov. 1999) 7. Moon W. Suh and Eun-Kyung Lee, Analysis of Men's Apparel Consumption Trends in U.S., Textile Institute Conference, Menchester, Great Britain (April 2000)

Moon W. Suh, a Professor of Textile and Apparel Management and of Statistics at NC State, joined the faculty in 1987 after a 19-year career at Burlington Ind. as a statistician and operations research analyst. He earned a B.S. in textile engineering from Seoul National Univ. (Korea) in 1961 and a Ph.D. in statistics from NC State in 1969. Moon's research interests include statistical and probabilistic modeling of textile processes and products, quality control methods, apparel business information systems, biostatistics and statistical failure models. I95-A11, I97-S1*, I98-S6*, F99-S2 moon_suh@ncsu.edu (919)-515-6580
http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tam/aboutdept/facresstaff/facstaff_frame.htm

Matthew T. Holt, a Professor of Agricultural and Resource Economics at NC State joined the faculty in 1993, after six years in Agricultural Economics at the University of Wisconsin. He earned a B.S. (1981) and a M.S. (1983) both in agricultural economics from Purdue and a Ph.D. in agricultural economics from the University of Missouri in 1987. Matt's research interests include demand system estimation, price forecasting, agricultural policy analysis, the role of risk in agricultural supply decisions and applied econometric and statistical analysis. I98-S6 holt@ag.arizona.edu (919)-515-4527

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000

80

Analysis of Apparel Production Systems to Support Quick Response Replenishment
Russell E. King, leader; Thom J. Hodgson (NC State, Engineering), Carol G. Carrere, Trevor J. Little (NC State, Textiles), D. Michelle Benjamin Reese [TC]2

I98-S12

The apparel manufacturer is often blamed as the weak link in the apparel supply chain. Typically a small to medium size enterprise, the manufacturer must deal with the conflicting objectives of the larger fabric suppliers and retailers. The almost daily erosion of apparel manufacturing in the U.S. is well documented. The trend is to seek lower labor rates since most retail merchants look at pre-season gross margins and thus wholesale cost is often the determining factor in a sourcing decision. Earlier work by part of our team led to the development of an analysis tool, the Sourcing Simulator (a.k.a. ARMS), that is used to quantity financial, inventory and service performance (e.g. see Figure 1) at retail for a line of garments. Analysis with this tool has supported quantitatively what Quick Response (QR) proponents have touted for years, i.e. a flexible and rapid, apparel supply system leads to superior performance at retail. In fact, case studies with the Sourcing Simulator have shown that, depending upon the garment, the retailer could afford to pay a QR vendor as much as 50% or more per garment and still achieve gross margins in excess of that which is achieved using a lower cost traditional, and often offshore, vendor. We address a natural question that arises from the Sourcing Simulator work, that is, How can the manufacturer achieve cost effective and flexible QR replenishment? We will analyze, in detail, existing manufacturing systems such as Progressive Bundle, Modular and Team Sewing to understand what form best supports a quick response supplier in terms of cost and performance. We will also develop analytic models to understand optimal manufacturing planning and control policies under a variety of operating scenarios. We will develop realistic systems that are characteristic of the optimal policies. During the last year we released a new version of the Sourcing Simulator (Version 2.0). The new version explicitly includes a model of the primary manufacturer supplying the product to the retailer. This includes capacity, quality, raw material supply and consumption, make-to-stock or make-toorder production/inventory stocking policies. The user defines a production and raw material ordering plan for the season, as well as costs such as raw material, production, and inventory carrying. Finally, information feedback from the retailer concerning forecasts and retail inventories can be shared or not. A updated release (version 2.1) is now available through the Textile Clothing and Technology Corporation [TC]2.

We are developing software to better understand the role of manufacturing configuration and production planning and control in support of quick response replenishment to retail.
We have used the tool to demonstrate to retailers that wholesale cost is not necessarily the best measure to use. In addition, we have performed case study analysis for some manufacturers as well. While this has been effective, retailers note that most apparel manufacturers are not currently able to provide QR replenishment. Manufacturers are typically staff lean and, thus, cannot directly support their own research and development. The objective of this project is provide the basic research necessary to help manufacturers understand which manufacturing system bests supports their business both from a financial and service viewpoint. This project involves four efforts. First, case study analyses for apparel manufacturers have been carried out to better understand the issues and the potential gain for the supply chain for quick response supply. This involves working with directly with our industry partners. Second, we are developing analytic models of the manufacturing systems to understand optimal operating policies. Through earlier research efforts we have developed a methodology using a virtual representation of the factory that has been very effective. We are extending this methodology to apparel manufacturing domains. Characterization of optimal policies is a crucial part of the process in gaining insight into effective and implementable candidate systems. The goal here is to develop a relatively generic and flexible software tool to allow analysis of a number of environments. Finally, using the simulation models we are analyzing the various candidate manufacturing systems under the range of scenarios identified as part of the first effort described above. [Contributing Students: Ali Gokce, Kara Moon, Amy Pinnow, Mehmet Taner (NC State, Eng.) Karla Peavy, Yu Zhao (NC State, Textiles)]
Industry interactions: 28 [Avon Home Fashions, Bain and Co., Cross Creek Apparel, Inc. Dillards Stores, Inc., EA Projects, The Gap, Griffin Manufacturing, Gymboree Corp., Hemingway Apparel Inc., i2 Technologies, Intrade Partners OY, Itac, J.C. Penney, K-Products, Med Covers, Milliken & Co., Paragon Management Systems, Inc., Prime Tanning Co. Inc PTA Group OY, Royal Park Uniforms, Sol Frank, Timberland, Triboro Quilt Mfg. Corp., Tropical Sportswear, Unifirst, Virke OY, Warren Featherbone Co.] Other non-NTC interactions: 30 Project Web Site Address: http://www.ie.ncsu.edu/ntc_i98s12

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National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000

For Further Information:

1. T. J. Hodgson, D. Cormier, A. J. Weintraub and A. Zozom, Satisfying Due-Dates in Large Job Shops, Management Science, 44-10 (1998) 2. T. J. Hodgson, D. Cormier, A. J. Weintraub and A. Zozom, Evaluating Alternative Process Plans in Large Manufacturing Systems, Computer Aided Process and Assembly Planning: Methods, Tools and Technologies, Gordon and Breach (TBD). 3. T. J. Hodgson, D. Cormier, A. J. Weintraub and A. Zozom, Implementing a Virtual Factory Cell Scheduling System, International Journal of Engineering Design and Automation (TBD). 4. T. J. Hodgson, D. Cormier, A. J. Weintraub and A. Zozom, A Simulation Based Finite Capacity Scheduling System, Proceedings of the 1997 Winter Simulation Conference 5. R. E. King and R. P. Maddalena, Replenishment Rules, Bobbin (May 1998). 6. R. E. King and R. P. Maddalena, Developing Proactive Replenishment Strategies, Proceedings of the VICS ’98 Conference, New Orleans (1998). 7. R. E. King, W. K. Moon and H. L. W. Nuttle, Analysis of Inventory Stocking Policies to Support Quick Response Retailing, Technical Report, NC State - Industrial Engineering (2000). 8. R. Lowson, R. E. King and N. A. Hunter, Quick Response: Managing the Supply Chain to Meet Consumer Demand, John Wiley and Sons, Sussex, England (1999). 9. H. L. W. Nuttle, R. E. King, N. A. Hunter, J. R. Wilson and S. C. Fang, Simulation Modeling of the Textile Supply Chain, Part 1 The Textile Plant Models, Journal of the Textile Institute (TBD. 10.H. L. W. Nuttle, R. E. King, S. C. Fang, J. R. Wilson, and N. A. Hunter, Simulation Modeling of the Textile Supply Chain, Part 2 Results and Research Directions, J. of the Textile Institute (TBD). 11.Hodgson, T. J., R.E. King, K. Thoney, N. Stanislaw, A. J. Weintraub, A. J. Zozom, Jr., “On Satisfying Due-Dates in Large Job Shops: Idle Time Insertion,” IIE Transactions, 32:177 (2000) 12.D. Wang, S.-C. Fang, and T. J. Hodgson, A Fuzzy Due-Date Bargainer for Make-To-Order Manufacturing Systems, IEEE Transactions on Systems Man, and Cybernetics, 28-3 (Aug 1998). 13.A. J. Weintraub, D. Cormier, T. J. Hodgson, R. E. King, J. R. Wilson, A. Zozom, Scheduling with Alternatives: A Link between Process Planning and Scheduling, IIE Transactions 31:1093 (1999).
Russell E. King, a Professor of Industrial Engineering at NC State, earned a Ph.D. in industrial engineering from the University of Florida. Before joining the faculty at NC State in 1986, he worked as a Systems Analyst for Dynamic Corporation of Rockville MD. In 1990, Rusty received an NC State Alumni Outstanding Teacher Award and in 1995 received the Alcoa Foundation Engineering Research Achievement Award. His research interests include modeling and analysis of the fiber-textile-apparel-retail pipeline. I95-S2, I98-S1, I98-S12*, I99-D16 king@eos. ncsu.edu (919)-515-5186 http://www.ie.ncsu.edu/people/new_page_people.htm Carol G. Carrere, a Visiting Assistant Professor of Textile & Apparel Technology & Management at NC State, earned a Ph.D. in textile technology management there in 1997. Carol's research interests include modeling and analysis of manufacturing elasticities for sewn product replenishment, sewability, sewing dynamics, fabric objective measurement and performance analysis, ergonomics and production operations management. National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000

I98-S12 ccarrere@ncsu.edu (919)-515-6514
http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tam/aboutdept/facresstaff/facstaff_frame.htm

Thom J. Hodgson, the James T. Ryan Professor of Industrial Engineering and Director of the Integrated Manufacturing Systems Engineering Institute at NC State, joined the faculty in 1983 from 13 years on Univ. of Florida’s faculty and at Ford Motor Co. He earned a BSE in science engineering, a MBA in quantitative methods and a Ph.D. in industrial engineering all from University of Michigan. Thom’s research interests include production scheduling, inventory control, logistics, real-time control of systems and applied operations research. I98-S12 hodgson@eos.ncsu.edu (919)-515-5194 http://www.ie.ncsu.edu/people/new_page_people.htm Trevor J. Little, a Professor and Head of the Textile and Apparel Management Dept. at NC State, joined the faculty in 1984. He received his Ph.D. in textile industries at the Univ. of Leeds (England) in 1974 whereupon he was a research scientist in textile physics at CSIRO (Australia), a professor at PhillaU and Director of Product Development at Danskin. Trevor's research interests include automated manufacturing and handling systems, sewability and sewing dynamics and apparel manufacturing and management. I98-S1 , I98-S12 trevor_little@ncsu.edu (919)-515-6646
http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tam/aboutdept/facresstaff/facstaff_frame.htm

D. Michelle Benjamin Reese, Simulation Services Manager at [TC]2 since 1993 when she earned an M.S. in industrial engineering and operations research from Penn State. Michelle's research interests include flexible simulation and Visual Basic tools for textile and apparel processes and production assembly, warehousing and transportation systems. finite capacity planning and flexible simulation tools for textile and apparel processes and production assembly, warehousing and transportation systems. I98-S12 mreese@tc2.com (919)-380-2156

82

Use of Artificial Intelligence in Designing Dyes, Chemical Auxiliaries, Polymers and Textile Fibers
Les M. Sztandera, leader; Charles Bock, Mendel Trachtman (PhilaU)

I98-P1

Each molecule is described by a set of structural features, a set of physical properties and the strength of some activity, such as toxicity. We are using artificial intelligence to find patterns of these structural features and properties that correspond to a desired level of activity in various classes of molecules. Specifically, we are ! using genetic algorithms, neural networks and fuzzy logic along with molecular orbital methods to design dyes, chemical auxiliaries, polymers and fibers ! investigating novel molecular indices to be used for the prediction of various physical and toxicological properties of textile chemicals ! developing the machine learning (soft computing) techniques required to extract and utilize the information.

employed to structure the knowledge, and in the representation of the knowledge acquired by the system. Using such artificial intelligence programming language strings, we can represent backbones and side chain groups. Our techniques enable sophisticated calculations to be performed on large molecules at relatively low cost. While these three methods have successfully established predictive patterns for our databases, we have observed some limitations, particularly concerning predictions made on closely related molecules such as 2- and 3-methoxy-4-aminoazobenzene, where the calculated physical properties and A Feed-Forward topological indices are very similar, Neural Network despite radically different mutagenic Architecture behaviors. We are continuing to develop our methods to account for these limitations. [Contributing (PhilaU)] Graduate Student: Janardhan R. Velga
and

We are using genetic algorithms, neural networks and fuzzy logic with molecular orbital methods to design dyes, chemical auxiliaries, polymers and fibers.
Molecular Modeling Using density functional calculations we are establishing properties of various molecules of interest to the textile industry, initially for nontoxic azo dyes. This approach uses non-local corrections for the functional calculations1,2,3 and a numerical basis set which is very flexible and includes polarization functions on all atoms4 leading to complete geometry optimization with no Electrostatic potential We now superimposed on the density for constraints. 4-amino-3-methoxyazobenzene, have complete geometry a known mutagen optimizations of over 120 azobenzene derivatives and have calculated the following properties: atomic charges, dipole moments, highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energies, and the logarithm of the octanol water partition coefficients. We now have high-quality graphical displays of the density, HOMO, LUMO and electrostatic potential for all these molecules (See Sample Graph). Soft Computing We are currently using three methods of machine learning: fuzzy neural tree induction,6 fuzzy logic (CUBICALC) and supervised neural network (Ward Systems Group) (See Figure below). These methods differ both in the learning strategy

Industry interactions: 1 [International Pigments Photochemicals Ltd., Canada] Project Web Site Address: http://titan.philau.edu/~les/ For Further Information:

A. D. Becke, Phys. Rev. A38:3098 (1968). J. P. Perdew and A. Zunger, Phys. Rev. B23:5048 (1981). J. P. Perdew, Phys. Rev. B33:8822 (1986). Spartan v. 5.0 molecular modeling package (Wavefunction, Inc.). L. M. Sztandera, A Comparative Study of Ranking Fuzzy Sets Defined by a Neural Network Algorithm - Justification for a Centroidal Method, Archives of Control Sciences 4:5 (1995). 6. L. M. Sztandera, Fuzzy Neural Trees, Encyclopedia of Computer Science and Technology 40:87 (1999). 7. L. M. Sztandera, C. Bock and M. Trachtman, Use of Artificial Intelligence in Designing Dyes, Chemical Auxiliaries, Polymers, and Textile Fibers, presented at the 6th International Conference on Fuzzy Theory and Technology, Research Triangle Park NC (Oct 1998). 8. L. M. Sztandera, C. Bock and M. Trachtman, A Soft Computing Approach to the Design of Non-Carcinogenic Azo Dyes, Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Soft Computing, Genoa 434 (Jun 1999). 9. L. M. Sztandera, C. Bock, M. Trachtman and J. Velga, Artificial Neural Networks Aid the Design of Non-Carcinogenic Azo Dyes, Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Methodologies for Intelligent Systems, Warsaw 503 (Jun 1999). 10.L. M. Sztandera, C. Bock, M. Trachtman and J. Velga, Artificial Neural Networks Aid the Design of Non-Carcinogenic Azo Dyes, Proceedings of Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence, SpringerVerlag #1609:503 (1999). 11.L. Sztandera, C. Bock, M. Trachtman and J. Velga, Fuzzy Logic Approach to the Design of Non-Mutagenic Azo Dyes, Proceedings of the IASTED International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Soft Computing, Honolulu 286 (1999). 12.C. Bock and M. Trachtman, Fuzzy Entropy Approach to the Design of Non-Mutagenic Azo Dyes Proceedings of the Eight International Fuzzy Systems Association World Congress, Taipei, 699 (1999). 13.L. Sztandera, C. Bock, M. Trachtman and J. Velga, Structure Activity Relationship In Azo Dyes, Fiber Society Meeting, Philadelphia PA (1999). 14.L. Sztandera, C. Bock and M. Trachtman, Fuzzy Logic Aids the Design of Chemical Auxiliaries, Polymers, and Textile Fibers, 6th International Conference on Fuzzy Theory and Technology, Research Triangle Park, NC, 1998. 15.Janardhan R. Velga, Thesis, PhiladelphiaU (2000).

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

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National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000

Les M. Sztandera, an Associate Professor and Head of the Computer Science program at PhiladelphiaU earned a Ph.D. in computer and engineering science in 1993 from the University of Toledo, an M.S. from Missouri in 1990 and a Diploma in English in 1989 from Cambridge (England). Les’ research interests include fuzzy logic, pattern recognition, computer vision, genetic algorithms, neural networks, hybrid intelligent systems, and modeling and management of uncertainty. I98-P1 sztanderal@philau.edu (215)-951-2871 http://larry.texsci.edu/les2.html

Charles Bock, a Professor of Computational Chemistry at PhiladelphiaU earned a Ph.D. in 1972, an M.S. in 1970 and a B.S in 1968, all in physics from Drexel. Chuck’s research interests include computational chemistry, molecular modeling of carcinogenic dyes and interaction of water with various metal ions. I98-P1 chuck@larry.texsci.edu (215)-951-2876

Mendel Trachtman, Professor Emeritus of chemistry, and former Chair of the Dept. of Chemistry and Physical Science at ,PhiladelphiaU earned a Ph.D. from Univ. of Pennsylvania in 1961, an M.S. from Drexel in 1957 and a B.A. from Temple in 1951. Mendel’s research interests include ab initio and semiempirical molecular orbital methods, density functional analysis, physical chemistry and color science. I98-P1 mendel@spartan.texsci.edu (215)-951-6855

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000

84

Physically Based Fabric Drape Models as Tools for Computer-Aided Design of Apparel and Other Textile Structures.
Muthu Govindaraj (PhilaU)

I98-P2

Fabrics are discontinuous structures possessing anisotropic, nonlinear, hysteric and time dependent characteristics. They also undergo large deformations with only small applied forces. One such deformation, fabric drape, can be seen as a complex buckling of a planar sheet. However, a physically based model of fabric drape that can be used in apparel design is not yet a reality. Missing is the real visualization of draped

We are developing a physically based model of fabric drape that can be used in apparel design including multiple layers of fabrics, two-ply seams and stitched fabrics.
We have developed and successfully demonstrated a flexible shell based model, to be used in complex fabric drape situations, that has a unique way of modeling fabric taking into consideration the initial, dual curvature formation. We are now focusing on simulating sewn textile articles, including complete garments. In this endeavor we have essentially overcome computational problems in finite element analysis of large deformation, thin shell, anisotropic, and most importantly, multiple layer and stitch representation techniques (See Figure). In our efforts to model complete garments, we are using an anthropometrically correct human computer model, developed at the University of Pennsylvania, to drape garments simulated by our model. Eventually we plan to develop a method to model a walking mannequin with fully formed clothing including stitches and seams. [Contributing graduate student: Anand Vallamshetla (PhilaU)]
Industrial interactions: 7 [Boeing Helicopters, Milliken, Fieldcrest Cannon, White-Westinghouse, Levis Corporation, Hunter Douglas Company, Lectra Inc] Project Web Site Address: http://faculty.philau.edu/govindarajm/ntc/ For Further Information:

Simulation of the drape of a tablecloth with and without seams

garments on human forms and the incorporation of seams, stitches and multiple layers of fabrics. Commercial packages of drape are not real drape, but texture mapping algorithms which do not represent the fabric material characteristics. Some of the more sophisticated models are too computationally intensive to be used in apparel design applications. Usually in the fabric drape analysis work reported so far, researchers have assumed the fabric to be initially flat. When using numerical methods such as NewtonRaphson an initial guess that is close to the equilibrium state must be given in order to find the final solution. Then a fabric considered initially flat is the most reasonable solution. However, with an approach like this the equilibrium solutions usually are unobtainable even with modified a Riks method, which was supposed to solve postbuckling problems in solid mechanics. Earlier we developed a two step method to model fabric drape using flexible thin shell theory and finite element analysis. By using dynamic and static analysis with a nine node flexible shell element, our model1,2 produces simulations very close to actual fabric drape, allowing us to study how fabric drape is impacted by fabric mechanical parameters (namely Young’s modulus, shear modulus, Poisson’s ratio, weight and thickness). Our flexible shell based model can predict drape over arbitrary surfaces to a high degree of accuracy. We are now extending our model to simulate drape over complex arbitrary surfaces, such as fabrics with seams, stitches and multiple ply fabric assemblies. We now have successfully simulated drape of fabrics with seams and stitches by adopting a variety of techniques including master slave configurations for multiple layer modeling, self collision algorithms, and Lagrange multiplier techniques for contact constraints.

1. B. Chen and M. Govindaraj, A Physically-Based Model of Fabric Drape Using Flexible Shell Elements Text. Res. J. 65:324 (1995). 2. B. Chen and M. Govindaraj, Mathematical Modeling of Fabric Drape: A Parametric Study Text. Res. J. 66:17 (1996). 3. A. Vallamshetla, Modeling Draping Behavior of Fbarics with Seams aand Stitches, Masters Thesis, PhiladelphiaU (May 2000)
Muthu Govindaraj, an Associate Professor and Director of Textile Graduate Programs at PhiladelphiaU since 1995, earned a Ph.D. in mechanical engineering at the University of Liberec (Czech Republic) in 1982. He also earned a MTech. in textile engineering at the University of Madras (India). Muthu was also a machine design engineer in industry in India, a post-doctoral research associate at NC State and an assistant professor at Cornell. His research interests include fabric mechanics and on-line control systems for textile and apparel machinery. I98-P2* mgraj@aol.com (215)-951-2684 http://fibers.texsci.edu/stmt/govind.html

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A Programmic Solution to Compress the Supply Chain in Fabric Weaving
Guillermo Duenas, leader, Joseph Abelson, Mohamed Abou-iiana, John E. Luke (PhilaU)

I98-P3

Supply Chain Management (SCM) is an integrated approach for planning and controlling the flow of materials (See Figure). At its heart is Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) which starts with a customer order, continues through production and delivery of finished goods and is built around software designed to model, automate and integrate information across a total company. ERP aims to reduce the time between order entry and shipment with programs designed to organize virtually all sales, production and other activities by linking computer systems.

and quantify intra-company, inter-process communications bottlenecks that inhibit optimization of the mill supply chain. To measure the textile-universality of the ERP application we will then compare actual post-ERP installation results with the theoretical calculations from the adapted model. [Contributing Graduate Student: Shyam Kuppurathnam]
Industrial interactions: 19+ [Backbone Suppliers: Baan, Oracle, SAP; Module Suppliers: Aspen Technology, Dataworks, J.D. Edwards, Exe Technologies, I2 Technologies, Logility, Marcam, Manugistics, Peoplesoft, Qad, Ryder Systems Inc., Sybase, TIM; Systems Consultants: Advanced Manufacturing Research, several major accounting firms; Industry Sources: DAMA, ATMI, J.E. Morgan Co., VF Corp., U.S. Department of Commerce] Project Web Site Address: none reported

NEED THIS
For Further Information - none reported Guillermo Duenas, an Associate Professor of Management in the School of Business and Co-director of the Center of Management Excellence at PhiladelphiaU, joined the faculty in 1983. He earned a Ph.D. in systems sciences from Wharton School (Univ. of Penn) in 1987. Guillermo’s research interests include total quality management, strategic planning and cross- cultural management strategies. I98-P3* duenasg@philacol.edu (215)-951-2823 Joseph Abelson, an Adjunct Professor in management at the School of Business at PhiladelphiaU, joined the faculty in 1991 from being president and chief operating officer of International Pigments and Photochemicals Ltd., a Canadian firm. He earned a B.S. in chemical engineering and an M.S. in polymer chemistry from the SUNY. From 1960 to 1986 he held various technical and commercial positions for ICI. Joe's research interests include total quality management and ISO 9000, new markets for innovative products and supply chain management. I98-P3 abelsonj@philacol.edu (215)-951-2816 Mohamed Abou-Iiana, an Assistant Professor of Textile Engineering at PhiladelphiaU since 1997, earned his Ph.D. from NC State in knitting engineering in 1995, a masters from Leicester Polytechnic (ENG) in 1987, and B.Sc. in textile engineering from Alexandria University (Egypt) in 1983. Mohamed spent about 15 years in the textile industry in Egypt and USA in knitting, dyeing and finishing and apparel industries. His research interests include knitting, on-line control of knitting machines, mechanical properties of fabrics and software development for the textile industry. I98-P3 abouiianam@philacol.edu (215)-951-2680

We are helping to design Enterprise Resource Planning software to compress the time between order entry and shipment in fabric weaving.
To compete, the U.S. textile industry must devote significant resources to supply chain management. Using our knowledge of textile industry channels of distribution, we are assisting a commercial supplier of ERP/SCM software to adapt current software into modules specific to the supply chain needs of a textile manufacturer. We will then test the applicability of the software to a wide variety of fiber and textile operations.
Supply Chain Management

Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)

Inter-process Communication Identification of Bottlenecks

Reengineering guided by Industry Best Practices & Benchmarks

Decision Making Process

Integrated Optimization of Supply Chain Using ERP

We are planning cooperative efforts with the Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) project and with the American Textile Manufacturer’s Institute (ATMI). ATMI has identified and measured the significant benchmark parameters for improvements expected using ERP and SCM systems. Using DAMA’s SCM modeling software (Sourcing Simulator and Quick Response) and the Theory of Constraints we will drill down one level below DAMA's work to identify

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John Luke, an Assistant Professor of Textile Marketing in the Schools of Business and Textiles and Materials Technology at PhiladelphiaU, joined the faculty in 1997 after a number of years in marketing, operations and finance in Chemstrand, FMC Fibers and Avtex and has had his own marketing consulting practice since 1989. He earned his BSE in engineering from Princeton in 1957 and his MBA from NYU in 1967. John's research interests include strategic marketing & planning analyses as a function of product-market position. I98-P3 lukej@philacol.edu (215)-951-2814

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National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000

Bionomic Analysis of Predatory Exclusion of Technologies

I99-A2

Howard L. Thomas, leader; Henry Thompson (Auburn) Alexei Sharov (Virginia Tech), Neil Cahill (ITT) One metaphor for a market economy is a tropical rainforest, populated by numerous highly specialized technologies instead of highly specialized organisms. The relative advantages of one technology over another determine the dominance of that technology in a manner similar to species survival patterns in nature. This similarity to natural selection of the acceptance, viability and life cycle of a product or a technology in a marketplace has been one of high importance to economic analysts for many years. Models of self-organizing economies fit well into the bionomics paradigm because they are deterministic and can therefore show which technologies can survive in which markets and to what extent.

450000 400000 350000 300000 250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 0 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000

N1 N2 shuttle shuttleless

Curve fit of data with the Lotka Volterra model using a shuttleless/shuttle loom speed ratio factors of 5

To improve purchasing decisions, we are developing a model to predict how new textile technologies will survive, flourish, diminish and perish versus competitive technologies.
Using a version of the Lotka-Volterra ecological model to simulate competition of textile technologies in a predatory market (Lotka 1925, Volterra 1926), we are modeling the competition between textile technologies with the addition of a consumer component. Initially we are testing the model using 1978-98 statistics about U.S. textile weaving technology competition. We multiplied the number of shuttleless looms by 5 to adjust for their higher textile production rate because relative economic benefits depend on production, not numbers of looms. The costs of resources (e.g. fiber) are expected to be essentially the same; so cost reductions should come mostly from labor and capital savings. Initial results indicate a close fit with the Lotka-Volterra model (See Figure). The ratio of shuttleless/shuttle looms is more important than their absolute values. Further study is needed to determine the influence of such factors as internal competition among newer technologies. We can examine this as competition among subspecies or different predator species, some of which are beginning to become more powerful even than the former dominant species. The lifetime we used for a shuttle loom (4 years) appears rather low, because looms generally function much longer than that. If we use longer lifetimes the curve of declining shuttle looms does not fit well. This is because shuttle looms are not discarded, but instead are being sold to developing countries (a factor which is not now included in our model). The curve describing the population of shuttleless looms initially corresponds well to the model, but then it becomes flat and even curves down. The possibility of shrinking textile production was explored, but it is more likely that the data do not fit because of changes in subspecies competition (e.g. fibers, end uses) over the past 25 years.
National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000

Introduction of a new technology may lead to a reduction of fabric price in a specific product category. As the price of goods in the category goes down, the profit from old machinery becomes lower than the average in the industry, and the market value of old machines may drop dramatically. If old machines get cheaper, it may not be profitable to invest money in their repair. As a result, the "death rate" of old machines will increase. To further test the model we will also analyze the 1978-98 statistics on U.S. textile production for: ! production rates of several kinds of machines ! production of textile categories/types on each kind of machine ! prices for textile and weaving machines ! labor costs We will apply results to predict the effect of new technologies now being introduced to the US textile production market in the following years. It may appear that the competition of weaving technologies in the U.S. cannot be analyzed in isolation from the global market, so we will expand the model to a heterogeneous market as a set of locations (e.g., countries) with a flow of products among them. Local markets may have different labor and capital costs. For example, the cost of labor is high in the U.S. and low in China, but the cost of capital is low in the U.S. and relatively high in China. We expect that our expanded model will show that development of new technologies is faster in markets with a high ratio of labor/capital costs than in markets with a low ratio. In some markets with low labor costs old technology may persist indefinitely. In a heterogeneous market, there should be no fast drop in prices for old machinery because it can be sold to countries with a low ratio of labor/capital costs. Thus, a heterogeneous market may stabilize prices and decelerate the competitive exclusion of technologies. Some technologies may even coexist. We will use the model to determine the conditions of coexistence and the proportion of various technologies at the equilibrium. If there is a good fit using new considerations about internal competition, we will extend the model to other technologies, including spinning (e.g. vortex spinning), on-line quality control, fibers (e.g. cotton and polyester) and dyeing machinery. [Contributing Graduate Student: Kasey Myers (Auburn)]

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Industrial interactions: None reported Project Web Site Address:

http://www.eng.auburn.edu/department/te/ntc/99/thomas/i99a2.html

For Further Information - none reported Howard L. Thomas, Jr., an Assistant Professor of Textile Engineering at Auburn, joined the faculty in 1996 from ITT. He received a Ph.D. in textile and polymer science from Clemson in 1991 and a M.S. in textiles from Georgia Tech. He is the USA editor for International Textile Bulletin and has industrial experience with Sulzer-Ruti, Springs Industries, J. P. Stevens and Cone Mills. Howard's research interests include weaving machine redesign and process consolidation, recycled fibers for nonwovens and ballistic resistant fabrics. I96-A9, I99-A2* hthomas@eng.auburn.edu (334)-844-5461 http://www.eng.auburn.edu/~hthomas

Neil Cahill, Professor and Vice President of ITT, joined the faculty in 1974 after working 13 years in industry with various textile companies. Neil earned his B. S. from the University of Massachusetts-Dartmouth in 1961 and his M. S. from the ITT in 1964. His research interests include design of World Class manufacturing organizations, global competitiveness and profitability engineering. I99-A2, I99-S10 neilc@itt.edu (804)-296-5511 Alexei Sharov, a Research Scientist in the Dept. of Entomology at Virginia Tech since 1992, earned his Ph.D. in entomology from Moscow State Univ. (Russia) in 1980 following a B.S. there in 1976. He also earned a Doctorate of biological sciences there in 1988. Alexei’s research interests include quantitative population ecology and mathematical modeling. I99-A2 sharov@vt.edu (540)-231-7316 http://www.ento.vt.edu/~sharov Henry L. Thompson, a Professor in Business at Auburn, joined the staff in 1986 from the staff at Tennessee. He earned a B.S. in 1970 and Ph.D. in 1981 at the University of Houston, both in economics. Henry’s research interests include international and energy economics and applied microeconomics. I99-A2 (334)-844-4910 thomph1@auburn.edu http://www.auburn.edu/~thomph1

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National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000

When Is Domestic Apparel Manufacturing Competitive?
Roger D. H. Warburton, leader; Steven Warner (UMassD), Russell E. King (NC State) Linda Welters (URI, Merchandising and Design)

I99-D16

Employment in the U.S. apparel industry has declined dramatically since the 1960s. Will it fall inexorably to zero, or is there some base level that can endure? If so, what strategic characteristics are required to survive? There is considerable interest in Quick Response Manufacturing (QRM) as a reason to support domestic manufacturing and to reduce supply chain costs. However, since domestic labor costs are higher than offshore, “Why should anyone bother with domestic manufacturing?”

Overall margins can be higher when domestic manufacturing is utilized.

A retailer or manufacturer can now analyze the accuracy of their sales forecast, and determine how much Quick Response Manufacturing is cost-effective.
We are researching these questions in four ways. First, we have developed an analytical model that includes both domestic and offshore manufacturing. Our model has the advantage that its parameters are readily observable and can be tuned to an organization’s individual business situation. Retailers can use the model to determine when it is cost effective to employ domestic manufacturers. Second, we are testing and evaluating the Sourcing Simulator4 (See I98-S12 on p.81) to compare its predictions to real-world sales data for several athletic wear styles. Third, we have received encouraging support from several quite diverse manufacturers. U.S. companies typically use off-shore manufacturing for high volume, basic styles; but they also struggle with the quick response demands of their customers. Thus they often use a mixture of off-shore and on-shore manufacturing. Fourth, standard accounting practices often make offshore manufacturing appear more financially attractive than it actually is. One has to look carefully at the raw labor rate because staff turnover rates in the Caribbean often exceed 40%, while sewing efficiencies are sometimes only 25% of U.S. factories. Also, there is evidence that off-shore logistics costs actually exceed labor costs, off-shore minimums and guaranteed contracts make small production runs expensive, and their long lead times conflict with quick response requirements and tie up capital. Therefore, it is absolutely vital to determine the true offshore manufacturing costs. Our analytical model links the accuracy of sales forecasting to product margins, and can be used to determine precisely

when domestic, quick response manufacturing is cost effective. However, a cooperative environment has to be established early in the planning cycle, and involve everyone in decision making and sharing of data. It naturally emerges that a successful domestic manufacturer must evolve well beyond the old fashioned “cut and sew,” and invest in CAD systems, computer-controlled cutting, logistics support and most importantly, rapid exchange of sales and production data between retailers and manufacturers. [Contributing Graduate Student: Maged S. Fanous (UMassD)]
Industrial interactions: “several companies” but none reported Project Web Site Address:
http://www.umassd.edu/1academic/cengineering/textiles/index.html

For Further Information

1. Lowson, R. E. King and A. Hunter, Quick Response: Managing the Supply Chain to Meet Consumer Demand [in-depth account]. 2. R. E. King and A. Hunter, The Quick Response Advantage Bobbin (Mar 1997) [some advantages of QRM]. 3. J. Lovejoy, Sourcing Simulator, [TC]2 (1999).
Roger Warburton, an Adjunct Professor in the Department of Textiles at UMass Dartmouth since 1999, earned a Ph.D. in physics from the Univ. of Pennsylvania in 1976, then managed software projects for Jaycor (Defense Dept. contractor). Roger also earned a B.Sc. in physics in 1969 from Sussex (UK) Univ. Since 1989, he has been Director of Management Information Systems (MIS) for Griffin Manufacturing where he designed software to manage factory workflow, purchasing and inventory and garment costing. His research interests include apparel MIS and supply chain management I99-D16* roger@griffinmanufacturing.com (508)-677-0048 http://www.umassd.edu/engineering/textiles/faculty.html

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Steven B. Warner, a Professor and Chair of Textile Sciences at UMass Dartmouth since 1994, earned a Sc.D. in polymer and material science & engineering from M.I.T. in 1976. He then spent 12 years in industrial research at Hoechst-Celanese and Kimberly-Clark and 5 years on the faculty of Georgia Tech. Steve is the author of the texts: The Science and Design of Engineering Materials and Fiber Science. His research interests include fibers science, microstructure of nonwovens and fluid management in fibrous assemblies and properties. M95-G8*, C95-G2, M98-D1*, M98-D3, C97-G31, I99-D16 swarner@umassd.edu (508)-999-8449 Linda Welters, a Professor and Chairperson of the Textiles, Fashion Merchandising and Design Dept. at University of Rhode Island, joined URI in 1979. She earned a Ph.D. in home economics from the University of Minnesota in 1981, an M.A. in clothing and textiles from Colorado State in 1973 and a B.A. from the College of St. Catherine in 1971. Linda is the Associate Editor of Dress, the Journal of the Costume Society of America. Her research interests include historic costumes and archaeological textile analysis. I99-D16 lwelters@uriacc.uri.edu (401)-874-4525 http://www.uri.edu/hss/tmd/FACSTF.html#Linda

Russell E. King, a Professor of Industrial Engineering at NC State, earned a Ph.D. in industrial engineering from the University of Florida. Before joining the faculty at NC State in 1986, he worked as a Systems Analyst for Dynamic Corporation of Rockville MD. In 1990, Rusty received an NC State Alumni Outstanding Teacher Award and in 1995 received the Alcoa Foundation Engineering Research Achievement Award. His research interests include modeling and analysis of the fiber-textile-apparel-retail pipeline. I95-S2, I98-S1, I98-S12*, I99-D16 king@eos. ncsu.edu (919)-515-5186 http://www.ie.ncsu.edu/people/new_page_people.htm

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National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000

Educating the Educators
Christopher M. Pastore, leader; Brian George, Eileen Armstrong-Carroll, John Pierce (PhilaU)

I99-P01

When one considers qualities that are well regarded in an employee, problem solving, decision-making, critical thinking, and evaluative thinking would all be considered noteworthy. These abilities are considered higher-order cognitive skills (HOCS); many times in a textile degree program, capabilities such as simple recall of information, and application of memorized algorithms to solve problems are emphasized. These abilities are considered lower-order cognitive skills (LOCS). Our challenge in developing instructional approaches is to cover the breadth of information necessary in a field, while imparting the depth of knowledge that will some day be necessary when troubleshooting and resolving a technical problem in the workplace. We are developing and assessing instructional strategies to optimize the combination of LOCS and HOCS for a variety of textiles related courses.

In winter 2000 term we used chapter pre-reading as an individual assignment and conducted facilitated discussions to increase HOCS development. This summer we will create faculty development opportunities for textile professors to further the program goals of fostering HOCS development and strengthening skills that are important in the textile industry. [Contributing (PhilaU)] Undergraduate Student: Daniel Carman

Industrial interactions: “several companies” but none reported Project Web Site Address: http://fibers.texsci.edu/I99P01/index.html For Further Information - none reported Christopher M. Pastore, an Associate Professor of Textile Engineering and Technology and Director of Research of the School of Textiles and Materials Technology at Philadelphia University, joined the faculty in 1995. Previously he was on the Textile Materials Science faculty at NC State and the Materials Engineering faculty at Drexel University. Chris holds a B.A. and M.S. in mathematics and a Ph.D. in materials engineering from Drexel in 1988. His research interests include modeling of fabric and composite structures. F98-P1*, I99-P1* cpastore@fibers.texsci.edu (215)-951-2683 http://fibers.texsci.edu/stmt/cpastore.html Eileen Armstrong-Carroll, a Research Associate at the School of Textiles and Materials Technology at PhiladelphiaU since 1999, earned a B.A. in physics from Boston Univ. in 1986 and an M.S. in materials engineering from Drexel in 1989. Then Eileen worked for Navmar Applied Sciences and the Naval Air Warfare Center and earlier was a biophysics researcher at Massachusetts General Hospital. Her research interests include low cost manufacturing techniques, instructional methods, and modeling of fabric and composite structures. I99-P1 ecarroll@fibers.texsci.edu (215)-951-2563 Brian George, an Assistant Professor of Textile Engineering and Technology at Philadelphia University, joined the faculty in 1999. Brian holds a B.S. in Textile Science and a Ph.D. in Fiber and Polymer Science from NC State. His research interests include instructional methods, nonwovens, and fiber extrusion. I99-P1 georgeb@philau.edu (215)-951-2782

We are developing instructional strategies that expand the abilities of textile graduates in the workplace.
There is a wide variety in textile student learning styles (See Figure). This information demonstrates the benefit of supplementing lecture with visual aids, manipulatives and laboratory activities. Reading the textbook prior to lecture provides a strong base for student learning. When “Introduction to Textiles” students worked as groups and submitted chapter summaries before the lecture, 67% of the students remembered related textbook content during the lecture at least sometimes and 8% believed they learned more from the lecture due to familiarity with the concepts from pre-reading. In addition, the chapter reading assignment improved the HOCS for a quarter of the students' by teaching them how to utilize textbooks as a resource and identify key concepts. We use student evaluations as the primary means for assessing instructional methods.
Textile Student Learning Styles

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John D. Pierce Jr. joined the faculty of Philadelphia University in 1998 as an Assistant Professor of Biopsychology. He earned a Ph.D. in psychobiology from the University of Florida in 1989, a M.A. from the University of Nevada Reno in 1985, and a B.S. from St. Joseph’s University in 1981. John was a postdoctoral researcher in psychophysics at the University of Pennsylvania and affiliated institutions from 1989 to 1998. His research interests include sensory processing and perceptual experiences. I99-P1 piercej@PhilaU.edu or philacol (215)-951-2556 http://faculty.philau.edu/piercej

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National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000

Rapid Prototyping: Making Better Products Faster
Cynthia Istook (NC State)

Seed Project: I99-S7

We are exploring ways to integrate apparel and home furnishings product design with textile design so that prototypes can be produced quickly. Initially, we created some simple apparel designs using an industry computer-aideddesign (CAD) program and prepared them for production in a normal manner, including seam allowances and grading.

While proving the process both viable and more efficient than normal product development processes, we were not happy with the complications and limitations of the new process. To determine ways to transfer files between applications, we used a variety of CAD systems (for both textiles and apparel development), digital printing systems, cutting systems and production systems. We will be analyzing, in detail, existing CAD systems and working with the software developers to find or create ways to more easily integrate the complicated product development process. We will be addressing color calibration, pre- and post-treatment of textile substrates, and calibrating digitally printed images with automatic cutting files so that our efforts will produce the exact product we have envisioned and can actually reproduce. [Other Contributors (NC State): Graduate Students: Karla Simmons, Lashawnda McKinnon, Lisa Parrillo-Chapman (); Jeff Kraus (Pilot Lab Manager), Claudia Deaton (Apparel Lab Manager); 15 high school students]
Industrial interactions: 25 [Gerber, Lectra, CDI, Stork, Encad, Mimaki, Telmat, [TC]2, Kimberly Clark, & Rupert, Gibbon, & Spyder]

Virtual images of desired prototype garments, created in Adobe Photoshop.

Prepared prototype garment for digital print

Project Web Site Address: none reported For Further Information

During the apparel design process, we created a library of textile designs in a variety of colorways and dimensions (See Photos). But when we tried to take the images of the apparel pattern pieces from one CAD program and move it into the textile CAD program, we discovered that the systems would not integrate naturally. The apparel CAD systems are vector based programs for the most part, while most of the more robust textile CAD systems are raster based programs. We were eventually able to successfully integrate the two CAD systems by using a complicated mixture of software (virtual design, apparel design, textile design) and hardware (scanners, digital cameras, etc.).

1. C. Istook, Technologies Supporting Mass Customization of Apparel: A Pilot Project. Presented at Manchester 2000, Textile Institute Conference, Manchester UK (April 2000).
Cynthia Istook, an Associate Professor in Textile and Apparel, Technology and Management at NC State, joined the faculty in the fall of 1997. Cindy earned a Ph.D. in textiles and clothing in 1992 from Texas Woman’s Univ. She taught there and at Baylor and Univ. of North Texas. She has a B.S. in fashion merchandising, clothing and textiles from Texas Christian in 1976. She was also a department group manager at Federated Department Stores. Her research interests include mass customization, apparel sizing systems, computer-aideddesign, technology integration, rapid prototyping, digital printing and 3-D body scanning. I99-S7 (919)-515-6584 cistook@tx.ncsu.edu
http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tam/aboutdept/facresstaff/faculty/cistook_res_p2.htm

By linking textile and pattern design software, we are developing ways to rapidly create new, improved digital printed fabrics and to minimize fabric waste.

National Textile Center Research Briefs: June 2000

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Information Engineering: Textile Industry’s Value-adding Key to Effective Decision-Making

the interface from the information system to the human user. Information Engineering assists in this process.
I99-S10

George Hodge, leader; William Oxenham (NC State), Neil Cahill (ITT) Information Engineering is a technique for extracting the "meaning" contained in information to allow the understanding needed by a user to make a "right" decision. Another definition is to provide the right information, in the right form, quantity and quality at the right time so that the manager can efficiently and effectively perform his/her job. We seek to fundamentally increase the decision effectiveness in textile manufacturing by designing a more efficient Information Engineering system which would capture and disseminate management information for effective decision-making. We will focus on a new paradigm that would diagnose the "meaning content and understanding" of the vital information, which in turn will assist in effective and efficient decision-making by textile personnel. This will involve rationalizing the large amount of raw data that is currently presented from on-line and off-line measurement and monitoring systems in textile manufacturing processes. We will convert pertinent data into formats relevant for immediate use, then distributed it to appropriate users. Providing personnel with the information most pertinent to their decisionmaking results in faster and more accurate decisions to improve process and product quality, shorten response time and minimize manufacturing losses.

We will conduct surveys with plant and management level personnel to identify their requirements, then we will define data collection and control profiles for the manufacturing processes. Our final goal will be to optimize the quality of the “message” to create a sound understanding for effective decision making. Data Mining is an analytical tool, usually a computer software package, used to sort through data, in order to determine trends, relationships or profiles, while Enterprise Modeling represents the various components of an enterprise to better formulate, restructure or design enterprise operations for effective decision-making. We are now comparing Data Mining methodology to the data-end of the model and Enterprise Modeling to the decision-end of the model. We are evaluating both these techniques and Information Engineering for their applicability towards improving decision effectiveness. [Contributing Graduate Students: Yatin Karpe, Hasan Cete, Stacey Schertel; Undergraduate Students: Brent Plunkett, Greg Grisset (NC State, Textiles)]
Industrial interactions: 50+ [MRP/ERP Software Vendors: SAP, I2, CMD, Manugistics, Datatex, PowerCurve, JD Edwards, Baan)] Project Web Site Address:
http://www2.ncsu.edu/unity/lockers/project/ntcprojects/projects/I99-S10

For Further Information

We are developing ways to extract the "meaning" from on- and off-line textile manufacturing raw data so that humans can quickly make more effective decisions.
Information is the raw material of human thinking, but it is the “meaning and understanding” that is the raw material of decision thinking. The human decision-maker acquires this meaning and understanding from the “message content” of the information. The process by which raw data is translated into decisions is the Data-to-Decision Cycle model (See Figure). While a good 60% of any office workers’ time is spent in looking for and/or preparing information, only about 10-15% of the information contained in plant reports is actually utilized. This low information utilization occurs because the user does not have enough diagnostic time to acquire the vital information buried in the report. Therefore, the goal should be to optimize the quality of the messages transmitted through

1. C Yatin S. Karpe, George L. Hodge, Neil Cahill and Bill Oxenham, Information Engineering: Enhancing Decision Effectiveness in Textiles?, paper for The Textile Institute World Conference, Manchester UK (April 2000) 2. George Hodge, Taxonomy of Textile Information Systems, poster for The Textile Institute World Conference, Manchester UK (April 2000) 3. Stacey Schertel, George Hodge and Bill Oxenham, Data Mining: Its Current Status and Potential Uses, poster for The Textile Institute World Conference, Manchester UK (April 2000) 4. George Hodge, Directory of Manufacturing Planning and Control Systems Software for the Textile & Apparel Industry (submitted for publication to APICS) 5. George Hodge, What are ERP systems?, APICS, TA-SIG Newsletter (Winter 2000). 6. George Hodge, Current Research in E-Business, “Moving Beyond ERP: Staying on Information Technology’s Leading Edge” workshop, NC State (Feb 2000). 7. Yatin Karpe, George Hodge, Neil Cahill and Bill Oxenham, ITS Textile Leader, Can Information Engineering pave the way for better Decision-Making in the Textile Industry? (September 1999) 8. Yatin S. Karpe, George L. Hodge, Bill Oxenham, Neil Cahill and Peter Kilduff, Information Engineering: Improving the Effectiveness of Decision-Making in the Textile Industry. Textiles in the New Millenium World Congress, University of Huddersfield UK (July 1999) 9. Yatin S. Karpe and George Hodge, Information Engineering Research Review, Knowledge Exchange Symposium, College of Textiles, NC State (May 1999)

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George L. Hodge is an Associate Professor in Textile and Apparel Technology and Management at NC State where he earned a Ph.D. in industrial engineering in 1990 and a B.S. in nuclear engineering. George also holds a M.S. from Ohio St. and has held engineering positions with Ohio State Univ. and Carolina Power & Light. His research interests include economic analysis, multiattribute decision analysis, expert systems, technology management, enterprise integration, systems modeling and computer integrated manufacturing. F98-S12, I96-S15, I99-S10* george_hodge@ncsu.edu (919)-515-6579
http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tam/aboutdept/facresstaff/facstaff_frame.htm

William Oxenham has been an Associate Professor of the Department of Textile and Apparel Technology and Management at NC State since 1992 after having lectured at the University of Leeds (England) since receiving a Ph.D. there in 1974. Bill's research interests include data reduction, fiber damage during processing, ring spinning instability, fiber friction, yarn tensile testing, carding variability and microfiber processing. F94-S9, I95-A11, F96-A3, F97-C5, F99-S6*, I99-S10 woxenham@tx.ncsu.edu (919)-515-6573
http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tam/aboutdept/facresstaff/facstaff_frame.htm

Neil Cahill, Professor and Vice President of ITT, joined the faculty in 1974 after working 13 years in industry with various textile companies. Neil earned his B. S. from the University of Massachusetts-Dartmouth in 1961 and his M. S. from the ITT in 1964. His research interests include design of World Class manufacturing organizations, global competitiveness and profitability engineering. I99-A2, I99-S10 neilc@itt.edu (804)-296-5511

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Index by Principal Contributor
Abbott, Albert (C) 8 Abelson, Joseph (P) 86 Abou-iiana, Mohamed (P) 86 Acar, Memis (Loughborough Univ.) 39 Adanur, Sabit (A) 35 Ahmed, Anwar (A) 35 Armstrong-Carroll, Eileen (P) 92 Aspland, J. Richard (C) 61 Bakhtiyarov, Sayavur I. (A) 35 Barker, Roger L. (N) 37 Basu, Arindam (S.India TRA) 39 Batra, Subhash K. (N) 20 Beale, David G. (A) 35 Bechtel, Steve (Ohio State) 14 Beck, Keith R. (N) 59 Beckham, Haskell (G) 43 Berkstresser, Gordon (N) 77 Bock, Charles (P) 83 Brannon, Evelyn (A) 71, 73, 75 Broughton, Roy M. Jr (A) 1, 3, 19, 43 Buschle-Diller, Gisela (A) 4, 53 Cahill, Neil (ITT) 88, 95 Carr, Wallace W. (G) 26, 43, 57 Carrere, Carol G. (N) 81 Chapman, Leon (Sandia) 69 Chen, Julie (U. Massachusetts Lowell) 12 Chen, Xuemin (TRI) 47 Clapp, Timothy G. (N) 30 Connell, Lenda Jo (A)71, 73, 75 Cook, Fred L. (G) 26 Cuculo, John (N) 1 Cuomo, Jerome J. (N) 63 Dawson, Darren (C) 30 Dorrity, J. Lewis (G) 26 Dozier, Gerry (A) 69 Drews, Michael J. (C) 55 Du, Weiping (A) 36 Duenas, Guillermo (P) 86 Dunn, Matthew W. (P) 18 Early, Judson H. [TC]2 73 Eischen, Jeffrey W. (N) 30 El Mogahzy, Yehia (A) 36 Ellison, Michael S. (C) 8, 23 Englis, Basil G. (Berry College) 65 Fang, Shu-Cherng (N) 77 Forsythe, Sandra M. (A) 69 Fowler, Alex (D) 25 Fraser, W. Barrie (U.Sidney,Australia) 20 Franzon, Paul (N) 33 Freeman, Harold S. (N) 51, 53 George, Brian (P) 92 Ghosh, Subhas (ITT) 36 Ghosh, Tushar K. (N) 20 Goswami, Bhuvenesh C. (C) 20, 23, 26 Govindaraj, Muthu (P) 85 Gowayed, Yasser A. (A) 1 Grasso, Maureen (UNC-G) 73 Gray, Stephen (Nottingham Trent) 73 Gregory, Richard V. (C) 6 Hanks, Timothy (Furman) 6 Hauser, Peter (N) 49, 51, 63 Hinks, David (N) 55 Hodge, George L. (N) 33, 95 Hodgson, Thom J. (N) 81 Holt, Matthew T. (N) 79 Hudson, Samuel (N) 4 Istook, Cynthia (N) 94 Jacob, Karl (G) 14, 16 Jasper, Warren (N) 59, 67 Kamath, Y. K. (TRI) 47 Kim, Hyung Bum (N) 37 Kim, Jai-Ok (A) 69 Kim, Yong K. (D) 22, 25 King, Russell E. (N) 77, 81, 90 Ko, Frank K. (Drexel) 28 Lee, Gordon K. L. (N) 59 Leisen, Johannes (G) 43 Lewis, Armand F. (D) 12, 22, 25 Lickfield, Gary C. (C) 8, 41, 55 Lin, Weiping (A) 4 Little, Trevor J. (N) 77, 81 Luke, John E. (P) 86 Mahrous, Mohamed (UNO) 36 Marcotte, William R. Jr. (C) 8 May, Sheldon W. (G) 19 McClain, Aliecia (A) 4 McCord, Marian G. (N) 37, 63 Mi, John Z. (Cotton, Inc.) 32 Michielsen, Stephen (G) 45, 61 Mills, German (A) 3, 45 Morris, Jeffrey F. (G) 57 Neimark, Alexander V. (TRI) 47 Nuttle, Henry L. W. (N) 77 Oxenham, William (N) 20, 33, 39, 95 Parachuru, Radhakrishnaiah (G) 26, 53 Pastore, Christopher M. (P) 28, 92 Paul, Frank (C) 30 Petee, Thomas (A) 69 Pierce, John D. Jr. (P) 92 Polk, Malcolm (G) 16 Presley, Ann Beth (A) 71, 73, 75 Qiu, Yiping (N) 32, 63 Rahn, Christopher D. (C) 20, 30 Realff, Mary Lynn (G) 26 Reese, D. Michelle Benjamin [TC]2 81 Russo, Paul (Louisiana State) 61 Rutledge, Gregory C. (MIT) 10 Salem, David (TRI) 14 Samuels, Robert J. (G) 6 Schork, F. Joseph 57 Seyam, Abdelfattah (N) 33 Shalev, Itzhak (N) 37 Sharov, Alexei (Virginia Tech) 88 Slaten, Lewis (A) 3, 45 Smith, C. Brent (N) 59 Solomon, Michael (A) 65 Srinivasarao, Mohan (G) 61 Suh, Moon W. (N) 37, 67, 79 Sun, Gang (Univ. of California Davis) 45 Sundermann, Christine A. (A) 45 Sztandera, Les M. (P) 83 Teulé, Florence (C) 8 Thomas, Howard (A) 88 Thommesen, Sven (A) 75 Thompson, Henry L. (A) 88 Tincher, Wayne C. (G) 57 Tonelli, Alan E. (N) 49, 61 Trachtman, Mendel (D) 83 Ulrich, Pamela (A) 71, 73, 75 Vaughn, Edward A (C) 23 Walsh, William K. (A) 4 Wang, Youjiang (G) 26, 32 Warburton, Roger D. H. (D) 90 Warner, Steven B. (D) 10, 12, 43, 90 Welters, Linda (Univ. Rhode Island) 90 Wilson, James R. (N) 77 Woo, Jae L. (N) 37, 67 Worley, Dave (A) 45 Yang, Charles Q. (UG) 41 Zeronian, S. Haig (UC Davis) 53 Zhu, JunYong (IPST) 57 Zumbrunnen, David A. (C) 23, 26 (A): Auburn (C): Clemson (D): University of Mass. at Dartmouth (G): Georgia Tech (IPST): Inst. of Paper Science & Technology (ITT): Institute of Textile Technology (MIT): Mass. Inst. of Technology (N): North Carolina State University (P): Philadelphia University [TC]2: Textile/Clothing Technology Corp (TRI): Textile Research Institute (UNC-G): Univ. of North Carolina Greenville (UNO): University of New Orleans
For more abbreviations see p. xi. See the page cited for the report authored by the principal contributors whose bios, photos, E-mail addresses, telephone numbers and web address (if available) follow each report.

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33

UNIVERSITY RESEARCH CONSORTIUM

DIRECTORY
FEATURING

BIOGRAPHIES
with

PHOTOS NTC PROJECT N O S. E-MAIL PHONE WEB ADDRESSES NUMBERS
2000

ADDRESSES
JUNE

NTC Principal Investigators: A - C

Albert G. Abbott, Associate Professor of Biological Sciences at Clemson, joined the faculty in 1984. He earned a Ph.D. in cell and molecular biology from Brown University in 1980 and a B.S. in biological sciences from Univ. of Connecticut in 1976. He was a Fellow at the Rockefeller Foundation's Plant Breeding Institute in Cambridge (England). Bert's research interests include basic gene structure and function, improving plant products through genetic manipulation and genetic engineering to produce novel proteins. M98-C5 aalbert@clemson.edu (864)-656-3060 Joseph Abelson, an Adjunct Professor in management at the School of Business at PhiladelphiaU, joined the faculty in 1991 from being president and chief operating officer of International Pigments and Photochemicals Ltd., a Canadian firm. He earned a B.S. in chemical engineering and an M.S. in polymer chemistry from the SUNY. From 1960 to 1986 he held various technical and commercial positions for ICI. Joe's research interests include total quality management and ISO 9000, new markets for innovative products and supply chain management. I98-P3 abelsonj@philacol.edu (215)-951-2816 Mohamed Abou-Iiana, an Assistant Professor of Textile Engineering at PhiladelphiaU since 1997, earned his Ph.D. from NC State in knitting engineering in 1995, a masters from Leicester Polytechnic (ENG) in 1987, and B.Sc. in textile engineering from Alexandria University (Egypt) in 1983. Mohamed spent about 15 years in the textile industry in Egypt and USA in knitting, dyeing and finishing and apparel industries. His research interests include knitting, on-line control of knitting machines, mechanical properties of fabrics and software development for the textile industry. I98-P3 abouiianam@philacol.edu (215)-951-2680

Memis Acar, a visiting research scholar at NC State, has been a Lecturer (1986) and Senior Lecturer (1991) in Mechanical Engineering at Loughborough University (Leicestershire UK) where he earned a PhD in mechanical engineering in 1984. He earned a MSc in textile technology in 1979 from Univ. of Manchester. Memis' research interests include air-jets for texturing and mingling, water jets for hydroentanglement, hydroentangled nonwovens, design of textile machinery, mechatronics in textile industries and yarn imaging. F98-S12, F99-S6 macar@unity.ncsu.edu (919)-515-6449 m.acar@lboro.ac.uk, +44 1509 223218 Sabit Adanur, a Professor in Textile Engineering at Auburn since 1992, received a Ph.D. in fiber and polymer science in 1989 and a M.S. in textile engineering in 1985 from NC State and a B.S. in mechanical engineering in 1982 from Istanbul Technical University in Turkey. Before coming to Auburn, Sabit was a product and process development manager for Asten Forming Fabrics (Appleton WI). His research interests include industrial textiles, composites, computeraided design and manufacturing. F94-A8*, F95-A24, I96-A9*, F99-A10*, I00-A6 sadanur@eng.auburn.edu (334)-844-5497 http://www.eng.auburn.edu/~sadanur

Suresh G. Advani, Professor of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Delaware, joined the faculty in 1987. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Illinois in 1987. Suresh was chairman of ASME Polymer Committee and won the American Society of Composites Best Paper Award in 1996. His research interests include non-Newtonian fluid mechanics and rheology, transport phenomena, flow and cooling of polymers in reinforced composites manufacturing and process models. M96-G19 advani@me.udel.edu (302)-831-8975

Key on page B-38

National Textile Center Directory: June 2000

B-1

Anwar Ahmed an Associate Professor and Director of the Wind Tunnel and Aerodynamics Lab at Auburn, earned a B.Sc. in mechanical engineering from Peshawar Univ. (Pakistan) in 1976 and a Ph.D. in aerospace engineering from Wichita State in 1985. Since then Anwar taught at Tuskegee Univ and Texas A&M and was Associate Director of Aerospace at Southern Univ. His research interests include aerooptics of airborne lasers, flow instabilities in jets, wakes and boundary layers, vortex dominated flows, circular shear layers and free vortex dynamics. F99-A10 aahmed@eng.auburn.edu (334)-844-6817 http://www.eng.auburn.edu/~aahmed Donald A. Alexander, now at Guilford Mills and a member of NTC’s TAC committee, was project manager of AMTEX’s Textile Resource Conservation project and Director of the Technology Transfer Center at ITT from 1988-98. Don earned an M.S. in textile technology from ITT in 1985. His research interests include recovery and reuse of raw materials in the integrated textile industry. C94-G2T dalexander@gfd.com (336)-316-4781 Rajesh D. Anandjiwala, a Research Associate and Assistant Professor of Textiles, Fibers and Polymer Science at Clemson since 1989, received a Ph.D. in textile mechanics at University of Leeds (England) in 1984 whereupon he joined Arvind Mills, Ltd. (India) in research and development before coming to Clemson. Rajesh's research interests include mechanics of yarns and fabrics, fatigue in textile materials, textile mechanisms and application of statistical methods in textiles. F92-C2 anandjr@hubcap.clemson.edu (803)-656-0373 Lenda Jo Anderson, see Lenda Jo Connell

Eileen Armstrong-Carroll, a Research Associate at the School of Textiles and Materials Technology at PhiladelphiaU since 1999, earned a B.A. in physics from Boston Univ. in 1986 and an M.S. in materials engineering from Drexel in 1989. Then Eileen worked for Navmar Applied Sciences and the Naval Air Warfare Center and earlier was a biophysics researcher at Massachusetts General Hospital. Her research interests include low cost manufacturing techniques, instructional methods, and modeling of fabric and composite structures. F98-P1, I99-P1 ecarroll@fibers.texsci.edu (215)-951-2563 J. Richard Aspland, a Professor of Textile Chemistry at Clemson, joined the faculty in 1982. He earned a M.S. in dyeing at Leeds (U.K.) in 1960 and a Ph.D. in textile chemistry from Manchester (U.K.) in 1964. From 1966-82, Dick held research and research management positions at Sodyeco (now a Sandoz div.) and Reeves Brothers. His research interests include dye-fiber interactions, shade sorting and dye synthesis. C95-S7, C99-S4 aj@clemson.clemson.edu (864)-656-5953

B-2

National Textile Center Directory: June 2000

Everett E. Backe, a Senior Scientist at ITT, joined the staff in 1959 upon earning a B.S. in textile manufacturing and management from Massachusetts-Dartmouth. In 1961 he earned a M.S. in textile technology from ITT. Everett's research interests include growing, harvesting, ginning, and textile processing of cotton, cotton and man-made fiber properties and statistical process control. I95-A11 (804)-296-5511 Sayavur I. Bakhtiyarov, a Senior Research Fellow in the Space Power Institute at Auburn, joined the staff in 1995. Sayavur earned a Sc.D. from the Azerbaijan Inst. of Math. & Appl. Mech. in 1992 and a Ph.D. from the Azerbaijan Institute of Thermophysics in 1978, all mechanical engineering. He also holds a B.Sc. from Azerbaijan Inst. Of Oil & Chemistry in 1971. His research interests are rheology of composites and polymers, fluid and gas dynamics. F99-A10 sayavurb@eng.auburn.edu (334)-844-6198 Pamela Banks-Lee, an Associate Professor at NC State, received a Ph.D. in fiber and polymer science from NC State. Earlier Pam was a process control engineer for Monsanto. Her research interests include fabric deformation during roll-making, sound absorption and wave propagation in nonwoven fabrics. I92-S3 pbanks-l@tx.ncsu.edu (919)515-6573
http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tam/aboutdept/facresstaff/facstaff_frame.htm

Mary E. Barry, an Associate Professor and Coordinator of Fashion Merchandising at Auburn, joined the faculty in 1973. after receiving an Ed.D. in vocational education from Temple. She has an M.S. in retailing from New York University in 1954 and a B.S. in economics from St. Joseph College in 1953. For 15 years she was a buyer for G.Fox & Co., Hartford CT. Mary's research interests include world production and distribution of textiles and apparel, global retailing and sourcing and apparel apprenticeship programs. I93-A4 mbarry@humsci.auburn.edu (334)-844-1338 Arindam Basu, the Assistant Director of The South India Textile Research Association, Coimbatore, earned a Ph.D. in textile engineering from Univ. of Leeds in 1991, a Bachelor's in 1983 in textile technology from Univ. of Calcutta and a Diploma in business and industrial management from Datamatics Institute (Bombay). He was a supervisor for West Bengal Co-operative spinning mills from 1986-1997 and then Deputy manager for Indian Rayon and Industries Limited. F99-S6 sitra@md2.vsnl.net.in +91-422-574367 (India) Subhash K. Batra, a Professor in Textile and Apparel Management and in Textile Engineering, Chemistry and Science at NC State and Director of the Nonwovens Cooperative Research Center, received a Ph.D. in mechanics at Rensselaer Polytechnic in 1966 and a S.M. in management from M.I.T. in 1977 when he joined the faculty at NC State. Subhash was also a senior scientist at Battelle and a supervisor at the Ahmedabad New Cotton Mill in India. His research interests include mechanical behavior of fibrous and textile materials and textile processing technology. M94-S2*, F97-C5 subhash_batra@ncsu.edu (919)-515-6555
http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tam/aboutdept/facresstaff/facstaff_frame.htm

Roger L. Barker, a Professor and Director of the Center for Research on Textile Protection and Comfort at NC State, joined the faculty in 1981 after having served on the faculties of Cornell and Clemson. He received a M.S. in physics from Tennessee in 1969 and a Ph.D. in textile and polymer science from Clemson in 1978. Roger's research interests include textile comfort and protective materials. F95-S24*, I98-S8*, F99-S2* roger_barker@ncsu.edu (919)-515-6577 http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/college/personnel/rbarker.html

National Textile Center Directory: June 2000

B-3

David G. Beale, an Associate Professor in Mechanical engineering at Auburn, received a Ph.D. in mechanical engineering from Michigan. David’s research interests include dynamics, control and design of mechanisms and mechanical systems. F99-A10 dbeale@eng.auburn.edu (334)-844-3336

Keith R. Beck, a Professor of Textile Chemistry at NC State, received his Ph.D. in chemistry from Purdue in 1970. Before joining NC State in 1986, Keith was on the faculty of Elmhurst College and Purdue. His research interests include durable press finishing, near infrared spectroscopy, carbon dioxide as an analytical and processing fluid, flow injection analysis and other spectroscopic methods for dyebath monitoring. C95-S4, C99-S2 keith_beck@ncsu.edu (919)-515-6558
http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tecs/tecs_personnel/home_pages/beck.htm

Hassan M. Behery, an Associate Professor in Textile Science at Clemson first joined the faculty in 1965. He earned a Ph.D. in textiles from Manchester Univ. (England) and a M.S. in mechanical engineering from Alexandria Univ. (Egypt) where he was a Professor and Head of the Textile Dept. 1967-69. Hassan was also a manager of textile processing for Phillips Fibers Corp. 1972-75. His research interests include fiber science, fiber and yarn processing and nonwovens. I95-A11 nassahb@clemson.clemson.edu (864)-656-5954 Larry D. Benefield, an Associate Dean and a Professor of Civil Engineering at Auburn since 1979, received a Ph.D. degree in civil engineering from Virginia Polytechnic Institute. Before returning to Auburn where he earned a B.S. and M.S., Larry was an Assistant Professor at Mississippi State and at Colorado. His research interests include biological wastewater treatment and mathematical modeling, esp. of environmental systems. C92-A4 larryb@eng.auburn.edu (334)-844-4326 Marie Drum Beninati, a partner with CSC Consulting (Computer Sciences Copr.) joined the firm in 1995. She holds a B.S. in economics from City Univ. of New York in 1968 and an M.B.A. in marketing and finance from Adelphi Univ. in 1978. Marie has been a senior executive at National Retail Federation, Carter Hawley Hale Stores and R.H. Macy’s. Her research interests include global and national strategisc issues within the retail supply chain and long term strategic thought leadership and positioning and consumer linkage. I95-A19 (212)-251-6132

Haskell Beckham, an Associate Professor at Georgia Tech, joined the faculty in 1993. He received a B.S. in textile chemistry at Auburn and a Ph.D. in polymer science at M.I.T. in 1991 whereupon he served a 2-year postdoctoral internship at the Max Planck-Institute (Mainz). His research interests include polymer and textile chemistry, synthesis and properties of functionalized polymers and solid state NMR investigations of polymer molecular structure, order and dynamics. M95-G8, C95-G2, C95-G13*, C97-G11* haskell.beckham@tfe.gatech.edu (404)-894-4198 http://www.tfe.gatech.edu/beckham Stephen E. Bechtel, Professor and Graduate Studies Chair at Ohio State, joined the faculty in 1983 upon earning a Ph.D. in mechanical engineering at UCal-Berkeley. He also holds a B.S. in engineering science from Michigan in 1979, Steve's research interests include computer modeling of industrial polymer processing, continuum mechanics, viscoelastic fluid flow, free surface flows and instability mechanisms characterization of industrial and agricultural materials. M98-G5 bechtel@seb1.eng.ohio-state.edu (614)-292-6570

B-4

National Textile Center Directory: June 2000

Gordon A. Berkstresser III is a Professor (and former Department Head) of Textile and Apparel Technology and Management at NC State. Before returning to his NC State alma mater in 1978, Gordon worked 16 years in the textile and furniture industries, then received an MBA in human resources from Baruch and a Ph.D. in business from City University of New York. His research interests include marketing and international trade in textiles, apparel and related products and the modeling and analysis of the fiber-textilesapparel-retail pipeline. I95-S2*, I98-S1* gordon_berkstresser@ncsu.edu (919)-515-6593 Charles Bock, a Professor of Computational Chemistry at PhiladelphiaU earned a Ph.D. in 1972, an M.S. in 1970 and a B.S in 1968, all in physics from Drexel. Chuck’s research interests include computational chemistry, molecular modeling of carcinogenic dyes and interaction of water with various metal ions. I98-P1 chuck@larry.texsci.edu (215)-951-2876

Roy M. Broughton, Jr, a Professor of Textile Engineering at Auburn since 1976, received his Ph.D. with concentrations in textile chemistry and fiber and polymer science from NC State. Before joining Auburn, Roy worked in polyester research at Goodyear Tire & Rubber. His research interests include manufacture, utilization and testing of fibers and nonwovens. M93-S5, I95-A11*, M96-A2*, M98-A10, F96-A3, F98-A4*, C98-A17*, M99-G11 royalb@eng.auburn.edu (334)-844-5460 http://www.eng.auburn.edu/department/te/faculty/Broughton David Brown, a CNRS Position Rouge at Université de Nancy I, France since 1996, earned a B.Sc. in chemistry at University of Leeds in 1979 and a Ph.D. in chemistry at University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology in 1984. Remaining on the research staff there David consulted in molecular dynamics with industry (DuPont, Exxon, Shell, ICI and Fujitsu) over the following 12 years. His research interests include molecular dynamics simulations of polymers. M96-G19 brown@incm.u-nancy.fr 33-(0)3-83-91-20-00 Ext. 3532 http://www.lctn.u-nancy.fr/Chercheurs/David.Brown/db.html Gisela Buschle-Diller, an Assistant Professor of Textile Engineering at Auburn, joined the faculty in 1995. Gisela earned a Ph.D. in chemistry from the U. of Stuttgart (Germany) in 1989 with postdoctoral work at U. of California, Davis, in textiles and clothing. She worked at Berlin's Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Polymer Science and Rathgen Research Laboratories. Her research interests include dyeing and finishing, especially enzymatic processes, natural fibers, environmental issues and the history of dyes and textile materials. C96-A1*, M98-A16, C99-A7* giselabd@eng.auburn.edu (334)-844-5468 http://www.eng.auburn.edu/~giselabd Peter N. Butenhoff, president of Textile/Clothing Technology Corporation and a member of NTC’s TAC committee, joined [TC]2 in 1992, following a 27-year career with DuPont. In addition to several positions in marketing, manufacturing and product management in the Textile Fibers Dept., Pete served a 3-year stint as vice-president of DuPont Japan, Ltd. I95-S2 pbutenh@tc2.com (919)-380-2156

Alex Bogdanovich of NC State F92-S12 abogdano@tx.ncsu.edu (919)-515-6679

Evelyn Brannon, an Associate Professor in Consumer Affairs at Auburn, joined the faculty in 1990 after earning a Ph.D. in Communications at the Univ. of Tennessee in 1989. She also has an M.S. in Clothing and Textiles from Auburn. Evelyn has been an editor/writer for several consumer publications and an industry consultant on product development and entrepreneurship. Her research interests include consumer behavior, retail forecasting systems, and rural economic development. I95-A19, I95-A20*, I98-A7, I98-A8, I98-A9* brannel@auburn.edu (334)-844-6457 http://www.humsci.auburn.edu/ca/html/brannon.html

National Textile Center Directory: June 2000

B-5

Neil Cahill, Professor and Vice President of ITT, joined the faculty in 1974 after working 13 years in industry with various textile companies. Neil earned his B. S. from the University of Massachusetts-Dartmouth in 1961 and his M. S. from the ITT in 1964. His research interests include design of World Class manufacturing organizations, global competitiveness and profitability engineering. I99-A2, I99-S10 neilc@itt.edu (804)-296-5511 Wallace W. Carr, an Associate Professor in Textile and Fiber Engineering at Georgia Tech since 1980, received a Ph.D. in mechanical engineering from Georgia Tech in 1973. Before joining the faculty, "Chuck" was a senior research engineer at Monsanto. His research interests include thermal sciences in industrial fiber and textile processes (particularly radio frequency, microwave, ultrasound and infrared), electrophotographic printing of textiles and polymer properties and structure. C95-G1*, C95-G2*, F98-G15, C97-G11, C98-G30*, C99-G8* wallace.carr@tfe.gatech.edu (404)-894-2538 http://www.tfe.gatech.edu/faculty/carr/carr.html Carol G. Carrere, a Visiting Assistant Professor of Textile & Apparel Technology & Management at NC State, earned a Ph.D. in textile technology management there in 1997. Carol's research interests include modeling and analysis of manufacturing elasticities for sewn product replenishment, sewability, sewing dynamics, fabric objective measurement and performance analysis, ergonomics and production operations management. I98-S12 ccarrere@ncsu.edu (919)-515-6514
http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tam/aboutdept/facresstaff/facstaff_frame.htm

Nancy L. Cassill is an Associate Professor and Director of Graduate Studies in Clothing and Textiles at UNC-Greensboro. She earned a Ph.D. from UTN-Knoxville in 1986, an M.S. from Indiana in 1976 and a B.S. from Purdue in 1972. Nancy's research interests include textile products marketing and consumer behavior. I95-S2 cassillm@iris.uncg.edu (910)-334-5250

Dorothy H. Cavender, an Assistant Professor in Consumer Affairs and an Assistant Dean for Academic Affairs in the School of Human Sciences at Auburn, joined the faculty in 1978 upon earning an Ed.D. there in adult education. She holds a M.S. in textiles, apparel and merchandising from Univ. of Kentucky. Dotty's research interests include direct marketing of apparel through catalogues, consumer behavior and apparel marketing, academic issues, student recruitment development and placement. I95-A23 dcavende@humsci.auburn.edu (334)-844-4790

B-6

National Textile Center Directory: June 2000

Carol B. Centrallo, an Assistant Professor and Extension Apparel & Textile Management Specialist at Auburn since 1992, received her Ph.D. in apparel from the University of Minnesota in 1993. She has an undergraduate degree in fashion merchandising from University of North Alabama. Carol worked in retailing at Parisian for six years and was an associate assistant extension agent for eight years. Carol's research interests include apparel production and human relations in the apparel industry. I94-A10T ccentral@humsci.auburn.edu (334)-844-1325 Leon D. Chapman, the DAMA (Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture) laboratory project manager at Sandia, earned a Ph.D. in electrical and computer engineering from Oklahoma State in 1971, then was an Assistant Professor at Univ. of Alabama in Computer Science and Operations Research. Leon has also been a design engineer at Continental Oil and a senior executive VP in information and manufacturing technologies at BDM Corp. (1985-90). His research interests include information systems and technology and systems analysis. He plays golf on the Senior PGA tour. I95-A23, I98-A6 leon_chapman@sandia.gov] (505)-845-8668

Al Chen, an Associate Professor in Accounting at NC State, joined faculty in 1989 upon earning a Ph.D. in accounting from Georgia Tech where he also earned an MBA in 1984. He also earned a BBA from the Chinese Culture University in Taiwan in 1980. Al's research interests include activity-based costing and cost management in a competitive strategy. I97-S8 al_chen@ncsu.edu (919)-515-4437 Julie Chen, Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering and Co-Director of the Advanced Composite Materials and Textile Research Laboratory at UMass Lowell since 1997, earned a Ph.D. from MIT in mechanical engineering in 1991, then became Assistant Professor, Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering at Boston University until 1997. Julie’s research interests include mechanical behavior and deformation of fiber structures, fiber assemblies and composite materials. M98-D3 julie_chen@uml.edu (978)-934-2992 http://m-5.uml.edu/chen Xi Chen, Georgia Tech no bio or photo F98-G15 Xuemin Chen, a Staff Scientist at TRI/Princeton, joined TRI in 1999. He earned a Ph.D. in physical chemistry from Brigham Young Univ. in 1991 and an M.S. from Nankai University (China) in 1985. Before joining TRI, Xuemin was a postdoctoral fellow and research associate at Brigham Young. His research interests include interactions of liquids with fibrous materials, distribution and stability of finish films on fibers and yarns, and chemical instrumentation. C98-P2 xchen@triprinceton.org (609)-430-4836

National Textile Center Directory: June 2000

B-7

Timothy G. Clapp, a Professor at NC State, joined the faculty in 1985 after receiving a B.S., M.S. and Ph.D. in mechanical engineering from NC State. Tim's research interests include apparel automation and automated material handling. I94-S4*, F95-S20, F98-S4 timothy_clapp@ncsu.edu (919)-515-6566
http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/college/personnel/tclapp.html

James L. Clark, a Senior Research Engineer at the Georgia Tech Research Institute, has been on the staff since 1978. He earned a B.S. in physics from Davidson in 1968, an M.S. in industrial management in 1981 and a Ph.D. in mechanical engineering from Georgia Tech. Jim is a registered Professional Engineer with 8-years industrial experience at Hercules and Monsanto. His research interests include industrial process improvements, thermal sciences, operations analysis and pollution prevention. C94-G2T jim.clark@gtri.gatech.edu (404)-894-6103 Lenda Jo Connell, an Associate Professor in Consumer Affairs at Auburn, joined the faculty in 1971 after receiving a masters degree in clothing and textiles from Louisiana State University. In 1990, she earned a Ed.D. in adult education from Auburn. For 15 years she was an Extension Resource Management Specialist for the textile and apparel industry and now coordinates the Apparel Production Management program. Lenda Jo's research interests include electronic sourcing, apparel product development and consumer preference style testing. I94-A13, I95-A19*, I95-A20, I98-A7, I98-A8*, I98-A9 anderl1@auburn.edu (334)-844-3789 http://www.humsci.auburn.edu/ca/html/anderson.html

Fred L. Cook, a Professor and Director of the School of Textile & Fiber Engineering at Georgia Tech, has been on the faculty since he received a Ph.D. there in organic-polymer chemistry in 1975 after being a polymer research chemist at DuPont. He is a consulting chemical editor of Textile World magazine, and vicepresident of the National Council for Textile Education. Fred's research interests include textile/polymer chemistry, sustainable textile chemical application processes and carbon fibers. F98-G15 fred.cook@tfe.gatech.edu (404)-894-2536 http://www.tfe.gatech.edu/faculty/cook/cook.html John A. Cuculo, Hoechst Celanese Professor Emeritus of Fiber and Polymer Science at NC State, joined the faculty in 1968 after an 18-year career in fiber research at DuPont. He received a Ph.D. in chemistry from Duke and a Sc.B. from Brown. John's research interests include high performance fibers from polyester fiber extrusion and cellulose. He holds several patents in these areas. F98-A4 john_cuculo@ncsu.edu (919)-515-6556 Jerome J. Cuomo, a Professor of Materials Science and Engineering at NC State since 1993, is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and received the National Medal of Technology in 1995. He holds a Ph.D. in physics in 1979 from Odense Universitet (Denmark) and a M.S. in physical chemistry from St. Johns in 1960. Jerry had a 30-year career at IBM culminating as manager of Materials Processing. His research interests include enhanced plasma processes. C94-S13, C99-S9 cuomo@ncsu.edu (919)-515-6556 Tim Curran, a Simulation Analyst at Textile/Clothing Technology Corporation, joined [TC]2 in 1997 after receiving his B.S. in industrial engineering from NC State. Tim’s research interests include analysis of the effects of different production methods on manufacturing cycle time and in development of flexible decision support tools to aid in the implementation of quick response, short cycle manufacturing. I98-S12 tcurran@tc2.com (919)-380-2156

B-8

National Textile Center Directory: June 2000

NTC Principal Investigators: D - G
Darren M. Dawson, a Professor in Electrical and Computer Engineering and the Center for Advanced Manufacturing at Clemson, joined the faculty in 1990 when he received a Ph.D. in electrical engineering from Georgia Tech. After receiving a B.S. in 1984 he was a control engineer at Westinghouse until 1987. Darren’s research interests include nonlinear based robust, adaptive and learning control for electromechanical systems including robot manipulators, motor drives, magnetic bearings, flexible cables, flexible beams and high-speed transport systems. F98-S4 ddawson@ces.clemson.edu (864)-656-5924 http://ece.clemson.edu/crb/index.htm Hawthorne A. Davis, an Associate Professor at NC State joined the faculty in 1992 after completing a 30 year career at DuPont as a Research Fellow. Hawthorne received a Ph.D. in solid state physics at the University of Virginia. His research interests include fabric appearance nonuniformities, computer modeling, mechanistic studies and characterizations of polymer, fiber and fibrous systems using such analytical techniques as microscopy, X-ray and interference fringe patterns. F92-S9, F93-S8, M94-S2, C95-S7 hdavis@tx.ncsu.edu (919)-515-4552
http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tam/aboutdept/facresstaff/facstaff_frame.htm

Zhi Ding, an Associate Professor in Electrical Engineering at Auburn, joined the faculty in 1990 upon receiving a Ph.D. in electrical engineering from Cornell. Zhi also holds a M.A.Sc. from Univ. of Toronto in 1987 and a B.Eng. in wireless engineering from Nanjing Institute of Technology. His research interests include digital communications, system identification and adaptive signal processing. I95-A11 ding@eng.auburn.edu (334)-844-1817 http:..www.eng.auburn.edu/~ding R. Alan Donaldson, a Professor and Program Director of Textile Design in Textile and Apparel Management at NC State, joined the faculty in 1976. He is an Honors graduate of the Scottish College of Textiles. Alan has been a designer for Hayward/Schuster Woolen Mills (East Douglas MA), Llorens y Torra (Spain), Guilford (New York) and Courtaulds. He has been a tenured lecturer at the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology. His research interests include computer integrated design systems for the textile industry. I95-A20 alan_donaldson@ncsu.edu (919)-515-6586
http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tam/aboutdept/facresstaff/facstaff_frame.htm

Prashant Desai, an Associate Professor in Textile and Fiber Engineering at Georgia Tech, joined the faculty upon earning a Ph.D. in chemical engineering there in 1988. Prashant holds a B.Tech. in textile chemistry from I.I.T. (Delhi, India). His research interests include carbon, ceramic and other high performance polymeric fibers, fiber formation principles, polymer molecular modeling, morphol- ogy, crystallization and characterization C92-G5, M94-C4, F95-S24, C95-G1 prashant.desai@tfe.gatech.edu (404)-894-8341

J. Lewis Dorrity, an Associate Professor of Textile & Fiber Engineering at Georgia Tech, joined the faculty in 1988. He received a MS in electrical engineering at the Air Force Institute of Technology in 1965, then served 6 years in the U.S. Air Force, leaving as a Captain. Lew then earned a Ph.D. in electrical engineering from Clemson in 1973 and spent 15 years at Greenwood Mills rising to vicepresident of Research and Quality. His research interests concentrate on instrumentation and control of textile processes. I94-G2*, I94-S4, F98-G15 lew.dorrity@tfe.gatech.edu (404)-853-9076 http://www.tfe.gatech.edu/faculty/dorrity/dorrity.html

National Textile Center Directory: June 2000

B-9

Gerry Dozier is an Assistant Professor in Computer Sciences and Software Engineering at Auburn, joined the faculty in year? Gerry holds a Ph.D. His research interests include genetic and evolutionary computation, esp. constraint satisfaction, motion planning and obstacle avoidance. I98-A6 doziegv@auburn.edu (334)-844-6327 Michael J. Drews, a Professor of Textiles, Fiber and Polymer Sciences at Clemson, joined the faculty in 1974. He is the co-director of Clemson's Center for Advanced Engineering Fibers and Their Composites. He received a Ph.D. in physical chemistry from the Univ. of North Texas in 1971 following a B.S. in chemistry from the Univ. of Wisconsin. Mike's research interests include instrumental methods to characterize polymers, supercritical fluids and fiber reinforced composites for biomaterials. M94-C4, F94-C2*, M95-S22, C95-C3*, C99-C3* dmichae@clemson.clemson.edu (864)656-5955

Guillermo Duenas, an Associate Professor of Management in the School of Business and Co-director of the Center of Management Excellence at PhiladelphiaU, joined the faculty in 1983. He earned a Ph.D. in systems sciences from Wharton School (Univ. of Penn) in 1987. Guillermo’s research interests include total quality management, strategic planning and cross- cultural management strategies. I98-P3* duenasg@philacol.edu (215)-951-2823 Matthew W. Dunn, a Research Assistant Professor in Textile Engineering at PhiladelphiaU, joined the faculty in 1998 after serving as Assistant Director of Research at Fiber Concepts, Inc. Matt received his B.S. in 1995 in textile materials science from NC State and an M.S. in 1997 in textile engineering from PhiladelphiaU, and is currently completing his Ph.D. in materials engineering at Drexel. Matt's research interests include composite preform manufacturing and design and permeability modeling of textiles. C98-P1* mdunn@fibers.texsci.edu (215)-951-2683 http://fibers.texsci.edu/html/matt.html

B-10

National Textile Center Directory: June 2000

Judson H. Early, Director of R&D with Textile Clothing Technology Corporation and on NTC’s TAC committee, joined [TC]2 in 1991 following a 21 year career at Haggar Apparel Co. where he served as Director, and later, Vice President of R&D. Following mechanical and electrical engineering studies at Arlington State College (TX) from 1962-66, Jud launched a custom machine development business. He has more than 25 patents received over a 30 year span. In 1995-96 he was Chairman of the Apparel Research Committee of the AAMA. His research interests include technology integration and 3D imaging. I98-A8 jearly@tc2.com (919)-380-2156 Jeffrey W. Eischen, an Associate Professor of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at NC State since 1986, received a Ph.D. in Applied Mechanics from Stanford University. Jeff has been involved with the College of Textiles in interdisciplinary research for several years. His research interests include finite element numerical analysis of fabric drape and manipulation, dynamics and control of flexible mechanisms and stress analysis in layered microelectronic media. F95-S20*, F98-S4* eischen@eos.ncsu.edu (919)-515-5263 http://www.mae.ncsu.edu/faculty/faculty.html

Michael S. Ellison, a Professor of Textile and Polymer Science at Clemson, joined the faculty in 1984. He received a Ph.D. in polymer fiber physics at the University of California (Davis) in 1982. Mike's research interests include structure/property relationships in melt extrusion of fibers, tensile and non-tensile loading during mechanical property testing of fibers, electrical properties of polymers and application of chaos theory to polymer physics. M94-C4*, M94-S2, M96-C1*, M98-C5*, F98-C4* ellisom@clemson.clemson.edu (864)-656-5966 http://www.eng.clemson.edu/textiles/faculty/ellison.html David J. Elton, an Associate Professor in Civil Engineering at Auburn since 1985, received a Ph.D. in civil engineering at Purdue in 1982 and a M.S. in geotechnical engineering at Utah State in 1977. From 1982-5, he was an Assistant Professor of civil engineering at The Citadel. Dave's research interests include geotechnical engineering, expert systems, geosynthetics, highway engineering, earthquake engineering and fuzzy sets. F94-A8 elton@eng.auburn.edu (334)-844-6285 Basil G. Englis, who holds the Richard Edgerton Chair in Business Administration at Berry College, joined the faculty in 1996. He earned a B.A. in psychology/sociology from CUNY in 1978 and a Ph.D. in experimental psychology from Dartmouth in 1982. Basil was an Assistant Professor at Clarkson and Rutgers Universities and an Associate Professor at Penn St and at the University of Umeå (Sweden), where he was also a Fulbright Scholar. His research interests include mass media and consumer socialization, political marketing, consumer knowledge acquisition and cognitive representation of lifestyle-related product groupings. I97-A11 benglis@biz.campbell.berry.edu (706)-290-2645 http://campbell.berry.edu/faculty/benglis/b-vita.htm

Yehia E. El Mogahzy, an Associate Professor of Textile Engineering at Auburn, joined the faculty in 1986 when he received a Ph.D. in fiber and polymer science from NC State. He also holds a M.S. in textile engineering from Alexandria University (Cairo). Yehia's research interests include statistical analysis, quality control, fiber-to-yarn engineering and physical/mechanical properties of fibers, yarns and fabrics. I95-A11, F96-A3, F99-A13* yehiae@eng.auburn.edu (334)-844-5463 http://www.eng.auburn.edu/~yehiae/welcome.html Aly H. M. El-Shiekh, a Professor of Textile Engineering, Chemistry and Science at NC State, joined the faculty in 1968. He received a Ph.D. in mechanical engineering from M.I.T. in 1965. Aly's research interests include mechanics of textile structures, processing dynamics, automation and the manufacturing of textile preforms for composites. F92-S12 aly_el-shiekh@ncsu.edu (919) 515-6561

National Textile Center Directory: June 2000

B-11

Shu-Cherng Fang, the Walter Clark Professor of Operations Research and Industrial Engineering at NC State, received his Ph.D. in Industrial Engineering and Management Science from Northwestern University. Before joining NC State, he worked on manufacturing process optimization and telecommunication network design for AT&T. His current research interests are operations research and systems optimization, such as analysis and modeling of the apparel pipeline. I95-S2, I98-S1 fang@eos.ncsu.edu (919)-515-2350 http://www.ie.ncsu.edu/people/new_page_people.htm Sandra Forsythe, Wrangler Professor of Consumer Affairs at Auburn, joined the faculty in 1991 after five years at Miami Univ. of Ohio and four years at Univ. of Georgia. She earned an M.S. from Virginia Tech in 1976 and a Ph.D. in textiles and clothing, marketing and consumer economics from Univ. of Tennessee in 1981. She is editor of Clothing and Textiles Research Journal. Sandra's research interests include international apparel marketing consumer behavior, apparel selection, brand image and perception formation and consumer behavior. I95-A23*, I98-A6* forsysa@auburn.edu (334)-844-6458 http://www.humsci.auburn.edu/ca/html/forsythe.html Alex Fowler, an Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering at UMassD since 1994 after earning a Ph.D. in mechanical engineering from Duke. and a B.A. in philosophy in 1987 from Weslyan University. Alex’s research interests include heat transfer with specific applications involving porous media, computational fluid dynamics, multiphase systems and bioengineering. F98-D4 afowler@umassd.edu (508)-999-8542

Paul D. Franzon is a Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Director of the Engineering Research Laboratory at NC State University. He received his Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering from the University of Adelaide, Australia in 1989. He joined NC State in 1989 after working for AT&T Bell Laboratories, Australian Defense Science and Technology Organization, and Communica Pty. Ltd. His research interests include developing novel integrated systems incorporating MEMS (micromachines), silicon ICs and advanced packaging. (919)-515-7351 paulf@eos.ncsu.edu http://www.ece.ncsu.edu/erl/faculty/paulf.html

W. Barrie Fraser, a Senior Lecturer in the School of Mathematics and Statistics at the University of Sidney (Australia), joined the faculty in 1965. He received a Ph.D. in applied physics from Harvard in 1965 and an M.E. in civil engineering from the University of New Zealand in 1961. In 1990 Barrie was a Visiting Scholar at NC State. His research interests include mathematical modeling, dynamics of moving threadlines, theory of ring spinning and transformation toughening of ceramics. F94-S9, F97-C5 barrief@maths.usyd.edu.au Harold S. Freeman, a Professor of Dyestuff Chemistry at NC State, joined the faculty in 1982. He received a Ph.D. in organic chemistry from NC State in 1981 while working as an organic chemist at BurroughsWellcome. Harold's research interests include synthetic pigment and dyestuff chemistry, especially computer-aided design, purification, photodegradation, environmental interactions and instrumental analysis. M95-S22*, C98-S4*, C99-A7 harold_freeman@ncsu.edu (919)-515-6552 http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/college/personnel/hfreeman.html

B-12

National Textile Center Directory: June 2000

Brian George, an Assistant Professor at PhiladelphiaU School of Textiles and Materials Technology since 1999, earned a Ph.D. in fiber and polymer science in 1999 and a B.S. in textile science in 1994, both at NC State. Brian’s research interests include fiber and polymer science, nonwovens and recycling I99-P1 georgeb@philau.edu (215)-951-2782 Subhas Ghosh, a Professor and Director of Research at ITT, joined the faculty in 1976. He earned a B.S. in textile technology in 1967 from Calcutta University and a M.S. and Ph.D. in fiber science in 1994 from the University of Manchester (ENG). He was also a Quality Control Director at National Spinning Company (North Carolina). Subhas’ research interests include near infrared spectroscopy, textile material characterization, polymer recycling, and filament processing. F99-A13 (804)-296-5511 subhasg@itt.edu Tushar K. Ghosh, an Associate Professor in Textile and Apparel Management at NC State, joined the faculty in 1988 after receiving a Ph.D. there in fiber and polymer science. Earlier he was a scientist at the Jute Technological Research Laboratories in Calcutta (India). Tushar's research interests include mechanics of fibrous assemblies, design and analysis of industrial textiles, dynamics of textile processes and technology of fabric formation. F94-A8, F94-S9*, F97-C5, I96-A9 tushar_ghosh@ncsu.edu (919)-515-6568
http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tam/aboutdept/facresstaff/facstaff_frame.htm

Bhuvenesh Goswami, a Professor of Textile and Polymer Science at Clemson, joined the faculty in 1984. He received his Ph.D. in textile technology from Manchester (England) in 1966 and a M.S. in textiles from Bombay University (India) in 1963. Bhuvenesh is past president of The Fiber Society. and a Fellow of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. His research interests include dynamics of fiber processing, fiber/yarn fatigue, textile structures for composites and fiber, yarn and fabric structural mechanics. M94-S2, F94-A8, F94-S9, F95-C9, F97-C5*, F98-C4, F98-G15 gbhuven@clemson.clemson.edu (864)-656-5957 http://www.eng.clemson.edu/textiles/f aculty/goswami.html Muthu Govindaraj, an Associate Professor and Director of Textile Graduate Programs at PhiladelphiaU since 1995, earned a Ph.D. in mechanical engineering at the University of Liberec (Czech Republic) in 1982. He also earned a MTech. in textile engineering at the University of Madras (India). Muthu was also a machine design engineer in industry in India, a post-doctoral research associate at NC State and an assistant professor at Cornell. His research interests include fabric mechanics and on-line control systems for textile and apparel machinery. I98-P2* mgraj@aol.com (215)-951-2684 http://fibers.texsci.edu/stmt/govind.html Yasser A. Gowayed, an Associate Professor at Auburn joined the faculty in 1992, when he received a Ph.D. in fiber and polymer science at NC State. He also earned a M.S. in materials engineering from the American University (Cairo) in 1989 after an 8-year career in industry as a structural designer and civil engineer. Yasser's research interests include modeling and analysis of textile composites, image analysis, geotextiles and re-utilization of solid wastes. F94-A8, F95-A24*, I95-A11, F98-A4, I96-A9 ygowayed@eng.auburn.edu (334)-844-5496 http://www.eng.auburn.edu/~ygowayed

Thomas F. Gilmore, an Associate Professor and Associate Director, Research, of the Nonwovens Cooperative Research Center at NC State, joined the faculty in 1990. He earned a Ph.D. in chemical engineering at the University of Delaware followed by a 26-year industrial career at Monsanto, Stearns & Foster and as the V.P., Technology, of the Nonwovens Division of James River Corporation. His research interests include development of new process and product technology for the nonwoven industry. F93-S8* thomas_gilmore@ncsu.edu (919)-515-6557

National Textile Center Directory: June 2000

B-13

Maureen M. Grasso, Associate Dean of the Graduate School and Associate Professor of textile products design and marketing at UNCGreensboro joined the faculty in 1992 after 12 years at Univ. of Texas -Austin. She earned an M.S. from Cornell in 1977 and a Ph.D. in textile science and consumer economics from the Univ. of Tennessee in 1982. Her research interests include environmental aspects of textile products and mass customization. I98-A8 m_grasso@uncg.edu (336)-334-4887 http://www.uncg.edu/tdm/faculty_and_research.html#Grasso Stephen Gray, a Professor and Head of Computer Clothing Research at Nottingham Trent Univ., joined the faculty in 1991. He earned a degree in mathematics from Univ. of Sussex in 1976 and M.Sc. degree in computing science from Imperial College in 1979. Stephen created the ORMUS Fashion software and authored CAD/CAM in Clothing and Textiles (1998). His research interests include CAD/CAM, system interfaces, software tools for the creative artist, 3D modeling and animation. I98-A8 stephen.gray@ccr.ntu.ac.uk Perry L. Grady, an Associate Dean of the College of Textiles and Professor of Textile Engineering at NC State, joined the faculty in 1962. He received a Ph.D. in fiber and polymer science from NC State. Perry's research interests include instrument design and development, computer applications in textiles and energy conservation. He is co-editor of Microprocessors and Minicomputers in the Textile Industry. I92-S11 perry_grady@ncsu.edu (919) 515-6651 Richard V. Gregory, a Professor and Director of the School of Textiles, Fiber and Polymer Science at Clemson, joined the faculty in 1990. He received his Ph.D. in physical chemistry at Clemson in 1984 and continued with postdoctoral work in polymer spectroscopy whereupon he joined the research staff at Milliken. Dick is thrust leader of NSF Center for Advanced Fibers and Films, and on the editorial board of Macromolecular Materials and Engineering. His research interests include the formation, characterization and potential industrial applications of conductive polymers and the interaction of ultraviolet radiation with polymers. M95-C6*, M95-C4*, M98-C1* richar6@clemson.clemson.edu (864)-656-5961 http://www.eng.clemson.edu/textiles/faculty/gregory.html

David Thomas Grubb, an Associate Professor in Materials Science & Engineering at Cornell, joined the faculty in 1978. He received a Ph.D. in materials science at Oxford (U.K.) in 1970, is a fellow of the Royal Microscopical Society and co-authored Polymer Microscopy. David's research interests include polymer and fiber structure, micromechanics of fiber composites, X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy for systems under mechanical load. M95-G8 grubb@msc.cornell.edu (607)-225-3684 Michael B. Gunner, a Visiting Research Associate at NC State since 1992, earned a Ph.D. in electronics at the Univ. of Hull (U.K.). Mike’s research interests include machine design, fabric/mechanism interactions, new apparel design and the integration of multiple machines. I94-S4 mgunner@tx.ncsu.edu (919)-515-4199

Hong Guo, a Research Associate of Textile Engineering at Auburn since 1996. earned her Ph.D. degree in fiber/textile science from the University of Leeds (England) in 1995 and a M.S. degree in textile technology from China Textile University (China) in 1985. Hong served as a Lecturer in Wuhan Textile Institute (China) for 6 years. Her research interests include high performance fibers, fiber structure and properties and textile testing. F96-A3 hguo@eng.auburn.edu.auburn.edu (334)-844 5488 Liwen Guo earned a M.S. in textile chemistry from NCState in 1999. Lewen also earned a BS in polymer engineering from Tianjin Univ. no photo M98-A4 Bhupender S. Gupta, an Assistant Head for Undergraduate Studies and a Professor of Textile Science at NC State, joined the faculty in 1966. Bhupender holds a Ph.D. in textile physics from the University of Manchester (England) in 1963. After receiving a B.S. from Punjab University, he was a supervisor in the Delhi Cloth and Modi Textile Mills (India). His research interests include biomaterials, structural mechanics, absorbency and physical, mechanical and rheological properties. F96-A3 bs_gupta@ncsu.edu (919)-515-6559

B-14

National Textile Center Directory: June 2000

NTC Principal Investigators: H - L
David Michael Hall, a Professor of Textile Engineering at Auburn, joined the faculty in 1965. He received a Ph.D. in textile chemistry from Victoria Univ. (Manchester U.K.) in 1964 and an M.S. in textile chemistry from Clemson in 1962. Dave is a registered Professional Engineer and fellow of the Textile Institute and the Society of Dyers and Colorists. His research interests include fiber identification for forensics, wet processing, sizing and cellulose & polymer chemistry. C95-A8* dmhall@eng.auburn.edu (334)-844-5454 Kunihiro Hamada, an Assistant Professor in material chemistry at Shinshu Univ. (Japan) since 1988, is currently a visiting scholar at NC State. He earned a Ph.D. in polymer chemistry from Tokyo Institute of Technology in 1987. Kunihiro worked at Japan's Research Institute for Textiles and Polymers and received the Sobue Memorial Prize of Japan's Society of Fiber Science and Technology. His research interests include using dyes as probes, sorption and dye diffusion in films and fibers and effects of auxiliaries. C95-S7 Hechmi Hamouda, an Associate Professor at NC State, joined the faculty in 1986. He holds an M.S. from Ecole Nationale d’Ingénieurs de Tunis (Tunisia) and a Ph.D. in mechanical engineering from the State Univ. of New York at Buffalo where he became a graphics programmer. Hechmi then was a research fellow for U.S. Energy Dept. His research interests include computer modeling of heat transfer through fabrics, e.g. radiative and radiofrequency drying of fabrics and fire resistance of garments. C92-S6 hechmi_hamouda@ncsu.edu (919)-515-6567

Padmini Srinivasan Hands, a Visiting Research Professor in Textile and Apparel Technology and Management at NC State joined the staff in 1994 from the U. of Southwestern Louisiana faculty. She earned a Ph.D. in computer science at Tulane. She also earned a masters in business management from Asian Institute of Management (Manila) in 1981, having previously been a management trainee at the Indo-Phil Textile Mills (Manila). Padmini's research interests include knowledge representation, work flow analysis, intelligent robotic systems and fuzzy logic systems. I96-S15 padmini@ncsu.edu (919)-515-8606 Timothy Hanks, an Associate Professor of Chemistry at Furman University, joined the faculty in 1990. He earned a B.S. in chemistry from South Dakota School of Mines and Technology in 1982 and a Ph.D. in organic chemistry from Montana State in 1986. After postdoctoral research at Minnesota, Tim was a visiting assistant professor at Clemson. His research interests include nanoporous solids, organometallic polymers for microelectronics and electro-responsive polymers for non-linear optics, catalysis and sensing applications. M98-C1 hanks@furman.edu (864)-294-3373 http://www.furman.edu/~hanks/hanks.html Ian R. Hardin, a Professor and Head of the Department of Textiles, Merchandising and Interiors at the University of Georgia, joined the faculty in 1994 after having served on the faculty at Auburn for 23 years. He received a M.S. in textile engineering at ITT in 1967 and a Ph.D. in textile chemistry from Clemson in 1970, then did post doctoral work at Michigan in polymer physics. Ian's research interests include fiber surface modification for protective functions, cellulosic pyrolysis, fiber microanalysis and enzymatic processes for textiles. M93-S5 ihardin@hestia.fcs.uga.edu (706)-542-0367

National Textile Center Directory: June 2000

B-15

Peter J. Hauser, an Associate Professor of Textile Chemistry at NC State, joined the faculty in 1997 after a 23-year industrial research career with Milliken, Burlington and Virkler Co. He received a B.S. in 1969 and a Ph.D. in 1974 in chemistry from NC State. Peter's research interests include high performance chemical finishes for enhanced value textiles, indigo dyeing and denim garment wet processing, mathematical modeling of textile wet processes and new textile processes to reduce costs, energy usage and pollution associated with textile wet processing. C98-S1, C98-S4, C99-S9 peter_hauser@ncsu.edu (919)-513-1899
http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tecs/tecs_personnel/home_pages/hauser.htm

William Eugene Hill, a Professor of Chemistry at Auburn since 1970, received a Ph.D. in inorganic chemistry from Strathclyde University in Scotland. Before coming to Auburn, Gene was a research chemist for Rohm and Haas. His research interests include analytical detection of low level environmental pollutants such as those causing taste and odor in drinking water, phosphorus removal in activated sludge, biological degradation of groundwater pollutants and transition metal coordination chemistry. C92-A4 hillwil@mail.auburn.edu (334)-844-6967 David Hinks, an Assistant Professor at NC State, joined the faculty in 1993 as a research associate upon earning a Ph.D. in organic dye chemistry from Leeds (U.K.) where he had earlier received a Bachelors in colour chemistry. David’s research interests include computer-aided colorant design, synthesis and application of dyes and pigments and functional chemistry in supercritical fluids. M95-S22, C99-C3 david_hinks@tx.ncsu.edu (919)-515-6554
http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tecs/tecs_personnel/home_pages/hinks.html

Helmut H. A. Hergeth, an Assistant Professor in Textile and Apparel Management at NC State since 1991, received an M.B.A. and a Ph.D. in business and economics from Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität, (Münster, Germany) in 1986 after receiving a B.S. in textiles from NC State. He was an export account manger and a marketing manager for American Enka. Helmut's research interests include investment strategies and export financing for the textile industry. I97-S8*, I97-S10* hhergeth@tx. (919)-515-6574
http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tam/aboutdept/facresstaff/facstaff_frame.htm

Solomon Phillip Hersh, a Professor Emeritus at NC State, joined the faculty in 1966. He has also served as Head of the Department of Textile Engineering and Science. Soloman received a Ph.D. in physical chemistry from Princeton in 1954 whereupon he was a research chemist at Union Carbide and Chemstrand. His research interests include fabrics that protect against toxic and biological agents, fatiguing of textile structures and expert systems for fabric design. F92-G1 sol_hersh@ncsu.edu (919)-515-6650

B-16

National Textile Center Directory: June 2000

George L. Hodge is an Associate Professor in Textile and Apparel Technology and Management at NC State where he earned a Ph.D. in industrial engineering in 1990 and a B.S. in nuclear engineering. George also holds a M.S. from Ohio St. and has held engineering positions with Ohio State Univ. and Carolina Power & Light. His research interests include economic analysis, multiattribute decision analysis, expert systems, technology management, enterprise integration, systems modeling and computer integrated manufacturing. F98-S12, I96-S15, I99-S10* george_hodge@ncsu.edu (919)-515-6579
http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tam/aboutdept/facresstaff/facstaff_frame.htm

Matthew T. Holt, a Professor of Agricultural and Resource Economics at NC State joined the faculty in 1993, after six years in Agricultural Economics at the University of Wisconsin. He earned a B.S. (1981) and a M.S. (1983) both in agricultural economics from Purdue and a Ph.D. in agricultural economics from the University of Missouri in 1987. Matt's research interests include demand system estimation, price forecasting, agricultural policy analysis, the role of risk in agricultural supply decisions and applied econometric and statistical analysis. I98-S6 holt@ag.arizona.edu (919)-515-4527 Sidney B. Hornby, a Staff Scientist at TRI/Princeton since 1988 when she earned a M.S. in chemistry from Rutgers also has a B.S. in chemistry from Rutgers in 1979. Sidney is currently a doctoral candidate in chemical engineering at the New Jersey Institute of Technology. Her research interests include the surface chemistry of films and fibers and hair chemistry and mechanics. C98-P2 shornby@triprinceton.org (609)-430-4847. Samuel M. Hudson, an Associate Professor at NC State, joined the faculty in 1987. He is also an Adjunct Assistant Professor in Art Conservation for the University of Delaware. Sam received a Ph.D. in fiber and polymer science at NC State in 1981 whereupon he became a senior chemist for DuPont before returning to NC State. His research interests include the development of "environmentally-friendly" fibers, especially chitin and chitosan, and micromechanics of bone fracture. M98-A16 sam_hudson@ncsu.edu (919)-515-6545 http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/college/personnel/shudson.html

Thom J. Hodgson, the James T. Ryan Professor of Industrial Engineering and Director of the Integrated Manufacturing Systems Engineering Institute at NC State, joined the faculty in 1983 from 13 years on Univ. of Florida’s faculty and at Ford Motor Co. He earned a BSE in science engineering, a MBA in quantitative methods and a Ph.D. in industrial engineering all from University of Michigan. Thom’s research interests include production scheduling, inventory control, logistics, real-time control of systems and applied operations research. I98-S12 hodgson@eos.ncsu.edu (919)-515-5194 http://www.ie.ncsu.edu/people/new_page_people.htm

National Textile Center Directory: June 2000

B-17

Cecil O. Huey, a Professor in Mechanical Engineering at Clemson, joined the faculty in 1975. He received a Ph.D. from Clemson in mechanical engineering in 1973, then was an Assistant Professor at Georgia Southern for 2 years. Earlier, Cecil was an engineer for Humble Oil. He has received several awards for teaching excellence. His research interests include the kinematics of mechanisms and machine design. F95-C9* cohuey@clemson.clemson.edu (864)-656-5623 Norman Alan Hunter, a Visiting Associate Professor at NC State since 1986, following a 32-year career at I.C.I. and then Celanese, where he directed strategic and marketing planning, market research and market relations. In 1954, Alan earned a M.S. in natural sciences from Cambridge (U.K.). His research interests include quick response apparel manufacturing, automation and modeling the apparel retailing process. I95-S2 (514)-483-6327 Cynthia Istook, an Associate Professor in Textile and Apparel, Technology and Management at NC State, joined the faculty in the fall of 1997. Cindy earned a Ph.D. in textiles and clothing in 1992 from Texas Woman’s Univ. She taught there and at Baylor and Univ. of North Texas. She has a B.S. in fashion merchandising, clothing and textiles from Texas Christian in 1976. She was also a department group manager at Federated Department Stores. Her research interests include mass customization, apparel sizing systems, computer-aideddesign, technology integration, rapid prototyping, digital printing and 3-D body scanning. I99-S7 (919)-515-6584 cistook@tx.ncsu.edu
http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tam/aboutdept/facresstaff/ faculty/cistook_res_p2.htm

Karl I. Jacob, Assistant Professor in Textile and Fiber Engineering at Georgia Tech, joined the faculty in 1995 after 6 years in mechanics of composites and molecular modeling of polymers with Dacron* Research and Central Research & Development at DuPont. He earned a Ph.D. in applied mechanics from Ohio State in 1985 and a B.S. in civil engineering in 1978 from University of Kerala (India). Karl's research interests include polymer solidification, flow induced morphological instabilities, molecular modeling and mechanics. M96-G19*, M98-G5*, M98-G8* karl.jacob@tfe.gatech.edu (404)-894-2541 http://www.tfe.gatech.edu/faculty/jaco b/jacob.html Warren J. Jasper, an Assistant Professor in Textile Engineering at NC State, joined the faculty after receiving a Ph.D. in aeronautics and astronautics from Stanford in 1991. Upon receiving his B.S. and M.S. from M.I.T. in 1983, Warren joined the technical staff at Hughes Aircraft's Space and Communications Group. His research interests include automated manufacturing and realtime data acquisition and control of textile processes. I94-G2, C95-S4, I97-S1, C99-S2 warren_jasper@ncsu.edu (919)-515-6565 http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/college/personnel/wjasper.html

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National Textile Center Directory: June 2000

Y. K. Kamath, a Director of Research at TRI/Princeton and an Adjunct Professor at PhiladelphiaU, joined TRI in 1972. He earned a Ph.D. in physical and organic chemistry from Univ. of Connecticut in 1973, a M.S. in plastic Technology and a B.S. in chemistry and physics from Bombay Univ. (India) in 1959. His research interests include polymer colloids, polymerization kinetics, fiber and fiber surface chemistry, interfacial interactions, fiber transport, fiber finishes and fiber, yarn and fabric mechanical properties. C98-P2 ykamath@triprinceton.org (609)-430-4820 Yatin Karpe, a research assistant in Textile and Apparel, Technology and Management at NC State, earned his bachelor's degree in textile technology from ,Victoria Jubilee Technical Institute (India) and a M.S. in textile management from Georgia. Yatin worked at Reliance Industries and Raymond Woolen Mills in India. His research interests include global quick response, competitive advantage and information engineering. I96-S15, I99-S10 yskarpe@tx.ncsu.edu (919)-515-3043 http://www4.ncsu.edu/~yskarpe

Hyung Bum Kim, a Visiting Scholar and measurement and control specialist at NC State since 1997, earned an M.S. in textile engineering in 1996 and a M.S. in measurement & control in 1993 from Kyunghee Univ. (Korea) and a B.S. in electronics in 1986 from Sung Kyun Kwan Univ. (Korea). Hyung Bum was in R&D on Industry Automation for Samsung and a Research Officer at KITECH and KyungHee Univ. His research interests include signal processing, fabric visualization and instrument design for yarns and nonwovens. F99-S2 hbkim@tx.ncsu.edu (919)-515-6580 Jai-Ok Kim, an Assistant Professor in Consumer Affairs at Auburn, joined the faculty in 1992 when she earned an MBA from Kentucky. She also earned a Ph.D. in textile science from Maryland in 1987 and a B.S. in house planning, interior design and art from You Sei Univ. (Seoul) in 1973. She has been chairperson of Textiles and Consumer Economics at Inha Univ (Korea) and a manager for Korean Air Lines. Jai-Ok's research interests include clothing comfort and apparel quality analysis and apparel marketing and retail analysis, esp. East Asian. I96-A23, I98-A6 kimjaio@auburn.edu (334)-844-1341 http://www.humsci.auburn.edu/ca/html/kim.html Yong K. Kim, a Professor of Textile Sciences at UMass Dartmouth, joined the faculty in 1981 when he earned a Ph.D. in fiber and polymer science from NC State. He holds a BS and M.S. in textile engineering from Seoul National University (Korea) in 1974. Yong’s research interests include textile process design and manufacturing systems, mechanics of fibrous structures and composite materials. F97-D1*, F98-D4 ykim@umassd.edu (508)-999-8452

National Textile Center Directory: June 2000

B-19

Russell E. King, a Professor of Industrial Engineering at NC State, earned a Ph.D. in industrial engineering from the University of Florida. Before joining the faculty at NC State in 1986, he worked as a Systems Analyst for Dynamic Corporation of Rockville MD. In 1990, Rusty received an NC State Alumni Outstanding Teacher Award and in 1995 received the Alcoa Foundation Engineering Research Achievement Award. His research interests include modeling and analysis of the fiber-textile-apparel-retail pipeline. I95-S2, I98-S1, I98-S12*, I99-D16 king@eos. ncsu.edu (919)-515-5186 http://www.ie.ncsu.edu/people/new_p age_people.htm Lawrence R. Klein, Professor Emeritus of Economics and Finance at the University of Pennsylvania, joined the faculty in 1958 and has also taught at Univ. of Chicago, Michigan & Oxford. In 1980 he was the Nobel Laureate in Economics for his global econometric LINK Model which combined models from countries around the world for studying international trade, payments and global economic activity. He holds a Ph.D. from MIT (1944) and a B.A. (Phi Beta Kappa) from California at Berkeley in 1942. In 1976 he coordinated Jimmy Carter's econometric task force for the Presidential race. He founded the Wharton Econometric Forecasting Associates and has honorary degrees from 25 universities. His research interests include studying international trade, payments and global economic activity through econometrics. I93-A4 (215)-898-7713

Frank K. Ko, a Professor in Materials Engineering and Director of the Fibrous Materials Research Center at Drexel, joined the faculty in 1984 after 8 years at PhiladelphiaU. He earned a Ph.D. in textile engineering at Georgia Tech in 1977. Frank is a SAMPE fellow and recipient of the Fiber Society distinguished achievement award. His research interests include advanced textile structural composites, mechanics of fibrous structures, fiber viscoelasticity, biomedical and industrial textiles, and nanofibers and nanocomposite technology. F98-P1 fko@coe.drexel.edu (215)-895-1640 http://fmrc.coe.drexel.edu/fmrc_director.html Satish Kumar, a Professor in Textile and Fiber Engineering at Georgia Tech joined the faculty in 1989. He earned a Ph.D. in 1979 from Indian Institute of Technology (New Delhi). After a postdoctoral at U of Mass., Satish was a scientist at the Atomic Energy Commission of France (Grenoble) and at the Air Force Materials Laboratory (Wright Patterson) and an adjunct associate professor of chemistry at Wright State University. His research interests include structure, properties and processing of polymers, fibers and composites. F92-S12, M92-G3, M95-S22 satish.kumar@tfe.gatech.edu (404)-853-9346

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National Textile Center Directory: June 2000

Martine LaBerge, an Associate Professor of Bioengineering and Materials at Clemson, joined the faculty in 1990. She received her Ph.D. in biomedical engineering from the Univ. of Montreal (Quebec). She has served on the scientific staff at Shriners Hospital in Greenville SC since 1990. Martine's research interests include lubrication and friction of artificial orthopedic bearing surfaces, phospholipids as boundary lubricants, fiber reinforced elastomers design & characterization of elastomeric coatings F94-C2 laberge@clemson.clemson.edu (864)-656-5557 Kenneth D. Langley, a Professor of Textile Sciences at UMass Dartmouth joined the faculty in 1968 when he earned an M.S. in textile technology from the Institute of Textile Technology. He is a Fellow of the Textile Institute. His research interests include fiber microscopy, morphology and identification; quality engineering and yarn manufacturing. F97-D2 klangley@umassd.edu (508)-999-8199 Gordon K. L. Lee is a Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Professor at NC State . He received a Ph.D. in control systems from University of Connecticut in 1978; then, thru 1989 was on the Electrical Engineering faculty at Colorado State University where he served as the Director for Robotic Studies. Gordon is President of the International Society for Computers and Their Applications. His research interests include realtime control and adaptive learning systems, especially when applied to robotics and dyeing processes. C95-S4, C99-S2 glee@eos.ncsu.edu (919)-515-5292

Johannes Leisen, a research scientist at Georgia Tech since 1997, received a PhD in chemistry from Johannes Gutenberg University in 1994 for research conducted at the Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research (Mainz). He then did research at Fraunhofer Institute for Biomedical Research in St. Ingbert (Germany). Hanno’s research interests include polymer characterization using NMR spectroscopy and development and application of spatially resolved NMR techniques in textile sciences. C97-G31 johannes.leisen@textiles.gatech.edu (404)-894-9241 Armand F. Lewis, a lecturer of Textile Chemistry and Environmental Science at UMass Dartmouth, joined the faculty in 1993. He earned a Ph.D. in surface chemistry from Lehigh in 1958 following a B.S. in textile chemistry from the New Bedford Textile Institute and an M.S. in chemistry from Oklahoma State. From 1959-88, Armand was in research at American Cyanamid, Lord Corp. and Kendall. His research interests include adhesion science, flock material and processes, composite materials and the fibrous wiping of surfaces by nonwoven fabrics. M98-D3, F97-D1, F98-D4 alewis@umassd.edu (508)-999-8452

National Textile Center Directory: June 2000

B-21

Gary C. Lickfield, an Associate Professor in Textiles, Fiber & Polymer Science at Clemson, joined the faculty in 1986. He earned a Ph.D. there in physical chemistry in 1983 and a B.S. in chemistry from Ursinus College in 1978. Gary's research interests include molecular modeling, polymer surfaces and interfaces modification and characterization, wetting and adhesion. M95-S22, C97-C3*, C99-C3 lgary@clemson.clemson.edu (864)-656-5964 http://www.eng.clemson.edu/textiles/faculty/lickfield.html Mark I. Liff, an Associate Professor at PhiladelphiaU, joined the faculty in 1990 from a position as a research scientist at NYU. In 1977 he earned a Ph.D. in physics from the Institute of Macromolecules of the USSR Academy of Sciences, then served as an industrial R&D scientist in St. Petersburg (Russia). Mark’s research interests include molecular biophysics of protein fibers, polymer physics, solid state NMR and relaxation studies of polymer networks, liquid state multidimensional NMR of biological macromolecules and NMR and ESR of lipid bylayers. M98-P1* liffm@philacol.edu (215)-951-2879 Weiping Lin, on the research faculty of Textile Engineering at Auburn since 1997, received a Ph.D. in fiber and polymer science from China Textile University (Shanghai) in 1990, then became an Assistant Professor of Material Science at Zhongshan University (Guangzhou, China). From 1994 to 1996 Weiping was a Postdoctoral Research Fellow at CaliforniaDavis and Auburn. His research interests include polymer synthesis, fiber formation, surface modification, stimuli-sensitive polymers, advanced fibers and reclamation of textile waste. M98-A16 lwp@eng.auburn.edu (334)-844-4327

Trevor J. Little, a Professor and Head of the Textile and Apparel Management Dept. at NC State, joined the faculty in 1984. He received his Ph.D. in textile industries at the Univ. of Leeds (England) in 1974 whereupon he was a research scientist in textile physics at CSIRO (Australia), a professor at PhiladelphiaU and Director of Product Development at Danskin. Trevor's research interests include automated manufacturing and handling systems, sewability and sewing dynamics and apparel manufacturing and management. I98-S1 , I98-S12 trevor_little@ncsu.edu (919)-515-6646
http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tam/aboutdept/facresstaff/facstaff_frame.htm

Jerome Link, an Affiliate Professor at Auburn and chairman of Trade Resources, Inc. (New York), has had 35 years of international research, marketing and management experience in chemicals, plastics, textile products and leisure equipment, including president of Amcel Fibers (Hoechst Celanese) and chairman of the American Fibers Manufacturers Association's Trade and Tariff Committee. He received a B.A. in education from Washington University in St. Louis. Jerry's research interests include international trade and commerce and global competitiveness. I93-A4 (212)-889-9745 Charles Dwaine Livengood, Professor of Textile Chemistry and Associate Dean for Academic Programs at NC State, joined the faculty in 1966. Charlie received a B.S. and M.S. in textile chemistry and an Ed.D. in education at NC State. His research interests include warp sizing and pollution control. C92-S1 (919)-515-6647

John Luke, an Assistant Professor of Textile Marketing in the Schools of Business and Textiles and Materials Technology at PhiladelphiaU, joined the faculty in 1997 after a number of years in marketing, operations and finance in Chemstrand, FMC Fibers and Avtex and has had his own marketing consulting practice since 1989. He earned his BSE in engineering from Princeton in 1957 and his MBA from NYU in 1967. John's research interests include strategic marketing & planning analyses as a function of product-market position. I98-P3 lukej@philacol.edu (215)-951-2814

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National Textile Center Directory: June 2000

NTC Principal Investigators: M - Q
Mohamed Mahrous, a Professor of Applied Mathematics at the Univ. of New Orleans since 1973, earned two Ph.D. degrees from Iowa State in 1966: mathematics (numerical analysis) and engineering mechanics. Mohamed was a consultant to LSU Medical Center 1976-1995 on inner ear physiology and nerve transmission. His research interests include mathematical modeling, (e.g. simulating artificial organ mechanisms, plasmas in the sun's atmosphere, and characterizing human organ functions) and modeling non-parametric variables. F99-A13 mmahrous@math.uno.edu (504)-394-0078 Sheldon W. May, Associate Director, Institute for Bioengineering and Bioscience, and Regents' Professor of Chemistry & Biochemistry at Georgia Tech, earned a B.S. in 1966 from Roosevelt Univ. and a Ph.D. in chemistry from Univ. of Chicago in 1970. Then he joined Exxon, where he was a founding member of the first industrial biotechnology group in the U.S. Sheldon is editor of Enzyme and Microbial Technology, and of the Biochemical Engineering section of Current Opinion in Biotechnology. His research interests include enzyme technology and applications of biotechnology in materials Science. M97-G2*, M99-G11* sheldon.may@chemistry.gatech.edu (404)-894-4052 Barbara Werner Mazziotti, Manager of Simulation Services at [TC]2 since 1990, earned a M.S. in industrial engineering from NC State. She has copyrighted the Modular Manufacturing Simulation System and the Textile/ Apparel Process Simulator for [TC]2. Previously, Barbara was a consultant for Systems Modeling Corporation and a simulations project engineer for General Motors. Her research interests include flexible simulation tools for apparel and textile processes. I95-S2

Robert S. Mariano, a Professor of Economics at the Univ. of Pennsylvania, joined the faculty in 1971 after earning a Ph.D. in statistics at Stanford in 1970. He had taught at the Univ. of the Philippines since he earned an M.S. degree in statistics there in 1963 then earned an M.S. in math at Illinois. Bobby edits the “Journal of Asian Economics” and Advances in Statistical Analysis and Statistical Computing.” He was an expert reviewer for the U.S. Dept. of Energy. His research interests include dynamics of Asian financial markets and the economic implications of trade policy. I93-A4 mariano@econ.sas.upenn.edu (215)-898-7716 Thomas E. Marshall, an Assistant Professor of Management in the College of Business at Auburn, joined the faculty in 1991. He received a Ph.D. in business computer information systems from the Univ. of North Texas in 1992. Tom is a Certified Public Accountant. His research interests include decision support systems, expert systems, human information processing and database management systems. I95-A19, I95-A20 marshall@business.auburn.edu (334)-844-4071

National Textile Center Directory: June 2000

B-23

Robert E. McCall, a manager in Ultrasound Wet Textile Processing at NC State, has a B.S. in mathematics and physics from Muskingum College and a M.B.A. from Xavier. He was a product manager with AccuRay Corp. in computerized measurement, control and management information systems; managing sensor technologies using X-ray, radioisotopes, radio frequency & infrared. He holds four U.S. patents for process control systems. Bob's research involves developing ultrasound for use in textile dyeing and washing. C95-G13 rmccall@ncsu.edu (919)-515-6591 Aliecia R. McClain, an Assistant Professor of Textile Engineering at Auburn, joined the faculty in 1998 when she earned her Ph.D. in agricultural and environmental chemistry at UC-Davis. Aliecia also has a B.S. in chemistry from Benedict College (SC) in 1985 and a M.S. in inorganic polymer chemistry from Clark-Atlanta University in 1990. Her research interests includes polymer synthesis, fiber and polymer science, and the use of chelating fibers and resins to treat effluents. M98-A16 amcclain@eng.auburn.edu (334)-844-5459

Marian Gayle McCord, an Assistant Professor at NC State since 1994 when she received a Ph.D. in textiles and polymer science at Clemson, also earned a Sc.B. in biomedical engineering at Brown and a M.S. in bioengineering at Clemson. Marian's research interests include torsional properties in high performance fibers, barrier fabrics and comfort of textile materials. M94-C4, F95-S24, I98-S8, C99-S9*, F99-S2 marian_mccord@]ncsu.edu (919)-515-6571 http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/college/personnel/mmccord.html Ralph McGregor, a Professor of Textile Engineering at NC State, joined the faculty in 1970. He was also thrice a visiting researcher or professor at the Tokyo Institute of Technology. He holds a B.S., Ph.D. and D.Sc. in colour chemistry from the University of Leeds (England) and has received the Olney Medal for outstanding achievement in textile chemistry in 1984. Ralph's research interests include computer simulation and modeling of textile wet processes, sorption and diffusion in fibers and color perception in fabric appearance defects. C95-S4*, C95-S7* ralph_mcgregor@ncsu.edu (919)-515-6554 Donald H. Mershon, a Professor of Psychology and Coordinator for the Ergonomics Graduate Program at NC State, joined the faculty in 1972. He earned a Ph.D. from Univ. of California at Santa Barbara in 1970. As an experimental psychologist specializing in human perception, Don’s research interests include the perception of 3-D space through both vision and hearing. F92-S9 don_mershon@ncsu.edu (919)-515-2252

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National Textile Center Directory: June 2000

Zhong-Xing Mi, Manager, Fabric Development at Cotton, Inc. joined the staff in 1995 from being a Research Associate at the Nonwovens Cooperative Research Center at NC State. He received a Ph.D. in textile physics in 1983 at the Univ. of Manchester (England) whereupon he became Associate Professor and Deputy Head of the No. 1 Textile Engineering Dept. at China Textile University (Shanghai). Earlier he was Technical Director for the Guangxi (China) Textile Mill. He is on NTC’s TAC committee. John's research interests include fiber-reinforced composites and textile physics. F98-S9 jmi@cottoninc.com (919)-510-6134 Stephen Michielsen, an Associate Professor in Textile and Fiber Engineering at Georgia Tech, joined the faculty in 1995. He has a B.S. in chemistry from S.U.N.Y. and earned a Ph.D. in physical chemistry from the University of Chicago in 1979 and did postdoctoral research at Stanford whereupon he spent 15 years at DuPont in their polymer and fiber research departments. Steve's research interests include fiber surface modification, fiber strength, thermomechanical properties of fibers and polymers, fiber/polymer physics and polymer blends. C98-A17, C99-S4 stephen.michielsen@tfe.gatech.edu (404)-894-6345 http://www.tfe.gatech.edu/faculty/michielsen/michielsen.html Victor Milenkovic, an Associate Professor in Mathematics and Computer Science at the University of Miami since 1994, received a Ph.D. in computer science from Carnegie Mellon in 1988. He then became Assistant Professor of computer science in the Division of Applied Sciences at Harvard where he earned a BA in mathematics in 1981. In 1991, Victor was named an NSF Presidential Young Investigator. His research interests include computational geometry, numerical robustness, automated part layout and CAD/CAM. I94-A13, vjm@cs.miami.edu (305)-284-4194

German Mills, an Associate Professor of Chemistry at Auburn since 1995, joined the faculty in 1989. He earned a Ph.D. in physical chemistry from the Technical University of West Berlin in 1985 and a MS in inorganic chemistry from the University of Chile in 1981. "Jimmy" has held postdoctoral positions at Caltech and Argonne National Lab. His research interests include synthesis and properties of nanometer-sized metal and semiconductor particles, "smart" materials and transformation of toxic chemicals. F95-S24, C98-A17, M98-A10* millsge@mail.auburn.edu (334)-844-6974 http://www.auburn.edu/~winkekj Gary N. Mock, a Professor of Textile Engineering at NC State, joined the faculty in 1976 during which time he received the Outstanding Teaching Award three times. He received a Ph.D. in chemical engineering from Clemson in 1976 after four years of industrial experience at Milliken. His research interests include the radio frequency drying of textiles, ultrasound and computer integrated manufacturing in wet processing. C95-G13 gary_mock@ncsu.edu (919)-515-6643 Mansour H. Mohamed, a Professor of Textile Engineering and Technology at NC State, joined the faculty in 1969. He received a Ph.D. in textile technology from Manchester University (England) in 1965, whereupon he became a Lecturer in Textile Engineering at Alexandria (Egypt). His research interests include dynamics of weaving machinery (esp. air jet), twistless yarns, three dimensional weaving, fabric structure and properties, nonwoven fibrous structures for filtration. F97-S15* mmohamed@tx.ncsu.edu (919)-515-6571

National Textile Center Directory: June 2000

B-25

Jeffrey F. Morris, an Assistant Professor of chemical engineering at Georgia Tech, joined the faculty in 1995 after obtaining a Ph.D. in ChemE. at Caltech and spending a year with Shell Research in Amsterdam. Jeff also earned a B.Ch.E. in 1989 from Georgia Tech. In 1999 he was a Visiting Professor at the Universite de Provence in Marseille (France). His research interests include suspensions and colloids especially modeling their flow behavior. C98-G30, C99-G8 jeff.morris@che.gatech.edu (404)-894-5134 http://www.chemse.gatech.edu/people/jfm.html Alexander V. Neimark, a Principal Scientist at TRI/Princeton since 1996, earned an M.S. in mechanical engineering in 1973, a Ph.D. in chemical engineering in 1977 and a D.Sc. in physical chemistry in 1988 from Moscow State Univ. (Russia). He was then a Research Professor in Physics at the Russian Academy of Science then to the faculty of Yale’s Chemical Engineering Dept. 1994-96. Alex’s research interests include interfacial phenomena and porous materials engineering, from molecular level theories of nanocapillarity to macroscopic models of fluid flow and sorption in porous media and fiber systems. C98-P2 aneimark@triprinceton.org (609)-430-4818 http://www.triprinceton.org/aneimark

R. Mark Nelms, an Associate Professor of Electrical Engineering at Auburn, earned a Ph.D. in electrical engineering at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ. in 1987. Mark’s research interests include the application of power electronic and electromechanical energy conversion technologies to textile machinery. F92-A3 nelms@eng.auburn.edu (334)-844-1830 Henry L. W. Nuttle, Professor of Industrial Engineering at NC State, received a Ph.D. in operations research from Johns Hopkins. Hank's research interests include applied operations research and production systems such as the analysis and modeling of the fiber-textile-apparelretail pipe- line. I95-S2, I98-S1 nuttle@eos.ncsu.edu (919)-515-2364 http://www.ie.ncsu.edu/people/new_page_people.htm L. Howard Olson was an Associate Professor in Textile and Fiber Engineering at Georgia Tech where he joined the faculty in 1969. Howard, now deceased, earned a Ph.D. in textile physics at Manchester Univ. (U.K.) in 1971, an M.S. in textile engineering at Georgia tech in 1967 and a B.S.E. in mechanical engineering at Princeton. His research interests included acoustic sensing of sewing defects, high performance specialty fabrics, mechanics of knits, quality control and testing, and physics of fibers, yarns and fabrics. I94-S4 William Oxenham has been an Associate Professor of the Department of Textile and Apparel Technology and Management at NC State since 1992 after having lectured at the University of Leeds (England) since receiving a Ph.D. there in 1974. Bill's research interests include data reduction, fiber damage during processing, ring spinning instability, fiber friction, yarn tensile testing, carding variability and microfiber processing. F94-S9, I95-A11, F96-A3, F97-C5, F99-S6*, I99-S10 woxenham@tx.ncsu.edu (919)-515-6573
http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tam/aboutdept/facresstaff/facstaff_frame.htm

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National Textile Center Directory: June 2000

Radhakrishnaiah Parachuru, a Research Scientist in Textile and Fiber Engineering at Georgia Tech, joined the staff in 1988 from the staff of NC State. He received a Ph.D. in textile engineering in 1981 from the Indian Institute of Technology (New Delhi) and an MS in applied statistics from Georgia State in 1995. Krishna was on the Textile Technology faculty at the University of Madras (India) in 1984-5. His research interests include spun yarn structure-property relationships, Kawabata methodology and computer modeling of manufacturing processes. C96-A1, F98-G15, C99-A7 krishna.parachuru@tfe.gatech.edu (404)-894-0029 http://www.tfe.gatech.edu/faculty/krishna/krishna.html David Pascoe, an Assistant Professor in Health and Human Performance at Auburn, joined the faculty in 1990 when he received a Ph.D. degree in bioenergetics from Ball State. Earlier he received a M.A. from California State-Fresno. Dave's research interests include physiological evaluation of clothing systems for heat and cold stress and thermography to identify hazards due to protective clothing systems. F95-S24 pascodd@mail.auburn.edu (334)-844-1473 Christopher M. Pastore, an Associate Professor of Textile Engineering and Technology and Director of Research of the School of Textiles and Materials Technology at Philadelphia University, joined the faculty in 1995. Previously he was on the Textile Materials Science faculty at NC State and the Materials Engineering faculty at Drexel University. Chris holds a B.A. and M.S. in mathematics and a Ph.D. in materials engineering from Drexel in 1988. His research interests include modeling of fabric and composite structures. F98-P1*, I99-P1* cpastore@fibers.texsci.edu (215)-951-2683 http://fibers.texsci.edu/stmt/cpastore.html

Frank W. Paul, the Quattlebaum Professor of Mechanical Engineering at Clemson and Director of the Center for Advanced Manufacturing, joined the faculty in 1977. He received a Ph.D. in mechanical engineering from Lehigh in 1968 and an M.S. from Penn State in 1964. Frank has served on the faculties of Carnegie-Mellon and Lehigh and on the technical staffs of Hamilton Standard Division, United Technologies. His research interests include process control, robotic automation, machine design and sensors. F95-S20, F98-S4 frank.paul@ces.clemson.edu (864)-656-3291 http://www.eng.clemson.edu/me/ME_Faculty/Paul.html Spyros G. Pavlostathis, a Professor of Environmental Engineering at Georgia Tech, joined the faculty in 1991. He received a Ph.D. in environmental engineering from Cornell University in 1985 and taught at Clarkson University before joining Georgia Tech. Spyros' research interests include biotransformation of hazardous and industrial pollutants, reductive biotransformation processes and environmental biotechnology for bioremediation applications in both engineered and natural systems. C96-G2* spyros.pavlostathis@ce.gatech.edu (404)-894-0029 http://environmental.gatech.edu/~sgp/

National Textile Center Directory: June 2000

B-27

Warren Perkins, a Research Associate at University of Georgia, had been Professor of Textile Engineering, at Auburn and was Acting Head of the Department 1987-89. In 1991-2 he was President of the American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists. Warren received a B.S. and M.S. in textile chemistry from Clemson. His research interests include textile dyeing and finishing, especially source reduction of pollution from textile dyeing and finishing operations, reclaiming and recycling water and dielectric and infrared heating and drying of textiles. F92-A1, C92-S6, C92-A4 wperkins@hestia.fcs.uga.edu (706)-542-4885 Ronald S. Perry, a retired Professor of Textile Chemistry at University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, joined the faculty in 1973. He received a Ph.D. in polymer chemistry in 1965, an M.S. in organic and also in textile chemistry from the University of Lowell and B.S. in textile chemistry from the New Bedford Textile Institute in 1958. From 1965-73 he was engaged in of industrial research and product development at ICI and Sun Chemical. Ron’s research interests include textile dyeing and finishing, fiber modification and fire science. F97-D1 rperry@umassd.edu (508)-999-8447

Thomas A. Petee, an Associate Professor of Sociology at Auburn, joined the faculty in 1989 upon earning a Ph.D. in sociology from Notre Dame. He also holds a M.S. in sociology and a B.S. in criminal justice from Univ. of Toledo. Tom's research interests include decisionmaking models. I95-A23, I98-A6 peteeta@mail.auburn.edu (334)-844-2821 Peter H. Pfromm, an Assistant Professor at the Institute of Paper Science and Technology, joined the faculty in 1994 after earning a Ph.D. in chemical engineering from Univ. of Texas (Austin) in 1993. He also earned a M.S. in process engineering from the Univ. of Stuttgart in 1985 whereupon he was a researcher at Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. and Pharmetrix (both Menlo Park) and at Fraunhofer Gesellschaft/IGB (Stuttgart). Peter's research interests include membrane separations and polymer and surface science in paper recycling. C95-G1 peter.pfromm@ipst.edu (404)-853-1869

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National Textile Center Directory: June 2000

John D. Pierce Jr., an Assistant Professor of Biopsychology at PhiladelphiaU since 1998, earned a a B.S. from St. Joseph's Univ. in 1981, an M.A. in psychology from the Univ. of Nevada Reno in 1985, and a Ph.D. in psychobiology from the Univ. of Florida in 1989. John then did postdoctoral research in psychophysics at the Univ. of Pennsylvania and the Monell Chemical Senses Center. His research interests include sensory processing and perceptual experiences. I99-P1 piercej@philau.edu (215)-951-2556 http://faculty.philau.edu/piercej Malcolm Polk, a Professor of Textile and Polymer Chemistry at Georgia Tech, joined the faculty in 1985. He received a Ph.D. in organic chemistry from the University of Pennsylvania in 1964. After a postdoctoral at the Univ. of California (Davis), he worked at DuPont until 1972, when he became Associate Professor at Atlanta University. Malcolm's research interests include polymer synthesis and characterization; depolymerization; liquid crystalline polymers; high temperature resistant polymers and molecular modeling of polymers. M95-S22, M98-G8 malcolm.polk@tfe.gatech.edu (404)-894-2535 http://www.tfe.gatech.edu/faculty/polk/polk.html John J. Porter, a Professor in Textiles, Fiber and Polymer Science at Clemson, joined the faculty in 1962. He received a Ph.D. in organic chemistry in 1961 and a B.S. in chemical engineering from Georgia Tech in 1956. Jeff has been an industrial consultant in water and air pollution control since 1971. His specific research interests include process automation and modification to facilitate recycling and reuse of water, chemicals and energy, the thermodynamics and kinetics of dyeing processes and membrane separation techniques. C95-C14* porter@clemson.clemson.edu (864)-656-3291

Behnam Pourdeyhimi, Professor and co-Director of the Nonwovens Cooperative Research Center at NC State joined the faculty in 1999 after being a Professor in Textile and Fiber Engineering at Georgia Tech, preceded by 11 years at Univ. of Maryland in Textiles & Consumer Economics and in Materials & Nuclear Engineering. Behnam earned a Ph.D. in textiles from Leeds (U.K.) in 1982. In 1994 he received the Fiber Society's Young Distinguished Scientist Award. His research interests include failure mechanisms in fibers and polymers, image analysis and modeling the physical behavior of textile structures, especially carpets and nonwovens. M95-G8 bpourdey@unity.ncsu.edu (919)-515-1822
http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tam/aboutdept/facresstaff/facstaff_frame.htm

Ann Beth Presley, an Associate Professor at Auburn since receiving a Ph.D. in textile science in 1992 from the University of Maryland, has a B.S. from Western Kentucky University and an M.S. from Ohio State. Ann Beth supervised quality assurance for Eddie Bauer and worked in textile testing for the International Fabricare Institute. She was a faculty fellow at [TC]2. Her research interests include quality issues in apparel and textiles, historic aspects of the industry, and computerization of the industry. I98-A7, I98-A8, I98-A9 bjenkins@humsci.auburn.edu (334)-844-1347 http://www.humsci.auburn.edu/ca/html/presley.html Yiping Qiu, an Assistant Professor at NC State since 1996 received a B. Engr. in textile engineering at Zhejiang Institute of Silk Technology (China), a M.S. in textile science at Auburn and a Ph.D. in fiber science at Cornell. Yiping's research interests include fabrication and characterization of fiber reinforced composites, modification and analysis of fiber matrix interfaces, mechanics of fibrous structures and moisture vapor transfer in fibrous structures. F98-S9*, C99-S9 yiping_qiu@ncsu.edu (919)-515-9426

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NTC Principal Investigators: R - Z
Arthur J. Raguaskas, an Assistant Professor of Wood Chemistry at the IPST since 1989, earned a Ph.D. in organic chemistry from the Univ. of Western Ontario in 1985. After postdocs at Univ. of Alberta and Colorado state, Art was a research associate with the National Research Council of Canada. His research interests include bleaching kraft pulps. C95-G2 art.ragauskis@ipst.edu Christopher D. Rahn, an Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering at Clemson since 1992 earned a Ph.D. degree in mechanical engineering from the University of California, Berkeley. He also spent several years as a research and development engineer at Space Systems, LORAL. Chris's research interests include the modeling, dynamic analysis and control of nonlinear flexible systems, including fiber, fabric and paper handling machinery. F94-S9, F95-S20, F97-C5, F98-S4 rchrist@clemson.clemson.edu (864)-656-5621 http://www.eng.clemson.edu/me/ME_Faculty/Rahn.html Mary Lynn Realff, an Associate Professor in Textile and Fiber Engineering at Georgia Tech, joined the faculty in 1992 upon receiving a Ph.D. in mechanical engineering and in polymer science and technology from MIT. She earned a B.Eng. in textile engineering from Georgia Tech in 1987. Mary Lynn's research interests include design of textile structures, investigation and modeling of the mechanical behavior of textile structures, image processing and modeling and design of textile processes. I95-G7*, I97-S10, F98-G15 marylynn.realff@tfe.gatech.edu (404)-894-2496 http://www.tfe.gatech.edu/faculty/realff/realff.html Matthew J. Realff, an Assistant Professor in Chemical Engineering and Associate Director for the Center of Sustainable Technology at Georgia Tech, joined the faculty in 1993 upon receiving a Ph.D. from MIT and in 1986 a B.Eng. from Imperial College (London), both in chemical engineering. Matthew's research interests include process design, simulation, scheduling and control for chemical and textile manufacturing systems as well as environmentally benign process synthesis and sustainable development. I95-G7, I97-S10 matthew.realff@che.gatech.edu (404)-894-1834 D. Michelle Benjamin Reese, Simulation Services Manager at [TC]2 since 1993 when she earned an M.S. in industrial engineering and operations research from Penn State. Michelle's research interests include flexible simulation and Visual Basic tools for textile and apparel processes and production assembly, warehousing and transportation systems. finite capacity planning and flexible simulation tools for textile and apparel processes and production assembly, warehousing and transportation systems. I98-S12 mreese@tc2.com (919)-380-2156 Clarence D. Rogers, a Professor of Textile Manufacturing at Clemson, joined the faculty in 1981. He was named Teacher of the Year in Textiles in 1988 and 1992 and earned a Ph.D. there in applied economics in 1978. In 1966 Clarence earned a M.S. in applied mathematics from NC State, then worked in statistics and mathematics for Pratt & Whitney, Springs Ind. and the USDA where he became a cotton marketing specialist. His research interests include process integration in textile manufacturing to increase plant productivity and product quality. F95-C13* cdrtex@clemson.clemson.edu (864)-656-5962 Paul S. Russo, a Professor in the Department of Chemistry at Louisiana State University, joined the faculty in 1983 after a period as Postdoctoral Associate at the University of Massachusetts. He has worked in the Wright Research & Development Center at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, and in Sandia National Laboratory, Department of Organic and Electronic Materials. Paul's research interests include polymer physical and analytical chemistry, optical measurements, gels, liquid crystals, and rodlike polymers. C95-S7 paul_russo@chemgate.chem.lsu.edu (504)-388-3361

National Textile Center Directory: June 2000

B-30

Jon Paul Rust has been an Assistant Professor in Textile Engineering at NC State since 1990 when he received a Ph.D. there in fiber and polymer science. He also holds B.S. and M.S. degrees from Clemson. Jon was named to the Academy of Outstanding Teachers in 1992. His research interests include fiber assembly and yarn properties in spinning and winding, computer integrated management of yarn manufacture and paper product softness. I95-A11 jrust@tx.ncsu.edu (919)-515-6564 Gregory C. Rutledge an Associate Professor of Chemical Engineering at M.I.T. since 1991, earned a Ph.D. in chemical engineering there in 1990. He also holds a B.S. degree in chemical engineering from Virginia (1983). Greg worked for the Dow Chemical for 2 years and did postdoctoral research at ETH (Zurich) and the University of Leeds (England). His research interests include structure/ property relationships in polymer science and engineering, statistical mechanics and molecular simulation of polymers, liquid crystal polymers and polymer mechanics. M98-D1 rutledge@mit.edu (617)-253-0171

David Salem, Director of Research at TRI/Princeton and member of NTC’s TAC committee, joined them in 1983 after earning his Ph.D. in polymer and fiber physics from the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology. From 1986-88, he was a research physicist at RhonePoulenc in France. David received the Fiber Society's Award for Distinguished Achievement in Fiber Science in 1996. His research interests include polymer crystallization, microstructure characterization of polymers and structure formation during polymer processing. M98-G5 dsalem@triprinceton.org; (609)-924-3150x35 Robert J. Samuels, a Chemical Engineering Professor at Georgia Tech since 1979, received a Ph.D. in polymer chemistry from University of Akron in 1961. During an 18 year career at Hercules, Robert was an Adjunct Professor at the Universities of Delaware and Washington. His research interests include rapid nondestructive characterization of anisotropic polymers, deformation kinetics of polymer systems, and prediction of advanced material behavior. He is author of the book Structured Polymer Properties and the recipient of the 1999 International Research Award of the Society of Plastics Engineers. M95-C4, M98-C1 robert.samuels@che.gatech.edu (404)-894-2885 F. Joseph Schork, a Professor and Associate Chair of Chemical Engineering at Georgia Tech, joined the faculty in 1982. Joe earned a Ph.D. in chemical engineering in 1981 from Wisconsin. He also received a an M.S. in chemical engineering in 1974 from the University of Louisville then worked for DuPont until 1977. His research interests include the dynamics and control of reacting systems, esp. development of mathematical models, on-line sensors, digital control schemes, and novel reactor configurations for polymerization, and other reaction systems. C99-G8 joseph.schork@che.gatech.edu (404)-894-8470 http://www.chemse.gatech.edu:80/people/fjs.html

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National Textile Center Directory: June 2000

Abdelfattah M. Seyam, an Associate Professor in Textile and Apparel Management at NC State since 1991 and Associate Director of Technology Transfer in the Nonwoven Cooperative Research Center, earned an M.S. degree in textile engineering in 1978 from Alexandria Univ. (Egypt) and a Ph.D. in fiber and polymer science from NC State in 1985. He then held research positions at Burlington Ind. and Valdese Textiles. Abdelfattah's research interests include mechanics of woven fabrics and technologies for apparel automation and web forming. F98-S12 a_seyam@ncsu.edu (919)-515-6583
http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tam/aboutdept/facresstaff/facstaff_frame.htm

Alexei Sharov, a Research Scientist in the Dept. of Entomology at Virginia Tech since 1992, earned his Ph.D. in entomology from Moscow State Univ. (Russia) in 1980 following a B.S. there in 1976. He also earned a Doctorate of biological sciences there in 1988. Alexei’s research interests include quantitative population ecology and mathematical modeling. I99-A2 sharov@vt.edu (540)-231-7316 http://www.ento.vt.edu/~sharov Guanglin Shen, a Research Associate of Textile Engineering at Auburn since 1997, when he earned a Ph.D. in polymer and fiber science from University of Leeds (England). He earned a M..S. in polymer science from Northwest Institute of Textile Science and Technology (China) in 1988. Guanglin was a Research Fellow at the Japan National Institute. His research interests include polymer synthesis, modification and characterization; fiber production and property testing; and medical textiles. M96-A2 guanglin@eng.auburn.edu (334)-844-4123 Mathew Sikorski was a Research Scientist in Textile and Fiber Engineering at Georgia Tech since 1965; he earned a Ph.D. in fiber physics in 1986 at the Univ. of Manchester (U.K.). Before coming to Georgia Tech, Mat taught at the Illinois Institute of Technology and worked at Bell Telephone Labs. his research interests include supercritical fluids, recycling carpet wastes, nonaqueous textile processing, electrostatic printing and on-line detection of sewing defects in robotic apparel manufacture. C92-C4 B. Lewis Slaten, an Associate Professor at Auburn, joined the faculty in 1974 after receiving a M.S. in organic chemistry from University of Arkansas and a Ph.D. in chemical engineering from Maryland. Previously, Lew was a chemist for Freeport Minerals and the National Bureau of Standards' Fire Technology division. His research interests include fabric test methods, barrier textiles, protective clothing, environmental chemistry and chemistry of textile finishes. slatebl@humsci.auburn.edu F95-S24, M98-A10, C98-A17 (334)-844-1330 http://www.auburn.edu/~slatebl

Itzhak Shalev, Visiting Associate Professor in Textile Engineering, Chemistry and Science at NC State since 1991, is also CEO of Arpal Engineering Ltd. Itzhak earned a B.S. in textile chemistry from Shenkar College (Israel) in 1980 and a Ph.D. in fiber and polymer science at NC State in 1984. He served as Head of the Textile Chemistry Dept. at Shenkar College from 1994-98. Itzhak's research interests include protective barrier textiles, clothing comfort, finishing technology and computer aided instruction. F95-S24, I98-S8, F99-S2 itzhak_shalev@ncsu.edu (919)-515-6550 http://www.shalev.net Lisa A. Shanley, an Associate Professor at Auburn since 1987, when she received a Ph.D. from Oklahoma State in clothing, textiles and merchandizing with an emphasis on functional design of apparel, statistics and physiology. Lisa's research interests include protective clothing prototype design, physiological response to clothing and software development for the apparel industry. I94-A13*, F95-S24 wildgngr@mindspring.com (334)-844-1339 Paul S. Shanley, a Research Assistant at Auburn since 1990, when he received a B.A. in communications and public relations from Auburn. Paul's research interests include protective clothing prototype design, technology transfer, new materials for the space program and physiological response to clothing. F95-S24

National Textile Center Directory: June 2000

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C. Brent Smith, a Professor of Textile Engineering at NC State, joined the faculty in 1983. He received a Ph.D. in chemical physics from the University of Florida in 1966. Since then, Brent held various research positions in United Merchants and Manufacturers, West Point Pepperell and Cotton Incorporated. his research interests include pollution control by source reduction, mathematical modeling and real-time data for process control, coloration and color perception. C95-S4, C99-S2* brent_smith@ncsu.edu (919)-515-6548
http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tecs/tecs_personnel/home_pages/bsmith.html

Jolanta Sokolowska-Gajda, a Visiting Research Assistant Professor at NC State, received her Ph.D. in chemistry in 1981 from Technical University of Lodz (Poland), where she is permanently employed. Since 1988 she has periodically been a Visiting Assistant Professor and Research Associate at NC State. Jolanta's research interests include the design and synthesis of environmentally friendly iron metallized dyes and nonmutagenic organic pigments and the photodegradation of disperse and metallized dyes. M95-S22 jsokolow@tx.ncsu.edu (919)-515-8116 Michael Solomon, Human Sciences Professor of Consumer Behavior in Consumer Affairs at Auburn, joined the faculty in 1995 from being Chairman of the Dept. of Marketing at Rutgers. He earned B.A. degrees in psychology and sociology magna cum laude at Brandeis Univ. in 1977, and a Ph.D. in social psychology from UNC-Chapel Hill in 1981. He has written Consumer Behavior: Buying, Having and Being and Marketing: Real People, Real Choices. Mike’s research interests include consumer behavior and lifestyle issues, the symbolic aspects of products, the psychology of fashion, decoration and image, and services marketing. I97-A11* msolomon@humsci.auburn.edu (334)-844-1316 http://www.humsci.auburn.edu/ca/html/solomon.html

Gary W. Smith, an Associate Professor at NC State, joined the faculty in 1969 when he received a Masters of Textile Technology from NC State. In 1980, he received a Ph.D. in Textile Industries from Leeds University (England). His research interests include yarn knittability, knitting, quality control and computerintegrated manufacturing. I92-S11 gary_smith@ncsu.edu (919) 515-6582
http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tam/aboutdept/facresstaff/facstaff_frame.htm

Marc K. Smith, an Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering at the Georgia Tech, joined the faculty in 1991. He earned a Ph.D. in applied mathematics from Northwestern Univ. in 1982. After postdoctoral work at MIT and Cambridge University, he joined the faculty of Johns Hopkins Univ. His research interests include interfacial fluid mechanics and hydrodynamic stability, with particular emphasis on surface tension effects and surface-tensiondriven flows, droplet atomization and applications to spray cooling and spray coating, and the fluid mechanics of bioreactors. C99-G8 jeff.morris@che.gatech.edu

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National Textile Center Directory: June 2000

Mohan Srinivasarao, an Assistant Professor in Textile and Fiber Engineering, joined the faculty in 1999 from the NC State faculty He earned a M.Sc. in applied chemistry from University of Madras (India) in 1981, a M.S. in polymer science in 1985 and a Ph.D. in chemistry from Carnegie Mellon in 1990, then was a Research Fellow at UMass-Amherst. He also consulted at AT&T and Polaroid. Mohan's research interests include physical chemistry of polymers, physics of nematic liquid crystals and rheology and rheooptics of polymeric fluids, liquid crystals and biological color science. C99-S4 mohan@tfe.gatech.edu (404)-894-9348 Nancy J. Staples, a Research Associate/ Associate Professor at Clemson Apparel Research, joined Clemson in 1990 upon earning a Ph.D. in clothing and textiles from UNC-Greensboro. Nancy was a pattern maker in industry, taught apparel production, draping and tailoring and owned a custom pattern making and apparel production business. Her research interests include application of existing and emerging CAD technologies to the sewn products manufacturing process. I95-A19 staplen@clemson.edu (864)-546-8454 Moon W. Suh, a Professor of Textile and Apparel Management and of Statistics at NC State, joined the faculty in 1987 after a 19-year career at Burlington Ind. as a statistician and operations research analyst. He earned a B.S. in textile engineering from Seoul National Univ. (Korea) in 1961 and a Ph.D. in statistics from NC State in 1969. Moon's research interests include statistical and probabilistic modeling of textile processes and products, quality control methods, apparel business information systems, biostatistics and statistical failure models. I95-A11, I97-S1*, I98-S6*, F99-S2 moon_suh@ncsu.edu (919)-515-6580
http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tam/aboutdept/facresstaff/facstaff_frame.htm

Gang Sun, an Assistant Professor in Textiles and Clothing at University of California, Davis since 1995, received a Ph.D. in organic/polymer chemistry from Auburn in 1994. He also received an M.S. in 1984 in textile chemical engineering from China Textile University (Shanghai). His research interests include functional modifications of polymers and textiles, development of biological and chemical protective materials, evaluation of functional properties of textiles and polymers, and utilization of agricultural wastes in textile processing. C98-A17 gysun@ucdavis.edu (530)-752-0840 Christine A. Sundermann, a Professor of Zoology & Wildlife Science at Auburn, joined the faculty in 1984. She earned a Ph.D. in zoology from University of Georgia in 1983 and a B.S. from Iowa State in biology in 1977. Christine’s research interests include inactivation of Giardia and other parasitic protozoa in potable water; in vivo and in vitro development of Toxoplasma gondii and its detection; hormone receptors in ciliated protozoa. C98-A17 sundeca@mail.auburn.edu (334)-844-3929 Les M. Sztandera, an Associate Professor and Head of the Computer Science program at PhiladelphiaU earned a Ph.D. in computer and engineering science in 1993 from the University of Toledo, an M.S. from Missouri in 1990 and a Diploma in English in 1989 from Cambridge (England). Les’ research interests include fuzzy logic, pattern recognition, computer vision, genetic algorithms, neural networks, hybrid intelligent systems, and modeling and management of uncertainty. I98-P1 sztanderal@philau.edu (215)-951-2871 http://larry.texsci.edu/les2.html Robert Taylor, a Professor of Agricultural Economics at Auburn, earned a Ph.D. in resource economics at Missouri in 1972, an M.S. in economics at Kansas St. in 1970 and a B.S. in agricultural economics at Oklahoma St. in 1968. Bob also taught at Illinois, Texas A&M and Montana St. His research interests include regionalized econometric simulation model of the agricultural economy (major crops, livestock) applied to farm and conservation programs, agricultural biotechnology and pesticide policy. I93-A4 rtaylor@ag.auburn.edu (334)-844-5606

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Amyn Teja, a Professor and Director of Fluid Properties Research Inst. at Georgia Tech, joined the faculty in 1980. He received a Ph.D. in chemical engineering from Imperial College (London) in 1972 and then was a visiting professor at Delaware, Ohio State and Technical Univ. (Denmark). Amyn's research interests include supercritical fluid extraction and measurement/prediction of thermophysical properties. C92-C4 amyn.teja@che.gatech.edu 404)-894-3098 Howard L. Thomas, Jr., an Assistant Professor of Textile Engineering at Auburn, joined the faculty in 1996 from ITT. He received a Ph.D. in textile and polymer science from Clemson in 1991 and a M.S. in textiles from Georgia Tech. He is the USA editor for International Textile Bulletin and has industrial experience with Sulzer-Ruti, Springs Industries, J. P. Stevens and Cone Mills. Howard's research interests include weaving machine redesign and process consolidation, recycled fibers for nonwovens and ballistic resistant fabrics. I96-A9, I99-A2* hthomas@eng.auburn.edu (334)-844-5461 http://www.eng.auburn.edu/~hthomas Sven N. Thommesen, a Research Associate at Auburn since 1996 when he received a C.Phil in economics from UCLA. He also earned a B.A. in economics from Auburn in 1985. Sven's research interests include modeling of artificial agent simulations and macroeconomic stability. I98-A9 thommsn@auburn.edu (334)-844-6457 Henry L. Thompson, a Professor in Business at Auburn, joined the staff in 1986 from the staff at Tennessee. He earned a B.S. in 1970 and Ph.D. in 1981 at the University of Houston, both in economics. Henry’s research interests include international and energy economics and applied microeconomics. I99-A2 (334)-844-4910 thomph1@auburn.edu http://www.auburn.edu/~thomph1

Neelesh B. Timble, a Research Associate at the Nonwovens Cooperative Research Center at NC State, earned a Ph.D. there in fiber & polymer science in 1993. He has a B.S. in textile technology from Victoria Jubilee Technical Institute (Bombay) in 19984 and an M.S. in textile engineering from Indian Institute of Technology (New Dehli) in 1986. He has also worked for Johnson & Johnson in Bombay. Neelesh’s research interests include applied and fundamental research in nonwovens. F93-S8 nbtimble@ncsu.edu (919)-515-4552 Wayne C. Tincher served for five years as the Research Director of the Apparel Manufacturing Technology Center and is currently NTC Site Director and a Professor in Textile and Fiber Engineering at Georgia Tech. He received a Ph.D. in physical chemistry at Vanderbilt. Before coming to Georgia Tech in 1971, Wayne led fundamental research at Monsanto on polymer and fiber structure-property relationships. His research interests include textile, carpet and apparel manufacturing technologies. C95-G1, C96-G2, C98-G30, C99-G8 wayne.tincher@tfe.gatech.edu (404)-894-2197 http://www.tfe.gatech.edu/faculty/tincher/tincher.html Kimberly J. Titus, a Visiting Assistant Professor in Textile Engineering, Chemistry and Science at NC State, received a Ph.D. there in experimental solid state physics in 1994. She also earned a B.S. in physics and a B.A. in mathematics from Stetson University in 1989. Kim's research interests include fundamental properties of fabric and seams, material handling, sensor technologies and semiconductor materials for lasers. I94-S4 kimberly_titus@ncsu.edu (919)-515-1420 Charles Tomasino, a Professor of Textile Chemistry at NC State, joined the faculty in 1977 after a 16-year career at Burlington Industries. He received a Ph.D. in organic chemistry from the University of Florida in 1959 whereupon he became a research chemist at Celanese Fibers. Charles won the Outstanding Teacher Award in 1990. His research interests include fabric and garment finishing with emphasis on textile chemical auxiliaries. C94-S13* charles_tomasino@ncsu.edu (919) 515-6549

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National Textile Center Directory: June 2000

Alan Tonelli, the KoSa Professor of Polymer Science at NC State, joined the faculty in 1991 after a 23-year career at AT&T's Bell Labs. He earned a B.S. in chemical engineering from Kansas in 1964 and a Ph.D. in chemistry from Stanford in 1968. Alan is a Fellow of the American Physical Society and author of “NMR Spectroscopy and Polymer Microstructure The Conformational Connection" and "Polymers from the Inside Out: An Introduction to Macromolecules." His research interests include conformational characteristics, microstructures, NMR spectroscopy and physical properties of polymers. C95-S7, C98-S1*, C99-S4* alan_tonelli@ncsu.edu (919)-515-6588
http://http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tecs/tecs_personnel/home_pages/tonelli.html

Pamela V. Ulrich, an Associate Professor in Consumer Affairs at Auburn, joined the faculty in 1987. She earned a Ph.D. in American history from Univ. of Oregon in 1991 and a M.S. in clothing and textiles from Auburn in 1980. She has department store experience. Pamela is curator of Consumer Affairs' Historic Costume and Textile Collection at Auburn. Her research interests include commercial development of the textile, apparel and retail sectors; fashion history, analysis and forecasting; and marketing trends. I95-A19, I95-A20, I98-A7*, I98-A8, I98-A9 ulricpv@auburn.edu (334)-844-1336 http://www.humsci.auburn.edu/ca/html/ulrich. Dan W. Urry, a Professor of Chemical Engineering, University of Minnesota, Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science (Minneapolis) and the Biological Process Technology Institute (St. Paul MN) is also Chairman of Bioelastics, Inc. since 1988. He earned a B.A. (Phi Beta Kappa) in medical biology in 1960 and a Ph.D. in physical chemistry in 1964 from Utah, whereupon he served on the staffs of Harvard, Univ. of California (Berkeley) and the Univ. of Chicago. He was R&D Magazine's 1988 Scientist of the Year. Dan's research interests include designer proteins. M96-A2 danurry@oadi.uab.edu (205)-943-6592 danurry@cems.umn.edu (612)-625-4282 George Vachtsevanos, a Professor of Electrical Engineering at the School of Electrical and Computer Engineering of Georgia Tech, joined the faculty in 1984. He received a Ph.D. in electrical engineering from the City University of New York in 1970 and taught at Richmond College of CUNY, Manhattan College of New York and the University of Thrace in Greece before joining Georgia Tech. George's research interests include intelligent control, fuzzy logic and neural networks and their application to complex engineered processes. I94-G2 george.vachtsevanos@gatech.edu (404)-894-6252

Mendel Trachtman, Professor Emeritus of chemistry, and former Chair of the Dept. of Chemistry and Physical Science at PCT&S, earned a Ph.D. from Univ. of Pennsylvania in 1961, an M.S. from Drexel in 1957 and a B.A. from Temple in 1951. Mendel’s research interests include ab initio and semiempirical molecular orbital methods, density functional analysis, physical chemistry and color science. I98-P1 mendel@spartan.texsci.edu (215)-951-6855 Paul A. Tucker, a Professor in Textile Engineering, Chemistry and Science at NC State, joined the faculty in 1964 and received a Ph.D. there in fiber and polymer science in 1973. Paul's research interests include polymer and textile processing, microscopy, chemical and physical characterization of polymers and textiles, electron and X-ray diffraction, melt spinning and degradation of polymers. F95-S24 paul_tucker@ncsu.edu (919)-515-6560 Samuel Chuks Ugbolue joined the faculty of Textile Sciences at UMassDartmouth in 1998. He earned an M.S. in textile science and evaluation in 1971 and a Ph.D. in polymer and fiber science in 1974 from Univ. of Strathclyde (Scotland) then was a textile research chemist for Klopman. In 1976, Sam joined Ahmadu Bello Univ. (Nigeria) and in 1983 became a Professor in polymer and textile technology at Federal University of Technology (Nigeria). His research interests include polymer and fiber sructure-property relationships, yarn and knitting process dynamics, physico-chemical analysis of textiles and morphology. M98-D1 sugbolue@umassd.edu (508)-999-8803

National Textile Center Directory: June 2000

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Edward A. Vaughn, a Professor of Textiles at Clemson, joined the faculty in 1966. He received a Ph.D. from the University of Manchester in 1969, an MS from the Institute of Textile Technology in 1964, and a BS in physics and math from Lynchburg College in 1962. Ed is past president of the National Council for Textile Education and the Textile Quality Control Association. His research interests include fiber processing dynamics, fabric formation mechanics, and materials analysis. F98-C4 vedward@clemson.edu (864)-656-5965 http://www.eng.clemson.edu/textiles/faculty/vaughn.html J. Velga, PhiladelphiaU no bio or photo I98-P1 Robert P. Walker, a retired Professor of Textile Engineering at Auburn, joined the faculty in 1968. He earned an M.S. in textile technology from ITT Bob’s research interests include yarn preparation, fabric forming systems and fabric design and analysis. F92-A3*, I94-A10T rwalker@eng.auburn.edu William K. Walsh, a Professor and Head of the Department of Textile Engineering at Auburn since 1989, received a Ph.D. in chemical engineering at NC State in 1967. He then joined the NC State faculty, becoming an Associate Dean in 1988. His research interests include mechanical and surface properties of polymers, esp. adhesive bonding of fabrics, wetting and wicking in porous media; electron beam and UV radiation polymerization and curing; and hydrophilic fiber finishes and moisture transport mechanisms for improved clothing comfort. C95-A8, C95-C14, C96-A1, M98-A16* wwalsh@eng.auburn.edu (334)-844-5452 http://www.eng.auburn.edu/department/te/faculty/Walsh Youjiang Wang, an Associate Professor in Textile and Fiber Engineering at Georgia Tech, received his BS in textile engineering from China Textile University and MS and Ph.D. in mechanical engineering from MIT. Youjiang is the Associate Technical Editor on Textiles for the Journal of Manufacturing Science & Technology in textiles. His research interests include textile processes, mechanics, composites and advanced construction materials. F94-A8, F98-G15*, F98-S9 youjiang.wang@tfe.gatech.edu (404)-894-7551 Weijun Wang, Auburn; no bio/photo M98-A4

Roger Warburton, an Adjunct Professor in the Department of Textiles at UMass Dartmouth since 1999, earned a Ph.D. in physics from the Univ. of Pennsylvania in 1976, then managed software projects for Jaycor (Defense Dept. contractor). Roger also earned a B.Sc. in physics in 1969 from Sussex (UK) Univ. Since 1989, he has been Director of Management Information Systems (MIS) for Griffin Manufacturing where he designed software to manage factory workflow, purchasing and inventory and garment costing. His research interests include apparel MIS and supply chain management I99-D16* roger@griffinmanufacturing.com (508)-677-0048 http://www.umassd.edu/engineering/textiles/faculty.html Steven B. Warner, a Professor and Chair of Textile Sciences at UMass Dartmouth since 1994, earned a Sc.D. in polymer and material science & engineering from M.I.T. in 1976. He then spent 12 years in industrial research at Hoechst-Celanese and Kimberly-Clark and 5 years on the faculty of Georgia Tech. Steve is the author of the texts: The Science and Design of Engineering Materials and Fiber Science. His research interests include fibers science, microstructure of nonwovens and fluid management in fibrous assemblies and properties. M95-G8*, C95-G2, M98-D1*, M98-D3, C97-G31, I99-D16 swarner@umassd.edu (508)-999-8449 Linda Welters, a Professor and Chairperson of the Textiles, Fashion Merchandising and Design Dept. at University of Rhode Island, joined URI in 1979. She earned a Ph.D. in home economics from the University of Minnesota in 1981, an M.A. in clothing and textiles from Colorado State in 1973 and a B.A. from the College of St. Catherine in 1971. Linda is the Associate Editor of Dress, the Journal of the Costume Society of America. Her research interests include historic costumes and archaeological textile analysis. I99-D16 lwelters@uriacc.uri.edu (401)-874-4525 http://www.uri.edu/hss/tmd/FACSTF.html#Linda

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National Textile Center Directory: June 2000

William J. Wepfer, a Professor of Mechanical Engineering and Director of Graduate Studies at Georgia Tech, joined the faculty in 1980. He earned a Ph.D. in mechanical engineering in 1979 from Univ. of Wisconsin. Bill’s research interests include thermodynamics, thermal systems, heat transfer, instrumentation and the experimental method. C95-G2 bill.wepfer@me.gatech.edu (404)-894-3294 Nicholas C. Williamson is an Associate Professor of Management and Marketing in Business and Economics at UNC-Greensboro. He earned a Ph.D. in 1980 and a M.B.A. in 1975 from UNC-Chapel Hill. Nick's research interests include the evolution of marketing channel institutions in export domains and the textile industry impact of stocking out of apparel products at retail. I95-S2 ncwillia@turing.uncg.edu (910)-334-5691 Alton R. Wilson, Associate Professor of Textile Sciences at UMass Dartmouth, joined the faculty in 1970. He earned a B. S. and M. S. in textile technology from the University of Massachusetts Dartmouth in 1965 and 1969, respectively. His research interests include woven fabric design, weaving mechanics, nonwovens and flexible composites and physical evaluation of textile materials. F97-D2 awilson@umassd.edu (508)-999-8453 James R. Wilson, a Professor of Industrial Engineering at NC State, received a Ph.D. in industrial engineering from Purdue. Jim has served as Departmental Editor of Management Science for Simulation. His current research interests include the design and analysis of simulation experiments and operations research techniques applied to industrial engineering. I95-S2, I98-S1 jwilson@eos.ncsu.edu (919)-515-6415 http://www.ie.ncsu.edu/people/new_page_people.htm

Samuel C. Winchester, Jr., a Professor at NC State since 1992, received a Ph.D. in chemical engineering at Princeton in 1967. Before coming to NC State, Sam culminated a 28 year career at DuPont as the Technical Manager of the Dacron© Research Laboratory and Dacron© Operations Technical. His research interests include management of technology and total quality, high performance work groups, computer integrated manufacturing, man-made fiber formation and property development and yarn formation. I98-S15 sam_winchester@ncsu.edu (919)-515-7458
http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/tam/aboutdept/facresstaff/facstaff_frame.htm

Jae L. Woo, a Visiting Research Professor in textiles at NC State since 1994, earned a B.S. in textile engineering at Seoul National Univ. (Korea) where he taught textile engineering and process statistics, a S.M. at MIT and a Ph.D. at Univ. of New South Wales (Australia) where he taught machine dynamics, random vibrations, experimental engineering in 1975-85. Jae’s research interests include cotton and wool fiber testing, on-line measurements in textile processes, statistical process control, textile mechanisms and variations analysis. I95-A11, I97-S1, F99-S2 jae_woo@ncsu.edu (919)-515-6580 S. D. Worley, a Professor of Chemistry at Auburn, joined the faculty in 1974 after being at Johnson Spacecraft Center, Cleveland State Univ. and the Office of Naval Research. He earned a Ph.D. in chemistry from Texas in 1969. Dave’s research interests include synthesis and testing of new biocidal polymers for numerous applications such as coatings. C98-A17 worlesd@mail.auburn.edu (334)-844 4043 Dave Woronka, an R&D Project Coordinator at [TC]2, joined the staff in 1993 after 15 years at RCA in custom microelectronics. Dave earned an A.A.S. in electromechanical technology from Union County (NJ) College in 1974 and a B.S. in management from Rutgers in 1979. His research interests include 3-D body scanning and automated pattern alteration. I98-A8 dworonk@tc2.com (919)-380-2156 Ext. 708

National Textile Center Directory: June 2000

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Jie Xu, a Research Scientist at Bioelastics Research, Ltd. (Birmingham AL) since 1993 when he earned a Ph.D. in cellular and molecular biology from Univ. of Alabama Birmingham, also earned a M.S. in molecular biology from the Institute of Microbiology, The Academia Sinica, Beijing (China) in 1986. Jie’s research interests include design, construction and expression of genes for elastin-based polymers, bioproduction and bioprocessing. M96-A2 jxbrl@oadi.uab.edu (205)-943-6590 Mehmet E. Yuksekkaya, a postdoc at NC State no bio or photo F96-A3

Charles Q. Yang, a Professor in the Dept. of Textiles at Georgia since 1995, joined the faculty in 1990 after an assistant professorship in Chemistry at Marshall University (WV). Charles earned a Ph.D. in analytical chemistry from Kansas State in 1987, an M.S. in polymer chemistry in 1981 from Nanjing University (China) and a B.S. in chemistry from Peking University in 1969. His research interests include chemical modifications and analyses of textile fibers, fabrics and polymeric materials and nonformaldehyde durable press finishing of cotton fabrics. C97-C3 cyang@hestia.fcs.uga.edu (706)542-4912 Chongwen Yu, a visiting scholar from the Dept. of Textile Engineering, China Textile Univ. (Shanghai) earned a Doctorate in textile engineering in 1994. Chongwen’s research interests include new spinning methods and processing of Bast and leaf fiber. F99-S6 yucw@ctu.edu.cn

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National Textile Center Directory: June 2000

S. Haig Zeronian, a Professor Emeritus at U.C. Davis, earned an M.S. in textile chemistry in 1955 and a Ph.D. in cellulose chemistry in 1962 from Manchester University, England. He was honored with a D.Sc. from there in 1983 for contributions to polymer and fiber science. Haig is a Fellow of the Textile Institute and has received the American Chemical Society's Anselme Payen Award for advances in cellulosic science and technology. He is on the editorial board for Cellulose. His research interests include cellulose-water interactions, base hydrolysis of polyester, cellulose oxidation, bleaching and degradation. C99-A7 shzeronian@ucdavis.edu (530)-752-6560 JunYong Zhu, an Associate Professor at the Institute of Paper Science and Technology (IPST), joined IPST in 1993. Previously, he was a Research Scientist at a high technology firm in Sunnyvale California. JunYong’s research interests include ink jet printing, ink droplet formation, laser based instrumentation for droplet characterization and drop and printing medium interaction. C99-G8 junyong.zhu@ipst.edu (404)-894-5310

Gilroy Zuckerman, an Associate Professor in Accounting at NC State, joined the faculty in 1979 from the faculty of Appalachian State University where he received the Trustees' Award for Outstanding Teaching. He earned a Ph.D. in economics and statistics from NC State in 1974 and a B.A. in economics from SUNY Binghamton in 1967. He is past President, Raleigh Chapter, of the Institute of Management Accounting. Gil's teaching and research interests include managerial accounting and taxes. I97-S8 gilroy_zuckerman@ncsu.edu (919)-515-4445 David A. Zumbrunnen, a Professor of Mechanical Engineering and supervisor of the Laboratory for Materials Processing and Industrial Mixing at Clemson, joined the faculty in 1988 upon earning a Ph.D. in mechanical engineering from Purdue. Dave received a Presidential Faculty Fellow Award from The White House in 1992 for excellence in scientific research and teaching. His research interests include melt-processing and chaotic mixing to yield in-situ structured materials, and unsteady convective heat and mass transfer. M96-C1, F98-G15 david.zumbrunnen@ces.clemson.edu (864)-656-5625 http://www.eng.clemson.edu/me/ME_Faculty/Zumbrunnen.html

Key:
Short biography (experience, degrees, research interests) NTC project(s) as investigator ( * = project leader) [old# to new# style: G92-1=F92-G1, G94T-2=C94-G2T] E-mail address Phone number Personal web page URL

National Textile Center Directory: June 2000

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NTC Site Directors
Sabit Adanur, an Associate Professor in Textile Engineering at Auburn since 1992, received a Ph.D. in fiber and polymer science and a M.S. in textile engineering from NC State and a B.S. in mechanical engineering from Istanbul Technical University in Turkey. Before coming to Auburn, Sabit was a product and process development manager for Asten Forming Fabrics (Appleton WI). His research interests include industrial textiles, composites, computer-aided design and manufacturing. sadanur@eng.auburn.edu I96-A9*, F99-A10* (334)-844-5497 http://www.eng.auburn.edu/~sadanur/ Haskell Beckham, an Associate Professor at Georgia Tech, joined the faculty in 1993. He received a B.S. in textile chemistry at Auburn and a Ph.D. in polymer science at M.I.T. in 1991 whereupon he served a 2-year postdoctoral internship at the Max Planck-Institute (Mainz). His research interests include polymer and textile chemistry, synthesis and properties of functionalized polymers and solid state NMR investigations of polymer molecular structure, order and dynamics. M95-G8, C95-G2, C95-G13*, C97-G11* haskell.beckham@tfe.gatech.edu (404)-894-4198 http://www.tfe.gatech.edu/beckham David R. Buchanan is an Associate Dean of the College of Textiles and a Professor in Textile Engineering at NC State where he has been on the faculty since 1978. Dave received a Ph.D. in physical chemistry from Ohio State in 1962 whereupon he had an industrial research career at Chemstrand, Phillips Fiber and Phillips Petroleum before joining the faculty at Cornell in 1975. His research interests include the characterization and control of fabric properties in textile and apparel manufacturing. david_buchanan@ncsu.edu (919)-515-6649 Gary C. Lickfield, an Associate Professor in Textiles, Fiber & Polymer Science at Clemson, joined the faculty in 1986. He earned a Ph.D. there in physical chemistry in 1983 and a B.S. in chemistry from Ursinus College in 1978. Gary's research interests include molecular modeling, polymer surfaces and interfaces modification and characterization, wetting and adhesion. M95-S22, C97-C3*, C99-C3 lgary@clemson.clemson.edu (864)-656-5964 http://www.eng.clemson.edu/textiles/faculty/lickfield.html Christopher M. Pastore, an Associate Professor of Textile Engineering and Technology and Director of Research of the School of Textiles and Materials Technology at Philadelphia University, joined the faculty in 1995. Previously he was on the Textile Materials Science faculty at NC State and the Materials Engineering faculty at Drexel University. Chris holds a B.A. and M.S. in mathematics and a Ph.D. in materials engineering from Drexel in 1988. His research interests include modeling of fabric and composite structures. F98-P1*, I99-P1* cpastore@fibers.texsci.edu (215)-951-2683 http://fibers.texsci.edu/stmt/cpastore.html Douglas V. Rippy, a Professor in Fiber and Polymer Science at Clemson, joined the faculty in 1989 from the University of Dayton. He earned a B.S. in textile management in 1964 and a Ph.D. in operations research engineering in 1974 from Clemson, also holds an M.S. in logistics management from the Air Force Institute of Technology in 1968 where he taught while serving in the U.S. Air Force 1964-1980. His research interests include applications of mathematical programming, simulation and statistical analysis techniques to the study of manufacturing problems. rippyd@clemson.clemson.edu (864)-656-3180 http://www.ces.clemson.edu/textiles/main.htm

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Carol Warfield, a Professor and Head of the Department of Consumer Affairs at Auburn, joined the faculty in 1977 after teaching textiles at the University of Illinois for 10 years. She received a Ph.D. in family and consumption economics in 1977 and an M.S. in textile science in 1967 from the University of Illinois and a B.S. in home economics education from South Dakota State in 1959. Carol's research interests include world production and distribution of textiles and apparel, textile and apparel industry competitiveness and consumer wear studies. I93-A4 cwarfiel@humsci.auburn.edu (334)-844-1329

Steven B. Warner, a Professor and Chair of Textile Sciences at UMass Dartmouth since 1994, earned a Sc.D. in polymer and material science & engineering from M.I.T. in 1976. He then spent 12 years in industrial research at Hoechst-Celanese and Kimberly-Clark and 5 years on the faculty of Georgia Tech. Steve is the author of the texts: The Science and Design of Engineering Materials and Fiber Science. His research interests include fibers science, microstructure of nonwovens and fluid management in fibrous assemblies and properties. M98-D1*, M98-D3, C97-G31, I99-D16 swarner@umassd.edu (508)-999-8449

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National Textile Center Directory: June 2000

NTC Operating Board
David R. Buchanan is an Associate Dean of the College of Textiles and a Professor in Textile Engineering at NC State where he has been on the faculty since 1978. Dave received a Ph.D. in physical chemistry from Ohio State in 1962 whereupon he had an industrial research career at Chemstrand, Phillips Fiber and Phillips Petroleum before joining the faculty at Cornell in 1975. His research interests include the characterization and control of fabric properties in textile and apparel manufacturing. david_buchanan@ncsu.edu (919)-515-6649 David Brookstein, Dean of the School of Textiles & Materials Technology at PhiladelphiaU since 1997, earned a D.Sc. in mechanical engineering from MIT in 1976 and a Bachelor in textile engineering from Georgia Tech in 1971. Dave was with Albany International Research for 14 years rising to Associate Director. He received the Fiber Society Award for Distinguished Achievement in 1988 and is in the Academy of Distinguished Engineering Alumni at Georgia Tech. brooksteind@philau.edu (215)-951-2751 http://www.textileworld.com/editors/brook.html Fred L. Cook, a Professor and Director of the School of Textile & Fiber Engineering at Georgia Tech, has been on the faculty since he received a Ph.D. there in organic-polymer chemistry in 1975 after being a polymer research chemist at DuPont. He is a consulting chemical editor of Textile World magazine, and vicepresident of the National Council for Textile Education. Fred's research interests include textile/polymer chemistry, sustainable textile chemical application processes and carbon fibers. F98-G15 fred.cook@tfe.gatech.edu (404)-894-2536 http://www.tfe.gatech.edu/faculty/cook/cook.html Sherif D. El Wakil, Chancellor, Professor and Interim Dean of the College of Engineering at UMassD, joined the faculty in 1987. Sherif earned a Ph.D. in 1972 from Birmingham University (England) following an M.S. in 1969 from El-Azhar University (Egypt) and a B.S. from Cairo University in 1965, all in mechanical engineering. His research interests include computeraided manufacturing, design for manufacturing and materials science. selwakil@umassd.edu (508)-999-8461 http://www.mne.umassd.edu/faculty/sherif.html Richard V. Gregory, a Professor and Director of the School of Textiles, Fiber and Polymer Science at Clemson, joined the faculty in 1990. He received his Ph.D. in physical chemistry at Clemson in 1984 and continued with postdoctoral work in polymer spectroscopy whereupon he joined the research staff at Milliken. Dick is thrust leader of NSF Center for Advanced Fibers and Films, and on the editorial board of Macromolecular Materials and Engineering. His research interests include the formation, characterization and potential industrial applications of conductive polymers and the interaction of ultraviolet radiation with polymers. M95-C6*, M95-C4*, M98-C1* richar6@clemson.clemson.edu (864)-656-5961 http://www.eng.clemson.edu/textiles/f aculty/gregory.html June Henton, Dean of the School of Human Sciences at Auburn, joined the faculty in 1985. She has a Ph.D. in family social science from Univ. of Minnesota in 1970. Earlier, she was an associate dean and professor at Oregon State and an associate professor at Texas Tech. In 1990-91, June was president of the Association of Administrators of Home Economics and chair, Commission of Home Economics (National Association of State Universities and LandGrant Colleges). Her research interests include global issues in higher education, families and work and trade and public policy. I93-A4 jhenton@humsci.auburn.edu (334)-844-4790

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William K. Walsh, a Professor and Head of the Department of Textile Engineering at Auburn since 1989, received a Ph.D. in chemical engineering at NC State in 1967. He then joined the NC State faculty, becoming an Associate Dean in 1988. His research interests include mechanical and surface properties of polymers, esp. adhesive bonding of fabrics, wetting and wicking in porous media; electron beam and UV radiation polymerization and curing; and hydrophilic fiber finishes and moisture transport mechanisms for improved clothing comfort. C95-A8, C95-C14, C96-A1, M98-A16* wwalsh@eng.auburn.edu (334)-844-5452 http://www.eng.auburn.edu/department/te/faculty/Walsh

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National Textile Center Directory: June 2000

NTC Staff

Joe D. Cunning, Executive Director of the National Textile Center, joined NTC in 1992 after a 28-year career in fibers and technical management at DuPont. He earned a Ph.D. in chemical engineering from Iowa State in 1965. Joe speaks and consults widely on large system integration problems using neural nets and chemometrics to relate multivariate inputs and outputs. He is vicepresident of the Textile Institute and on the governing board of the Fiber Society and serves on the technical advisory committees of [TC]2, TRI Princeton and the Institute of Textile Technology. joe@joecunning.com (302)-478-4744 http://joecunning.com/Joe.htm Cindy Albright, Electronic Media Specialist for the National Textile Center, joined NTC in 1997. She has been a computer trainer for 12 years, working for Online Consulting and Delaware educational institutions. Cindy graduated with a B.S. in economics from Butler University (Indianapolis) in 1962. calbrigh@magpage.com (302)-764-8782 http://www.albrightcomputing.com John E. Berkowitch, consultant on technology development for the National Textile Center, joined NTC in 1992 after a 34-year career at DuPont Fibers Technical. He earned a Ph.D. in chemical physics from Univ. of Brussels in 1956 and did postdoctoral research at Cambridge. He serves on the faculty of the Philadelphia College of Textiles and Sciences and is a consultant to industry and the U.S. Departments of Commerce and Energy. His research interests include textile technology trends with an emphasis on the Far East. berkowje@magpage.com (302)-478-0430

Thomas P. Doherty, technical consultant and technical editor for the National Textile Center, joined NTC in 1993 after a 26-year career in fibers and technology forecasting at DuPont. He earned a Ph.D. in organic chemistry from Illinois in 1967 and an A.B. in chemistry in 1962 from the University of Omaha. Tom is also a professional genealogist, historian and futurist specializing in tailored presentations, technological and social trend forecasting, strategic planning and futures research. tom@ntcresearch.org (302)-478-4758 http://www.magpage.com/~tdoherty/tpdhome.html Phoebe F. Doherty, Printed Publications Coordinator for the National Textile Center, joined NTC in 1996. She received a Doctor of Chiropractic in 1994 from Pennsylvania College of Chiropractic and a CCSP (Sports Physician) postdoctoral degree in 1996 and is licensed to practice in PA and DE. Phoebe earned a B.A. in biology and teaching certification from Univ. of Delaware in 1966 then joined DuPont as an inhalation toxicologist and then a technical information analyst managing infomation search centers. pdoherty@magpage.com (302)-478-4758 http://www.magpage.com/~tdoherty/pfdhome.html Rhonda Shin, Communications and Forum Director for the National Textile Center, joined NTC in 1992. She is president of Rhonda Shin and Company, Inc., a communications services company of Wilmington DE, specializing in the design and planning of corporate meetings and events. Rhonda graduated with a degree in commercial art from the Art Institute of Philadelphia in 1979. rshin@magpage.com (302)-655-5667 http://www.magpage.com/~rshin/

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Search All the NTC Research Reports to Date
The National Textile Center published regular printed reports of all its research projects from Spring 1992 to Fall 1998. Beginning with the Spring 1999 Research Briefs, NTC has published these research reports electronically on CD/ROM and on the NTC web site at http://www.ntcresearch.org/PDFindex.html Now you can read and keyword search all NTC reports ever published on the CD/ROM. Keyword searching is under development for the web site. For help in accessing the reports electronically on the web, contact Cindy Albright at calbrigh@magpage.com. For web access, you will need to download from the NTC web page a free copy of Adobe Acrobat Reader, which is included on the CD.

NTC DIRECTORY - STAFF
National Textile Center Address: 2207 Concord Pike Wilmington DE 19803-2908 Phone: (302)-478-4744 Fax: (302)-478-0213 Web: www.ntcresearch.org
Executive Director: Joe D. Cunning Phone: (302)-478-4744 Fax: (302)-478-0213 E-mail: joe@joecunning.com Technical Consultant/Editor: Tom Doherty Phone: (302)-478-4758 E-mail: tom@ntcresearch.org Technology Development: John Berkowitch Phone: (302)-478-0430 E-mail: berkowje@magpage.com Forum Director: Rhonda Shin Phone: (302)-655-5667 Fax: (302)-655-5806 E-mail: rshin@magpage.com Electronic Media Specialist: Cindy Albright Phone: (302)-764-8782 E-mail: calbrigh@magpage.com Printed Publications Coordinator: Phoebe Doherty

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