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14th EFS® System Conference

FIBER PROCESSING
RESEARCH REPORT

COTTON INCORPORATED
WORLD HEADQUARTERS
CARY. NORTH CAROLINA

THE FABRIC OF OUR LIVES™

Suessen Elite® Compact Ring Spinning Evaluation Report Number
2001-1 (FPL-00-234) March 2001
David M. Clapp

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Suessen Elite® Compact Ring Spinning Evaluation

Ne 17.5/1 100% Carded U.S. Upland Cotton March
2001 - FPL-00-234

INTRODUCTION
The Fiber Processing Laboratory (FPL), part of the Textile Research and Implementation
Division of Cotton Incorporated, installed a Suessen Elite® compact spinning frame in
the year 2000. One of the first evaluations of the system was to compare the compact
technology against conventional ring spinning. The spinning comparison incorporated
roving and yarns supplied by a major textile manufacturer. The experiment compared
the mill's conventional ring spun yarn with yarns spun on the new frame with and without
the compact system engaged.

OBJECTIVE

> To determine advantages and disadvantages of compact ring spinning vs.
conventional ring spun yam at the same twist multiple.

> To determine whether twist multiple can be reduced using Elite® spinning system and
if so, how much twist can be reduced while maintaining conventional yarn properties,
especially strength.

PROCEDURE

Yarn Manufacturing
FPL spun three yarns from the mill's roving. The yarn was waxed, back wound, and
returned to the spinner for further processing on standard knitting, dyeing and finishing
equipment. FPL retained yarn from each condition for knitting, dyeing and finishing at
Cotton Incorporated.
The three yarn conditions, listed below, were compared to the Ne 17.5/1 100% carded
cotton control yam provided by the spinner. The control yarn was spun with a 3.86 TM.

(A) Elite® compact spun to match the control yarn's twist multiple (3.86 TM) and count.

(B) Elite® compact spun with twist changed to match the control yam's single end
strength (15.9 g/Tex) and count.
(C) Suessen conventional spun to match control yarn's twist multiple (3.86 TM) after
changing the Elite® system to conventional ring spinning.

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Spindle speed was matched to the 15,000-rpm spindle speed of the spinner's
conventional ring spun yarn. Yarn and finished fabric samples of the control, as well as
three experimental conditions, were tested in Cotton Incorporated's Textile Services Lab
(TSL).

Knitting

Knitting Specifications:

Mi!! Cotton Incorporated

Diameter (in.) 26 24 18
Gauge (cut) 17 1142
Needles 1392 12
Feeds 104

Dyeing and Finishing
Al! fabrics were bleached, dyed and finished as one lot. The manufacturer and Cotton
Incorporated performed separate dyeing and finishing trials.
RESULTS Cotton Raw

Material

HVI Data Laydown Averages
Micronaire 4.38
Length (in.) 1.11
Unif. Index (%) 82.2
Strength (g/Tex) 29.6
Rd 76.9
+b 7.8

Fiber Processing
The roving was processed through standard mill settings and production rates. The
spinner provided FPL with 100 roving bobbins at 5 Ibs./bobbin. Ten bobbins were
randomly selected and tested for hank roving count and uniformity. The average count
of the roving was 0.62 hk./lb. and the Uster® C.V.% averaged 6.86%.

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Yarn Manufacturing

After creeling in the roving on the 96 spindle Suessen Elite® frame, FPL commenced
spinning of the following three conditions:

A. Ne 17.5/1 Elite® compact yarn to match the control yarn twist (3.86 TM). B. Ne
17.5/1 Elite® compact yarn with twist changed to match the tested single end
strength of the control yarn. C. Ne 17.5/1 Suessen conventional yarn to match
control yarn twist (3.86 TM) after
changing the Elite® system to conventional ring spinning (3-roll drafting).
The twist multiple for 'Condition B' was reduced from 3.86 TM to 3.20 TM. This reduction
in twist multiple equates to a 21% increase in productivity. The following tables highlight
some of the significant differences between Elite® and conventional spun ring yarns.
(For a complete yarn profile - see Appendix A.)

Mill Yam vs. Elite®
Holding Twist Constant (3.86 TM)
Mill Elite® % Change
Single End Yarn 15.9 18.0 13.2
Strength (g/Tex)
Skein Strength (Bf) (120 2500 2905 16.2
yd skein)
Yarn Evenness 14.7 13.6 7.5
(CV%)
Total Imperfections 298 221 25.8

Hairiness 6.83 5.29 22.5

Mill Yarn vs. Elite®
Holding Strength Constant (15.9 g/Tex)

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Fabric Results
All of the jersey fabrics knitted without problems. >

Softness

After dyeing and finishing, the fabrics were subjected to a "blind" softness/hand
evaluation. The 3.20 TM Elite® fabric was unanimously selected as the softest
fabric. The conventional ring yarns were second followed by the Elite® 3.86 TM
fabric. This reconfirms the fact that lower yarn twist levels normally provide softer
fabrics. The soft hand was achieved on the Elite® machine even though the Uster®
hairiness results were significantly less than the conventional mill yarn (5.93 vs.
6.83).

> Appearance

The Elite® fabrics appeared leaner than the conventional fabric. The compact
nature and reduced hairiness contribute to its leaner appearance in fabric. The
Elite® fabrics had a smother appearance.

> Strength
The physical testing of the fabrics was completed both at the mill and at Cotton
Incorporated. The Mullen burst for all four fabrics correlated directly with yarn skein
strength. The actual values are listed in the following chart.

Yarn Condition Mullen Burst Adj. Skein Break
(Ibs.)
Mill Control 3.86 TM 114.9 2500

Condition A Elite® 3.86 123.0 2905
TM
Condition B Elite® 3.2 116.8 2646
TM
Condition C 115.5 2606
Conventional 3.86TM

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> Skew

The 3.20 TM Elite® fabric had the lowest skew results. The skew values are listed
in the following chart.

Yarn Condition Total Skew (%)
(Cotton Incorporated
Fabrics)
Condition A Elite® 3.86 TM 17.8
Condition B Elite® 3.2 TM 12.1
Condition C Conventional 3.86 TM 17.5

This evaluation did not result in any other fabric testing advantages or
disadvantages between Elite® yarns and conventional ring yarns.

CONCLUSIONS

The Suessen Elite® compact spinning process can produce ring spun yarns with
significantly lower twist multiples while maintaining similar yarn qualities. By reducing the
twist multiple from 3.86 to 3.20, the Elite® system provided a 21% increase in production
without any loss in yarn quality. In addition, the resultant yarn hairiness was reduced
from 6.83 to 5.93. Previous trials performed at Cotton Incorporated have shown visible
differences in knit fabrics when the yarn hairiness values differed by more than 0.5. In
fabric form, the Elite® yarns with a 3.20 TM provided the softest hand when compared to
the other fabrics made from yarns with 3.86 TM. Finally, the reduced twist in the yarn
resulted in lower skew values in the fabric.

The Elite® compact ring yarns performed equally as well or better than conventional ring
yarns in every tested category. Based on the results of this study, no real
disadvantages emerged except for the impression that Elite® yarns may appear to make
a leaner fabric. Cover factor may be lower compared to a conventional ring fabric with
the same yarn count. This is related to the compact structure of the yam and the lower
hairiness values. Traveler wear could not be determined due to the small lot sizes.

Based on the results of this comparison, the Suessen Elite® shows great promise for
future developments at Cotton Incorporated. The possibilities for utilizing this spinning
system in uncharted product areas include fine count spinning of U.S. upland cottons,
raw material utilization/optimization trials, and the production of ultra smooth/ultra strong,
soft, and defined knit and woven products.
For additional information on this evaluation and many other evaluations performed at
Cotton Incorporated, please contact us at 919-678-2220 or visit our web site at
www.cottoninc.com.

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APPENDIX

A. YARN TESTING

MILL COND. A COND. B COND. C
YARN ELITE® ELITE® CONV.
3.86 TM 3.20 TM 3.86 TM
Yarn Number (tested)
Ne 17.53 17.13 17.45 17.55

Twist (tested)
Tpi 15.3 16.1 13.8 15.7
TM 3.66 3.88 3.31 3.74

Skein
| Adj.Skein Brk. 2500 2905 2646 2606 |
1

Single End
SE Break (g) 535.5 619.6 540.0 528.5
SE Break min (g) 441.8 502.8 446.2 417.5
SE Break max (g) 650.1 753.4 665.7 630.2
RKM (g/Tex) 15.9 18.0 15.9 15.7
SE elongation (%) 5.9 6.7 5.9 6.0

Usteer® III
Evenness (C.V.%) 14.7 13.6 13.5 13.4
Thins (-50%) 8 1 1 1
Thick (+50%) 139 93 90 83
Neps (+200%) 152 128 127 122
Tot. Imperfections 298 221 218 206
Hairiness 6.83 5.29 5.93 6.88
SH 1.46 1.15 1.29 1.48

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The statements, recommendations and suggestions contained herein are
based on experiments and information believed to be reliable only with
regard to the products and/or processes involved at the time. No guarantee
is made of their accuracy, however, and the information is given without
warranty as to its accuracy or reproducibility either express or implied, and
does not authorize use of the information for purposes of advertisement or
product endorsement or certification. Likewise, no statement contained
herein shall be construed as a permission or recommendation for the use of
any information, product or process that may infringe any existing patents.
The use of trade names does not constitute endorsement of any product
mentioned, nor is permission granted to use the name Cotton Incorporated
or any of its trademarks in conjunction with the products involved."

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